You are on page 1of 14

t,f'w

D mhtmabmf =um;vl
jrefrmEdkifiH&JΠpD;yGm;a&; tqifrajyr_awGa=umifh wdkif;jynftwGif;uae
eD;pyf&m tdref ;D csi;f Ekid if aH wGqu D kd vma&muf tvkyv f yk uf ikd af e=uwJh jrefrmEdik if H
om; trsm;tjym;&Sw d t hJ xJrmS ta=umif;trsK;d rsK;d a=umifh jynfw h efqmavmu tjyma&mif oHwcg;awG&J@
xJudk a&muf&SdoGm;=uwJh trsKd;orD;i,fawGvnf; xkeJ@ax;ygyJ? olwdk@wawG [dkbufrSm
[m vG,fvifhwuleJ@ aiG&wJhvrf;udk vdkufygpD;arsmcJh=u+yD; olwdk@awG&JΠb0eJ@ rD;cdk;rxGufwJh
twl vdkufygvmr,fh attdkif'Dtufpf qdkwJh a&m*gqdk;}uD;udk OayQmðycJhovdk tyfcsKyfpufawG wef;pDxm;w,f?
tœ&m,fudkvnf; vufcH}udKqdkwJhoabmawG aqmifukefawmhwmygyJ?
a&mifjcnfOD;*sme,ftaeeJ@ ajymcsifwmu 'Davmu/ 'De,fy,f/ 'Dpepf/ ajcv_yfvufv_yf [dkrSmvnf;
'Dtcif;tusi;f u rGe;f usyf yfw d af vSmifveG ;f ygw,f? cdak vSmiftrd v f kd b0qdw k mu xrif;wvkyf[m olu,fEdk;eJ@
od+yD;om;rd@k rajymcsiaf wmhyg? cýmud, k /f taoG;tom;udk aps;upm;&wm aoG; pyfa=umif;ESpfck=um;u &,fyGJawGqif?
xm;wJ"h m;udk arG;xm;&ovdyk ?J tJ'v D kd udPawGukd aoaocsmcsm jyefawG;=unfh tyfoGm;vdkyJjrefw,f?
r,fq&kd if wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ rwnfjidrw f phJ ;D yGm;a&;pepfe@J csKŒd wJv
h w S hJ use;f rma&; ynm v_id ;f uarmif
ay;r_awGu tjypfrJhwJh jynfoljynfom;awGudk aorif;wref trdef@jyXmef;csuf w&m;±kH;wufwJh aomifuusreJ@
wckudk twnfjyKcsrSwfcJhwmyJjzpfygw,f? tckvnf; etzu wdkif;jynfrSm av#maf =u;aiG&a&;rSm usefaecJhwJh
woufvHk; wdkif;oljynfom;awG acwfu|ef pepfu|ef vdifu|efjzpf&r,fh jynfol@ wcsKd@toufawGay;&? c±kawGudkyJ
qücH,yl q JG wkd mudk taumiftxnfazmfz@kd }uKd;pm;aejyefyg+yD? etz&JŒ &nfreS ;f tqifwqmtjzpf
csuof m taumiftxnfay:oGm;cJ&h if wwdik ;f jynfv;kH tvH;k pHk u|ejf zpf&r,fqkd auG;w±dk@a&mif;wJholvnf; vnfrSmqGJ=uvdrfhr,f?
wm aocsmaewJu h Pd yJjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh wwdik ;f jynfv;kH ppfu|et f jzpf EGeH pfc&H olaX;ac:&
r,fhta&;udk umuG,fzdk@uawmh etz&J@jynfol@qücH,lyGJudk tm;vHk;u qef@ reufcif;yifv,fjyiftvSudk olwdk@&J@b0tarmrSm
usifwdkufzsuf uef@uGufrJay;=uzdk@yJ jzpfygw,f? tarSmifawGyJ}uD;pdk;apw,f? naecif;udk
tvkyform;xk w&yfvHk;udk a&mifjcnfOD; *sme,ftaeeJ@ today;vkdwm c%omydik q f ikd +f yD;
uawmh rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifyJjzpfap rdrdwdk@ rdom;pkawGudkyJjzpfap etz&JŒ jynfol@ 'geJ@rsm; a&mufawmhæ
qücH,lyGJrSm aemufqHk;t+yD;owf vlxkatmifyGJtjzpf trJa&mif uef@uGufrJ tdkift,f(vf)tdk ±Hk;wHcg;udk tjyma&mif oHwcg;awGaemuf
udkom rJay;=uzdk@yJjzpfw,fvdk@ t}uHðywdkufwGef;vdkuf&ygw,f? ppfoHk;"g;awGeJ@xkqpf wpwpeJ@aysmufuG,f?
w&m;awGtyfESHzdk@
av;pm;pGmjzifh ykwfoif!dkavmuf&SdwJhæ +rdK@rSm rD;cdk;rxGufwJh
t,f'DwmtzGJ@ uAsmwyk'fudk tyfcsKyfpufawGuawmh
a&mifjcnfOD;tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f? vuf0g;tkyf&GwfqdkcJhwmvm;? &ufw&uf 0rf;pmtwGuf
csLyfn&Dquf
ukvm;eJ@w±kwf=um;rSm cufou G o
f u
G fæ
a&mifjcnfOD;tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f tma&AsyHkjyifxJu
ukvm;tkyf
armif;ESifaeav&J@æ?

0dk if ; a w mf o m ; rs m ; acgif;v#dKvmayghæ? +idr;f vl


tk yf csK yf a & ; rSL ;
rd;k aqG u<mhuAsmaeh ( World Poetry Day ) udk xdik ;f -jrefrme,fpyfwiG uf si;f y
w m 0 ef cH t ,f 'D w m
xuf&mZm
t,f'DwmtzJG@
rsdK;jrifhcsdK/ udkpsmef
o w if ; ES ifh *s m e ,f 0dk if ; 0 ef ; jy if q if r_
csuf}uD;/ *sKd;/ rsKd;aZmf ESifh a&mifjcnfOD;tzGJ@om;rsm;
rs uf ES m zkH ; 'D Zdk if ; eJ@ t wG if ; 'D Zdk if ;
oD[armifarmif
p m pD p m ±dk uf
a&mifjcnfO;D tzG@J om;rsm;
jz ef@ csd a & ;
a&mifjcnfOD;tvkyform;rsm;tzGJ@
rJaqmuf+rdK@/ xdik ;f Edik if H
q uf oG ,f & ef
P.O Box: 37, Mae Sod, Tak (63110) xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyf&Sd a'gif;&ifjyifY uBmhuAsmae@wGif uAsm&GwfyGJtcrf;tem;udk
Tel: 0895659899 usif;yjyKvkyfcJhonf? xdkuAsm&GwfyGJY uAsmq&m+idrf;a0/ uAsmq&mcifvGef;/ uAsmq&m
Email: newdawnzaw@gmail.com ZGerf id_ ;f / uAsmq&ma'guw f mvGr;f aqG/ uAsmq&marmifvrG ;f %D/ uAsmq&myGio hf pf (u&def
uef)/ uAsmq&mpd;k aevif;/ uAsmq&mrcdik rf mausmaf Zm/ uAsmq&mrat;rdjzLwd@k EiS t hf wl
pufwifbm oHCmhta&;tcif;wGif jynfyodk@xGufcGmvmonfh uAsmq&matmifa0;/
pmrl ESihf a-umfjimudpP t00 uAsmq&mausmfolrdk;jrifhwdk@rS uAsmrsm;udk ±GwfqdkcJh=uonf? xdktcrf;tem;wGif tcrf;
tem;rSL;tjzpf pma&;q&m+idrf;csrf;+idrf;ESifh uAsmq&mr&nfrGefxdyfxm;wdk@rS jyKvkyf
q uf oG ,f a q m if &G uf & ef aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf?
xdk@aemuf ppftpdk;&rS vmr,fharvwGifjyKvkyfrnfh tajccHOya'rl=urf;tay: vlxk
a&mifjcnfO;D tvkyo
f rm;a&;&m*sme,f qücH,yl u JG kd SAW ausmif;rS ausmif;oluav;rsm;rS qef@usiw f u
rsm;jzifh o±kyfazmfjyocJh=uonf? xdk@aemuf uBmra=ubl;oDcsif;udk y&dowfeJ@twl oD
kd zf surf u
J ef@uGuf pmvH;k

rJaqmuf_rKd ‹/ xdik ;f Edik if H qdkcJh=u+yD;aemuf y&dowfrsm;xHrS uAsm±GwfyGJtay: cHpm;csuftoHrsm;udk ajym=um;cJh


P.O Box: 37, Mae Sod, Tak (63110) onf? tqdkyg tcrf;tem;udk 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoHrS roDwmu uAsmu¾twGuf
Tel: 0895659899, Email: newdawnzaw@gmail.com ±kyo
f x H w k v f i$ rhf o
_ mG ;rnfjzpfa=umif; ajym=um;+yD; uAsm±Gwyf u JG kd atmifjrifpmG ±kyo f rd ;f Edik cf hJ
onf? xdu k Asm&Gwyf o JG @kd tzG@J tpnf;toD;oD;rS vltiftm;(70)ausmf wufa&mufco hJ nf■
2 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)
rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 3
ausmif;om;awG &yfuGufxu J jyef qkH;ESpfu udkjrifhOD;udk aoewfxd+yD; ausmif;
txGufavmufrSm tJ'Dvrf;ay:u or0g om;awG qJGvmwm jrifvkdufw,f?
,rqdkif rD;avmifw,fAs? b,fol&Sdk hvnf; +yD ; wmeJ @ usaemf e J @ usawmh ol
awmhrodbl;? usaemfu tJ'Dorqkdif rD; i,fcsif;wa,muf ausmif; uefwif;zuf
pavmifawmh ausmif;a&S@u tif;pdev f rf;r oGm;w,f? ygarmuQwa,muf&o hJ m; q&m
}uD;ay: jyefa&mufae+yD? 0ef&dSw,fqkdwm=um;wmeJ@ oGm;ac:wm
&yf u G u f x J u jyef q k w f v mawmh tdrfrD;awG ydwfxm;vkd@jyefvSnfhcJhw,f?
wcsK@d ausmif;om;awG3-4 a,mufu tif; uef w if ; jyef v m+yD ; a'goxG u f x G u f e J @
pdefaq;0g;xkwfvkyfa&;puf&kHudk rD;0if&dSk@zkdh vufeuf&Smwm qkdifwckxJu =uufoGef
=udK;pm;=uao;w,fAs? 0ifr&vkd@om vDS;wJh"m;wacsmif;yJ&w,fAsm? tJ'gav;
orqkdifrD;avmifaeawmh yxrqkH; udkif+yD; wdk@ausmif;om;awG ypfowfcH&+yD;
aemf u 10 wef ; rD;owfum;wpD;0ifvmw,f? ausmif; qkd+yD; a'gouvnf;xGuf rsuf&nf,dkAkH;
atmifwkef;u ppf a&S@vrf;r}uD;uae &yfuGufxJ0ifr,fh a=umifhvnf; rsuf&nfxGufeJ@ayghAsm …
xJ0ifzkdh Akdvfoif vrf ; qk H a v; xd y f v nf ; a&muf a &m trSwfw&ygyJ?
wef;av#mufwm aygif 100 ausmif;om; wa,mufu cJe@J xv k udk f 14 &uf a e@n 8em&D a vmuf r S m
rjynf h v d k h ty,f c H & wm? wm um;a&S@rSef}uD;uGJ+yD; rD;owf ausmif;r}uD;eJ@ taqmifoGm;wJhvrf;ay:eJ@
rd b awG u vnf ; taz um;vnf; aemufjyef tjrefjyef uefwif;qkdifawGESpfwef;=um;rSm ausmif;
ausmif;q&m tarausmif; qkwfoGm;w,f? tJ'guawmh om;awGpk=uw,f? pum;ajym=uw,f?
q&mrawGavAsm? b0udk &kd;&kd;}uD; usaemfh tem;rSmyJjzpfaewm? taocHacgif;aqmif 3 a,mufa&G;w,fAs?
jzwfae=uolawG? wuUodkvfa&mufawmh yxru rD;owfum; aersKd ; atmif v m; wa,muf y gw,f ?
vnf; wuUokdvft&Hwyf&if; wufjzpf awG u a&awG e J @ rEœav;om;xifw,f? usefwJhemrnfawG
w,f A sm? ppf o if w ef ; wuf z l ; w,f A sm? ausmif;0if;xJ jyef rrSwfrdawmhbl;?
aoewfeJ@xdawG@zl;w,f? aoewfypfzl; a&muf+yD; vlpk rcJG aemuf a e@reuf r S m usaemf w k d @
w,fAsm? ao;bJ atmfae=u ausmif;0if;xJrSm ygwf+yD;vrf;av#muf=u
tck a wmh cif A sm;od w J h t wk d i f ; wJh ausmif;om;awG w,f? rde;f uav;aqmifawGzuftxd tyg
ausmif;om;olykefAs? ud k t&if y uf w m t0if ausmif;0if;xJ pDwef;vSnfh=uw,f?
13 &uf a e@nu usaemf w k d @ ol As? ausmif ; om; " wd k @ ausmif ; om;awG typf o wf c H & +yD
i,fcsif;awG ausmif;a&S@u vufzuf&nf awG u rD ; owf qENjy=upkd@" vdk@ vSHk haqmf=uw,f? aemuf
qkdifrSmpkxkdif+yD; wkdifyifae=uw,f? vuf ydkufeJ@ yufwmu ae@vnfzuf ausmif;aqmifr}uD;atmuf
zuf&nfqkdifrSm 12 &ufae@ rae@nu us awmh &D w maygh rSm ckw H ef;av;xk;d +yD; ausmif;om;awG ckaH y:
awmfw@dk ausmif;u ausmif;om;wa,muf
t&kdufcHvkduf&wmeJ@ ywfouf+yD; b,fvkd
rif;aZmf (4th Mechnical RIT) bmnmatmf ae=u wuf ekdifiHa&;pum;awGajym=uw,f? us
ao;wm? wcsKd @ awmfuawmh atmufuxdkif=unfhw,f
vufwkef@jyef&ifaumif;rvJvkd@ 0dkif;wkdifyif tenf;i,faom aygh? udkoH'kwfwufajymwm rSwfrdw,f
=uw,f a ygh ? tJ ' D t xJ r S m usaemf w k d @ armifausmif;awGu &&mcJawGe@J ypf Asm? 'DvlowWdaumif;w,f?
wuU o d k v f t &H w yf & if ; (University
Training Corp- UTC) twlwufczhJ ;l wJh yxraehn ausmif;om;wa,muf =uw,f ? olwkd@ zufuvnf; cJe@J ypfw,f?
tjyef tvSef olypfudk,fypfayghAsm?
tESpf 20 &dS+yDAs/ tJ'Dwkef;u us
aemfwkd@ rqvacwfrSm ausmif;om;awG
oli,fcsif; 4-5 a,muf yg=uwmrSwfrd t½kud cf v
H u
dk &f wmudk ud, k ahf usmif;om; aemufr=umbl; … ao ewfoHawG ausmif;om;or*~r&db S ;l Asm… pkzrhGJ rkS &dbS ;l
w,f? awG wa,mufajymwa,mufehJ awmf =um;wmyJ ? aoewfypfawmh usaemfu Asm/ Edik if aH &;ygwaD wGr&Sb d ;l Asm? tJ'vD dk um
tckawmh wcsKd@u AdkvfrSL;}uD;awG ausmif ; r}uD ; a&S @ u tk w f w k d i f } uD ; awG vrsKd;tajctaersKd;rSm jzpfwJhausmif;om;
jzpf a eavmuf y g+yD ? aemuf usaemf w k d @ awmfoad eMuw,f/ b,foal wGpMu atmufa&mufae+yD? ,leD azmif;0wfawG vSyk &f mS ;rSt k pysKd ;wku
d yf [ GJ m =urf;wrf;rSmyJ?
tkyfpkESpfpkcJGw,f? yxrwpk 10a,muf rvJom olMh unfu h , kd Mhf unfh MunfaU e aoewfawGe@J ausmif; eH&HawGudk ausmf0if aygufuJGrSmtrSefyJ? b,ft&mrS rSefwef;
15 a,mufavmufu rae@u t&kdufcH Muwm/ aemuf ud, k ehf ;D pyf&m ausmif; vm wmawG@wmeJ@ usaemf ausmif;r}uD; wus pmtkyf}uD;qefqef rjzpfay:ekdifbl;?
vkduf&wJhae&mudkt&ifoGm;w,f? aemuf
wpk 10 a,muf 15 a,mufavmufu 15 om; tkypf ak v;awGprk Nd y;D ud, k hf ausmif; atmufusxaJemfjyefxifvSwnmuawmh
fhajy;wmaygh?
ausmif;0if;
udkbkef;armfAsm … 'DwkdufyJG&Jh yxrqkH;
toufay;vSLvkduf&wJh ausmif;om;tm
rdepf avmufjcm;+yD; olwkd@aemufu vkduf om;twG,cf &H wJh ae&mudo k mG ;Muwm/ xJ a&mufvnf;a&muf &ifabmifwef; Zmenf? 'gayr,fholu ausmif;om;acgif;
oGm;w,f? ae&m,l+yD; wef;ypfykH&w,fAs? aoewf aqmifvnf;r[kwfbl;As? tJ'Dumvu
usaemf a &muf w J h t csd e f r S m vuf a&m rsuf&nf,kdAkH;a&mygykHyJ? usawmhb0 bmtpktzJ@G vyk cf iG &hf v Sd @dkausmif;om;or*~awG
zuf&nfqkdifudk cJawGeJ@ypfae=u+yD? us rSm yxrqkH; rsuf&nf,dkAkH;t&om cHzl; ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmif awG &d&S rSmvJAsm?
awmfvnf; 0ifypfwmayghAsm? vufzuf yxrae@n ausmif;om;wa,muf vdkufw,fayghAsm? rsufvkH;awG t&rf;usdef; olvnf; olvkdudk,fvkd omrefausmif;om;
&nfqkdifwHcg;ydwfxm;wmudk ajcaxmufe@J t&kdufcHvkduf&wmudk udk,fhausmif;om; pyf+yD; rsuf&nfawG 'va[musvmwm? wa,mufyJ?
awmif 0 if u ef v k d u f a o;wm rS w f r d y gh ?
awG wa,mufajymwa,mufeJ@ awmf awmfawmftcH&cufw,f? tJ'DuaerS wkdufyGJvkdtyfcsuft&
ausmif;om;awGu jzpfwhJae&m &yf uGuf awmfodae=uw,f? b,folawGp=urvJ tif; … udkbkef;armfudkawmh rdef; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmiftmZmenf Adkvf
xJudk t&ifqif;vkdufoGm;=uwmAs? tm om ol@=unfhudk,fh=unfh =unfhae=uwm? ausmif ; aqmif } uD ; atmuf u umwG e f ; bkef;armftjzpf pHjyKwkdufyJGquf=u&wm?
tkdifwDausmif;0if;xJuae &yfuGufzufudk aemufudk,fheD;pyf&m ausmif;om;tkyfpk abmufpfem; ckHwef;av;wckay:rSm yuf ol@aoG; ol@tavmif;udk pHjyK+yD; wkdufyGaJ wG
qif;oGm;=uw,fayghAsm? usaemfa&muf av;awGpkrd+yD; udk,fhausmif;om;twG,fcH vufuav;vJaewmawG@w,f? teD;uyf qufcJh=u&wm? tJ'DvkdtajctaersKd;[m
oGm;awmh ud[ k if;vrf;xJa&mufae+yD? tJ'D &wJh ae&mudkoGm;=uwm? =unfhrdw,f? AkdufrSmaoewfxdwm;wm orkdif;rSm xl;jcm;csufvnf; jzpfw,f? vkd
rSm yxrae@u ausmif;om;ukd &ku d v f u
dk w
f hJtJ'Duawmh yxrae@u &kdufvkduf aoG;awGe@J Asm ol@Ew k cf rf;awG jymESr;f aewm tyfcsufvnf; jzpfw,fAs?
vludk xkwfay;zkd@ a&S@uausmif;om;awGu wJhaumifudk xkwfay;zkdhajym=uwmyJ? yJ ? aemuf usawmh f o l i ,f c sif ; aemuf ■

ajymae=uw,f? &yfuu G uf vnf; rD;arSmif


csxm;w,f? aemufr=umygbl;? ausmif;

