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**Cost Estimation Process
**

The Cost Esti mati on

Process as it evolves to

specific stages of project

development.

Planning Design Procurement

Identify and Prepare

Feasibility Studies

and Preliminary

Design

Perform

Detailed Design

Prepare

Bidding

Documents

Receive

and

Evaluate

Bids

BBPEE BBDEE

Estimate for

the ABC

Planning Service, PMO-

Feasibility Studies

Implementing Offices

PMOs, ROs and DEOs

POCW with the assistance

from PMOs, ROs, DEOs

Cost Estimation Process

Review/Study Design Drawings

Data Collection

Field Surveys

Labor Equipment Materials

Materials Sources Labor

Evaluation/processing of Data

Pay Item Quantity

Calculation (Bill

of Quantities)

Cost Estimate

Unit Price Analysis

Construction Pay

Items Unit Rates

Maintenance Unit

Rates

Maintenance

Activities

Project Cost Maintenance Cost

Project Estimate Components BBPEE BBDEE ABC

A. Direct Cost ! ! !

Materials ! ! !

Labor ! ! !

Equipment ! ! !

Dayworks ! Per DO 46 s2007

Provisional Sum ! Per DO 46 s2007

B. Indirect Cost Per DO 57 s2002 Per DO 57 s2002 Per DO 57 s2002

OCM ! ! !

Profit ! ! !

Mobilization/Demobilization ! ! !

C. VAT 12% (A+B) 12% (A+B) 12% (A+B)

D. Total Civil Works Cost A+B+C A+B+C A+B+C

E. Contingency 10% of D 10% of D 5% of D

F. Engineering Costs Per NEDA Per NEDA

Detailed Engineering 4-6% (D+E)

Construction Supervision* 8-10% (D+E) 8-10% (D+E)*

Administrative Cost 3.5% (D+E) 3.5% (D+E)

G. Feasibility Cost (Optional for Pre-FS) 1-3% (D+E)

H. IROW Acquisition Cost ! !

I. Total Estimated Project Cost D+E+F+G+H D+E+F+G+H D+E

Project Estimation Phase

*Construction Supervision only applies to foreign-assisted projects

• Work type – proposed improvement works of the project

• Location of the project – includes terrain types and

embankment and aggregate material sources

• Design plans and specification – working drawings and

DPWH Standard Specifications Vol. II, Ed. 2004

• Equipment rental rates – ACEL Guidebook, ed. 22, yr.

2003

• Labor rates and fringe benefits – DOLE, Regional Wage

Board, SSS, Philhealth, Pag-Ibig, & bonus

• Construction Materials List and Material Sources Map

• DPWH Department Orders – DOs relevant to cost

estimation

• NEDA Circular – Circular/memo relevant to cost

estimation

Basic Consideration or Basis of Cost Estimate

Unit Price Analysis

Two Main Parts:

• Direct Cost

• Labor

• Materials

• Equipment

• Indirect Cost (% of Direct Cost as defined in DO 57)

• OCM (overhead, contingency & miscellaneous)

• profit

• Mobilization/Demobilization

Unit Price Analysis

Elements of the Direct Cost

• Labor

• basic wage

• fringe benefits

• bonuses

• social security & other social charges

• Equipment

• bare hourly & rental operating cost

• fuels & lubricants

• repairs & maintenance

• labor

• Materials

• labor

• equipment

processing & transport

Production Rate

Unit Price Analysis

Labor Categories

Labor Category Labor Index

1. Foreman, construction

2. Leadman

3. Operator, Heavy

4. Operator, Light

5. Labor, Highly Skilled

6. Driver

7. Labor, Skilled

8. Labor, Unskilled

1.80

1.65

1.50

1.40

1.40

1.30

1.30

1.00

Basic Labor Rates Calculation

• Monthly Wages based on 314 days per year, 8 hours per day (Basic Daily

Wage x (314/12))

• Leave, vacation and sick = Basic Monthly Pay / 12

• Bonus, 13th Month Pay = Basic Monthly Pay / 12

• SSS, Medicare, Employer's Compensation = Amount Representing

Employer's Contribution, Graduated Scale

• Pag-ibig, Employer's Compensation = Amount Representing Employer's

Contribution, (2% of Basic Monthly Wage or P100 max.)

