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**Basic drafting and lettering
**

Mohammad I. Kilani

Mechanical Engineering Department

University of J ordan

Lettering, Sketching and Line Techniques

A engineering drawing is a highly stylized graphic

representation of an idea. The idea might be of something

that we can see such a real or virtual object, space or

environment. In some cases, such as an electronic

schematic diagram for example, the drawing will bear no

visual resemblance to the physical object that will be built

from the information it provides.

In every case with the possible exception of "3D" and

rendered drawings, which communicate with a different

graphics language, we can understand engineering

drawings only because we can understand the basic

language of technical graphics.

Attachment of paper to the board

The sheet should be placed close to

the left edge of the drafting board.

Working in this area makes the T

square easier to handle and reduces

the likelihood of error because of T

square “swing.”

The drafting sheet should be far

enough from the bottom of the board

about 100 mm. to ensure firm support

for the head of the T square when

you are drawing at the lower part of

the sheet.

After aligning the drawing sheet,

smooth out any wrinkles and fasten

the four corners with short strips of

drafting tape. If you are attaching

large sheets, you should place

additional strips of tape at the top and

bottom edges of the sheet. Avoid the

use of thumbtacks; they will

eventually ruin the drafting board

Horizontal Lines

The draftsman’s horizontal line is constructed by drawing from

left to right along the working edge of a T square. This working

edge, when true, is perpendicular to the working edge of the

drafting board.

Horizontal Lines

When you draw horizontal lines, keep the working edge of the T square

head in firm contact with the working edge of the drafting board. The

pencil should be inclined to the right at an angle of about 60 degrees, with

the point close to the junction of the working edge and the paper.

Horizontal Lines

Hold the pencil lightly and, if it was sharpened with a conical point, rotate it

slowly while drawing the line to achieve a uniform line width and preserve the

shape of the point. Normally, when a series of horizontal lines is being drawn,

the sequence of drawing is from the top down

Vertical Lines

Vertical lines are produced parallel to the working edge of the drafting board

by using triangles in combination with a T square.

Vertical Lines

One leg of a triangle is placed against the working edge of the blade and the

other faces the working edge of the board to prevent the draftsman from

casting a shadow over his work.

Vertical Lines

Lines are drawn from the bottom up. The pencil is inclined toward the top of the

working sheet at an angle of approximately 60 degrees, with the point as close

as possible to the junction of the triangle and the drafting paper.

Vertical Lines

Sequence in drawing a series of vertical lines is from left to right. At no time

should the lower edge of the T square blade be used as a base for triangles

Inclined Lines

Inclined lines at standard angles are

constructed with the T square as a

base for triangles used either singly, as

shown or in combination.

Used in combination with the T square

as a base, the triangles serve as guides

for producing lines at intervals of 15

degrees.

Used singly, the 45-degree triangle will

divide a circle into 8 equal parts; the

30°/60° triangle will divide a circle into

12 equal parts. For drawing lines at

angles other than those, you should

use a protractor.

It is understood that the triangles in

each case are resting on the blade of

the T-Square

Inclined Lines

It is possible to

divide 360

degrees angle

into twenty-four

15 degrees

sectors with the

triangles used

singly or in

combination.

Protraction of Angles

To measure an angle, place the

center mark of the protractor at

the vertex of the angle, with the

0-degree line along one side.

Then note the degree mark that

falls on the side.

To lay off an angle, position the

protractor as above and use a

needlepoint or a sharp-pointed

pencil to mark the desired

values. Then project lines from

the vertex to these marks.

Using only the three points on

the protractor as described

before may result in

considerable inaccuracy,

particularly if the lines of an

angle are to be extended for

some distance beyond the

protractor.

Protraction of Angles

A refinement of the procedure is as

follows: Suppose angle BOA is to

be measured. Extend line AO on to

C; extend line BO on to D. When

you set the center of the protractor

at O, make sure that both points c

and a are on line AC. Take your

reading at point d as well as at

point b when you measure the

angle.