or*¾tkwfwdkhNydKav&m 'Drdkua&pDtkwfwdkhjzifh
om;wa,mufudk rD;arSmifx=u "m;eJ@
xGufckwfvkdufwmyJ? tJ'DuaerS ausmif;
om;awGu &yfuGufxu J ae ausmif;r}uD;
&dS&mzufudk jyefqkwfvm=uwm? &yfuGuf
xJuvlawGuvnf; wkwf"m;awGudkif+yD;
vkdufvmwmrSwfrdw,f?
usaemfwkd@u ausmif;0if;xJu jyefcH
tpm;xdk;wnfaqmuf&rnf
=uw,f?
4 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)
awmufæ tcsdefr[kwftcgr[kwfrS =urf;aewJh arSmif}uD;xJomG ;rvk@d vm;? uef uae q,fESpfom;txd uav;wodkuf olwdk@ESpfa,muf uawmh tvkt,uf cl;
xxazmufvmjyef+yD;? pGef;yifawGuxGufrajy;ygbl;? reufrScl; ukd vufqGJ+yD; usraewJh tdrfay: a&muf ae=uwJhtwdkif;yJ?
ajAmif;qefatmif ar$aESmuf&Smxm; ayghh’ vmwmu olwdk@ESpfa,mufav? ‘a[h æ a¹rawG b mawG a wG @ r,f a emf ?
wJh "mwfyHkawGukdypfcs+yD; pdwfwdkwdkeJ@ x&yf aumifrav;wa,mufu oufjyif; ckdufcdkufwkefatmif csrf;aewJh u owdxm;=uOD;’
vkduf&w,f? pdwfuvnf; wkdomwdkae& cdk;cs+yD; usrrsufESmukd r&Jw&J=unhfw,f? av;aygufpeeJ@ rdef;uav;awGukd rD;zdk ajymom ajym&wm? b,fvkdvkyf
w,f? b,fol@OD;wnf+yD; wdk&rSef;awmif r +yD ; awmh r S ‘usrwd k @ o&J a =umuf v k d @ ES p f ay;&if; 'Dbpk ck ±kwodu k [f m rde;f uav;ESpf owdxm;vk@d &rSmvJ? arSmif}uD;xJ a¹rawG@
ajymwwfawmhbl;? vufurf;pmapmif a,mufwnf; roGm;&Jvdk@tr’wJh? a,muf&J@armif/nDreJ@wlav;awGqdkwm vnf; tuku d cf ±H &kH adS wmhwm? olw@kd uawmh
vkyfzdk@ jrefrmjynfeJ@ ywfoufwJh "mwfyHk tif ; av reuf a pmapm oG m ;cl ; odvm&wm? rdom;pkvdkuf jrefrmjynfxJ ±GH@xJuae wZyfZyf cl;vkduf? vufxJrSm
awG&Sm/ pmom;awG a&;ay;ygvkd@ ajymvm vnf; &om;yJ? rdk;&Gm}uD;xJ tat;rdrSmpdk; uae xdkif;e,fpyfukdjzwf+yD; tvkyfvm t±GufawG ykdufrdwmrsm;vm&if jrufyif
wJh taygi;f toif;awGuydk J wd&k rvm;? 'gqkd vdk@ajymwmyg? ‘ckr&&if rjzpfvkd@vm;’ vkyf=uwmwJh? wa,mufw±GmpDu vm awGay: yHx k m;vku d ef @J acgi;f ukrd azmfEikd bf ;l ?
vnf; olwdk@eJ@ tvGwf}uD;&,f? 'DyHkawG ‘r jzpfbl; tr/ ta&;}uD;vkd@yg’ =u+yD; 'DrSmb0wl oli,fcsif;awGjzpfoGm; apmapmu olw@kd a=umufw,fqw kd ohJ &Judk
jrif&ifrcHEikd af tmif vGr;f wwfveG ;f wJh uk, d hf tm;wH@k tm;emtoHe@J ajzawmh usr =uwJh olwdk@ESpfa,mufom;u tJ'Dnu ckae uefpGef;±GufaZmeJ@ owdawmifr&
pdwfukdyJ wdk&awmhrSmaygh? bmrSqufar;raebJ olwdk@eJ@ vdkufzdk@jyif p+yD; usreJ@ i,faygif;}uD;azmfawGvkd cif awmhbl; xifw,f?
a&S @ rS m jyef @ usJ a ewJ h "mwf y H k a wG vkdufw,f? reufapmapm aps;xGufa&mif; oGm;=uw,f? aps;a&mif;vkduf/yef&Hvkduf cl;+yD;om;awGukd olwdk@ tqifoifh
=um;xJrSmawmh yg;uGufusm;eJ@uav;u zd@k tcsed rf D cl;csiw
f ,fxifyg&@J ? reufrS cl;&if vkdufeJ@ rdbeJ@ 'dk;wlaygifzuf±kef;&if; rdom; ,lvmwJhav#mfóu;eJ husrulpnf;ay;w,f?
bk&m;apmif;wef;u jcaoFh±kyf}uD;em;rSm wjcm;vlawGOD;oGm;+yD; rsm;rsm;pm;pm; r pkwðyH}uD;uk&d mS au|;aewJh olw@kd ESpaf ,muf usifhom;&aeawmh cl;wmujrefvkduf=u
[uf [ uf y uf y uf & ,f v k d @ ? oyd w f y k d u f userf mS pd;k vk@d vm;? ±G@H AGu=f um;u cl;vmwJh ukd usr oabmusovkd olw@kd uvnf; ol wm?em&D0ufr=umao;bl; {&mruefpGef;
vmwJh udk&ifaygufpeav;u qGrf;avmif; uefpeG ;f ±Guaf wGukd a&aq;&/ vSvyS y pnf; wd@k xuf pmawG trsm;}uD; yko d ifz;l w,fqkd yHk}uD;ESpfyHk jzpfvm+yD? 'DawmhrS olwdk@vnf;
wJhtr,f}uD;ukd ol&J@cspfp&m yg;azmif; &eJ@ aps;aemufusrSm pdk;vkd@ nuwnf;u +yD; usrukd pGwf±Gwf txif}uD;vkd@? uav; ±$H@xJu wufw,f?
azmif; rsufvHk;awmufawmuf rsufESm apmapm cl;csiw f mvm; rajymwwfb;l ? t awGaeraumif;&if bmaq;wdkuf&r,fu ‘jrefjref jyef&atmif? [kdrSmqmvkd@
av;eJ@=unfhaew,f? reuft±k%fwufrSm a&;}uD ; w,f q d k a wmh v nf ; vk d u f a y;& tp/tdyfrufraumif;&if b,fvkd ,=wm tlvdyfae=uvdrfhr,f’
aps;Aef; acgif;ay:&Guf+yD; xGufvm=uwJh awmhrSmaygh? acsoifhw,ftqHk; usrukd avmu}uD; rdk;±GmxJrSm wa,mufeJ@wa,muf
awmolr}uD;awG/ wa0ga0gajy;vmwJh {&m ta=umif; pG,fpHkem;vnfwJh ynm&Sd =um;atmif atmfajymaewJph um;ukd =um;
0wD v_dif;vHk;awGay:rSm vl;aewJh wHigavS }uD; wa,mufvkd vmvmar;aevkd@ vkduf&vkd@ usr rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;w,f? ol
uav;/ EGm;ESpfaumifeJ@ v,fxGefaewJh idktm;xuf &,ftm;oef&w,f? wdk@ n}uD;rif;}uD; uefpGef;±Guf ajy;cl;&wJh
tbdk;tdk/ "mwfyHkawGu qif;&JEGrf;yg;jcif; uefpGef;yifawG a&pyfrSm ayguf ta=umif;&if;ukd &dyfrdvkdufvkd@?
awG=um;u vSjzpfatmifvSaewJh EdkifiH aewJh tdkif}uD;em; usrwdk@ oHk; ‘bmvJ?tdrfrSm csufp&m [if;r&Sd
wckta=umif;ajymjyaew,f? a,mufa&muf oGm;awmh rdk;u wmvm;’
{&m0wDjrpf&J@ a&pD;oHawG&,f/ pyg; onf;}uD;rnf;}uD; xefwkef;yJ? aumifrav; ESpfa,mufvHk;u bm
cif;awG=um;xJ jzwfomG ;&if ±SL&wwfwhJ ±d;k v#yfpD;awG vufceJ vufceJ 0if; rS jyefrajymbJ &,fae=uw,f? c%ae
jywfeH@&,fukdowd&+yD; oufjyif;csvkduf& oGm;wdkif; uefpGef;&Guf pdrf;pdrf; awmhrSæ
w,f? jrefrmjynf&J@ taiG@touf&wdkif; awGukd xif;ceJ awG@ae&w,f? ‘npm [if;r&Sdwmu usrwdk@ ESpf
vGrf;wJh '%frcHEdkifayr,fh 'DyHkawGjrif&if r a,mufxJ r[kwfbl;tr? wJpk wpkvHk;
=unhfbJa&m b,fvkdvkyfaeEdkifrSmvJ? 'Dw eD;yg;yJ’
oufrmS b,faomtcgrS jyefeif;&r,f rod ‘t,fæb,fvkdawG jzpf=uwmvJ’
wJh cspfwJhajr? ‘naeu wJpkukd xdkif;&J 0ifzrf;w,f
b,fvkdrS tvkyfqufvkyfvkd@ r& av? tr jyefra&mufao;awmh b,f
awmhwmeJ@ "mwfyHkawG ypfcsxm;cJh+yD; [kd; odvkdufrvJ? w&m;r0ifcdk;0ifvmwJh
ta0; jrefrmjynfbufqD tvGrf;ajy=unhf vlawG +yD; t±G,fa&mufwJh vl}uD;rSef
zdk@ 0&efwmbuf xxGufvmvdkuf&w,f? rdef;cav;wa,mufu or# zrf;ac: oGm;r,fvkyfvkd@ usrwdk@
'Dvdk rdk;onf;aewJh nrsdK;rSm jrefrmjynf ol@vufxJ qkyfvmwJh yvyf renf;awmif;yef+yD; &So d r#yu dk q f H 0dik ;f pk
b,fvdkrsm; &SdaevdrfhrvJ? pwpf rdk;umpkwfav;ukd usr ay;vdkuf&w,f’
rD;r&SdwJh &Gmav;awGrSmawmh buf 0wfzdk@ w±dkwaovSrf;ay;ae wJtdrfuav; ckESpftdrf &Spftdrf¹ywf
x&D rD;acsmif;xGef;EdkifwJh tdrftenf; t vd@k jiif; vku d &f w,f? usrukd odyfpkxm;wJh olwdk@ 0dkif;uav;rSm
usOf;uvGJ&if w±GmvHk; apmapmtdyf ukef OD ; pm;ay;wm rS e f a yr,f h rd k ; vif ; &if t±G , f a &muf w J h
a&mayg?h reufr;kd rvif;cif v,fxJ qif;&OD; b,f a umif ; rvJ ? ol w d k @ a,musmf ; rde;f r rSeo f r# aps;a&mif;
rSmqdkawmh v#yfpD;w*sdrf;*sdrf;/ rdk;óu;oHawG ESpfa,mufu rdk;xJa&xJ xG u f / &&m tvk y f = urf ; vk y f z d k @
w+cdr;f +cdr;f eJ@ rd;k onf;}uD; rnf;}uD; &GmaewJh 'Dtwdkif;? usru rdk;um xGuf=uwm? naeapmif;rS wae@
njrifuGif;ukdawmif *±kpdkufEdkifawmhrSm r eJ@oGm;vkd@? pm 0ifaiGav;qkyf+yD; tdrfjyefvm
[kwfbl;? &efukefòr@u yvufazmif;aps; ‘wa,mufa,muf r,f ? ol w d k @ wJ p k a v;eJ @ rvS r f ;
onfawGuawmh‘'Dr;kd eJ@ xrif;iwfawmhrmS 0wfvdkuf? 'grSr[kwf ol rurf;utdrfqdkifrSm [if; csufp&m
yJumG ’vk@d nnf;&if; reufr;kd vif;&if rd;k quf 0wfu, dk 0f wfe@J tm;em;ae av;0,f+yD; npmcsuf=ur,f? ol
r±GmygapeJ@ qkawmif;aerSmyJ? vufvkyf rS m pk d ; vJ x m;ypf c J h ? vmæ wdk@ ckawmh &Jzrf;rcH&atmif ygvm
vufpm; &yfuGuf u tdrf&SifrawGvnf; oGm;&atmif’ or# wae@aiGtjyif tdrfrSm usefor#
tdrrf ;kd zd@k yku
d q
f H b,fursm;&SmrvJawG;&if; a&ajrjcm;ukd ra=umufr±GH@ ydkufqHav;awGyg tukefpk+yD;ay;vdkuf&
acgi;f ajcmufaervm;? vm+yD; rdom;pkawGudk &Smau|;ae w,fqdkwm qufrajymbJ usr odvkduf
ayr,fh o&Jawmh a=umufwwf yg+yD?
❏ ❏ ❏ wJh owWdcJESpfa,mufu usr ‘udpPr&Sdbl; tr pdwfraumif; rjzpf
aemufu vkdufvm=uw,f? 'D eJ@? tdrfwdkif;aph &Sdor# qefawGpkvkdufwm
‘tr/ uefpGef;&Guf oGm;csdK;&atmif’ wJpkuav;u rdef;uav;awG 'Dae@npma&m aemufae@ xrif;csuzf @kd a&m
rdk;oHawG=um;xJ usraemufzufu eJ@ usr cifoGm;wm odyf r=um aumif;aumif; avmufao;w,f? [if;u
toH ðAef;ceJ xGuv f mvd@k vSn=hf unfvh u
dk f ao;bl;? rSwfrSwf&& avjyif; teD;tem;u toD;±Guf cl;csufvkduf±kHyJ’
awmh [kd;taemufzuf wzuf&yfwJpkxJ wdu k +f yD; olw@kd wJav;awG trd;k usr pdwfraumif;jzpfoGm;rSm pdk;vkd@
u ysHustvkyform;aumifrav;awG? awGvef òyysufukefwJhnu eD; olwdk@u ysmysmovJ jyef&Sif;jyaewmukd
cdkufcdkufwkefatmifcsrf;aewJh olwdk@ vufz pyf & mjref r m td r f a wG x J =unhf+yD; ykdpdwfxdcdkuf&w,f? tifrwef
0g;awGudkyGwf&if; usrtajzukd tm;ukd; uav;awGayG@csDajy;vm+yD; rdk;
w}uD;apmifhaew,f?‘[mæ 'Davmufrdk; cd k = uw,f ? av;ig; ES p f o m;

rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 5


y'dkref;&SmusqkH;jcif; wvjynfhtcrf;tem;usif;y
'DAb
DG D 14-3-2008

vkyf}uHowfjzwfcHcJh&aom autef aompum;0dkif;jyKvkyfcJhonf? autef,l


,l u&iftrsKd ;om;tpnf;t±k;H taxGaxG wGJbuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; (1) apm
twGif;a&;rª;csKyf y'dkref;&Sm. wvjynfh a';Apfomhuabmu “usaemfwkd@u y'dk
qGrf;uyfyGJudk rwfv (14) &ufae@ eHeuf ref;&Sm&J@b0/ ol@vkyfief;pOf/ ol@&J@vkyf
(10;00) wGif xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyf wae&m aqmifcsufawG/ ol@&J@wkdufyGJawGukd jyef atmif ol@&J@pdwf"mwf/ ol@&J@oabmxm;/ y'dkref;&Smonf vGefcJhaom azazmf0g
Yusif;ycJhonf? xdktcrf;tem;udk r[m vnf+yD;awmh okH;oyfw,f? tJ'gawGukd awmfveS af &;oabmxm;/ vrf;pOf/ vkyif ef; &D 14 &ufY trnfrodaoewform; 2
rdwftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS wufa&mufcJh=uI jyef+yD;awmhaqG;aEG;w,f? “y'dkref;&Sm[m pOfawGuawmh &Sio f ef+rJv@dk usaemfajymvkd OD;. vkyf=uHowfjzwfcHjcif;cHcJh&ygonf?
qGr;f uyfyt
JG +yD;wGif y'drk ef;&SmESihf ywfouf &efol@vufcsufeJ@usqkH;oGm;w,f? okd@wkdif ygw,f?” ■

jr0wD - rJaqmuf w&m;r0if*dwfrsm; xdkif;awmifydkif;wGif jrefrmig;zrf;


ydwfvdkufojzifh ukefpnfpD;qif;rI&yfwefhoGm; tvkyform;rsm; zrf;qD;cH&

jrefrmjynfodk@ wifoGif;rnfh armfawmfum; ,mOfwef; rsm; cspf=unfa&;wHwm;teD; &yfem;xm;pOf