• Rate per Hour = Total rate per month x (12/314/8)

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Take the value of

non-agricultural

sector

Unit Price Analysis

Take the values under the

column of total monthly

contributions in reference

with range of compensation

Unit Price Analysis

Take the values under the

column of total monthly

contributions

Unit Price Analysis

Equipment Category Sample Equipments

• Earthmoving equipment

• Compaction equipment

• Lifting equipment

• Excavating equipment

• Foundation equipment

• Asphalting equipment

• Concreting equipment

• Hauling equipment

• Air equipment

• Pumping equipment

• Power generating equipment

• Shop equipment

• Special support equipment

• Miscellaneous equipment

• Plants

• Offshore equipment

• Cable stringing equipment

• Others

– wheel loader, grader, tractor dozer

– vibratory steel drum, plate compactor

– cranes, forklifts

– backhoe, trenchers

– pile vibratory driver, pile hammer, drill rig

– asphalt paver/finisher, asphalt distributor

– paver/finisher, mixer, transit mixer

– dump truck, cargo truck, trailer

– compressor, pneumatic breakers handheld

– submersible pump, diaphragm pump

– generator set

– welding machine, shop machine

– truck water wagon/pump

– joint sealer, rebar cutter/bender

– asphalt concrete plant, concrete batching plant

– dredger, crane barge, tugboat

– cable tensioner/puller, splicing machine

– chip spreader, power broom

Unit Price Analysis

Equipment Unit Rate Analysis

Basic Calculation

• Bare Month Rental – Bare monthly rate ÷ 200h/mo.

• Repair & Miscellaneous

• Repair - 6.3% of Bare Rental

• Spare Parts – 5.1% of Bare Rental

• Miscellaneous – 0.6% of Bare Rental

• Fuel

• Fuel – Price/lit. x HP x 0.1514

• Oil & Lubricant – Price/lit. x HP x 0.003

• Labor

• Operator or driver – Labor rate/hr

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Sample calculation of

adjusted equipment

rates in spreadsheet

Materials Category Sample Materials

• Commercial Materials

• Contractor’s processed materials

– Portland Cement

– Reinforcing Steel Bars (RSB or Rebars)

– Lumber

– Plywood

– Tie Wire

– Structural Steel

– Common Wire Nails (CWN) assorted sizes

– Emulsified Asphalt (SS-1)

– Cut-Back Asphalt (MC-70/MC-250)

– Asphalt Cement Penetration 85/100

– Joint Sealer

– Reflective Paints

– Metal Beam Guard Rails,

– Guard End Pieces

– Reflective Pavement Stud (raised or low profile)

– Fuel (Diesel/gasoline/premium gasoline

– Lubricants

– Reinforced Concrete Pipe Culvert (RCPC)

– Base/Subbased Courses

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Sample of contractor’s process

materials

Unit Price Analysis

Hauling Unit Rate Analysis

• Basic Consideration

– Terrain type

– Road condition

– Dump truck capacity

– Selection of loader capacity, output, bucket fill factor and operating

factor (to estimate loader production rate)

– Material type

• Cycle time

• Loader

– Load bucket and shift gears

– Turn and dump the load

– Travel distance and time from dumping to loading position and return to

the loading position

T

o

t

a

l

C

y

c

l

e

T

i

m

e

,

T

Hauling Unit Rate Analysis (cont.)

• Cycle time

• Dump Truck

– Average hauling distance

– Terrain type

– Loading time

– Loaded travel time

– Initial traveled distance during acceleration

– Succeeding traveled distance at an average speed

– Final speed at a distance until it stops

– Unload and maneuver

– Return empty

– Same as loaded but at a greater speed

– Allowance for delay

• Number of dump truck trips, n

Unit Price Analysis

T

o

t

a

l

C

y

c

l

e

T

i

m

e

,

T

Unit Price Analysis

Hauling Unit Rate Analysis (cont.)

