IMPORTANCE OF DETAILING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT FOR

BEAMS,COLUMNS AND WALLS
The detailing of reinforcement is as important as the analysis and design of any
RCC members. Specially it is true in the design of structures against the
SEISMIC forces. The most and very important aspect of detailing is well
documented in the text boo on !SEISMIC "ESI#$ %& REI$&%RCE"
C%$CRETE '$" M'S%$R( )*I+"I$#S by T.,aulay and M.-.$.,riestley. The
text extraction is given below for the structural engineers who need to now more
about the importance of the above issue.
,age. /01.
The spacing of the transverse reinforcement is as important as the 2uantity to be
provided. &or this reason3 recommended maximum spacings of sets of
transverse ties along a member3 re2uired for four specific purposes3 are
summari4ed here.
/. To provide shear resistance. Except as set out in section 5.5.67a87vii8.
In beams s9:.0d or ;::mm76<=8
In columns s9:.10h or ;::mm76<=8
In walls s96.0b
w
or <0:mm7/>=8
6. To stabili4e compression bars in plastic Regions. 's described in section
<.0.< for beams3 but also applicable to bars with diameters db in columns
and walls? Section 0.<7e8@.
s9;.:d
b3
or s9dA<3 s9 /0:mm7;=8
5. To provide confinement of compressed concrete in potential plastic
regions. 's described in sections 5.;./7a83<.;./7e8M '$" 0.<.57E8.

s
h
9 b
c
A5 3 s
h
9 h
c
A5 3 s
h
9; d
b3
s
h
9/>:mm71=8.
<. 't +apped splice . 's described in Section 5.;.6B)83<.;./: and <.;.//7f8
for the end regions of columns where plastic hinges are not expected to
occur.
s9>.:d
b3
s96::mm7>=8.
,age.6:>.
The diameter of stirrup ties should not be less than ;mm7:.60=8 and the area of
one leg of stirrup tie in the direction of potential bucling of longitudinal bars
should not be less than
'
te
CD '
b
f
y
s
EEEEEEEEEEEEE7Mpa8
/; f
yt
/::
&or design purpose it is convenient to rearrange the above e2uation in the form.
'
te
As C D '
b
f
y
A/;:: f
yt
7mmF6Amm8
Ghere '
b
is the sum of the areas of the longitudinal bars reliant on
the tie3 including the tributary area of any bars exempted from being
tied in accordance
with the proceding section.
'
te
is the area of the stirrup tie in mmF6.
f
y
is the yield strength of longitudinal bars.
f
yt
is the yield strength of tie bars
,age /6>.
)ecause of the reversal of shear forces in members affected by earth2uaes3 the
placing of stirrups at an angle other than B:
H
to the axis of such members is
generally impractical.
The choice of the angle <0
H
for the plane of the diagonal tension failure in the
region of potential plastic is a compromise.
,lease note that in IS /5B6: it is not recommended to use single bent up bars.
Minimum shear reinforcement.
Current codes 7$ewIeland8 re2uire the provision of minimum amount of shear
reinforcement in the range of :.::/0 9'
v
Ab
w
sC:.::6: in members affected by
earth2uae forces.
ii8 Spacing of stirrups. To ensure that potential diagonal tension failure planes are
crossed by sufficient sets of stirrups3 spacing limitations such as set out below3
have been widely used. The spacing s should not exceed.
/. In beams.
In general .:.0d or ;::mm76<=8
Ghen 7v
i
Jv
c
8 K :.:1 f
L
c
. :.60d or 5::mm7/6=8.
6. In columns.
Ghen ,
u
A'
g
9:./6 f
L
c
M as in beams
Ghen ,
u
A'
g
K :./6 f
L
c. :.10L or >::mm76<=8.
5. In walls3
6.0 times the wall thicness or <0:mm7/>=8.
Spacing limitations to satisfy re2uirements for the confinement of compressed concrete and the
stabili4ing of compression bars in potential plastic hinge regions are liely to be more restrictive.
,age.655.
<.;//. "esign of transverse Reinforcement.
7a8 #eneral considerations. There are four design re2uirements that control the amount of
transverse reinforcement to be provided in C%+*M$S.
/. Shear strengthM
6. ,revention of bucling of compression barsM
5. Confinement of compressed concrete in potential plastic hinge regions or over the full
length of column subNected to very large compression stresses andM
<. The strength of lapped bar splices.