If you are laying off the angle BOA,

protract and mark point d as well

as point b; this gives you three

points (d, O, and b) for

establishing line DB. If you are

using a semicircular protractor, you

can’t, of course, locate point d; but

your accuracy will be improved by

lining up c, O, and a before you

measure or lay off the single angle

BOA.

Parallel Lines

To draw a line parallel to a given line, adjust the hypotenuse of a triangle in

combination with a straightedge (T square or triangle) to the given line;

then, holding the straightedge firmly in position, slip the triangle to the

desired position and draw the parallel line along the hypotenuse

Perpendicular Lines

To construct a line perpendicular to an existing line, use the triangle and

straightedge in combination, with the hypotenuse of the triangle resting

against the upper edge of the straightedge. Adjust one leg of the triangle to a

given line. Then slide the triangle along the supporting straightedge to the

desired position and draw the line along the leg, perpendicular to the leg that

was adjusted to the given line.

Circles and Arcs

When you are drawing

circles and arcs, it is

important that the lines

produced with the

compass are the same

weight as

corresponding pencil

lines.

Since you cannot exert

as much pressure on

the compass as you

can with pencils, you

should use a compass

lead that is about one

grade softer than the

pencil used for

corresponding line

work.

For dim construction

lines, use 4H to 6H

leads. Avoid using

leads that are too

short.

Circles and Arcs

To draw a circle with a

compass, lightly press

the needlepoint into

the drawing paper and

rotate the marking leg

around it. As you

rotate, lean the

compass slightly

forward. With a little

practice, you will find

that you can easily

draw smooth circles

using only the thumb

and forefinger of one

hand.

It is important that you

use an even pressure

as you rotate the

compass. You may find

it necessary to rotate

the compass several

times to produce a

circle with a uniform

dense black line

Drawing a circle of a given diameter with a compass

1. Draw a horizontal line and a

vertical line intersecting the

horizontal line.

2. Measure the radius of the circle

with a scale, and draw a second

vertical line from this point.

3. Set the needlepoint at the

intersection of the first vertical

line and the horizontal line. This is

the center of the circle.

4. Set the marking leg to fall on the

intersection of the second vertical

line and the horizontal line, and

draw a half circle with the

compass.

5. Check your work by measuring

the diameter established by this

half circle with a scale.

6. Once You have set the compass

to the exact radius of the circle,

set the needlepoint at the center

of the circle and carefully rotate

the compass to draw a line

describing the circumference of

the circle.

Use of the French Curve

The french curve is

used to draw a smooth

line through

predetermined points.

After the points are

plotted, a light pencil

line should be sketched

to connect the points

in a smooth flowing

line.

To draw the finished

line over the freehand

line, match the various

parts of the french

curve to various

segments of the

freehand curve. Avoid

abrupt changes in

curvature by placing

the short radius of the

french curve toward

the short radius

portion of the line to

be drawn.

Use of the French Curve

Change your position

around the drawing

board when necessary

so that you can work

on the side of the

french curve that is

away from you. You

should avoid working

on the “under” side of

the french curve.

Place the french curve

so that it intersects at

least two points of the

line. When drawing the

line along the edge of

the french curve, stop

short of the last point

intersected. Then

move the french curve

along to intersect two

or three more points

and make sure that the

edge of the curve

connects smoothly

with the line already

drawn.

Use of Drafting Templates

Circles or arcs can be drawn

more quickly with a

template than with a

compass. Templates must

be used properly to be

effective.

To draw a circle with the

circle template, lay out

center lines on the drawing

where the circle is to be

drawn, then place the

correct circle opening over

the center line so that the

quadrant lines on the

template coincide with the

center lines on the paper.

Draw the circle, using a

sharp, conical point on the

pencil.

Allowance must always be

made for the width of the

pencil line in placing the

template opening in the

right position on the

drawing.