• Number of dump trucks

• Average hauling output

• Total hauling cost per hour

– Equipment

1 – Wheel loader, ___ m

3

/hr -------------- _____ P/hr

N – Dump trucks, ___ m

3

------------------ _____ P/hr

– Labor

1 – Leadman, rate --------------------------- _____ P/hr

2 – Laborers, rate --------------------------- _____ P/hr

Total Cost per hour _____ P/hr

• Total unit cost per m

3

, (loose volume)

Sample of hauling cost analysis using spreadsheet

Unit Price Analysis

Production Rate Derivation of a Pay Item

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Elements of the Indirect Cost

• Profit – contractor’s profit

• Overhead Expenses

• Office Expenses (office equipment and supplies)

• Engineering and Administrative Cost

• Transportation allowances

• Contractor’s All Risk Insurance

• Premiums on Bid Security and Performance Security

• Premium/charges/fees on credit lines

• Contingencies

• Miscellaneous Expenses

• Laboratory Tests

• Other expenses

• Mobilization/Demobilization

Estimated

Direct Cost

(EDC)

Indirect Cost % for OCM

and Profit (Maximum

Ranges)

% Cost for

Mob/Demob

(Maximum)

Total

Maximum

Indirect

Cost % for

OCM, Profit

and Mob/

Demob

OCM (% of

EDC)

Profit (% of

EDC)

Up to P1Million

13 15 1 29

Above P1M to

P5M

12 14 1 27

Above P5M to

P10M

12 13 1 26

Above P10M to

P20M

11 12 1 24

Above 20M to

P50M

11 11 1 23

Above P50M

10 10 1 21

Unit Price Analysis

DO 57 s 2002

Unit Price Analysis

Cost Currency Components:

• Foreign Cost Component

• imported equipment & spare parts

• foreign currency component of locally goods

• & services

• wages of expatriate personnel

• foreign overheads & profits

• Local Cost Component

• local materials

• equipment & supplies

• wages, local supervision

• transport & freight

• overhead & profits

• Tax Component

• revenue for the government derived from each item

Cost Component of Selected Construction Items

Unit Price Analysis

Description

Components

Foreign Local Tax

(%) (%) (%)

Heavy Equipment

Light Equipment

Reinforcing Steel

Structural Steel

Lumber

Asphalt

Cement

Diesel fuel

Engine oil

Tires

Imported Miscellaneous Materials

Locally Produced Miscellaneous Materials

Skilled Foreign Labor

Unskilled Labor

Royalty

68

65

54

85

33

76

40

60

60

47

64

17

65

0

0

10

15

35

4

57

2

45

13

13

43

7

69

25

90

90

22

20

11

11

10

22

15

27

27

10

29

14

10

10

10

Quantity Calculations for Pay Items Bill of Quantities

Pointers in the conduct of quantity calculations:

• Based on the design plans and specifications

• Units of measurement are all in metric based on

DPWH Standard Specifications.

• Solid mensuration is extensively used and other

mathematical formulae.

• Used of computer softwares in calculations.

• Used of calculators (simple or scientific)

• Conversion factors

• Rates of application of materials such as, liquified

asphalt materials, paints, etc.