tvSefypfcwfr_rsm;ESifh qufpyfr_jzpfEdkif
acwf+ydKif/ rwf 6 2008
onf[k a'ocHrsm;u ,lq=uonf? xdkif;EdkifiHawmifydkif; usHKazmf+rdK@e,f xdik ;f ppfwyfEiS hf &Jw@kd . a&Smifwcif0if
,ae@eHeufu pwifI rJaqmuf-jr cspf=unfa&;wHwm;atmuf&Sd a& yem;qdyfurf;wGif jrefrmig;zrf;tvkyfo a&mufzrf;qD;r_wGif yef;&eftvkyfvkyfae
0wD cspf=unfa&;wHwm;0J,m&Sd w&m;r v,fuGsef;wGif aexdkif=uonfh jrefrm 'k rm;wdk@. rdom;pkrsm;aexdkif&maetdrfrsm; oltvkyform;wOD; vkyfief;cGifrSjyKwfus
0if cdk;*dwfrsm;ukdESpfEdkifiHtm%mydkifrsm;u p±du
k *f %kd ;f wcktm; xdik ;f tm%mykid rf sm;u okd@ xdkif;&JESifhppfwyfwdk@u0ifa&mufpD;eif; I OD;acgif;Y'%f&m&&SdoGm;ojzifhyem;aq;
ydwv f u
kd o
f jzifuh ek pf nfp;D qif;r_&yfwef@omG ; ,ae@eHeufwGif0ifa&mufzrf;qD;&m jrefrm umtvkyo f rm;rsm;udzk rf;qD;oGm;a=umif; ±HYk aq;ukor_caH e&+yD; tzrf;cH&ol trsm;
a=umif; xdkif;ukefonfwOD;u ajymonf? 'kp±dkuform;tzG@J rS twdkESifhoef;Edkifwdk@ ESpf a'ocHjrefrmtvkyo f rm;rsm;uajymonf? pkrSm trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfojzifh uav;i,f
csp=f unfa&;wHwm;wckom zGix hf m; OD;tm;zrf;qD;&rdcJhonf? ‚wdk@.vuf ,ref a e@naewG i f tvk y f o rm; rsm;rS m tcuf a wG @ ae&onf [ k jref r m
+yD; jrefrm-xdkif;ukefonfrsm; t"duukef ypfAHk;ESifh aoewfrsm;ukd xkdif;tm%mydkif vufrSwf&SdolESifh r&Sdol (100) ausmfwdk@udk tvkyform;wOD;u ajymonf? ‚u
pnf wifydk@onfh w&m;r0if *dwfrsm;ydwf rsm;u azmufcGJzsufqD;cJhonf? a&v,f odr;f usK;H zrf;qD;oGm;jcif;jzpfonf[k a'ocH “tcktcsdefu tukefvHk; avSxGufaewJh
xm;aoma=umifh ukefpnfpD;qif;r_vHk;0eD; uGsef;wGif tajcpdkuf+yD; tqdkyg*dk%f;onf &cdkiftvkyform;wOD;u ajymonf? tcsdef/ tvkyform;awGu tukefvHk; yif
yg;&yfwef@omG ;onf[k tqdyk guek o f nf u rl;,pfaq;0g;a&mif;0,fr_ jyKvkyf=u+yD; vk ‚u “um;av;ig;pD;eJ@ 0ifzrf;wm? v,fawGrSm/ tzrf;cH&wJhvlawGu rdef;r
ajymonf? ,ufcdk;qdk;"m;jywkdufr_rsm; usL;vGef=uol vmwmu a'ocH&JawGygw,f? ajymuf awGeJ@uav;awGrsm;w,f? rae@uqdku
jrefrmEdkifiHodk@ydk@rnfh ukefyPnf;rsm; rsm;jzpfonf[k xkdif;tm%mydkifrsm;u usm;uGefref'dk0wfpHkeJ@ppfom;awGygw,f? av;arG;wm (4) vavmufyJ &Sdao;w,f?
wifxm;onfh um;rsm;ESifh ukefpnfrsm; ajymonf? tdrcf ef;awGu0kd ifzrf;wm txJrmS vl&v dS m;/ tarygoGm;vkd@ uav;udk ol@i,fcsif;w
xdkif;bufurf;&Sd avSqdyfrsm;wGifpkyHkvsuf tqdyk g jrefrm (2) OD;tm; rJaqmuf&dS *sucf sxm;vm; qG=J unfw h ,f *sux f ;kd xm; a,mufuoGm;,l+yD; Ed@k wu dk af e&w,f” [k
&Sd+yD; jrefrmEdkifiHodk@cdk;*dwfrSwifydk@rnfh armf xdkif;ppfwyfY xdef;odrf;xm;+yD; ‚wdk@ESpf +yDqdkwmeJ@ wHcg;udkxkcGJw,f? bwf&Sd &Sd/ ajymonf?
awmfum;rsm; wifaqmifvmonfh ,mOf OD;tm; jrefrmbufodk@ jyefvnfvGJajymif; r&Sd&Sd tukefvHk;udkzrf;w,fAs” [kajym xdik ;f Edik if aH wmifyikd ;f usKH azmfa'owGif
wef;rSmcspf=unfa&;wHwm;teD;wGif *dwf ay;&ef jr0wDc±dkifOuUX OD;atmifaqG!Gef@ onf? tzrf;cH&olrsm;udk yem;tcsKyfESifh jrefrmEdkifiHrS xm;0,f/ &ckdif/ rGefESifh Arm
ydwfaoma=umifh &yfxm;&onf? u zkef;jzifhqufoG,fvmaomfvnf; jref bkef;}uD;ausmif;wGif ,refae@nu zrf; vlrsKd;rsm; vma&mufaexdkif=u+yD; trsKd;
,ckuhJodk@ *dwfrsm;ydwf&jcif;rSm +yD;cJh rmbufodk@ jyefvnf vGJajymif;ay;rnf qD;xm;+yD; tvkyform; vufrSwf&Sdol om;trsm;pku ig;zrf;avSvdkuf+yD; trsKd;
onfh wevFmae@nu wHwm;atmufa& r[kwfbJ rl;,pfaq;0g;r_/ w&m;r0if vuf rsm;udk jyefv$wfay;cJhum vufrSwfr&Sdol orD;trsm;pku ig;a±G;jcif;tvkyEf iS hf ig;puf
v,fuíef;wGif aexdkif=uonfh jrefrm'kp eufuikd af qmifrr_ sm;jzifh w&m;pGq
J o kd mG ;rnf (70) ausmfwdk@udk usHKazmf+rdK@tcsKyfodk@ ±HHkrsm;wGif 0ifa&mufvkyfudkif=uonf ■
±dkuf*dk%f;tzGJ@ESifhxdkif;vlrsKd;tcsKd@ tjyef [k xdkif;&Ju ajymonf ■ ,ae@eHeufwGif ydk@aqmifvdkufonf?
6 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)
(1) ajrmufe,fajra&mufvmol pmayorm; awmh? 0dnmOfu tm;wif;+y;D aumif;uifukd atmif tudu k awmh rif;wd@k &@J r*Fvm{nfch H
nwk e f ; u vomaew,f ? awmf awGxrJ mS tudt k }uD;qH;k qdak wmh tud}k uD; qwfceJarmh=unfhvdkufonf? rsuf&nfxJ yGJudk 'DnaerSmawmh usif;ycGifh ray;Edkif
vSeaf &;vkyw
f ,fqw kd m va&mifatmufrmS tzt&m r*F v m{nf h c H y G J r S m Poetry rS m iS u f u av;waumif rJ a qmuf + rd K @ awmhb;l ? 'g igq h ;kH jzwfcsuyf ?J aoG;tdik x f rJ mS
uAsmpyf a ewmr[k w f b l ; ? For the performance wckjzifh wifquf*% k jf yK&ef aumif;uif,HrSm wdrfawGe@J qef@usif+yD; ysH yuf v uf v J a e&S m r,f h q&my'd k r ef ; &S m
people the prime need is not pDpOfxm;.? usaemfwdk@wywfq,f&uf oef;aewm jrif&onf? wdrfawGu avpkef twGuf ig rsuf&nfusyg&ap? q&mhudk
additional flowers in the borcade but ru }udKwifjyifqifvmcJh&onf? usaeu rSmyJ ar#mvdkufwwf=uw,f? ief;&dkif;awG owf o G m ;wJ h ppf t m%m&S i f t k y f p k e J @
fuel in the snowy weather wJh? Zmyef; vSae.? aea&mifatmufY tcspfpdwfawG uawmh avqefudkjzwf+yD; tdyfwef;udk &Sm taygif;ygawGudk cHjyif;em=unf;wJh pdwfeJ@
uGufxrJ Sm yef;qufxdk;csifolawG ae&pfchJ awmufyae.? a'gif;&ifjyifjrufcif;rSm =uw,fav? ol&Jaumif;qdkwm ief;&dkif; ig awmufacgufyg&ap? aomif&if;jrpf[m
=uawmh? ESi;f awmxJ csr;f cJaewJh olawGqD jrufzsmurBvmudk cif;usif;+yD;=u+yD? rdwf avqefyJaygh? avqefrSm jrm;wef;vef;eJ@ e*dkuwnf;u ajymif;jyefpD;wJhjrpfyg? a[m
ausmuf r D ; aoG ; yd k @ =u? usaemf h p d w f a wG &if;aqG&if;wcsK@d vnf; a&mufvmESi=hf u+yD? ysHoef;&JwJhiSufom reufjzeftwGufjzpf 'D aomif&if;jrpfurf;yg;rSm igwdk@uwdoPm
a,muf,ufcwfvGef;aeygw,f? Edkif0if; r*FvmvufzGJ@vufaqmifawGvnf; pm;yGJ w,f? usaemf csufcsif;qHk;jzwfcsufudk cs wdik w f nf=u&r,f? igw@kd [m tvGr;f awGukd
aqGa& … awG @ vm; awG @ vm; a&S @ rS m ay:awG @ ae&+yD ? usaemf u uAsmq&m vdu k of nf? ,ck usi;f ytHq h q
J J r*Fvm{nfh tiftm;tjzpf ajymif;vJypf&r,f? em
ausmufaqmif? aEGwna& … / cifa0a& armifvGrf;%DESifh pma&;q&mr at;rdjzL cHyGJudk &uftuef@towfr&dS a&$@qdkif;ypf usnf;r_awGudk cGeftm;tjzpf ajymif;vJEdkif
… / a&qefvrf;a& … q&my'dkref;&Sm wdk@tESpfESpfq,f w,kw, pdkufysKd;xm; vdu k &f rnf? usaemfq
h ;kH jzwfcsuu f kd teD;rSm &r,f? tJh'Dnaeu usaemf aygufuGaJ ecJhyg
uG,fvGefchJ&Sm+yD? b,fhES,f ikH;vdkrGjJ ymjymeJ@ aom opfcG+cHuav;xJrS tyGifhvSvS yef; &dSonfh &JabmfwcsKd@ESifh usaemfwdkifyifyg onf? r*Fvm owdk@om; owdk@orD; armif
udk,fhudk,fudk,f uAsmq&m ac:&J&wmvJ/ td;k awGukd wck+yD;wcko,fv@kd ud, k phf w
d u
f ;l onf? r*FvmarmifESH usaemfh nDi,f nDr ESHu awmfvSefa&;todpdwf&dSpGmjzifh olwdk@
'Dae@vdkaewmu oHvufoD;eJ@ urBm@OD; ESifhudk,f tvSaA' r#a0iSaeyg.? aemuf i,fawGtwGufawmh usaemfpdwfraumif; . ae@xl;ae@jruf ae@wae@udk =unfjzLpGm
acgif;cGHudk&dkufcGJypfzdk@yJ? va&mifu pnf;rJh qH k ; yef ; td k ; ud k a e&mcst+yD ; ppf o l } uD ; rjzpfyg? tb,fa=umifq h akd omf 'gxh ufru zsufodrf;ay;cJh=uygonf? wdkif;jynfESifh
urf;rJhudk omaevdkufwm? jzpfEdkif&if v wa,mufu olwufa&muf odrf;ydkuf& pdwrf aumif;jzpfp&mu ,ck vufiif; vwf vlrsKd;udk cspfItoufpGef@oGm;aom tm
romygeJ @ ? 'D w n/ aemuf w n/ n rnfh awmifukef;udk rrSdwfrokef =unfhaeyHk wavm ylylaEG;aEG;rSmy jzpfysufoGm;cJh+yD ZmenfwOD;tay: usaemfwdk@ toufudk
toacsF usaemfa=uuGaJ eyg&ap? va&mif rsK;d usaemf r*Fvmtcrf;tem;qD =unfrh 0 r[kwfvm;? q&my'dkref;&Sm vkyf=uHcH&vdk@ pG e f @ I cspf o G m ;=u&ygrnf ? xk d n u rJ
a& … q&my'drk ef;&Sm&J@ 0dnmOfawmf tay: aqmuf+rdK@}uD;w+rdK@vHk;onf wdwfqdwf
rSmum; uGJa=upGmv$rf;jcHKay;ygawmh? rJ ajcmufjcm;aecJhyg.? a'ge awmifwef;}uD;
aqmuf+rdK@aumif;uif,HrSm wdrfawGu onf +ydK+yD;ydusvmyg.? aomif&if;jrpfa&
vnf;vSaevdkufwm? udk,fhrSm yifv,fudk pD;oHonf rkefwdkif;xefaeawmhonf? 'Dn
vufeJ@zdae&w,f? We should stand u wnvHk; a'gif;&ifjyifrSm usaemfwdk@
on the shoulder of Paris commune - rtdyfpufEkdifcJh=uyg? aemufae@ reufrdk;
ra=umufwuf&if rJaqmuf[m aemuf vif;awmh usaemf uAsmwyk'fa&;onf?
xyf uGejf rL;wck jzpfvmap&r,f? jrpfonf armifvGrf;%D wyk'fa&;onf? q&m+idrf;a0
pkerf nfuv kd nf; a&tuJ=unfo h Ed ikd .
f ? jrpf wyk'fa&;onf? oHk;a,mufom; uAsmES
onf qefrnfuv kd nf; a&tuJ=unfh odEikd f vHk;om;ESifh “y'dkref;&Smodk@ tav;jyKjcif;”
.? odk@aomf jrpfonf pkefrnfr[kwf/ qef qdk+yD; vufurf;pmapmifuav; tm;csif;
rnfr[kw?f &$@H yyk af &mifpJG ae&m+rJI a&xJig; vkyu f m ta=uuGq J ;kH OD;!Gw*f %
k jf yKcJ=h uyg
awG aygavmaoonf/ a&tDonfukd jrifz;l onf?
.? a&a=umifh ig;ao.? ig &efoludk tpdrf;
vdkuf 0g;pm;ypfcsifw,f? wdkufyJG yHko¾mef (3)
qdkwm udk,fu a&G;cs,f&wmr[kwfbl;? usaemfwdk@wdkif;jynfrSm ol&Jaumif;
uk,d &hf efou l a&G;cs,af y;wmyJ? The forn wdk@ wdkif;jynfjzpfygonf? odk@aomf xdk wkdif;
of struggle is not chosel by the ruled ±_rqHk; jzpfaeonfh tcsdef? 0kef;'dkif;qdk+yD; aEG usq;kH oGm;&wJh naecif;rSm igw@kd u r*Fvm jynfudk tacsmiform;awGu rw&m;odrf;
but by the ruler wJh? va&mifatmufrSm v,facgif rdk;}udK;ypfcHvdkuf&onfhES,f us aw;csif;awG oDqdkaer,fqdk&if igwdk@[m yd k u f x m;=uygonf ? xd k w d k i f ; jynf r S m
nu ndK@jraew,f? 'Dnudk ig qGqJ kwfypf aemfOh ;D acgi;f wckv;kH onf td;k xde;f pufuo hJ @kd tmZmenf w OD ; ud k vspf v sL±_ & m/ ol & J va&mif a wG u aoG ; pG e f ; aeawmh o nf ?
csifw,f? va&mifudkvnf; igrkef;w,f? csmcsmvnfI oGuo f u G cf g vGixhf uG o
f mG ;yg aumif;wOD;&J@ udk,fusKd;pGef@rSKudk rsufuG,f q&marmifpGrf;&nfu “AdkvfcsLyfatmif
rormolawG&J@ vlowf0g'udk ig trkef; awmhonf? “q&my'dkref;&Sm trnfrod jyK&m/ jynfol@vGwfajrmufa&; 'Drdkua&pD qef;/ vkyf}uHcef;rS/ ref;&Smvm;zef;/ vkyf=uH
qHk;yJ? [kwfw,f? etzeJ@ etzvufyg;ap aoewform;ESpfa,muf teD;uyfvkyf=uH awmfveS af &;udak pmfum;&m usaeawmhrmS cef;xd/ aoG;vrf;}uD;onf/ c&D;&SnfchJ” vdk@
wefjyefawmfvSefa&;orm;awGudk igtrkef; vd@k yGcJ si;f +yD; uG,vf eG o
f mG ;+yD”/ “autJe, f l aygh nDav;? pdwfraumif;rjzpfe@J aemf nDr uAsma&;+yD; vGrf;qGwf*k%fjyKonf? r+yD;
qHk;yJ? taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; y'dkref;&Smvm;zef; av;? 'g[m toufpGef@oGm;wJh jynfol@ qHk;Edkifao;aom aoG;vrf;c&D;udk +yD;qHk;&yf
ol@trd rf mS vky}f uHc&H vd@k q;kH oGm;+yD” ? nae acgif;aqmifwOD;twGuf igwdk@bufu jyef qdkif;oGm;atmif usaemfwdk@vkyf=u&rnf?
(2) nae aoG;awG aoG;awG? a'gif;&ifjyifrSm ay;qyfEdkifwJh rjzpfpavmuf pGef@v$wfr_ xkdnu vomaeonf? a&'D,dkuav;xJ
xdkae@u usaemfhpdwfawG aqmuf vlawGtm;vHk; rSifwufrd 0\kef;okef;um; uav;yguGm? 'gudk rodusKd;uíefjyKr,f u uAsm&GwfoH xGufay:vm.? aomif
wnf&mrJh arsmvGifhaecJhonf? naecif; jzpfukef=uonf? armifvGrf;%D a=uuGJ qd&k if igw@kd avmuf rdu k rf wJ vhJ l 'DumB ay:rSm &if;jrpfurf;yg;u q&my'dkref;&Sm psmyerSm
onf vS y ae.? usaea&mif a tmuf Y onf? atmf[pfonf? aygufuGo J nf? us &dSygOD;rvm;? urBmay:rSm va&mifawGu q&my'dkref;&Sm. t&dkuft&mudk qufcH
usaemf w d k @ onf r*F v m{nf h c H y G J tcrf ; aemf ua,mifuwrf;ESihf bmvky&f rSe;f rod awmh omaerSmyJ? va&mifatmufrmS aoG; onfh autJef,l taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;
tem;wckudk 0dkif;0ef; jyifqifae=uyg.? rJ awmh ? w,f v D z k e f ; awG u wc%csif ; pGe;f wJh nawGvnf; &drS mS yJ? nDav; +idr;f csr;f opf Adkvfrª;xl;xl;av;u q&mref;&Sm
aqmuf+rdK@u blrdeufoefa'gif;&if,HY wc%csif; 0ifvmaeonf? y'dkref;&Sm vkyf +idrf;eJ@nDrav; tif=uif;pHwdk@a& ... cspfol “a&qef” uavmif trnfjzifh a&;cJhonfh
usif;yrnfh ,ck r*Fvm{nfhcHyGrJ Sm pufwif =uHcH&vdk@whJ? q&mref;&Sm vkyf}uHcH&w,f rsm;ae@uAsma&;vd k @ tzrf ; cH v d k u f & wJ h “cspforD;odk@” uAsmudk qdk@eifha=uuGJpGm
bma&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;}uD;wGif etz wJh? rormol etzvufyg;apawG&@J vuf uAsmq&mapma0udk *k%fjyKwJhtaeeJ@ az &Gwq f akd eyg.? uAsm&Gwo f u H a'gi;f &ifjyif
ppfykvdyfrsm;vufrS xGufajy;vGwfajrmuf csufjzpfr,fwhJ? etz taumuf=uHr_yw J hJ? azmf0g&q D ,fah v; cspo f rl sm;ae@rmS rS r*Fvm rSmva&mifESifh yJhwifaeygonf?
vm=uonf h pme,f Z if ; orm;av; nae nae rsuf&nfawG rsuf&nfawG? {nfch yH JG usi;f ycsiw
f hJ rif;wd@k &@J &ifcek o
f aH wGukd “orD;a&
wa,mufESifh ol@cspfolrav;wdk@. vGwf armifvrG ;f %Du tcif;jzpfymG ;&m q&mref; &yfqdkif;apcJhwm[m tudkr[kwfygbl;? 'g apwemESifh tod
ajrmufe,fajrrSm usif;yrnfh r*Fvm{nfhcH &Smaetdrfudk atbDtufpf'Dtufzf &Jabmf b,fol@peufv?J 'g b,fol@vufcsufv?J owdESifh oDv
yG J j zpf o nf ? bD t rf a t-jref r mh o wif ; awGe@J csucf si;f vdu k o f mG ;onf? a'gi;f &ifjyif q&m y'drk ef;&Smvdk tzdEydS cf w H ikd ;f &if;om; vl 0D&d,ESifh ynm
or*~. tapmifah &SmufcH pme,fZif;orm; r*Fvm{nfhcHyGJtcrf;tem;tv,frSm us rsKd;aygif;pHk jynfolw&yfvHk;u =unfndK opPmESifh orm"d
wOD;. udpPjzpfojzifh vufeufudkifuAsm aemfwa,mufwnf; usef&pfcJhonf? us av;pm;wJh/ jynfwGif;u wdk@'Drdkua&pD tif owWdESifh pGef@v$wfrSK
q&m armifvGrf;%Dudk,fwdkifOD;pD;.? etz aemfhajcaxmufawG &yfae&mu a&$@vdk@r& tm;pkawGuvnf; tm;udk;wefzdk;xm;wJh t&if;jyKc&D;ESif
vufrS xGufajy;vmolwOD;jzpfonfh *&yf awmh? aumif;uifu+ydK+yD; usaemfhtay: vlxkacgif;aqmif wa,mufudk tckvdk *Eœ0if&ufjrwf
zpf'DZdkif;q&m oD[armifarmifu tcrf; wtdtd ydusvmonf? ajr}uD;u usaemfh ol&aJ bma=umifpmG eJ@vyk }f uHcw hJ hJ rormol &J&jJ zwfavmh orD;… ”
tem;jyif/ tifpawmfav;&Sif; (Install- udk taopkyf,lxm;onf? usaemf v_yfr& awG vufckyfvuf0g;wD; &,farmaeEdkif
pmrsuEf mS (10) od@k
ation) wckqif,if.? usaemfu vGwf
rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 7
rsufESmzkH;rStquf
rdwaf qGu ud, k ahf cgi;f aqmifra_ emufukd vdu k cf hJ
=uqdkwJh trdef@awmfrSwfwJhtwdkif; waoGrwdrf; us
aemfw@kd todu k v f nf; vdu k yf gc=hJ uygw,f? um;xd;k &yf
vdu k w f ahJ e&ma&mufawmh b,forl S acolawG r[kwf
=uyg? csuq f kd em;uGuu f rD;awmif ayguu f uGJ ek =f uyg
+yD? arS;pif;aewJh rsuv f ;kH awGvnf; jyL;us,v f m=uyg
w,f? a&mifpHk rD;vHk;awG csdwfxm;w,f/ qdkifa&S@rSm
rde;f uav;i,fi,facsmacsmawG puufawG abmif;bD
awG/ rdwu f yfa&mifpakH wGe@J xdik af ew,f/ eH&u H kd rS&D yfae
w,f? &Sif;ygw,f/ oabmaygufygw,faemfaygh? 'g
bm; bD,m?
xdkif;EdkifiHrSmu [dkw,feJ@ c&D;oGm;vma&; vkyf
ief;awGukd t"du pD;yGm;a&;axmufujl yKaewJh vkyif ef;
awGuawmh bm;awGe@J jynhw f efqmvkyif ef;vd@k yJ ajym&
ygvdrfhr,f? uBmvSnfhc&D;oGm; trsm;tjym;udkvnf;
tpJGaqmifEdkifqHk; vkyfief;}uD;wckvdk@ajym&r,f? bef
aumufu yufykef;/ pluGefbpf/ yW,m;urf;ajc tyg
t0if xdkif;wEdkifiHvHk;rSm 'DpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;u t}uD;
tus,fatmifjrifwJh &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ tpdkiftcJ
}uD;yg?
rJaqmuf tygt0if befaumuf/
&aemif;/ uefcseyl&D/ csif;rdki/f r,fqdkif pwJh
xdik ;f Edik if H weHwvsm;u jynfw h efqm vkyif ef;
eJ@ pD;yGm;&SmazGpm;aomufae=uwJh jrefrmjynf
zGm;rdef;uav;awG&J@ta=umif;u xdkif;EdkifiH
xkwo f wif;pmawGrmS / a&'D,kd toHvi$ o hf wif;
awGrSm/ aqmif;yg;awGrSm tu|rf;w0if aem
a=uaewJh qDonfrvufokwf owif;awGygyJ?
usaemfudk,fwdkifvnf; *sme,fwapmifudk wm0ef
,l vkyfae&wJholqdkawmh 'Dta=umif;t&meJ@ ywf
rdef;r&Sdom;eJ@ 'Dae&m
oufwJhowif;awGudk azmfjycJhwmawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? tvkyf±HkaqG;
awG bmvdk@ vmwmvJ
aEG;yJaG wGrmS vnf; yg0ifaqG;aEG; wufa&muf avhvmcJw h mawGvnf;
tpfudk&,f raumif;ygbl;
&Sdygw,f? 'gayr,fh udk,fukd,fwdkiftawG@t=uHKeJ@ owif;vdkufcJh
aemf?
wm/ a&;om;cJhwmawGawmh r&SdcJhygbl;? xdkif;EdkifiHxkwf (xdkif;
olrudkyJ av;pm;&avrvm;/
bmom/ t*Fvyd f bmom) owif;pmawGrmS qd&k if jynfh wefqm
vmrdwJh udk,fudk,fudk,fyJ tjypfwif
±Hu
k akd &mif;pm;cH&wJh jrefrmrde;f uav;awGta=umif;/ xdik ;f vkyf
aerdavovm; rajymwwfawmhyg?
ief;&Siu f xGurf ajy;atmif rdeu f av; ta,muf ESpq f ,f
0DpuDaomufwwfvm; bmaomuf
tpdwu f kd oH}uKd;eJ@wJcG swd +f yD; xde;f odr;f csKyfaESmifxm;wm
rvJ bD,mvm;/ rSmvdkufavæ
awG/ vkyfcray;bJ vdifu|eftjzpf tEdkifusifhcH&vdk@ ydkif
[kwæ f ceaemftpfukd tcsK&d nfe@J a&m+yD; 0DpuD
&Sio f al X;udo k wf+yD; ud, k u hf ,kd u f ,kd f owfaooGm;wJh
enf;enf;aomufr,f (olr tajy;uav;xGuf
owif;awG/ rl;,pfaq;0g;&J@om;aumifjzpf&wJh owif;
oGm;// jyefa&mufvm/ 0DpuDe@J tcsK&d nfukd u|r;f u|r;f
awG/ +rKd@vnfacgifrSm rk'def;usifh+yD; owfjzwfcH&wJh owif;awG/
usiu f sif a&m/ a&cJwwH;k ESpw
f ;kH xnf/h armh/ 0dik ;f u pnf
xdkif;trsKd;om;wa,mufeJ@ vG,fvifhwul tdrfaxmifus+yD; rSefvHk
um;ae+yD/ b,fol@pum; b,folem;axmif&rSef;rod?
cef;xJa&mufomG ;wJt h jzpfawG[m/ r±d;k ovdk rqef;=u,fwhJ owif;
olrudk aphaph=unfh+yD;/
eJ@Zmwfvrf;awGyg? ckawmh usaemfudk,fwdkif tJ'Db0xJu rdef;
qufqHr,fqdkygawmh b,fvdkvJ/ ntdyfrSm
uav;awG usifvnfusufpm;aewJhae&mudk a&mufaecJhyg+yD?
vm; 1200/ atmf / tcef;wuf 350/ ntdy&f if tjyif
taygi;f toif;qufqaH &;/ ud, k uf siw hf &m;/ *k%o f Q
d m/ 'kp±du
k f
[dwk ,faemftpfu/kd tcef;wuf&ifawmh usrtcef;&Sd
&eH@awG/ aoG;ºuapwJh *DwoHawG/ =urf;wrf;wJh ayG@zuferf;&_@H r_awG/ aumf
w,f/ 'Dtay:rSmyJ/ atmf? [dkw,fqdkawmh b,f
vHay:u E_wfcrf;eDawG/ tdyfcsftdkifAGD/ attdkif'Dtufpf a&m*gqdk;}uD;/ vdif
[dwk ,fv/J trsm;}uD;&Syd gw,f tpfukd &,f/ tJ'g
ynmay;/ rdom;pkoPm/ ponfh tawG;r#ifrsm;// ,rumuvnf; 0ifxm;/
u orD;wdk@udPæ
tawG;u csmcsmvnf/ &Ruf pdk;rdk;/ usaemf ±kwfw&uf tawG;wck 0ifvm?
wn wn b,favmufavmuf&vJ/ {nfh
pdwv f u kd rf mefygEiS hf todw&m;rsm;? xdt k m;+yKdirf r_ sm;=um; usaemfu h ,
kd uf saemf
onfay:rlwnfwmayghtpfudk/ ceaemftpfudk [dkbufu0dkif;
xdef;csKyf&if; b0tydkif;tpwcsKd@udk ,rumeJ@jrnf;zdk@ trSwf&vdkufw,f?
udk oGm;xdkifay;&OD;r,f? ceav;yJ? 5 rdepfavmufaeawmh jyefa&muf
ae&m,l/ toifhjyif/ zefcGufudk udkifq/ usaemfhab;rSmvmxdkifwJh rdef;
vmw,f/ usaemfhykcHk;ay:udk rSDvSJcsvdkufw,f?
uav;udk tuJcwf/ olr&J@udk,foif;eH@udk ±SL±d_uf=unfh/ olrtjyHK;u
{nfoh nfawG ta=umif;ajymygO;D / Oyrm ArmeJ@/ xdik ;f ayg/h Edik if jH cm;om;
pJGrufp&m raumif;ayr,fh oabmaumif;ygw,f tpfudk qdkwJh
awGa&m vmwwfvm;?
tcif;tusif;? tif; 'g olrwdk@&J@ a&mr+rKd@}uD;av?
tpHkygyJ/ ajym&OD;r,f wcgwkef;u tar&duefqdkvm;yJ/ rkef@bdk;
usaemfuawmh a&mra&mufjim; a&mrom;vdkusifhzdk@xuf
tqpfay;w,f/ a':vmw&Gufaygh/ orD;rSa':vm rjrifbl;wm ArmaiG
&EdkifwJh tjyma&mifnaA'udk csOf;uyfaerdw,f?
b,favmuf&vJqakd wmh vufnK‡ ;d wacsmif;axmifjyw,f/ waxmif
'Da&mufwm =um+yDvm;/
xifwmayg/h aemufae@oal X;rudjk y=unfah wmh eif[ h mu tpdwyf w J ef
[kwf oHk;v ( olnmrSef;odygw,f) 'D±kyf 'Dtajymu ±dk;pif;
w,f wJh/ [D; [D;æ/
vGef;w,f? xm;awmh/?
tif; ajymygOD;/ (usaemfh t&ufcGufudk,lI t&ufjznfh/
tpfudku 'DrSmyJaevm;/
aqmf'gxnfh/ a&cJxnfhay;&if;)
{nfhonfyg/
ud, k Ahf rmtcsicf si;f vnf; raumif;ygb;l tpfu&kd m/ [d[ k m
rdef;r&Sdvm;/
vkyfcdkif; 'D[mvkyfcdkif;/ rvkyfbl;vdk@jiif;awmh yg;±dkufw,f/ +yD;
&Sdw,f/ om;av;wa,muf&Sdw,f/
8 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)
tqdkawmf pdkif;xD;qdkif
awmh oluyJ olaX;rudkwdkifao;w,f? orD;u rdkuf±dkif;w,faygh? rdkuf±dkif;wmu ol/ 'geJ@yJ
tJ'Dnu olaX;ru vkyfcvnf;jzwfw,f? wywftvkyfrqif;eJ@vdk@ '%f±dkufw,faygh?
xdkif;awGrSmvnf; vlqdk;vlaumif;&SdwmyJ? 'DavmurSm aumif;wmrGefwmqdkvdk@ tdyf,m
ay:rSm Zmwfvrf+yD;wJhtcsdefyJ&Sdr,f?