Use of Drafting Templates

To draw an arc, lay

out tangent lines on

the drawing, then

place the correct size

circle of the template

on the paper so that

the template

quadrant lines

coincide with the

tangent lines, and

draw the arc.

When using a

template, you must

hold it down firmly to

keep it from slipping

out of position.

Figures or circles

from the template

must be drawn with

the correct line

weight on the first

setting as it is

difficult to reset the

template in the exact

position.

Use of The Dividers

Dividers are used to transfer

measurements, to step off a

series of equal distances, and

to divide lines into a number of

equal parts.

To transfer measurements on a

drawing, set the dividers to the

correct distance, then transfer

the measurements to the

drawing by pricking the

drawing surface very lightly

with the points of the dividers.

To measure off a series of

equal distances on the line, set

the dividers to the given

distance. Then step off this

distance as many times as

desired by swinging the

dividers from one leg to the

other along the line, first

swinging clockwise 180

degrees, then counterclockwise

180 degrees, and so on.

Use of The Dividers

In dividing either a straight line or a

curved line into a given number of equal

parts (for example, four) by trial, open

the dividers to a rough approximation of

the first division (in this case, one

quarter of the line length) and step off

the distance lightly, holding the dividers

by the handle and pivoting the

instrument on alternate sides of the line

at each step.

If the dividers fall short of the end of the

line after the fourth step, hold the back

leg in place and advance the forward

leg, by guess, one quarter of the

remaining distance.

Repeat the procedure until the last step

falls at the end of the line. Be careful

during this process not to punch holes in

the paper, but just barely mark the

surface for future reference.

To identify prick marks made with small

dividers for future reference, circle the

marks lightly with a pencil

Text in Engineering Drawings

Text is an important part of

a technical drawing. Not all

information required on

technical drawings can be

communicated graphically.

Examples are dimension,

and material types.

Several different ways are

used to create text. The

traditional method is

freehand lettering. Other

methods include mechanical

lettering as scriber

template.

Neat lettering is important

so that the information

being conveyed can be

easily read.

Text in Engineering Drawings

Text in Engineering Drawings

Lettering Guidelines

For uniformity, all letters should

be the same height, proportion

and inclination. A necessary tactic

for maintaining uniformity is the

use of guidelines.

Guidelines are a critical part of

freehand lettering. Uniformity,

neatness and stability can not be

achieved without using guidelines.

Guidelines ensure consistency in

the size of the letter characters. If

your lettering consists of capitals,

draw only the cap line and base

line. If lowercase letters are

included as well, draw the waist

line and drop line.

Method of using lettering guidelines

The waist line indicates the upper limit of

the lowercase letters. The ascender is the

part of the lowercase letter that extends

above the body of the letter; for example,

the dot portion of the character i in the

figure in view A. All ascenders are as high

as the caps.

The drop line indicates the lower limit of the

lowercase letters. The descender is the part

of the lowercase letter that extends below

the body of the letter, an example being

the tail of the character g in figure 3-42,

view A. The vertical distance from the drop

line to the base line is the same as the

vertical distance from the waist line to the

cap line. It is about one third of the vertical

distance between the base line and the cap

line, or about one half of the vertical

distance between the base line and the

waist line.

Method of using lettering guidelines for Capital Letters

Lay off letter heights, H,

and draw light guidelines

with a 2H pencil.

Space lines no closer than

H/2 apart.

Draw vertical guidelines as

light, thin, randomly spaced

lines.

Draw letters with single

strokes using a medium-

grade pencil.

Method of using lettering guidelines

To lay out guidelines for

caps and lowercase, let the

height of a capital be 1 1/2

times the distance "a.“

Set a compass or dividers to

distance "a," and lay off

distance "a" above and

below the midline selected

for the guidelines, this

locates the cap line and the

drop line.

Then set the compass or

dividers to one half of ’’a,"

and lay off this distance

above and below the

midline. This method locates

the waist line and the base

line.

Method of using lettering guidelines

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