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Sample Formula of Plane Shapes & Figures

Area of a Triangle

A = " x base x height = " (bh)

Perimeter of a Triangle

P = side

1

+ side

2

+ side

3

Area of a Parallelogram

A = ! x base x height = ! (bh)

Perimeter of a Parallelogram

P = 2a + 2b

Area of a Rectangle

A = width x length = (wl)

Perimeter of a Rectangle

P = 2(lwidth) + 2(length) = 2(w) + 2(l)

Area of a Circle

A = !r

2

Circumference of a Circle

C = 2!r = !D ! = 3.14 159

Sample Formula of Solid Geometric Figures

Unit Price Analysis

Volume of Rectangular Solid

V = abc

Surface Area

SA = 2(ab + ac + bc)

Volume of Cube

V = a

3

Surface Area

SA = 6a

2

Volume of Sphere

V = 4/3 !r

3

Surface Area

SA = 4!r

2

Volume of Circular Cone

V = 1/3 !r

2

h

Surface Area

SA = !r

2

+ !rl

Volume of Circular Cylinder

V = !r

2

h or !D

2

÷ 4

Surface Area

SA = 2 !rh + 2!r

2

Unit Price Analysis

Sample Typical Road Sections

# Estimating the work output of a piece of equipment is determined in 2 ways:

• Using work output formula based on the cycle of operation and other factors which

controlled production.

• Using tables based on past experiences of average work output under varying conditions for

different operations.

# To calculate earthmoving equipment consider the volume changes in earth caused by

handling. These volume changes have the following terms, to wit:

• Swell – increase in volume of earth that results when it is dug from its natural position.

• Shrinkage – decrease in volume of earth when compacted.

• Loose yards – volume of earth after it has been removed from its natural location and swell

has taken place.

• In-place yards – volume of earth in its natural location before handling.

• Compacted yards – volume of earth that has been properly compacted in embankment on

fill.

# Basis of calculations for excavation and fill

• Loose yards – are used to express the carrying capacity of earth moving equipment.

• In-place yards – are converted to compacted yards to determine the volume of materials in a

fill that will be realized from a given amount of materials in its natural location.

• In-place yards – are converted to loose yards to determine the amount of earth moving

equipment required to handle the materials.

• The output of equipment in loose yards must be converted to compacted yards to determine

the final volume of fill

Methods of Estimating Work Output

Unit Price Analysis

1.0 m

3

in natural condition

(in-place yards)

1.25 m

3

after digging

(loose yards)

0.9 m

3

after compaction

(compacted yards)

Volume Changes in Common Earth Caused by Handling

Bowl Capacity of Dozer

Illustrations of Soil Handling

Unit Price Analysis

Formula for Earthmoving Equipment Work Output

where:

Q = bowl capacity in loose cubic meters

f = soil conversion factor

60 = minutes per hour

E = efficiency factor

Cm = total cycle time in minutes

The working capacity of construction equipment is expressed by

the work practically done by the operation of equipment per unit

time ( 1 hour or day)

Unit Price Analysis

Conversion Factors, f

Soil Type

Present

Condition

Converted to

In-place Loose Compacted

Sand

Common Earth

Clay

In-place

Loose

Compacted

In-place

Loose

Compacted

In-place

Loose

Compacted

1.00

0.90

1.05

1.00

0.80

1.11

1.00

0.70

1.11

1.11

1.00

1.17

1.25

1.00

1.39

1.43

1.00

1.59

0.95

0.86

1.00

0.90

0.72

1.00

0.93

0.63

1.00

Tractor Model Bulldozer Angle Dozer

D4

D6

D7

D8

1.25 m

3

1.44 m

3

2.20 m

3

2.40 m

3

1.82 m

3

2.01 m

3

2.58 m

3

2.97 m

3

Bowl Capacity of Dozers (loose yards)

Unit Price Analysis

Source: Construction Equipment Manual, BRS/DPWH

Sample Calculation for Work Output

Given: Average haul distance one way – 30 m

Soil type - common earth

Efficiency factor (E) - 80%

Speed - 2.5 kph

Required: Determine in place cubic meters moved per hour if D7 tractor dozer is to be used.

Solution:

Step 1. From conversion factor table, the soil conversion factor (f), soil type common earth loose to in-place,

f = 0.80

From dozer bowl capacity table, D7 tractor dozer, Q = 2.2 m

3

Step 2. Determine fixed time

@ 2 gear shift @ 10 sec. per shift = 20 sec = 0.33 min

Step 3. Determine variable time

Travel forward 30 m @ 2.5 kph

Travel backward 30 m @ 5.0 kph

Step 4. Add fixed and variable time

Total cycle time, Cm = 0.33 + 0.72 + 0.36 = 1.41 min.