yg?
'Dvdktpfudk&,f/ Zmwfvrf;+yD;w,fqdkwm i&Jcef;u vGwfu|wfoGm;+yDvdk@ ajymwm

aeawmhaum/ orD;wdk@udk tay: 3 xyfrSm tcef;usOf;av;awG zJG@ay;xm;w,f?


tpmtdrfa&m*gjzifhuG,fvGef
nnf; tvkyfjyKwfawmh b,fvdk pm;aomufaexdkifvJ?
oli,fcsif;awGu au|;&wmaygh/ udk,fvdkwm&Sd&ifvnf; ighudk acs;ygOD;[,faygh/ ydkuf
qHjyef&awmh jyefqyfaygh/
a&S@bufrmS xdik af ewJh rdwaf qGu ''ta&;xJ AsL;q&meJ@ vmawG@aejyef+yD/ bl;&ifvnf;
±d;k ±d;k om;om;bl;aemf''qd+k yD; aemufaew,f? tJ'aD wmh 1200 xm;aygah v/ ntdyaf yg/h nnf;
ub,favmuf&vJ/ 500/ 'gawmif vukef&if tcef;cay;&w,f?
[if w0ufr&bl;vm;/ &aeOD;r,f/ ntdyf{nfhonfua&m nwdkif;&Sdvm;?
b,f&SdrvJ tpfudk&,f/ &&if csrf;omvdk@ tarhudk wdkufaqmufay;wm =um+yDaygh?
'DvdkygyJ pm;vdkufaevdkufeJ@ &Gmjyefra&mufwmawmif 3-4 ESpf&Sd+yD? ckeu ajymawmh 3
vyJ &Sdao;w,fqdk? od&ufeJ@ bmvdk@ar;aevJvdk@?
tJ'Dnu usaemf tESDrdef;cav;eJ@ pum;pjrnfajym+yD; um;rD;u a&mifpHk rD;oD;wJG
awGudk ausmcdkif;xGufcGmvmcJh=uw,f/ qdkifqufw,f/ tcef;jyeftdyf? odk@ayr,fh um;ay:
rwufcif rdef;cav; ajymvdkufwJh pum;u usaemfhtcef;xJrSm yJhwifxyfaew,f?
reufzef vmcJah emf tpfu/kd apmifah er,f/ bm;bD,mu apmifah er,f? bm; bD,m
u apmifhaer,f? bm;bD,mu apmifhaer,f? ouf (58) ESpf&dS+yD+zpfonfh tqdkawmf pdkif;xD;qdkifonf +yD;cJhonfh
&uf owWygwf ESpfygwftwGif;u tpmtdrfa&m*gESifh &efukefjynfol@
aq;±Hk}uD; tpmtdrfESifh tlvrf;a=umif;ukXmewGif aq;ukorS_cH,lae&+yD; ,ck
rdef;r&Sdom;eJh 'Dae&mawG bmvdkh vmwmvJtpfudk&,f raumif;ygbl;aemf/ reuf 5 em&D 45 rdepfwGif tpmtdrfaoG;a=umaygufonfha&m*gESifh ‚aq;&HkY
uG,fvGef qHk;yg;oGm;cJhygonf? uG,fvGefol pdkif;xD;qdkif.taxG;qHk; orD;jzpfol
olrudkyJ av;pm;&avrvm;/ vmrdwJh udk,fudk,fudk,fyJ tjypfwifaerd eef;,kacgif tm; w,fvDzkef;jzifh qufoG,far;jref;onfh tcgwGifawmh
avovm; rajymwwfawmhyg/ “reuf 5 em&D 45 rdESpfrSmyg&SiftpmtdrfaoG;a=umayguf wmyg &efukef
aq;±Hk}uD; rSmygaq;±Hkwufaewm (2) ygwfcGJavmuf&dSygjyD q&m0efuawmh
'DvkdeJ@ usaemf bm;bD,mZmwfvrf;wJGawGudk pdwf0ifpm;+yD; jrefrmrdef;cav;awG&J@ aumufcsufcsxm;wmaygh&Sif? 'gayr,fh tJ'Davmufxdvnf; jrefqefr,fvdk@
'Dvkyfief;eJ@ 'Db0awGudka&;zdk@/ avhvmzdk@/ usaemf ukef=urf;&SmcJhygw,f? olwdk@awG&J@ usef; awmhrxifxm;bl;ygah emf? cef@rSe;f xm;wJt h csed af wmh&aSd yr,fh tJ'aD vmufx}d udK
rma&;apmifha&Smufr_awG/ usef;rma&; todynmay;r_awG/ b0vHkjcHKpGm aexdkifvkyf jyD;awmh t&rf;jrefomG ;wmaygah emf &ifxrJ mS awmhcsad eatmif cHpm;&w,f? 'grsKd ;
udkifpm;zdk@twGuf tajccH tcsuftvufawG bmawG&SdygovJ? wenf;wvrf;tm;jzifh uawmfawmfeJ@arhvG,faysmufvG,frSmr[kwfbl;? 'DvdkvlrsdK;vnf; aemufxyf
'DudPu usaemfwdk@EdkifiH/ usaemfwdk@vlrsKd;/ aq;r&Sdao;wJh a&m*gqdk;rsm;/ tjyefcufwJhb0 ay:vmr,fvdk@vnf; rxifygbl;&Sif”
rsm;/ jrefjrefysH jrifhjrifh=uHzdk@ tcGifhtvrf;rsm; wdkif;jcm;tef*sDtdkrsm; b,folawG bmawG tqdkawmf pdkif;xD;qdkif. psmyeudk rwfv (12) &uf =umoyaw;ae@
aqmif&Gufae=uovJ/ b,fvdkyHkpHawGeJ@aqmif&Gufae=uovJqdkwm tywfwukwf avh a&a0;ok\efwGif *loGif;o+*õKvfrSmjzpfonf[k orD;jzpfoleef;,kacgifuajym
vmpl;prf;Edkifzdk@ }uKd;pm;=unfhrdygw,f? onf? tqdkawmfpdkif;xD;qdkifuho J dk@ udk,fydkifoHpOf tqdkawmfwpfa,muf qHk;yg;
odk@ayr,fh jynfhpHkukHvHkwJh tcsdefr&wma=umifh/ awGqHkar;jref;&r,fh vlyk~Kdvfrsm; oGm;onfhtwGuf jrefrmEdkifiH*DwavmutwGuf wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifonfh qHk;±H_;r_
tef*sDtdkrsm;eJ@ trsKd;orD;a&;&m aqmif&Gufaeolrsm;udk &oavmuf tcsdeftwGif;rSmyJ w&yfjzpfonf[k emrnfausmfaw;oH&Sifcifarmifwdk;u
awG@qHkar;jref;=unfhrdcJhygw,f? pepfwus/ tao;pdwfususvnf; rvkyfudkifEdkifcJhygbl;? “t&rf;0rf;enf;wmaygAh sm? jrefrmEdik if t H Ekynma&pD;a=umif;rSm wtm;
trsKd;orD;apmifha&Smufa&;tzJG@wcku wm0ef&SdolwOD;udk usaemfodvdkwJh tcsuf avsmhoGm;wJhoabmjzpfoGm;ygw,f? udkxD;wdk@u wu,fcdkifcdkifrmrm&yfwnf
tvufawGudk ar;jref;=unfhrdygw,f? vmwJt h qdak wmfawGyg? bmjzpfv@kd vnf; olocD si;f awG[m tjrJwrf; &d;k roGm;rJh
tajccHtm;jzifh usrwd@k ppfwrf;jyKcsuaf wGt& trsK;d tpm; (3) rsK;d avmuf ydik ;f jzwf oDcsif;awGaygh? cdkifwJhoDcsif;awGayghav? tJ'ga=umifh ol@oDcsif;awGay:rSm tjrJ
=unfv h @kd &ygw,f? wrsK;d u &Hrk mS yJ tvkyv f yk o
f /l wrsK;d u pm;aomufqikd f wenf;tm;jzifh wrf;owd&aerSmayg@?” [k ajymonf?
um&mtdak uqdik rf mS vkyo f /l wrsK;d uawmh tjyifrmS tkyx f ed ;f xm;wJh jynfw
h efqmacgi;f aygh tqdak wmfpikd ;f xD;qdik u
f ,
G vf eG jf cif;ESiyhf wfoufI &ky&f iS o f &kyaf qmif [efeD
av/ olppD Of ay;xm;wJt h cef; 'grrS [kwv f nf; pkxm;wJt h rd w
f vH;k rSm aexdik v
f yk u
f ikd o
f al wG xGef;u
qdkygawmh? olwdk@uawmh tjyifwdk@/ [dkw,fwdk@/ wnf;cdkcef; wdk@u zkef;qufac:,lwJhtcg “t&rf;ESajrmw,fo@l oDcsi;f awGub,fawm@rSvnf; r&d;k Edik yf gb;l ? olvkd
oGm;+yD; tvkyfqif;wmrsKd;aygh? vlrsKd ;uvnf; tpm;xd;k p&mb,forl rS &daS wmhygb;l ? [dEk pS af ygi;f rsm;pGmrsm;pGmu
olwdk@awGrSm vkyfief;vdkifpifvdkrsKd;/ tvkyfvkyfcGifhygrpfvdkrsKd;awG&Sdvm;? wnf; u&yfwnfvmwm? 'Dae@'Dcsdefxd tqdkawmfwa,muftaeeJ@ o±kyf
wcsKd@vnf;&Sdygw,f? qdkifeJ@&HkrSm vkyfoltrsm;pkaygh? qdkifydkif&Sifu wm0ef,l vkyf aqmifwa,muftaeeJ@ OD;xD;ae&mrSmb,fvdkrStpm;xdk;p&mr&dSwJhtwGuf
ay;wmrsKd;? tawmfrsm;rsm;u Oya'rJh vkyfae=u&wmrsm;ygw,f? wu,fwef; usrwdk@ t&rf;udkESajrmwordygw,f?”
vdk tzJG@awGa&m/ tef*sDtdkawGa&mayghav/ txl;ojzifh q&mraq;cef; tygt0if tm; jrefrmEdik if .
H aw;oH&iS af vmuwGif pdik ;f xD;qdik u f o hJ @kd tpm;xd;k r&Edik o
f nfh
vH;k u pepfwus aqmif&u G Ef ikd w
f hJ tajctaer&Sad o;ygb;l / use;f rma&; todynmjrSiw hf ifr_ tEkynm&Sifwpfa,muf qHk;±H_;vdkuf&jcif;twGuf tawmfav; pdwfraumif;
vkyfay;EdkifwJhtzJG@awGu usef;rma&;eJ@ ywfoufwJhtvkyf±Hk aqG;aEG;yJGawGvkyfay;/ Oyrm jzpfrdonf[k &efukef+rdK@rS pdkif;xD;qdkif. y&dwfowfwpfOD;u tckvdkajymjyonf?
uGef'Hk;udk pepfwusoHk;pJGwwfatmif/ vdifqufqHwJhtcg rjzpfrae oHk;udkoHk;pJGzdk@vdkw,f “tEkynmorm;wa,mufqHk;oGm;awmh wtm;0rf;enf;wmayghAsm?
qdkwmrsKd;awG? ynmay;pm&Gufpmwrf;awG jzef@csdxkwfa0wmrsKd;awGaygh? tef*sDtdk wcsKd@ tpm;xdk;r&wJh tEkynmorm;wa,muf qHk;oGm;wJhyHkpHrsKd;jzpfoGm;wmaygh?
uawmh rJaqmufaq;±Hk}uD;rSm wywfwcg aq;yHkrSefppfaq;Edkifatmif vH_@aqmfpnf;±Hk;+yD; y&dwfowfawGvnf; tukef0rf;enf;&wmayg@? usaemfu i,fi,fav;xJu
pepfwus ydk@aqmifay;wmawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? usrwdk@vdk tzJG@awGuawmh 'D tarSmifxJ pdkif;xD;qdkifeJ@ toufcsif;uvnf; odyfruGmbl;qdkwm=um;awmh olqdkwm
u vGwfajrmufcsifwJh rdef;uav;awGudk usrwdk@&J@ apmifha&Smufa&;a*[mawGrSm ac:,l }udKufwmayg?h i,fi,fxu J ol@oDcsi;f ta[mif;awGqkd tukev f ;kH em;axmifjzpf
apmifha&Smuf+yD; 'DrJaqmufrSm&SdwJh odk;ar$;puf&Hkwdk@/ tyfcsKyfpuf±Hkwdk@rSm tvkyfvkyfEdkif w,f? uk, d }f udKufEpS o
f ufwhJ tqdak wmfwa,mufq;kH ±H;_ oGm;awmh pdwrf aumif;
atmif csnfqJGwdk@/ pufcsKyf pwmrsKd;av;awGudk u|rf;usifwJh q&m q&mrawG iSg;&rf;+yD; jzpf&wmaygh? udk,fhvdkyJ trsm;}uD;0rf;enf; pdwfraumif;jzpfwJholawGvnf;
oifay;ygw,f? +yD;awmh puf±HkawGeJ@ qufoG,fay;ygw,f/ wcsKd@&yf&Gmudk jyefcsifolawG trsm;}uD;&Sdr,fvdk@xifygw,f?”
udkawmh vrf;p&dwfaxmufyHhay;vdkufygw,f? Oya't& umuG,fapmifha&Smufay;Edkifr_u tqdkawmfpdkif;xD;qdkifudk 1949 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif tzOD;eEN trd
awmh r&Sdoavmufvdk@yJ ajym&ygr,f? a': jr&ifwdk@rS &Srf;jynfe,f vif;ac;+rdK@e,fY arG;zGm;cJh+yD; aw;a&;q&m pdkif;crf;
usef;rma&; todynmay;vkyfr_awG a=umifh tdyfcsftdkifADG/ attdkif'Dtufpf a&m*geJ@ vd w f a &;om;aom rE W a v;a&muf &S r f ; wa,muf aw;pD ; &D ; jzif h pwif
ywfoufwJh tajctaewcsKd@ udkvnf; ckvdk&Sif;jyay;ygw,f? wdk;wufwJh vQ%m emrnf}uD;vmcJholjzpfonf? uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD;a':cifoef;pdk;eJ@twl om;
wa,mufESifh orD;ESpfa,muf usef&pfchyJ gonf ■
pmrsufESm (13) odk@
rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 9
a&TYajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tMum; etz\tajccHOya'rlMurf;tm; a&mifjcnfOD;tvkyform;rsm;tzGJYrS vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh
uefhuGuf&eftwGufaqG;aEG; tvkyo f rm;tcGit
hf a&;oifwef;zGiv hf pS f
rwf 2/ 2008