Step 5. Substitute in work output formula

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Sample Typical Cross-Section of Drainage Structures

Sample Quantity Calculation for Volume of Excavation:

Sample: Given a RCPC 1220mmØ and a length of 5.0 meters, compute volume of excavation.

Solution: Size of excavation as given from the above drawings for 1220mmØ:

width = 1.60m, height = 2.0 m, length = 5.0 m

Volume = w x h x l = 1.6 x 2 x 5 = 16 m

3

compacted volume (stated in the plans)

Applying the soil conversion factor, common earth from compacted to loose, use

factor, f = 1.39 the excavated loose volume = 16 x 1.39 = 22.24 m

3

Volume of Backfill and Bedding Materials:

Sample: Using the same sample, calculate backfill and bedding materials

Solution: Size of excavation as given from the above drawings for 1220mmØ:

width = 1.60m, height = 2.0 m, length = 5.0 m

Volume of trench = w x h x l = 1.6 x 2 x 5 = 16 m

3

Volume of bedding materials at compacted state, using thickness of 15cm

= 1.6 x 0.15 x 5 = 1.2 m

3

Using soil conversion factor, compacted to loose, f = 1.17

Volume of bedding materials required to purchase = 1.2 x 1.17 = 1.404m

3

Volume of backfill = Vol

trench

– (Vol

RCPC

+ Vol

bedding

) = 16 – (7.371+1.2) = 7.429 m

3

Applying conversion factor, compacted to loose, f = 1.39

Volume of backfill required = 7.429 x 1.39 = 10.326 m

3

Sample Quantity Calculation

Unit Price Analysis

Composition and Strength of Concrete for Use in Structures

This composition of concrete is used for concrete batching plant.

Unit Price Analysis

Mixture

Class of

Concrete

Proportion

Cement

in Bags

Sand

cu. m.

Gravel

cu. m.

AA

A

B

C

1:1":3

1:2:4

1:2":5

1:3:6

12.0

9.0

7.5

6.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Concrete Proportion

This concrete proportion is used for manual mix.

Unit Price Analysis

Mixture

Class of

Concrete

Proportion

Cement

in Bags

40 kgs.

Sand

cu. m.

A

B

C

D

1:2

1:3

1:4

1:5

18.0

12.0

9.0

7.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Cement and Sand Proportion for Mortar and Plastering

Unit Price Analysis

Sample Calculation:

Given: Volume = 10 m

3

of mortar, use class A

Solution: Refer to the above table

Cement = 10 x 18 = 180 bags

Sand = 10 x 1.0 = 10 m

3

Sample Calculation for Asphalt Concrete Pavement:

Given: Carriageway width = 6.7m, Length = 1 km., thickness = 50cm,

use 301(1) - MC-70 Cut-Back Asphalt

Solution:

Determine Item 301(1) - Bituminous Prime Coat

Determine Item 310 – Bituminous Concrete Surface Course, Hot-Laid (AC – Asphalt Concrete)

The derived quantities are then summarized in the bill of quantities and subsequently,

manually entered in the estimated construction cost spreadsheet which are multiplied by

the unit prices to come up with total cost of that item and summed up all the pay items to

calculate the total direct cost. After which, indirect cost is applied to determined the total

estimated project cost.

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Item Number Description Unit Quantity

100(1)

102(1)

102(2)

103(3)

103(6)

104(1)

105(1)

105(3)

200

201

301(1)

310

500(1)

Clearing and Grubbing

Unsuitable Excavation

Surplus Common Excavation

Foundation Fill

Pipe Culverts and Drainage Excavation

Embankment

Subgrade Preparation (Common Material)

Subgrade Preparation (Unsuitable Material)

Aggregate Subbase Course

Aggregate Base Course

Bituminous Prime (MC-70 Cut-Back Asphalt)

Bituminous Concrete Surface Course, Hot-Laid

RCPC 610mmØ

ha.

m

3

m

3

m

3

m

3

m

3

m

2

m

2

m

3

m

3

ton

m

2

l.m.