a&mifjcnfOD;tvkyform;rsm;tzGJ@u rJaqmuf&Sdpuf±Hk 8 ckrS jrefrm a&$@ajymif;


tvkyform;rsm;twGuf vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh tvkyform;tcGifhta&; (Human
Rights and Labour Rights) oifwef;wckukd zGiv
hf pS yf @kd csv#u&f o
dS nf? oifwef;um
vrSm azazmf0g&D 27 &ufae@rS 29 &ufae@xd 3 &ufwmjzpf+yD; wufa&mufol
tvkyform;OD;a&rSm 14 OD;jzpfonf? oifwef;wGif vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh tvkyform;
a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;tzGJ@u orm;rsm; od&Sd&eftwGuf vdkufvH aqG; tcGihfta&;qdkif&mrsm;udk t"duxm;Iydk@csonfhtjyif trsKd;orD;tcGihfta&;ESifh
qücH,lyGJta=umif;&Sif;vif;yGJrsm;udk rJ aEG;cJhwmyg’ [k a&mifjcnfOD;tzJG@rS roD tjcm;taxGaxGA[kokwrsm;vnf; yg0ifonf
aqmufa&muf jrefrmtvkyform;rsm; wmrS ajym=um;oGm;ygonf?
pmrsuEf mS (7) Edik if w
H cko@kd wrf;csi;f rStquf ae+yD? jrefrmjynfrmS &yfa&;&Gma&;qdk tifr
t=um; 2/ 3/ 08 u jyKvkyv f su&f +dS yD; tajc jynfyEdkifiHa&muf jrefrmEdkifiHom;
cHOya'rl=urf;udk uef@uGurf rJ sm; ay;=u&ef rsm;udk oH±Hk;rSwqifh rJay;Edkif&ef tpDtpOf tm;emwwfwJh ESvHk;om;awG[m jrefrm wef tm;uk;d &wJt h ysKd acgi;f }uD;awGukd owd
tvkyform;xk=um;xJwGif tjyeftvSef rsm; jyKvkyfxm;jcif; r&Sdao;a=umif;vnf; jynfu vmcJhrSef; ajymjyae=uovkdyJ? &+yD; usrðyHrdao;w,f?
aqG;aEG;aea=umif; od&Sd&onf? od&onf? td r f a y: jyef r wwf a o;bJ ol w d k @ v#yfppfrD; oG,fvkd@r&wJh wJpkav;
‘jrefrma&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm; rJaqmuf+rdK@wGif jrefrmtvkyform; wJpkav;qD usr vkdufvmcJhw,f? [D;x qdkawmh za,mif;wdkif av;ig;wdkif xGef;+yD;
taeeJ@ jrefrmppftpdk;&u olwdk@ tm%m wodef;cGJcef@&Sd+yD; 2007 ESpfu w&m;0if aewJh uefpGef;±Gufpnf;}uD;awG ±Guf+yD;jyef olwdk@ xrif;0dkif; p=uw,f? usr rdwfaqG
wnfjrJa&;twGuf wzufowf jyKvkyf rSwfyHkwifonhf tvkyform; 4 aomif;cef@ a&mufvmwJh rdef;uav;ESpfa,muf ukd av;ESpfa,mufu xrif;0dkif;rSm rygao;
xm;wJh tajccHOya' rl=urf;udk uef@uGuf &Sdonf? jrifawmh 0rf;omoGm;wJh uav;i,fav; bl;? ðcHawmxJ oGm;ykef;aewJh vlawGqD x
qef @ usif r J a y;=uzd k @ a&$ @ ajymif ; tvk y f ■ awG rsuEf mS [m a±$t;kd ±Guv f mwm jrif&wJh rif; oGm;ykd@aew,fav?
twdik ;f yJ? olw@kd awmfawmf qmaea&mayg?h ‘uav;rwdk@yg 0ifpm;vdkufygvm;’
wJ h p k r S m tbd k ; tbG m ; t±G , f e J @ tr,f}uD;awGuac:awmh usr tm;
uav;awGu vGJ&if t±G,fa&mufwJh ol ememeJ@ jiif;w,f? olwdk@pm;zdk@xJu avsmh
qdkvkd@ olwdk@ ESpfa,mufyJawG@vkd@ ar;=unhf rSm pd;k vk@d yg? tnmolr}uD;u wHawmifqpf
rdw,f? ydkufqHrsm;rsm; ray;vkdufEdkifawmh eJ@ wGwfw,f?
&Jaemufwacguf xyfvmzrf;rSm pdwfrcs& ‘eifuvnf; olwdk@ pdwfraumif;
vkd@ usefwJholawG tm;vHk; [kd;taemuf jzpfatmif rvkyfeJ@av? cGJjcm;ovkd jzpf
zufu ðcHawmxJ oGm;tdyf=uw,fwJh? aerSmaygh’
ouf}uD;±G,ftdkeJ@ aygufpeawGudk apmifh wd;k wd;k uswd af jymawmhrS xrif;0dik ;f rSm
a&Smufzdk@ rdef;uav;ESpfa,mufyJ aecJh& 0ifxdkifvkduf&w,f?
w,f? a,musmf ;om;awG aecJw h mxufpm za,mif;wdkifrD; r_ef0g;0g;atmufrSm
pmrsuEf mS (7) atmifa0; rStquf tm%m&Siftkyfpk&J@vlowf0g'udk ±_wfcszdk@/ &if rdeuf av;aecJw h mu ykad umif;w,f qdk qmqmeJ@ acgif;razmfwrf; iHk@pm;aewJh
a'gif ; &if j yif u uAsmq&mwd k @ . usaemfwdk@rSm wm0ef&dSw,fav? r+yD;qHk; +yD; a,musfm;awGukd tukefoGm;cdkif;vdkuf uav;awGeJ@ olwdk@yef;uefxJ [if;awG
uJGa=uaompm;yGJ}uD;rSm armifvGrf;%DESifh ao;wJh 'Dru dk a&pDwu dk yf u
JG kd qufwu kd zf @kd us wJt h a=umif; tr,f}uD;wa,mufu ajym xnfhay;aewJh tnmolr}uD;ukd =unhf
usaemf ESpfa,mufwnf; a=uuGaJ e=u.? aemfwdk@rSm wm0ef&dSw,fav? 'DwnrSm jyw,f? usr vlESpfa,mufawmh uefpGef; +yD;usryg =unfEl;vmw,f? jrefrmjynf&J@
va&mifu vSyEkdifvGef;onf? pdwfvuf+ydK va&mifu b,favmufyJ omom/ pdwf ±GufawGudk a&aq;+yD; "m;reJ@ Zdk;Zdk;ZyfZyf taiG@toufu 'DwJpkav;udk v$rf;xm;
uGJaom cHpm;r_ESifh rvkdufzufvSyg? xdk xJrSm emusifwmu emusifwmygyJ? us pif;ae=u+yD? w±Gufcsif; xGifaewmxuf ovkdyJ? qif; &JEGrf;yg;wmawG/ raocsm
tcdkuf t*Fvdyfpmqdk}uD; awmrwfpf[m'D aemf zxD;udk cspfw,f/ av;pm;w,f? zxD; pm&if "m;eJ@ pif;ypfwmu ykdjrefw,fav? ra&&mwJh reufjzefawG=um;rSm awG@&wJh
usaemfwdk@ tem;a&mufvm+yD; ol. “vl udk usaemf aemufqHk;awG@chJwm (59) ESpf usefwmawGuawmh olwdk@reuf aps;xGuf vlom;qefvGef;wJh pmemr_awG?jrefrmjynf
rsKd;rsm; +ydKuGJcsdef” uAsmudk ajymjyonf? ajrmuf u&ifhawmfvSefa&;ae@u aomif a&mif;zdk@aygh? bma=umifhvS aevJqdkwm usrem;vnf
(ta0;rSm rD;cdk;wtltleJ@/ 'Dae&m ppfyGJ &if;jrpfurf;yg; trdajray:rSmyg? usaemf uef p G e f ; ±G u f a =umf z d k @ wJ t d r f a wG vkdufyg+yD?
jzpfchJwm r=umao;bl;xif&@J / opfyifawG uAsmq&myg? zxD;eJ@usaemf yxrqHk; qHk tm;vHk;rSm &Sdor# qDvufusefawG 0dkif;pk tjyifrSm avawGrdk;awG=urf;aevdk@
tacgufawGuGm usnfqef&m zGmqef=uJ awG@&wJhn / Aef;armfwifatmif &J@ “±dk;r ae=uwkef; usr tdrfc% jyefvSnfhvmcJh wJtdrfawGtm;vHk; odrfhodrfhcgaew,f?
vd k @ / ab;u v,f u G i f ; xJ v,f o rm; wdkufy”GJ 0wWKudk usaemf owd&aecJhw,f? w,f? usreJ@twlaewJh tr}uD;ukd tusdK; 'DwcgvGrf;wJh arG;&yfajrtvGrf;u
wa,muf v,fxGefaeqJ/ tJ'Dtcsdef cspf 0wWKxJ yJcl;&dk;r zufqpfqef@usifa&; u&if ta=umif;ajymjyawmh oabmjzLwJh tnm apmapmuvkd qdk@eifha=uuGJp&m raumif;
olESpfa,muf wa,mufcg;udk wa,muf ajymufusm;acgi;f aqmif}uD; “wmaum'D” olr}uD;u rD;zdak csmifxJ &So d r# pm;vk@d &wm awmhbl;? b,ftcsdef tdrfjyef&rvJrodwJh
zuf+yD; awmwef;av;xJ 0ifa&mufaysmuf eJ@+rdK@uvmwJh Armvli,f EdkifiHa&;orm; tukefqGJ+yD; usreJ@csufcsif;vkdufvmw,f? tnw& awmfvSefa&;&Jabmf wa,muf
uG,foGm;=uw,f) ppfuvnf; jzpfrSmyJ? “xGef;Edkif” twlvufwGJ wdkufy0GJ ifchyJ HkawG/ ‘'DrSm yJ&,f/ tmvl;&,f/ ig;ajcmuf &J@Eikd if aH ysmufwo hJ @l b0uked memusn;f usn;f
v,form; v,fxGefjrJ? cspfolawG cspfq?J &ifwckefckefe@J ,Hk=unfchyJ HkawG? zxD;a& … &,f/ aemufae@csufpm;zdk@ odrf;xm;/ 'Dn vGrf;wJh tvGrf;r[kwfbl;? rw&m;r_ awG/
'gudk tckaerSm avmued,mr w&m; zxD ; u wmaum'D q d k & if / usaemf u pmu bJO[if;ygcsuaf y;vku d ?f tm;vH;k pdwf 'kuQqif;&JawG=um;rSm tcsif;csif; pmem
ygyJvdk@usaemfvufcHvdkuf&if zxD;ref;&Sm xGe;f Edik af yg/h pdwuf ;l ,OfcyhJ akH wG? zxD;a& … armvlarm jzpfaewm ESprf ,favmufawmh ,dkif;yif;pdwfeJ@ =uH@=uH@cH&Sifaer,fh jrefrm
vk y f = uH c H & wJ h t ay:rS m usaemf 0rf ; usaemf wdk@tjzpfu 0wWKr[kwfygbl;■ pm;ygap? +yD;&if [kdðcHawmxJu vlawGqD vlrsdK; (53) oef;&SdwJht&yfqD av;pm;
renf;&m/ ra=uuGJ&m/ wm0efrodwwf&m vnf; xrif; oGm;ydk@&OD;rSm? jrefjref vkyf& *k%f,ljcif;awGeJ@ vGrf;wJhtvGrf;av■
usawmhrSmaygh? tm;awmhemygw,f rpP atmifa0; atmif’
22-2-2008 jra=u;rkH
wmawmhrwfp[ f m'D&,f? zxD;vky=f uHc&H r_ usr&J@ tnmolr}uD;u ajym&if; 2004/acwfòyif(tifwmeuf*sme,f)
twGuf a=uuGaJ y;zdk@/ emusnf;ay;zdk@/ ppf olukd,fwdkif Zdk;ZyfeJ@0ifxkaxmif; csufðywf
10 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)
aemfwdk@ jrefrmEdkifiHol/ EdkifiHom; csi;f Edik if aH wGqu D puf±t kH vky±f akH wGrmS 0rf; awmh rdwfuyfeJ@ cýmudk,frSmawmh a&m*g awGu trsKd;orD;awGudk t"RjyKusifhr_/
awG [ m a&S ; tpOf t quf u 0cg;vSz@kd twGuf yef; yrf;qif;&Jjcif;}uD;pGmeJ@ A&yGeJ@qdkovdk jzpfcJh&ygw,f? jynfolawG wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkawGudk vlrsKd;wHk;owf
wnf;u tvSLa&puf vufeJ@ ae@rtm; nrem; ±kef;uefv_yf&Sm;ae=u [m qefaumxJ xnfhtvdSrfhcH&wJh ZD;jzL jzwfr_pwJh vltcGifhta&; csKd;azmufcH &r_
ruGm aexdik v f mcJ=h uolawGyg? 'gt h jyif ESpf &yg+yD? oD;awGvdk uarmufurjzpf ajAmif;qefae awGa=umifh wdik ;f jynftwGi;f rSmyJ xGuaf jy;
pOfESpfwdkif; q,fhESpfv&moDyGJawmfawGudk xrif;&nfacsmif;pD;atmif vSLEdkif +yD; aqmufwnf&mr&wJh tajctaeqdk;eJ@ wdrf;a&Smif+yD; ykef;v#Kd; uG,fv#Kd; aexdkifae
+cdrfh+cdrfhoJ qif,ifusif;y+yD; rawmifhrw wef;EdkifcJh+yD; ‘qDudka&csKd;/ aq;±dk;rD;vH_/ =uHKawG@ae=u&ygw,f? =u&wJh &Gmykef;&Gma&SmifawGvnf; wae@
ra=umifrh =ueJ@ tyltyifuif;pGm aexdik Ef ikd f pyg;awGawmifvykd ’kH cJw h hJ u|eaf wmfw@kd Edik if H tqd;k qH;k uawmh jynfoal wG[m ol wjcm;rsm;jym;vmwmudk awG@&ygw,f?
cJh=uolawGvnf;jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdk aysmf ol E d k i f i H o m;awG [ m tck t csd e f t cgrS m wdk@&ifqdkif=uHKawG@&wJh jy\emt&yf&yf tdref ;D csi;f Edik if aH wGukd a&$Œajymif; vkyf
&$i=f unfE;l zG,af umif;vSwhJ "avhx;kH pHawG udkif=uolawGxJrSm t&if;tESD;wwfEdkifol
[m jrefrmEdkifiHudk ppftm%m&SifawG tkyf awG e J @ ynmwwf t csKd @ om rav;&S m ;/
pdk;+yD;aemufydkif;rSm wpwp ysufokOf;cJh&yg ukeaf ps;EIe;f tqrwefBuD;jrifrh ?I tvkyt f udik f &Sm;yg;rIawGaMumifh puFmylEdkifiHawGrSm oGm;a&mufvkyfudkif=u
w,f? txl;ojzifh etzppftkyfpk tkyf +yD; omrefvltrsm;pkuawmh e,fpyfukd
csKyfaewJh ,ae@umvrSm tqdk;qHk;tae rdbaqGrsKd;nmwumawGudk pGefhcGmNyD; tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHawGrSm jzwfausmf+yD; xdkif;EdkifiHrSmyJ t"du a&$Œ
txm;udk a&muf&SdcJhwmawG@&ygw,f? ppf a&TaY jymif; tvkyo f rm;awGtjzpf oGm;a&mufvyk f udik Mf u&olawG ajymif;vkyfudkif=uwJhtwGuf xdkif;EdkifiH[m
tm%m&Siaf wGrtkypf ;kd rDu jrefrmEdik if o H m; tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHawGxJrSm jrefrm a&$Œajymif;
awGtaeeJ@ bmjzpfvdk@ tvSLa&puf vuf &Sdovdk etz ppftkyfpk&JY EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;eJh bmoma&;t& tvkyo f rm;awG trsm;qH;k aexdik f vkyu f ikd f
eJ@ ruGm&SdcJh=u+yD; tyltyifuif;pGm aexdkif n§O;f yrf;ESyd u
f yG cf &H rIawGaMumifh Edik if w
H iG ;f rS xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifNyD; aewJhEdkifiHjzpfvmygw,f? xdkif;EdkifiHrSm
Ed k i f c J h = uwmvJ ? tajzu &S i f ; ygw,f ? a&muf&SdaewJh jrefrma&$Œajymif; tvkyf
twdwfu jrefrmEdkifiHom;awG[m pD;yGm;
xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyfrSm&SdwJh 'ku©onfpcef;awGrSm cdkvIHaeMu&ol orm;awGtaeeJ@ b,fvdktvkyfrsKd;awGudk
a&;vkyfief; udkifief;awG aumif;rGefcJh=u+yD; awGvnf;ygw,f . . . a&G;cs,fvkyfudkifae=u&ovJqdkwmeJ@ ywf
OPm"e aygºu,f0cJh=uvdk@ygyJ? ouf+yD; a&mifjcnfOD;tvkyform;tzGJ@
'gayr,fh 'DtpOftvmaumif;awG taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; OD;rd;k aqGukd usaemf
[m 'Duae@acwfumvrSm }uD;jyif;&wJh ar;jref;=unfhwJhtcg tckvdk ajymjy yg
jrefrmEdkifiHol EdkifiHom;awGtwGufawmh w,f?
yHkjyifawGtvm; jzpfcJh&yg+yD? tu,f'rD “t"du uawmh [dkæ rsm;aom
a': jrifhjrifhcifoDqdkcJhwJh ‘eyef;qH’ oDcsif; tm;jzifhayghaemf udk,fhEdkifiHuae+yD;awmh
xJuvdk 0rf;prdk;oHawG aomaomrnHEdkif wjcm;EdkifiHudk vmvkyf=uw,fqdk&if Arm
wmvnf; =umcJyh g+yD? vufo;D qkyo f ¿mef tvkyform;awG 'Dxdkif;EdkifiHrSm txl;
0ufom;wHk;}uD;awGau|;+yD; tvSLtwef; ojzifhawmh 'Dxdkif;awG xdkif;vlrsKd;awG
rvkyfEdkifcJhwmvnf; =umcJhyg+yD? tJæ 'g rvkyfcsifwJh vkyfief;awGayghaemf? txl;
ayr,fh etzppftkyfpk vufxufrSm tvSL ojzifhawmh ckeajymwJh udk,fum,tm;udk
twef;awG 0JScsD;usif;yEdkifolwcsKd@udkawmh trsm;}uD ; oH k ; &wJ h vk y f i ef ; rsKd ; awG r S m
usaemfwdk@ awG@&rSmjzpfygw,f? olwdk@awG trsm;pk vkyf=u&w,f? ckeu vrf;azmuf
uawmh wdkif;jynfb¾mawGudk rawmf vkyfwJhvkyfief; 'DrSmawmh construction
rw&m; &,lxm;=uwJh ppftkyfpk0if trsKd; site awGaygh/ aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;awG/
tEG,af wGe@J olw@kd udk trSo D [JjyK+yD; pD;yGm; aemufvrf;azmufvkyfa&; vkyfief;awG?
jzpfae=uwJh vufwqkyfpm acwfysuf ol aemufwcku v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;
aX;awGyJjzpfygw,f? 'ghtjyif etz armif awG/ aemufwck 'D ig;vkyfief;awGaygh/ ig;
ydik pf ;D xm;wJh w,fvaD A;&Si;f rSm ae@pOfawG@& vkyfief;rSmqdk&ifvnf; ig;zrf;avSvdkufwm
wJh ol}uD;bk&m; &Gmom; aumif;r_qdkovdk awG aemufwcku a&xGufyPnf;awG ig;
twif;t"RvSL'ge;f cdik ;f wJh tvSLrsK;d awGukd awG u d k a&G ; wJ h [ m o,f w J h [ m a&cJ
vnf ; pd w f y suf z G , f jrif a wG @ &rS m jzpf y g a'gufwmvGPf;aqG aoWm a&cJcef;xJudkxnfhwJh[m 'Dvdk
w,f? omrefjynfol trsm;pk}uD;uawmh tvkyfrsKd;awGaygh aemufwcku qefpuf
vSLEdik w f ef;Edik zf @kd aeaeomom xrif;eyfreS f xrif;&nfaomufolaomuf&/ pm;p&m a=umifh udk,fhtdrfudk,fh,mawGrSm twnf awG r S m qef t d w f a wG u d k twif t cs
atmifukd renf;±ke;f uefae&wJh tajctae r&Sv
d @kd td;k cGuyf ef;uefawG arSmufoal rSmuf wus raexdkifEdkifawmhbJ enf;rsKd;pHkeJ@ a&$Πto,ftydk@ 'Dukefwifukefcsvdk vkyfief;rsKd;
yg? ra0;ao;wJh twdwfumvu tqdk &eJ@ jzpfukef=uyg+yD? ppftm%m&Sif pepf ajymif;aexdkif=u&jcif;yJjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdk awG/ 'D vkyfief;awGrSmvnf; tvkyfrsm;=u
awmf a':rmrmat;oDqckd w hJ hJ tvSLoDcsi;f qdk;&J@ zdESdyftkyfcsKyfr_atmufrSm 45 ESpf a&$Œajymif;aexdkif=u&mrSm ukefaps;E_ef; w,f? aemufwcku wajz;ajz;eJ@ ydktvkyf
awGq&kd if tcktcsed t f cgrmS usaemfw@kd jynf ausmf=umaexdkifcJh&+yD;wJhaemuf tvSL tqrwef}uD;jrifhr_/ tvkyftudkif &Sm;yg;r_ rsm;vmwmuawmh puf±kH tvky±f akH wGayg/h
olawGtzdk@ tdyfrufvdkvkd jzpfcJh&yg+yD? a&pufawG cef;ajcmufcJh&±Hkwifru &[ef; awGa=umifh rdbaqGrsKd;nmwumawGudk ud, k u
f m,tm;udk wtm; pdu k &f wJh puf±kH
(rmrmat;toH ) ‘usrwd k @ oajy oHCmawmfawGonfyifv#if qGrf;uGrf; pGef@cGm+yD; tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHawGrSm a&$Œajymif; tvkyf±Hkvkyfief;awGrSmvnf; 0if+yD;awmh
awm&Gm æ omom,m,m aEG&moDrmS vSL tcuftcJe@J =uHKawG@&wJt h xd tqd;k 0g;qH;k tvkyform;awGtjzpf oGm; a&mufvkyf tvkyfvkyf=uwmrsm;w,f cifAs?”
=uwef;=uwm/ ntcgvom OD;a&csrf; &JΠtaetxm;udk a&muf&SdcJh&+yDjzpfygw,f? udkif=u&olawG&Sdovdk etz ppftkyfpk&JΠtJ ' D v d k td r f ; eD ; csif ; Ed k i f i H a wG r S m
tvSLrSmæ umvom; umvorD;awG/ 'Dvdktajctaeqdk;awGeJ@ =uHKawG@cJh EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ bmoma&;t& nOf; wG,f&mrJhjzpfae=u&wJh jrefrma&$Œajymif;
aysmf=uu|uf=uwmæ a=umf=ucsuf=u &jcif;[m rqv/ e0w/ etzqdkwJh ppf yrf;ESyd u
f yG cf &H r_awGa=umifh Edik if w
H iG ;f rS xGuf tvkyform;awG/ 'kQonfawGeJ@ &Gmykef;
wmæ 0dkif;zGJ@pHknDpGmæ’‘oajy oajyawm tkyfpktqufquf&J? &ufpufpGm zdESdyf ajy;wdrf;a&Smif+yD; xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyfrSm &Gma&SmifawGta=umif; jrefrmjynfolawG
&Gmæ ajAmoHawG omom,m,mæ ae tkyfcsKyfr_/ rSm;,Gif;wJh pDrHcef@cGJr_/ tusifh &SdwJh 'kQonfpcef;awGrSm cdkv_Hae=u&ol trSeftwdkif; od&Sdapzdk@ a&SŒtywfawGrSm
jcnfrSm a&$&nf0if; q,fpif;vnf; ruyg? ysuf jcpm;r_awGatmufrmS Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm; awGvnf;ygw,f? 'ghtjyif etz ppfwyf&JΠqufvuf wifqufay;oGm;r,fh ta=umif;
xD;wef;}uD;awGeJ@ armifomcsKd &Sifavmif; a&;/ vlr_a&;/ usef;rma&;/ ynma&;/ ,Of xdk;ppfqifwdkufcdkufr_/ twif;t"R vkyf ajym=um;&if; tckwywfaqmif;yg; tpD
vSnfhvdk@vm’ aus;r_pwJh e,fy,ftm;vHk; tvHk;pHk ysuf tm;ay;cdkif;apr_/ yÉdyQ jzpfyGm;wJh a'o tpOfudk ed*Hk;csKyfvdkuf&ygw,f ■
tckawmh oajyawm&GmawGrSmvnf; okOf;cJh&vdk@yJ jzpfygw,f? etzppf tkyfpk
ajAmoH/ pnfoHawGwdwfcJh&yg+yD? armifom taeeJ@ wdik ;f oljynfom;awG =uHKawG@ cHpm;
csKdawGvnf; jynfwGif;xJrSm tvkyftudkif ae&wJh jy\emt00udk vufawG@usus
&Sm;yg;r_/ pD;yGm;a&;usyfwnf;r_awGa=umifh ajz&Sif;ray;EdkifbJ wHwm;aqmuf/ vrf;
tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHawGqD xGufcGm+yD; w0rf; azmuf/ xH;k okwpf wJh tay:,H[efjytvkyf
wcg;twGuf =uHK&musyef; tvkyfawGudk awGuo kd m vkyaf qmifaer_a=umifh wdik ;f jynf
&SmazG vkyfudkifae=u&yg+yD? &SifndKaxG;wdk@/ [m taygpm;rdwfuyfawG vdrf;usHxm;wJh
uGrf;awmifudkif r,fausmhwdk@vnf; tdrfeD; jynf h w ef q mrwa,muf v d k rsuf E S m rS m

rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 11


remrnf ‘armfarmfjrifh’/ bmvJ trSefw&m;vdk@ vufcHae=uw,f tudk ay;wmvnf; &wm&Sdw,f? qufqHa&; vd k @ ajymawmh ‘usaemf , l q wm 'D v d k
tH=h ooGm;vm;? xdik ;f pm;aomuf a&æ? usrvdk jrefrmtrsKd;orD; wa,muf aumif;&if wpfn bwf(500)ausmftxd r[k w f b l ; ? obm0twk d i f ; jzpf a tmif
qdik rf mS jrefrmvdk E_wq f ufvmwJh awmifrS jrefrmqdkwJh tod vufudkifxm; abmufq;l &=uw,f? {nfo h nfawGe@J a&m avhusifhxm;vdk@ wrifydefatmifvkyfxm;
ol u d k jyH K ;jy&if ; awG @ &wm0rf ; omwJ h wJ=h um;u pdwu f odyrf eS cf siw
f mr[kwb f ;l ? aomuf&if; bD,m/ t&ufpw JG m/ pD;u&uf wmqdk&if aumif;ygav&J@? rawmf athpf
ta=umif; cGef;wHk@jyefrdygonf? n 9 em&D atmfæ q&mu 'Daumifrav;awGom pGJwmrsKd;vm;/ &Sdwmaygh? todw&m;eJ@ a&m*ga=umifh ydefwmqdk b,fvdkvkyfrvJ’
ausmfrS vlpnfwwfwJh um&mtdkau±Hkqdk usrnDrav;awGq&kd if b,fvkd cHpm;&rvJ qifjcifEdkifrS vli,fawGuawmh trsm; vdk@ ar;vdkufcsdefrSmawmh usaemfudkrsuf
wJhae&mudk usaemfa&mufawmh oDcsif; [kwfvm;? ar;&ufygayhq&m&,f? vkyf tm;jzifh t&ufb, D m}udKufomG ;wJh olawG 0ef;t0dkif;om;eJ@ jyef=unfhygw,f? usaemf
wausmfausmfeJ@ oDjrL;aewJh vli,fawG azmfudkifzuf wa,muftaeeJ@ jrif&wm vnf;&SdwmygyJ? [if; [if;æ ajym&rSm wdk@ jrefrmEdkifiH[m ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;
pum;yGJ0dkif;awGrSm pm;aomufaysmf&$ifae awmif &ifemvGef;vdk@? usr nDr/ usraoG; vnf; &Sufawmh &Sufyg&J@? &Sifar;wmudk a=umifh vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ usef;rma&;
=uw,f? 'Dqidk rf mS awmh qdik v f yk of m;qdv
k @kd om;omqd&k if pdwq f if;&JwhJ a&m*ge@J awmif rajzcsif a yr,f h tar;&S d a wmh v J ajz& pwmawGedrfhusayr,fh tawG;tac:rSm
ta=umfq&m (csufjyKwf a=umfavSmfol) aooGm;Edkifw,f? tckjrifae&wJholav; ao;wmaygh? aomuf&if;pm;&if; oabm awmh redrfhusygbl;As? jrefrmEdkifiHrSm tck
uvGJ&if usefwmrdef;uav;awGyg? 'Dqdkif awGu rdrEdkif zrEdkifav;awG/ wcsKd@ rl;,pf us+yD; e,fvGefwJh [mawGvJ&Sd=uwmaygh qdk&if vufxyfcgeD;&if usef;rma&; aq;
av;u befaumuf+rdK@ (befcrf;) e,fajr aq;pGJaewJh olav;awGvnf; &Sdwmaygh? &Si?f wcsK@d usawmh aiGa&;/ a=u;a&;twGuf ppf=uw,f? wOD;OD;rSm ul;pufa&m*g&Sd
rSm&SdwJh vufyvufacgufqdkwJh vrf;xJu 'Dqikd rf mS awmh jrefrmEdik if u
H a&mif;pm;cH&wJh vJ yg=urSmaygh? 'gu vlwa,mufcsif;pD&J@ w,f q d k & if b,f a vmuf c spf = ucspf = u
tygrh ifh taqmuftOD}uD;ay:rSm &Syd gw,f? jrefrmrav;awGvm;æ/ r&Sdygbl;&SSif/ &SdcJh cH,lcsufeJ@ qdkifwmudk; &Sif&J@? olqdk&if em;vnf r _ t jynf h e J @ vrf ; cJ G v d k u f = uwJ h
wcsKd@qdkifvkyfom;rav;awGu tqifoifh &ifawmif usru u,fxkwfay;rSmyJ? ausmif;ydwf&ufrSm vmvkyfwm/ b0rSm olawG awmif&adS eyg+yD? xkid ;f rSm vGwv f yfr_
&m0dkif;awGrSm 0ifa&mifpm;aomuf&if; usaemfw@kd u ol@udk bD,m/ tcsK&d nf &nfrSef;csuf tjynfh&Sdawmh ol@udk,fol udktm;uscsifwJholawG wu,fwrf;us
pum;ajym&,farmae=uav&J@? wcsKd@u }udKwfwmaomufygajymwmawmifrS tcsKd xdef;wmyJ? bmrS rjzpfbl;&,f? olvdk awmh tm;uszdk@aumif;wm r[kwfygbl;/
awmh vma&muf toufudk t&if;
pm;aomufwhJ y&dwf jyK avmif;upm;&
owf t vd k t & oD wJh vGwfvyfr_rsKd;
csif;0ifa&muf oDqdk awmh usaemfawmh
ol v nf ; jrif & yg r}ud K uf y gbl ; vd k @ /
w,f ? usaemf w d k @ tcspf u d k tvG , f
tzG@J rSm t&if 'Dqikd u f kd wul wd k i f ; wmvd k @
a&mufzl;wJh udkwdk;}uD;&J@ aumif;r_ &wJhjy'g;wdkif tjrefay:ygapvdk@ qk
a=umifh usaemfw@kd pm;yGaJ &mufvmwJh ol awmif;aerdygw,f’ vdk@&ifxJu pum;
av;&J@emrnfudk odcGifh&/ &if;ESD;cGifh&yg awGajymvdkufygw,f?
w,f? xl;jcm;wmu 'DqkdifrSm tvkyfor armfarmfjrifhu usaemfhqDu rxif
av;awG&J@ acgif;aqmifu jrefrmEdkifiHu rSwfwJhpum;=um;&csdefrSmawmh udk,f
jzpfygw,f? enf;enf;wGe@f omG ;ygw,f? wDAzGD efom;
usaemfu 'Db0av;awGta=umif; jyifrSm ay:vmvdkuf aysmufoGm;vdkuf
odcsifvdk@ a&mufvmcJholqdkawmh olwkd@ jzpfaewJh oDcsif;pmom;awG ai;=unfh
jzwfoef;r_eJ@ &ifckefoHawGudk em;axmif ae&if ; uae ‘ud k , f h u d k , f u d k , f owd
=unfhawmh 'Dvdk=um;&ygw,f? usr 'D vufvGwfae=uwJhtwGuf touf i,f
qdkifudkpa&mufawmh bwf 5500 up& i,f&, G &f ,G ef @J b0ysu&f wJo h al wG/ touf
w,f? qdkif&JŒtay:xyfrSm aep&m ol aysmuf&wJholawG 'DEdkifiHrSm trsm;}uD; &Sd
aX;upDpOfay;ygw,f? usrvm; b,f ygw,f? usrrsufpda&S@rSmwif renf; awmh
utysKd[kwf&rSmvJ? uav; 2 a,muf ygbl;’vdk@ 0rf;enf;a=uuGJoH ajz;!Sif; pGm
tarav? a,musmf;eJ@uGJwm 8 ESpfausmf xGufvmygw,f? usaemfwdk@pm;yGJudk tul
a&maygh? usrxkdif;xJ0ifvmwmawmif 6 {nfch zH @kd wm0efusa&mufvmwJh touf 17
ESpfausmfvmaeyg+yD? oluajymajymqdkqdkeJ@ ESptf &G,f xdik ;f aumifrav;uawmh olem;
yJ ayghyg;pGmeJ@ pm;yGJa&mufvmwJh pm;p&m oef;wd;k &Sed f vnfwJh xdkif;pum;eJ@a&m olwcsKd@w0uf
awG ae&mwuscsay;+yD;awmh cGuaf wGxu J kd em;vnfwJh t*Fvdyfpum;eJ@a&m jrefrmvdk
uír;f usipf mG yJ a&cJ/ qd'k g/ tcsKad &eJ@ t&uf &nfyJ aomufr,fvdk@ajym&if; ol@vpmudk tod ^ m%f & S d w J h v l v m;/ w&mrS m ES p f yg a&majymaewmudk t&rf;odcsifwmeJ@
udak &may;&if; ol@ pum;awG a&S@quf jyefyg yHkrSef jrefrmEdkifiHudk jyefydk@a=umif;/ jrefrm a,mufavmufawmh&SdrSmaygh? &Si;f jyzd@k armfarmfjrifuh kd ajym&Smw,fv@kd qdyk g
w,f? 'Dxidk ;f rSmu jrefrmEdik if v H kd r[kwbf ;l pum;tckrS ajymcGifh&vdk@ 0rf;oma=umif; usaemfuawmh olajymwmawG em; w,f?
tudk&J@? t&rf;yGifhvif;ae+yD? a,musmf;/ &ifzGifhaeygw,f? 'Dvdkae&mrsKd;rSm vm axmif&if; rD;a&mifatmufrmS oDcsi;f qd&k if; usaemfuawmh ‘rif;b0yef;wdkifu
rdef;r cGJjcm;wmr&Sdbl;? t*Fvdyf"avhqdkwJh a&muf pm;aomuf&if; emvnfr_&+yD; wifh uckefaysmfjrL;aewmudk jrif&ygw,f? xdkif; bmvJ? 'Dvdkb0rsKd;rSm vifaumif; om;
taemufwikd ;f ,Ofaus;r_upGaJ e+yD? wcsK@d qdk awmifhwifhw,f jzpfoGm;wmvnf;&Sdawmh rSm jrifaeus trsKd;orD;i,fav;awG[m aumif; &EdkifrSmvm;? 'Db0rsKd;eJ@aiG&Sm &if;
vufrxyfyJ twlaewm? touf 18 ESpf &Sdwmaygh? wcsKd@vnf;at;csrf;wJh b0rsKd; qvif;abmf'Dvdk@ac:wJh oG,fvsydefyg;wJh aiG b,favmuf&&if vlav;pm;r,fhb0/
jynfh&if udk,fhqütwdkif; rdbeJ@ cGJaewm jzpfoGm;=u/ wcsKd@vnf; pDyGm;a&;t& jyef ud, k cf ýmydik &f iS af v;awG rsm;ygw,f? tvS at;csrf;om,m&SdwJhb0udk ajymif; xl
awGawmif&Sdw,f? +yD;awmh pdwftcef@ vm=u&wJh vlawGvnf;&SdwmygyJ? &Sif-ol ydefvm;/ ya,m*ydefvm; cGJjcm;rodEdkifyg? axmif=urSmvJ[if’qdak wmh olw@kd awG rsuf
roifh&if vrf;cGJwmvJ t&rf;jrefw,f? us wdk@a,musmf;awGu rwm;bl;vm;? tif; usaemfqdkifxJrSm v_yf&Sm;aeolav; &nfa0haewJh rsuf0ef;awGeJ@ ai;=unfh ae
aemf ol@udak i;=unf&h if; ar;cGe;f wck ar;csif ajym&&ifawmh rodrjrif [efaqmifwmrsK;d awGudk ai;=unfhaecsdefrSm q&mu xdkif; wmjrif&vdk@ oem;±HkuvGJvdk@ usaemf bmrS
w,fqakd wmh ‘'gawGukd usrwd@k oabmus jzpf r S m yg? jref r mh " avh e J @ =unf h & if a wmh pwdkifudk oabmusaevm;[if? 'DrSmu rwwfEdkifyg? 'DtcsdefrSm ‘pD,usdKif/ pD,
aevm;’vdk@ ar;csifaew,f r[kwfvm;wJh b,fvrkd v S ufcEH ikd pf &mr&Sw
d mtrSeyf gy&J iS ?f rd e f ; uav;trsm;pk u 0&if r vS b l ; vd k @ usKdif’vdk@ygwJh xdkif;oDcsif;oH ‘[k0usdKif/
av? 'gawGudk trSefw&m;vm;vdk@ rajym 'Dtvkyfu0ifaiGu yHkrSefvpmvnf; owf r S w f x m;=uawmh usrud k , f w d k i f [k0usKdif’qkdwJh oDcsif;oHudk xkdif; tysKd
Edkifayr,fh 'DrSmawmh xkdif; vlaer_pepfu &Sdw,f? wpfref;eD;vdk@ac:wJh abmufql; awmif ydeaf tmifrenf;xde;f xm;&wmav rav;u oDqdkwmjrifae&av&J@ ■