20

1,000

11,000

2,000

1,858

7,500

3,000

5,000

10,455

12,156

30,780

5,689

3,105

Sample of Bill of Quantities

Sample of unit

price analysis in

spreadsheet

Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis

Sample of Summary of Construction Pay Items Unit Prices

Unit Price Analysis

Sample of Total Estimated Project Cost

Unit Price Analysis

Sample of the Program of Work (POW)

Unit Price Analysis

Sample of the Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC)

Unit Price Analysis

Sample of the Minimum Equipment Requirement

Maintenance Cost

Highway Maintenance

- is defined as the act of preserving and keeping each

highway type of highway as nearly as possible in its

original conditions as constructed or as subsequently

improved. It does not include rehabilitation, betterment

and improvement

Two calculation methods for maintenance cost

- EMK (Equivalent Maintenance Kilometrage)

- Traffic Dependent Method

Two Categories:

• Routine Maintenance

• vegetation control

• cleaning and repairing culverts

• cleaning ditches

• cleaning and repairing traffic signs

• climatic loss of gravel on shoulder

• Periodic Maintenance

• road surface repairs

• resurfacing

• shoulder repair & resurfacing

General Cost

Maintenance Cost

Maintenance Cost

EMK Factors

Source: BOM/

DPWH

0

AADT

AADT

Basic Formula:

Road:

MC

R

= EMK

budget

x F

t

x F

w

x Length

where:

MC

R

= maintenance cost for road

EMK

budget

= annual allocation

F

t

= factor for surface type

F

w

= factor for carriageway width

Length = in kilometer

Bridge:

MC

B

= EMK

budget

x F

b

x Length

where:

MC

B

= maintenance cost for bridge

EMK

budget

= annual allocation

F

b

= factor for bridge type

Length = in meter

Traffic Dependent Method

Traffic volume in terms of vehicle units:

• Light vehicles ! 0.4 vehicle units

• Buses ! 2.5 vehicle units

• Trucks ! 3.0 vehicle units

Maintenance Cost

Maintenance Cost

Basic assumptions in calculating routine maintenance unit rates :

• Vegetation Control

• 0.5 ha/km/year

• 400 m2/crew day

• 2 - knapsack movers

• 2 - unskilled laborers

• Cleaning and Repair of Culverts

• 1 – 4 number units/day/km

• 1 – dump truck

• 3 – unskilled laborers

• Materials

• Replace, Clean and Repair Traffic Signs

• 2 – 5 units repaired, repainted or replace daily

• 1 – pick-up vehicle

• Materials

• Clearing Side Ditches

• 40 – 1000 l.m./day (half by grader and half by hand or manual)

• 1 – grader

• 3 – unskilled laborers

Source: Road Maintenance Manual, BOM-DPWH

Maintenance Cost

Periodic Maintenance

• Road Surface Repair

• Regravelling gravel road and gravel shoulder

• Grading & reshaping gravel road

• Joint & crack sealing for PCCP

• Pothole repair (spot regravel) for gravel road

• Patch potholes for ACP

• Crack sealing for ACP

• Edge break for ACP

• Resurfacing

• Asphalt Concrete Overlay

• Shoulder Repair & Resurfacing

• Regravelling

• Grading and reshaping

• Asphalt Concrete Overlay

Maintenance Cost

Sample of routine maintenance unit

price analysis

Maintenance Cost

Periodic Maintenance Task

Maintenance Cost

General Formula for Maintenance Cost Calculations

• Routine Maintenance (peso/km)

– Maintenance Task = Qty

table

x L

shoulder

x W x 365 days x unit rate

activity

– General Cost

• Periodic Maintenance (peso-vehicle unit/km)