12 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)


r,fjrdK@. ysm;yef;cwfr# wOD;uJo h @kd azmufonfrsm;eSifh a,mufsm;ysKd
pnf;um;vSaom naps; aysmfawmfqufrsm;t=um; aps;nd‡ay;&
(Night Bazzar) teD; &Sd onf?
usOf;ajrmif; &SnfarsmI eD jrefrmEdkifiH &Srf;jynfe,frSaeI xdkif;
,Gerf ;D a&mif cyfazsmah zsmh xGe;f !‡x d m;onhf EdkifiHodk@ vma&muftvkyfvkyfudkifolu
tazmftcsw G f bm;qdik w f ef;wck. tv,f/ wpwprsm;vmaeonf? ‚if;wdk@txJwGif
naecif; aysmfyg;pm;aomuf&m ae&mwck Zif;r,fY a,mufsm;jynhfwefqmtjzpf
wGifjzpfonf? EdkifiHjcm;om;wpkudk pdwf0if vma&muf v k y f u d k i f a eol ta&twG u f
wpm; &S d v S y H k j zih f tm&S a ,muf s m;ysd K onfvnf; wdk;vmaevsuf&Sdonf? &Srf;
wodkufu 0dkif;zGJhxkdifaeuonf? tcsdK@EdkifiH jynfe,fEiS fh xdik ;f Edik if H ajrmufyifkd ;f e,ferd w
d f
jcm;om;rsm;udk xdka,mufsm;ysdKrsm;u ESdyf xdpyfaer_a=umihf/ &Srf;vlrsdK;
e,fay;Iyif aeao;onf? usefolrsm;u a&$@ajymif;
‚if;vli,frsm;eSihf w&if;weSD;pum;0dkif;zGJ@
&,farmae=uonf?
ESpfvdkzG,ftjyHK;ydkif&Sif touf 25
ESpft&G,f xdkif;trsdK;om; ''wGef'' u ,ck
qdkifudk zGihfxm;cJhonfrSm weSpfausmfjyD jzpf
onf? oludk,fwdkifu qef@usifzufvdifudk
ES p f o uf o l j zpf a omf v nf ; '' bm;qd k i f & S d
a,mufsm;ysKd aumifav;rsm;'' ESifh vdiq f uf
qH z uf tazmf & S m aeol azmuf o nf
a,mufsm;om;rsm;twGuf oD;oef@ae&m pum;vnf ; wvH k ; rS
wcktjzpf Tbm;cef;udk ol zGiv fh pS cf jhJ cif;jzpf rwwfbl;? bmvkyf&rSef;vnf;rodbl;?
onf? bmrSvnf;rodbl;? rd om;pktwGuf
wGef. tqdkt& 95 &mckdifE_ef;aom tvkyform;rsm;twGuf Zif;r,f vnf; tdrfudkydkufqHjyefydk@&r,f? oHk;ESpf
a,mufsm;jynhfwefqmrsm;onf qef@usif +rdK@o@kd vma&mufI tvky&f mS &efv, G f avmuf usaemf 'Dtvkyfudk vkyfvmcJh
zufvdifudk ESpfoufaom a,mufsm; om; onf? wm tckqdk&if bwfwodef;cGJavmuf rdb
rsm;jzpf=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; rwwf &Srf;vlrsdK;trsm;pkonf vlrsm;tpk pif'D wDvaf e;vf awGqDudk ydk@jyD;oGm;jyD? olwdk@vnf; tdrf
omI pD;yGm;a&;t&om ,cktvkyu f kd vkyf vdkuftjyHKvdkuf t"rRajymif;a&$@cH&jcif;ESihf topf w vH k ; aqmuf E k d i f c J h w ,f ' ' [k
ud k i f a e=u&onf [ k q d k o nf ? Tud e f ; twif;tusyf tvkyfckdif;apjcif; paom azsmfajza&;vkyfief;twGif;odk@ 0ifa&muf atmifu ajymjyonf?
*%ef;udk Mplus [kac:aom tpd;k &r[kwf vl@tcGihfta&;csdK;azmufr_rsm;a=umihf xdkif; vmcJh=uonf? Tvkyfief;onfom +rdK@}uD; Zif;r,f+rdK@twGif; a,mufsm;jynhf
onhftzGJ@tpnf; (tef*sDtdk) wckuvnf; Ekid if t
H wGi;f od@k xGuaf jy;vm=ucsed w f iG f a*s; jy}uD;wGif ‚if;wdk@. pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlr_a&; wefqmtjzpf vkyfudkifaeol &Srf;vlrsdK;
twnfjyLay;onf? wGef.rsufESmcsif;qdkif uJhodk@aom tjcm;olrsm;onfvnf; wdkif; tcuftcJrsm; ajz&Sif;Edkif&eftwGuf qGJ ta&twGuf twdtusukd cef@reS ;f &ef cuf
bm;qdik w f iG f {nh}f udKESifh oef@&iS ;f a&;tvkyf jynfpD;yGm;a&;rwnf+idrfr_a=umihf e,fpyf aqmifrt _ &dq
S ;kH enf;vrf;jzpfaeawmhonf? cJvo S nf? od@k aomf befaumufwiG f usi;f y
orm;tjzpfvyk af eaom ''a*s;'' onfvnf; jzwfausmfI aiG&Smae=u&onf? xdkif;EdkifiH a&$@ajymif; tvkyform;wOD;. wae@wm aom 15 }udraf jrmuf Edik if w H um attdik 'f D
Tvdkvlpm;rsdL;jzpfonf? olu jrefrmEdkifiH onf b0twGuf}uD;yGm;wdk;wuf&mvrf; 0ifaiGonf xdkif;bwfaiG 80 rS 180 (jref tufpfnDvmcHtwGuf xkdif;ekdifiH jynfol@
rS &Srf;vlrsdK;jzpfjyD; touf 21 eSpf[kajym ozG , f j zpf a eonf ? aiG 0 if a umif ; onh f rmaiG 2700 rS 6300) twGif;&dSaecsdefwGif usef ; rma&;0ef } uD ; XmeES i h f yl ; aygif ; I
v#ifyif ol.uav;qefqef tjypfuif;pif tvkyf&Sm&efESihf tdrfwGifusef&pfcJhaom rd vdifazsmfajza&;vkyfief;. wnwm0ifaiG aumuf,lcJhaom 2003 ckESpfavhvmr_
aom oGifjyifa=umihf r,HkEdkifp&m jzpf& om;pktwGuf aiGa=u;jyefvnfydk@ay;Edkif&ef onf bwfaiG 1 aomif;r# (jrefrmaiG 3 wckt& 14 ae&mwGif rSwfwrf;,lcJhaom
onf? olu azmufonfrsm;t=um; rsuf tcGihftvrf;rsm;&edkifonhf wHcg;aygufwck odef;cGJausmf) txd &&dSEdkif=uonf? a,mufsm;jynhfwefqm 198 OD;wGif 49 µ
ESmyef;yGihfol wOD;jzpfonf? olESihf c%wm jzpfaeonf? ''atmif'' onfvnf; Zif;r,f+rdK@wiG f rSm xdik ;f vlrsKd ;r[kwaf om wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;
pum;pjrnfajym=unh&f rkH #EiS yfh if bma=umihf odk@aomf &Srf;vlrsdK;rsm;ESifh tjcm; a,muf s m;aysmf a wmf q uf w OD ; tjzpf jzpf=ujyD; ‚if;wdk@txJrS 64 µ onf &Srf;
ol@udkvl}udKufrsm;&onfudk vG,fvG,fESihf aom a&$@ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm; xdik ;f Edik if H vkyfaeol &Srf;trsdK;om;wOD; jzpfonf? cyf vlrsdK;rsm; jzpf=uonf?
odEikd o f nf? &kyaf jzmihI f ol. &if;ES;D vdu _ v f JS twGi;f &ifqikd af exdik =f u&aom tajctae oG,fvsvs/ ºuGufom;awmihfwif;aom xdkif;EdkifiHwGif jynhfwefqmvkyfief;
pGm aygif;oif;qufqHwwfyHku usp&mjzpf rS m cuf c J = urf ; wrf ; vS o nf ? w&m;0if cE<m/ w&kwfaoG;EG,fI jzpfvmonhf jzLpif onf Oya't& w&m;r0ifonhfvkyfief;
onf? tvkyo f rm;tjzpf rSwyf w kH ifciG fh &d=S uaomf aom tom;t&nfa=umihf ''atmif''onf jzpfaeaoma=umihv f nf; vdiv f yk if ef; vkyf
odk@aomf a*s;u vGefcJhaom weSpfrS vnf; ‚if;vufrSwfrsm;onf rSwfyHkwif Ta'otwGi;f wGif aps;taumif;qH;k &ae udkifolrsm;u odkodkodyfodyf aevdk=uonf?
pI azmufonfrsm;ESifh tjyifrvdu k af wmh? aomae&mtwGif;om c&D;oGm;vmcGihf&Sd+yD; olvnf;jzpfonf? ol. ajyjypfacsmarm odk@twGufa=umihf udef;*%ef;twd tus
vGefcJhaom 10 vcef@rS pI pHkrufjrwfEdk; wES p f o m ouf w rf ; cG i h f j yKxm;onf ? onhfoGifjyifa=umihf azmufonfwOD;xHrS &&dS&efrSm rjzpfEdkifoavmuf&Sdonf? odk@
&aom rdef;uav;wOD;ESihf &nf;pm;jzpfjyD; tvkyform;vufrSwftwGuf ESpfpOfay; bwfaiG 10˜000 cef@txdyif&Edkifonf? aomfvnf; vdifwlcsif;pHkrufol ''a*;''rsm;
uwnf;u jzpfonf? ''vGefcJhwJh 2 ESpf oGif;&aiGrSm 3˜800 bwfr# (jrefrmaiG 1 '' xd k i f ; azmuf o nf t rsm;pk u bwf a iG twGuf oD;oef@ zGihfvSpfxm;aomae&m
avmufu &Srf;jynfe,fuae usaemf Zif; odef; 3 aomif;cGJESihf nDr#onf) &Sd+yD; trsm; waxmif 'grSr[kwf 2 axmifyJ ay;=u rsm; +rdK@wGif;Y wdk;yGm;vmaeyHkudk=unhfI
r,fudk tvkyf&Smzdk@vmcJhw,f? usaemf pktwGufaps;}uD;vGef;vSonf? TaiG yrm w,f? zvef; (taemufEdkifiHom;rsm;) awG t=urf;zsOf;oHk;oyfEdkifonf? e,fomvef
azmufonfawGe@J oGm;zl;ygw,f/ rwwfEikd f %onf ‚if;wdk@. wvvkyfc okd@r[kwf xdk u ydak y;=uw,f'' [k atmifu ajymonf? EdkifiH/ trfqwm'rfwuUodkvf rek\aA'
bl;? bmjzpfv@kd vq J akd wmh usaemf ydu k q f vH kd xufruaom 0ifaiGESihfnDr#aeonf? jref ''wu,fvdk@ ay;Edkifw,fvdk@xif&if zvef; Xme.avhvmr_wckt& 1994 ckESpfY vdif
w,f/ 'gayr,hf usaemf ''uy`wed f'' tvky&f rma&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;u xdkif;EdkifiH awGudk usaemf 5 axmifuae waomif; wlcsif;qufqHolrsm;twGuf zGihfvSpfxm;
awmh 'Dtvkyfrvkyfawmhbl;? em;vdkuf om; tenf;tusOf;om vkyfudkifvdk=u txdawmif;w,f? olwdk@uvnf; ay;=u aom ae&m 8 ae&mom Zif;r,f+rdK@wGif
w,f? tJ'Dtvkyfu raumif;bl;av? us aom tvkyfrsm;udk vkyf=u&onf? T w,f'' olu ajymjyonf? &dScJhaomfvnf; ,ckqdkv#if 35 ae&mcef@
aemfvnf; r}udKufbl;? 'DrSm tvkyfvkyfae tusdK;qufrsm;tjzpf ‚if;wdk@. tvkyf&Sif ''atmif''u qef@usifzufvdifudk ESpf &dSae+yDjzpfonf?
wJh aumifav;awGtm;vH;k vnf; twlwyl ?J rsm;. rw&m;jyKr_/ tEdki fusihfr_rsm;udk oufolwOD; jzpfonf? odk@aomf jrefrm Todk@ vljrifomonhf taetxm;
olwdk@ vkyfomvkyfae&wm r}udKuf=ubl;? vnf; cg;pnf; cHae=u&onf? jynfwGifusefaeaom ol.rdom;pkudk ul atmufwGif &Sdrae=ujcif;a=umihf wdk;wuf
'gayr,hf olwdk@vnf; ydkufqHvdkae=uw,f xdk@twGufa=umihf tcsdK@aomolrsm; nD&ef 0ifaiGvdktyfaeonf? ol@cE<mudk,f rsm;jym;vmaeaom a&$@ajymif; tajccsvm
av''[k a*s;u ajymjyonf? onf pD;yGm;a&;t& ydrk I kd qGaJ qmifr&_ aSd om udk tjcm;a,mufsm;rsm;xH a&mif;&efrw S yg; ol a,mufsm;jynhfwefqmrsm;onf tef*sD
a*s;. tvkyfu qdkifodk@vma&muf toufarG;0rf;a=umif; vkyfief;rsm;odk@ tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &mr&S?d ''usaemf 'Dtvkyu f kd tdkrsm;xHrS tultnDtenf;tusOf;r#udk
pm;oHk;olrsm;udk }udKqdk{nhfcH&onf? {nhf ajymif;vJvkyfudkif=uawmhonf? &Srf;vlrsdK; rvkyfcsifbl;/ 'gayr,hf uGsefawmfbmvkyf& om&&d=S uonf? xdik ;f Edik if aH jrmufyikd ;f &dS tzG@J
onfrsm; pdwfvGwfvufvGwf aysmf&Gif Edkif a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;onf Zif;r,f rSmvJ'' [k olu apm'uwufonf? ''us tpnf;tcsKd @u a&$@ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;
ap&ef pDpOfay;&onf? jynhfwefqmacgif; +rdK@. }uD;xGm;xGef;um;vmaeaom vdif aemf Zif;r,fudka&mufcgpwkef;u xdkif; pmrsuEf mS (15) od@k

rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 13


a & m if jc nf OD ; a A ' if
atmufvuf i,fom;awG&J@ qef@usifawmfvSefwmawGudk =uHKawG@&vdrfhr,f? vkyfief;rSm tcuftcJawG
awG@&vdrfhr,f? rar#mfvifhbJ pdwfnpfp&mawG a&mufvmwwfygw,f? vkyfaewJh tvkyfudkvnf; pdwf
r0ifpm;bJ pdwfavaewwfygw,f? oGm;awG 'kQay;vdrfhr,f? udk,fhaiGawG olrsm;vufxJ oGm;+yD; ðryfae
wwfygw,f?
txl;owdðy&ef ❏ cg;em/ ajcaxmufem jzpfwwfw,f? vuf&Sd tvkyfuae tjcm;udk ajymif;vdkpdwf ay:
wwfygw,f? rajymif;ygeJ@ vuf&Sdtvkyfu awmfao;w,f? aemuf ajymif;r,fhtvkyfu oifhudk tusKd;
we*FaEGae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm; ray;ygb;l ? 'DepS rf mS oif[m tdrrf mS ae&wmudk raysmyf u
kd b
f J &Sv
d rd rhf ,f? ta=umif;trsK;d rsK;d eJ@ jrnfweG f awmuf
oifhtwGuf uHaumif;wJh tcsdefygyJ? c&D;a0;/ c&D;eD; ESpfrsKd;pvHk; aysmfaysmf&$if&$if oGm;&wwfw,f? wD;p&mawG ay:aevdrfhr,f? tdrfwGif;a&;vnf; romr,m jzpfwwfygw,f?
&mxl;awGvnf; wdk;vdrfhr,f? qHk;rvdkjzpfaewJh yPnf;awGvnf; jyef&wwfygw,f? yPnf;opf/ t0wftpm; ,=wm ❏ r=umc% Aka<gqdkwJh *k%fawmfudk ykwD;pdyfay;yg? tcg}uD; &uf}uD;awGeJ@ qHk&if oufowfvGwf
opf/ pufawG/ pdeaf wG 0ifwwfw,f? r*Fvm udPvnf; aqmif&u G af y;&wwfw,f? vGwv f yf+yD; t&G,af &muf pm;ay;yg?
olrsm; tdrfaxmifuswwfygw,f?
txl;owdðy&ef ❏ 0efxrf;rsm;jzpfu oifwef;wuf&wwfw,f? aqGrsK;d nDtpfukd armifErS / rdwaf qGtaygi;f =umoyaw;ae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm;
toif; &if;ESD;olrsm;xJrS wpfOD;OD; wdrf;yg;wwfw,f? tvkyfwGif tenf;i,f twdkuftcH awG@&onfrSty olwpfyg;u ud, k uhf kd ta=umif;rJh wku d cf u
kd +f yD; tusK;d rJah tmif ðyvkyw
f wfygw,f? jyD;awmh raumif;
aumif;w,f? nDtpfudk armifeSrwpfOD;OD;jzpfap/ vufatmufi,fom; wpfOD;OD;jzpfap tr_jzpfwwfw,f? owif;vnf; v$ifhwwfygao;w,f? &yfa0;u ouf}uD;&G,ftdkawG udk,fhqDrSm vm+yD; wnf;wwfw,f?
,=wm ❏ tdyf&ma&$Œtdyfvdkufyg? qif;&JEGrf;yg;oludk c&D;p&dwf axmufyHhay;yg? +y;D awmh ±kww f &uf use;f rma&;nHjh y;D qH;k yg;wwfw,f? vufrcH &if taumif;qH;k ygy?J cGpJ w d uf o k cH&zd@k ued ;f awG
juHk&wwfw,f? ±kwfw&uf avatmifhwm jzpfwwfygw,f? t&G,fa&muf+yD;wJh om;orD;awG &Sd&if owd
wevFmae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm; xm;&r,f? 'DESpfxJrSm tdrfaxmifuswwfw,f?
aysmfp&maumif;wJh tvkyfawGudk vkyf&vdrfhr,f? vkyfief;wdk;wufwmrsKd;/ &mxl; wdk;wufwmrsKd; txl;owdðy&ef ❏ tvkyftudkif xdcdkufwwfw,f? tdrfom;awG wpfa,mufjyD; wpfa,muf usef;rma&;
=uHKawG@&ygvrd rhf ,f? vlrsK;d jcm; bmomjcm;awG rpwwfygw,f? wpfck owdxm;&rSmuawmh rkq;kd r{nfo h nf nHv h @kd aq;±Hyk @kd &wwfw,f? olrsm;twGuf oufaovdu k &f wwfw,f? tr_tcsKyf a&mufaewJv h u
l kd tmrcHe@J
ntdyfvufcHrd&if rar#mfvifhbJ tr_jzpfwwfygw,f? olrsm;vmtyfwJh yPnf;a[mif;awG/ tzdk;rwefwJh xkwf&wwfw,f? xdkvluyJ udk,fhudk taumif;rajymbJ aus;Zl;uef;wmudk cH&vdrfhr,f? aiGawGbmawG
ausmufrsu&f wemawGukd vufrcH&bl;? vufcv H u
kd &f if vmbfww
d of mG ;wwfw,f? wpfco k wdxm;&rSmu aysmufwwfw,f?
tdrfudk q&mtwkta,mifawG a&mufvmwwfw,f? pufyPnf;0,fr,f qdk&if owdxm;yg? =unfhwkef;u ,=wm ❏ bkef;}uD;udkvnf; pwkr"l vSLyg? ajrcsKdifhawG &Sm+yD; tkef;cGHeJ@ vrf;cif;ay;yg?
taumif;/ ud, k v hf ufxaJ &mufrS tysujf zpfaewwfw,f? em;vnfwhJ olawGukd jy+yD;0,fwm taumif;qH;k
ygy?J aom=umae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm;
txl;owdðy&ef ❏ um;&Sd&ifawmh olrsm;um;u yGwfwdkufoGm;jcif;/ csdwfoGm;jcif; =uHKawG@&wwfygw,f? vlcspfvlcif aygrsm;wJhumvygyJ? bk&m;qif;wkawmfawG tdrfudkºuvmwwfw,f? vkyfief;opfawG
tvkyt f udik af umif;+yD; tvkyrf mS twdu k t
f cHawmh&w dS ,f? txufv}l uD;u rdrt
d ay:rSm txifvJG wwfyg vkyrf ,fq&kd if 'Dv[m taumif;qH;k ygy?J xl;xl;jcm;jcm; aiG0ifvmwwf ygw,f? tvSLr*Fvmrsm; ðyvkyaf y;&
w,f? oifydkifwJh yPnf;awGudkawmh owdxm;jyD; odrf;qnf;yg? olckd; cdk; cH&wwfygw,f? wwfw,f? tvky/f tdraf e&m tajymif;ta&$@ &Syd gw,f? 'Dxufaumif;wJah e&m jzpfvrd rhf ,f? aysmyf &JG i$ yf rJG sm;
,=wm ❏ bJom;udk tkef;oD;eJ@csuf av;qifhcsKdifheJ@ xnfhjyD; bkef;}uD;ausmif;udkydk@yg? Ak<[l;ae@rSm vkyfyg? uvnf; zdwf=um;vdrfhr,f? a&S;a[mif; yPnf;awG xl;xl;jcm;jcm; &wwfw,f?
txl;owdðy&ef ❏ tr_jzpfaeolrsm;udk aiGacs;/ tmrcH rvdkufygESifh? pD;yGm;tqifajyonfeSifhtr# tdrf
t*F gae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm; axmifa&;eSifh ywfoufaom t±_yft&Sif;rsm; jzpfwwfw,f?
bmawGyjJ zpfjzpf/ bmawGy=J uKH=uKH wpfcgwnf;eJ@ r+y;D bl;? ESpcf g ESpcf g xyf+y;D jzpfwwfwhJ oabm&Sw
d ,f? ,=wm ❏ tdrfu bk&m;rSm aumf&nfacgufqGJ vSLay;yg?
rar#mvf ifb
h J ±kww
f &uf aiGawG 0ifvmwwfw,f? aiGawG vnf; pkaqmif;rdEidk w f mayg?h wpfcyk J owdxm;&r,f?
wpfcsw
D nf; tyGjuw H mrsK;d / taumuf=uw H mrsK;d rvkyef @J ? xDawG bmawGvnf; ayguw f wfygw,f? 0goemyg&if paeae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm;
wevFmae@ (11) em&DwdwdrSm a&S@u (77) ESpfvHk;yl;wJhxDrsKd; xdk;&r,f? oifhtdrfudk udk,f0efaqmifonf aqGrsKd;om;csif;awGxJu touf}uD;olawG qHk;yg;wwfw,f? atmufvufi,fom; wynfhwyef;
a&mufvm+yD; ntdyfnae wnf;cdk&if/ 'grSr[kwf e*dkuwnf;u udk,f0efaqmifonf &SdaecJh&if xDqk}uD; awG udk,fhqDu xGufoGm;jyD; udk,feJ@rwnfhwJh vlqD a&mufoGm;wwfw,f? tdrfaxmif&Sd&ifvnf; wusuf
aygufwwfygw,f? usuf jzpfwwfygw,f? rdrt d rd af jc&if;bufrmS tokb ay:wwfw,f? ay:&ifawmh (5) *%ef;tp xDx;kd ay;yg?
txl;owdðy&ef ❏ usef;rma&; *±kpdkufyg? OD;acgif;eJ@ 0rf;Adkuf 'kQay;wwfygw,f? acgif;rl;wwfw,f? Akduf xDqk}uD; aygufwwfygw,f? udk,fu ay;p&m&SdwJhaiG csufcsif;ay;&r,f? &p&m&SdwJh aiGuawmh r&bJ &Sdvdrfh
atmifh/ 0rf;ysufwwfw,f? q&morm;vdk yk~KdvfrsKd; tdrfa&mufvm+yD; 'kQay;wwfygw,f? tdrfrSm t&G,f r,f? rar#mfvifhbJ tr_tcif; jzpfwwfygw,f? ajz&Sif;p&m jyoemawG ay:wwfygw,f?
a&muf+yD;wJh a,musfm;av; rdef;uav; &Sd&ifawmh owdxm;yg? tdrfu xGufoGm;wwfygw,f? txl;owdðy&ef ❏ remvdw k vhJ al wGvyk vf @kd vkyif ef;awG xdcu
kd wf wfygw,f? vkyaf zmf udik zf ufcsi;f pdw0f rf;uGJ
,=wm ❏ wevFmaxmifhu bk&m;udk wevFmae@rSm a&o`m,fay;yg? wmudk }uHKawG@&vdrfhr,f? usef;rma&; nHhwwfw,f? aiGa=u; qHk;yg;wwfw,f? tvkyfawG wpfck+yD;wpfck
vkyaf e&vd@k tvGeuf kd yifyef;ygvrd rhf ,f? tvkyrf mS pdwrf 0ifpm;ovdk jzpfaewwfygw,f? tvkyrf mS jyoemay:
Ak<[l;ae@wGif arG;zGm;ol yk~dKvfrsm; wwfygw,f? ynmwpfck&vdrfhr,f? ynmxl;jzpfr,f? ra&mufzl;wJh c&D;udk ±kwfw&uf oGm;&wwfw,f?
olwpfyg;twGuf tmrcHwmrsK;d / ud,
k pf m;vdu
k +f yD; ajymay;wmrsK;d rvkyyf ge@J / 'kQa&mufwwfygw,f? ,=wm ❏ wpfywfrmS wpf}urd af vmuf apwDawmf wpfqq l u
l kd oGm;jy;D t"dÏmefyw
k ;D pdyyf g? aumif;wmuawmh
nHhaewJhtxJuae+yD; ajr0ifvmwwfygw,f? rar#mfvifhbJ tr_tcif; jzpfwwfygao;w,f? owdxm;yg? Aka<gqdkwJh *k%fawmfudk pdyfoifhygw,f?

EdkifiHwck&J@ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfawGa=umifh jzpfysuf&wJh tusKd;qufawGayhgaemf/


pmrsufESm (9) ''bm;bD,muapmifhaer,f'' rS tquf
b,frdef;uav;jzpfjzpf 'Db0 rsKd;awGeJ@awmh &Sifoefcsif=urSm r[kwfygbl;? rvkyfcsifbJeJ@
vkyfae&wJh b0awGaygh? ydkxl;jcm;wmu olrsm;EdkifiHrSm vdifu|ef tqifhomomeJ@ b0udk
oabmawmhaqmifygw,f? od@k ayr,fh xda&mufra_ wmh odwrf &Sb d ;l usrwd@k a&S@rmS yJ aoqH;k ±kef;uefv_yf&Sm;ae=u&wmr[kwfvm;? wqufwnf;ajym&&if r,m;i,fb0eJ@ aexdkif
oGm;wJ/h aoqH;k aewJh rde;f uav;awG awG@ae&wmyJav? 'Da&m*g[m a=umufp&maumif; ae=u&wJh rde;f uav;awGa&m b,fvkd usrwd@k ajym&rvJ? wdik ;f jynfuckd mG / rdbeJ@a0;/ aqGrsK;d
ayr,fh &Supf &mrvdb k ;l / pdwyf ikd ;f qdik &f m cdik rf matmif wnfaqmufz@kd awGukd oifjyaqG;aEG; eJ@uif;/ cdkudk;&mrJhwJ tusnf;wefvSwJh b0qdk;awGygyJ?
&wmayg?h trsK;d om;csi;f apmifah &Smufun l rD a_ wG trsm}uD;vdktyfaeygw,f? usaemf vGefcJhwJh q,fESpfu =uHKcJh&wmawG jyefpOf;pm; =um;a,mifaewJh yHk&dyfoH
xdik ;f &JawG&@J tEdik uf siw hf mwd@k bmwd@k a&m? odyaf wmhr=um;&ygb;l / rdeu f av;wcsK@d e@J awGyg? rdwfaqGjzpfoleJ@ aemufae@ pum;0dkif;rSm 'Dae@ tajctaeudk ar;=unfhaerdw,f?
ppfwrf;vkyf=unfhwkef;u wef&mwefa=u;ay;ygw,fwJh/ 'gayr,fh udk,foGm;csifwJhvleJ@ bmuGmrSmvJAsm? &Dp&majym&&ifawmh tcef;wufaps;awG jrifhvmw,f/ aumifrav;
roGm;&awmhbl;aygh/ olwdk@eJ@ vdkuf&wmayghwJh? wcg usrwdk@ =uHK&wJh udPav;wckudk awGu rl;,pfaq;0g;oHk;pJGr_awG wdk;yGm;vmw,f/ o,fw,f/ a&mif;w,f/ 0,fw,f? ae@
ajymjycsiyf gw,f? xdik ;f Edik if t
H m%mydik af wGu vluek u f ;l r_ukd ESrd ef if;wJt
h cgayg?h apmapmu vnfae@cif; tysi;f ajyqdw k hJ zJ0ikd ;f awGukd axmifcsu
D pm;ae=uw,f? qdik af wG rsm;vmw,f/
ajymwJh tjyifrmS aexdik w f hJ rde;f cav;awG trsm;pk zrf;qD;cH&w,f? wyfccf ±dik f xde;f odr;f a&; txl;ojzifh jrefrmoDcsi;f awGqv kd @kd &awmh um&mtdak uqdik af wG aygvmw,f? topfawG
pcef;udkydk@vdkufw,f? usrwdk@tzJG@xJu wm0ef&SdolwOD;udk pum;jyeftjzpf ac:,l oGm;cJh vnf; wa,muf+yD;wa,muf a&mufvmaew,faygh? jrefrmjynfeJ@vnf; odwfruGmyg
w,f/ t"duajymcsifwmu olwdk@udk Oya't&qdk&if trsm;}uD; ta&;,lvdk@&ygw,f/ bl;? jynfwGif;rSm 'Dtvkyf vkyfae=uolav;awGeJ@ 'DrSm&SdaewJh olav;awG epfrGef;aewm
w&m;r0ifaexdkifr_/ w&m;r0iftvkyfvkyfr_/ jynfhwefqmr_/ vlukeful;r_eJ@awmh wdkuf±dkuf awGuawmh twlwlygyJ? cifAsm;ajymwJh vGefcJhwJh q,fESpfueJ@ uGmjcm;csufawGuawmh
rqufpyfbl;aygh? 'gayr,fh 'DtxJrSm a&mif;pm;cH&wJh rdef;uav;awGygw,f? touf a,bk,s tJ'gawGayghAsm/? 'gayr,fh 'Dae@umvrSmawmh usef;rma&;todynmay;r_awG
rjynfhao;wJh rdef;uav;awGygw,f? wyfcfudka&mufoGm;wJh rdef;uav;awGudk xdkif; udkawmh ydkrdkod&Sdem;vnfvm=uw,f? tdyfcsftdkifADG/attdkif'Dtufpfa&m*gonfawGudk 0dkif;
tm%mydik af wGu pepfwus rSww f rf;jyK+yD; toufrjynfw h hJ rde;f uav; 3 OD;udk trsK;d orD; 0ef; ulnDapmifha&SmufwJh tzJG@tpnf;awG/ a*[mawG ay:aygufvmwmuawmh 0rf;
jyKjyifa&;ausmif;udkydk@ay;w,f/ usefolawGudk rJaqmufjyefydk@+yD; w&m;r0ifaexdkifr_eJ@ ajrmufzdk@ aumif;ygw,f? 'DvdkygyJav? olajymwJh 'DvdkygyJavudk usaemf teuf t"d`m,f
ta&;,lcJhw,f? tJ jynfhwefqmacgif;udkawmh apmapmu tr_awGeJ@ axmif'%f csrSwf zGiqhf =kd unfrh aeawmhyg? usaemf oufjyif;wcsurf w _ x
f w
k &f if; trdjrefrm jynf urf;bufukd
vdkufw,faygh? vGrf;vGrf;qGwfqGwf ai;&Daerdw,f?
'DraJ qmufrmS w&m;0ifa&m w&m;r0ifa&m tvkyo f rm; wode;f avmuf &Sw d ,fv@dk bm;bD,mu apmifah er,fh rde;f uav;udyk J vGr;f aerdovm;/ atmufarh aeovm;
od&w,f/ tvkyform;ta&; aqmif&GufwJh tzJG@tpnf;awGvnf;&Sdw,fqdkawmh Sex rajymjywwfawmhyg?
worker awGeJ@ywfoufvdk@ aqmif&GufcsufawGa&m &Sdvm;vdk@ar;awmh usrwdk@ od& niSuaf v;awG&@J yso H ef;&mvrf;a=umif;rsm;rSmawmh =urf;wrf;vSwhJ rkew f ikd ;f awGu
oavmuf xJx0J if0if aqmif&u G Ef ikd rf a_ wmh tm;enf; ygw,f/ vufvrS ;f rDoavmufawmh qD;}uKdaerSm aocsmw,f?
vkyf =uygw,f/ usef;rma&;ynmay;vdk vkyfief;rsKd;aygh/ bma=umifhvJqdkawmh vkyfief;
cGife,fy,fjcif; rwlnDwma=umifhvnf; jzpfygvdrfhr,f? ausmfoufaxG;
'DtusKd;qufawGudk b,fvdkjrifvJvdk@ usaemf pl;prf;=unfhygw,f? &Sif;ygw,f &Sif/ ■

14 a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f twGJ (1) trSwf (2)


umwmtdk;yif; wif;epfyGJtwGif; Kuznetsova ESifh
Ivanoviv wdkh xGuf&jyD
'dk[m/ azazmf0g&D 23 &uf
2008

umwmtdk;yif; wif;epf+ydKifyGJ
twGi;f vGecf ahJ om =umoyaw;
ae@u ±k&Sm;rS Svetlana Kuznet-
FA zvm; uGm;wm;yGpJ OftwGi;f Chelsea eSihf
sova ESifh qm;bD;,m;EkdifiHol
Ana Ivanovic wdk@rSm oJ
Barnsley wdahk wG&Y rnf
rk e f w d k i f ; usa&muf + yD ; vef'ef/ azazmf0g&D 20 &uf 2008
aemufwGif xGufoGm;
&+yD j zpf a =umif ; od &
onf?
aqmf ' D t ma&AsEk d i f i H
wGif wkdufcufcJhonfh rkefwdkif;rS
wqifh ,if;wkd@ESpfOD;. uH=uRm
rsm;udkvnf; o,faqmifoGm;cJh+yD
jzpf o nf ? qmbD ; ,m; xd y f w ef ;
upm;r,f Ivanovic rSm Ak<[l;ae@u
ajcrsufpdtqpfvnfoGm;+yD; vJusoGm;
cJhojzifh yGJrS xGufoGm;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf?
±k&mS ;Ekid if o
H l Kuznetsova rSmrl aemuf
qHk;rSwf 3 }udrfwkdif upm;cJh+yD;aemuf uGif;
twGi;f rS pm&Gurf sm;avESihf twl usa&muf
FA zvm; òyifyGJtwGif; 5 ausmh emrnf}uD; Man U toif;rSm y&D;
vmojzifh 3 }udrfwkdif upm;cJh+yD; E_wfxGuf
oGm;&jcif; jzpfonf? olrtm; Ekdifajctqifh ajrmufyGJpOfwGif Liverpool toif;tm; rD;,m;vd*fyGJpOftwGif; Portsmouth eSifh
15&Sd =opa=w;v#ol Sybille Bammer rS 6- tHh=op&mtEdkif,lcJhol Barnsley rSm ‚ oa&upm;cJh+yD; ‚. FA yGt J wGi;f Arse-
3/ 7-6 (16§8) jzifh tEkdif&&SdoGm;jcif; jzpf . uGmwm;zdkife,f yGJpOftjzpf Chelsea nal toif ; tm; 4-0 jzif h tEd k i f , l cJ h

onf? toif;ESihf tdru


f iG ;f wGif ,SOòf yifupm;&rnf onfrmS tH=h op&myif jzpfaecJah =umif; od&
,ckyGJESifh ywfouf+yD; Kuznetsova rS jzpfonf? onf?
Barnsley rS m Liverpool tm; FA yGJpOf twGif; Shuffield United
ajym&mY olrtaejzifh wefjyef wdkufppfrsm;
qifcahJ =umif; od@k &mwGif vH;k vH;k rwku d cf u
kd Ef idk f ‚tdrfuGif; Anfield wGif 2-1jzifh thH=o odk@r[kwf Middlesbrough wdk@rSm usef&Sd
cJhbJ yGJ+yD;onftxd trSwfenf;um ±_H;edrfh oifhzG,f tEdkif&oGm;csdefwGif Chelsea rSm onfh yGJpOftm; upm;&OD;rnf jzpfonf?
Huddessfield toif;tm; 3-1 jzifh tEdkif
cJh&jcif; jzpfa=umif; 0efcHajym=um;cJhonf?

,loGm;cJhonf? ■

pmrsuEf mS (13) a,musmf ;aysmaf wmfquf rS tquf a&;apmihaf &Smufre_ @J taxmuftyHah wGay; +yD;wd;k cs@J vyk zf @kd txl;vdt
k yfaeygao;w,f? rsm;ud k yd k q d k ; apygonf ? txl ; ojzih f
zdk@ }udK;pm;aeygw,f'' [k Mplus . pDrH txl;ojzihf Mplus &Jhvkyfief;awGrSm yg0if a,mufsm;jynhfwefqmrsm;onf xdkif;EdkifiH
qdik &f m udp&P yfrsm;eSifh tjcm;aom vlenf;pk ude;f refae*sm y'fxyfqikd f (Pad Thepsai) vmzdk@&m bmompum;t& tcuftcJjzpf twGif;&dS vdifvkyfief;vkyfudkifae=u olrsm;
wdkif;&if;om;rsm;ta&;udk 0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif; u ajymjyonf? ''olwdk@udk,f olwdk@ xl aewJh &Srf;trsdK;om;awGtwGuf ydk+yD;vkyf teuf txl;csdK;ESdrfcH=u&onf? odk@aomf
ay;aecsdefwGif tvGefenf;yg;vSaom tef axmifEdkifzdk@twGuf usaemfwdk@u ulnDay; ay;zdk@ vdktyfaeygao;w,f'' [k '&ufpf vnf; xif&mS ;aomtcsurf mS Zif;r,f+rdK@.
*sDtdktzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onfom a,mufsm; csifygw,f'' [kvnf; qdkonf? xdktzGJ@ emu ajymjyonf? vd i f a &mif ; 0,f a &;vk y f i ef ; onf t&d S e f
jynhw f efqmrsm;ESiyfh wfoufaom udprP sm; tpnf;onf a,mufsm; jynhfwefqmrsm; txl;ojzihf xdkif;EdkifiHtwGif;ESihf T t[kefaumif;aumif;jzihf wdk;wufus,f
udk wdkuf&dkufajz&Sif;aqmif&Guf ay;ae=u ESihf vli,frsm;tm; owif;tcsuftvuf vkyfief;twGif;odk@ topf0ifa&mufvm jyef@vmaeygonf? 0rf;enf;zG,faumif;
onf? rsm; jzef@a0ay;jcif;ESihf vdifrSwqihf ul;puf ump &Srf;vlrsdK;ESihf jrefrmvlrsdK; vdifa&mif; onfrSm taxmuftyhHay;aom vlr_0ef
''befaumufu Swing tzGJ@eJ@ Zif; aqmifr_vkyfief;rsm; zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufvmjcif;
wwfaoma&m*grsm; rjyef@yGm;apa&;[l 0,f=uolrsm;onf vdifr_qdkif&m ynma&;
r,f+rdK@u Mplus tzG@J rsm;uom vdiaf ysmf aom&nf&G,fcsufjzihf uGef'Hk;tpGyfrsm; tc udk rodEdkif=uacs? xdk@tjyif olwdk@. ,Of r&d S a o;aoma=umih f vl i ,f r sm;onf
awmfqufvkyfief; vkyfudkifae=uolrsm;eJ@ rJhjzef@a0ay;aeaom tzGJ@jzpfonf? uGif; aus;r_t&vnf; vdiu f pd rP sm;udk yGiyfh iG v
fh if; vlr_a&;/ pdwfydkif;qdkif&mESihf usef;rma&;
wGJvkyfae=uwm&Sdw,f? bma=umihfvJqdk qif;vkyfief;rsm;udkvnf; twGif;ususwdk; vif;ajym&ef ydwfyifxm;ao;onf? rajym jy\emrsm;eSifh &ifqikd af e=u&qJ jzpfonf?
awmh olwdk@u a,mufsm;jynhfwefqmawG csJ@ pnf;&Hk;vkyfudkifaeonf? xkdif;edkifiHonf tyf&m[k jrifae=uonf? jrefrmedkifiH. csdK@ txl;ojzihf &Srf;vli,frsm;. b0rSmvnf;
jzpfaevdk@yJ? t"dutm;jzihfawmh wjcm; tm&Swdkuf. tjcm;aom edkifiHrsm;eSihf E_dif; wJ h a om ynma&;pepf E S i h f usef ; rma&; Tavmu twGi;f Y wd;k wufvmEdik zf , G &f m
ta=umif; r&dSygbl;'' [k rm;uyfpf '&ufpf ,SOv f #if HIV§ AIDS ESifh tjcm;aom vdif apmihfa&Smufr_vkyfief;rsm;a=umihfvnf; r&dS/ epfjrKyfae=u&qJ jzpfonf?
em (Marcus Dresner) u ajymjyonf? qufqHr_a=umihf ul;pufaoma&m*grsm; owif ; tcsuf t vuf r sm;ud k tenf ;
rm;uyfpf'&ufpfemonf *smrefvlrsdK; vl@ jzpfEe_ ;f avsmeh nf;aeaomfvnf; xkid ;f edik if .H tusOf;om odEdkif=uonf? ''&Srf;vlrsdK;awG (,ckaqmif;yg;yg vdifazsmfajza&;vkyfief;
tcGihfta&;v_yf&Sm;olwOD;jzpfjyD; r=um jynfol@usef;rma&;0ef}uD;XmeESihf tar&d [m tckvid af &mif;0,f=uwJh pD;yGm;a&;vkyf vkyfudkifae=uolrsm;.trnfrsm;udk
ao;rDuyif Zif;r,f+rdK@twGi;f &dS a,mufsm; uefEdkifiH/ a&m*gxdef;csKyfa&;ESihf umuG,f ief;tqihfrSm atmufqHk;tv$mrSm &dSae ajymif;vJxm;ygonf)
jynhfwefqmrsm; vlr_a&;t&ty,fcH&r_/ a&;XmerS pkaygif;jyKvkyfaom 2005 ckESpf =uygw,f'' [k '&ufpfemu ajymjyonf?
taxmuftyHhrsm;&&Sdr_rsm;eSihf ywfoufI avhvmcsuft& Zif;r,f+rdK@&dS a,mufsm; ''olwdk@wawG[m tultnDtvdktyfqHk; 2007 ckESpf arvxkwf {&m0wDr*~Zif;rS
avhvmaecJholjzpfonf? Mplus tzGJ@u jynhfwefqmrsm;. 11²4µ wGif HIV a&m olawGyg? 'gayr,hf olwdk@twGuf tcGihf Cindy Tilney a&;om;aom
xdkif;EdkifiHajrmufydkif;&Sd "a,mufsm;csif; vdif *gydk; pGJuyfaeonf[k cef@rSef; xm;=u tvrf;enf;enf;yJ &dSaeygw,f''[k olu Male Order Business udk
wlqufqaH om a,mufsm;rsm;" ok@d r[kwf onf? xyfrH jznhfpGufIqdkonf? qDavsmfatmifjyefqdkygonf?
MSM rsm;twGuf tcrJu h ok ay;aom aq; ''Mplus &J h a qmif & G u f r _ a wG [ m vlr_todkif;t0ef;&Sd tqdk;jrif tpGJ
cef;wckudkvnf; zGihfvSpfxm;ay;onf? wu,hfudk wefzdk;&dSvSygw,f? 'gayr,hf vl tvrf;rsm;a=umihf vdifvkyfief;vkyfudkif
''usaemfwdk@u a,mufsm;jynhfwef
xkeJ@ xdawG@qufqH&wJh vkyfief;awGudk ydk ae=uolrsm; awG@=uHKae&aom jy\em
qmawGukd owif;tcsut f vuf/ use;f rm
rwfv 2008 ckESpf a&mifjcnfOD; tvkyform;a&;&m*sme,f 15