– Maintenance Task = (Qty

table

x L x W x 365 days x unit rate

activity

) ÷ Frequency

vehicle

where:

L = length in meters

W = width in meters

Qty

table

= Periodic Maintenance Task Table

unit rate

activity

= maintenance unit price analysis

Frequency = benchmark of traffic volume in terms of v.u. as shown in Periodic

Maintenance Task Table

Maintenance Cost

Routine Maintenance Unit Cost

Road Segment Economic Financial

a. Vegetation control

b. Cleaning and repair culverts

c. Replace, clean and repair traffic signs

d. Clearing side ditches

P 5,312.58/km

4,880.19/km

5,384.64/km

10,813.92/km

P 6,498.57/km

7,055.90/km

6,667.53/km

13,250.68/km

Total per annum P 26,391.34/km P 33,472.67/km

Routine Maintenance Unit Cost

Bridge Segment Economic Financial

a. Concrete bridge

b. Steel bridge

P 568.79/l.m.

3,714.14/l.m.

P 721.41/l.m.

4,710.72/l.m.

Sample of Summary Routine Maintenance Unit Cost

Maintenance Cost

Maintenance Tasks Unit Cost

Economic Financial

1. Gravel ( Surface )

2. Regrade and Reshape

a. Carriageway

b. Shoulder

3. AC Resurfacing ( 3 cm.)

4. AC Overlay ( 5 cm. )

5. Replacement of Failed Bay

a. t = 230 mm

b. t = 200 mm

6. Repair of Cracks/Joints

7. Patching and Pothole Repair

a. Pothole Repair ( Gravel )

b. Pothole Repair (AC)

c. Sealing and Patching (AC)

8. Road Stripping (painted lines)

P 481.87/m

3

5.14/m

2

15.41/m

2

94.36/m

2

135.51/m

2

2,527.25/m

2

2,197.69/m

2

18,066.78/m

2

498.56/m

3

494.06/m

2

510.81/m

2

48.53/m

P 579.45/m

3

6.29/m

2

18.87/m

2

113.28/m

2

162.25/m

2

3,089.00/m

2

2,686.20/m

2

22,123.42/m

2

598.08/m

3

597.05/m

2

617.50/m

2

57.48/m

Sample of Summary of Periodic Maintenance Unit Cost

Summary of Maintenance Costs

Road Type

Maintenance Category

Routine Periodic

Economic Financial Economic Financial

Gravel Roads (5.0m roadway)

AC with gravel shoulders

a. 0.5+6.1+0.5

b. 1.0+6.1+1.0

c. 1.5+6.1+1.5

d. 3.0+6.7+3.0

PCC with gravel shoulders

a. 0.5+6.1+0.5

t = 230 mm

t = 200 mm

b. 1.0+6.1+1.0

t = 230 mm

t = 200 mm

c. 1.5+6.1+1.5

t = 230 mm

t = 200 mm

d. 3.0+6.7+3.0

t = 230 mm

t = 200 mm

49,521.08

31,210.03

36,028.73

40,847.42

55,303.51

31,210.03

31,210.03

36,028.73

36,028.73

40,847.42

40,847.42

55,303.51

55,303.51

61,286.05

39,267.13

45,061.58

50,856.03

68,239.39

39,267.13

39,267.13

45,061.58

45,061.58

50,856.03

50,856.03

68,239.39

68,239.39

737.36a

80.05a

100.55a

121.06a

186.01a

62.77a

62.12a

83.27a

82.62a

103.77a

103.12a

166.34a

165.69a

896.59a

96.33a

121.40a

146.47a

225.81a

75.81a

75.01a

100.88a

100.08a

125.95a

125.15a

202.43a

201.63a

Maintenance Cost

Sample of Summary Maintenance Cost

Note: a = vehicle unit, v.u.

Sample of Summary of

Work Unit Cost used

in HDM-4

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