The

term "Scheduled Tribes" refers to specific indigenous people whose status is acknowledged to some formal degree by national legislation. A collective term in use locally to describe most of these peoples is "Adivasi"(literally it means "First/Ancient Inhabitants“. a total of 645 tribes are listed as Scheduled tribe. Tribal population 1991- 67.76 million 2001 - 84.32 million i.e. 8.2% of total population of India.

Scheduled Tribes

Highest

number of tribal concentration in states of Madhya Pradesh(15.40), Maharashtra(7.32), Orissa (7.03), Bihar (6.61) and Gujarat ( 6.16 ). In Rajasthan, West Bengal & Andhra Pradesh – 3-4 million each. In 7 sister states like Mizoram, Nagaland ,Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh the tribal population is more than 80 % of the total state population.

Spatial Distribution of the tribal population

Live in isolated terrains. Main source of livelihood

is agriculture and collection of forest produce. They do not know commercial cultivation. They still relay on barter system. They spend a greater portion of their earnings on religious and ceremonies. Mostly they are illiterate Victimized by unscrupulous forest contractors and moneylender.

Important features of Tribes of India

 Small landholding leads to chronically indebtedness.  Less people works on secondary & tertiary sector.  Literacy rate among them are very low – 29.30%.  A good proportion of tribal land are legally transferred

to non-tribal.  Banking facilities are inadequate in tribal areas.  Their agricultural style is primitive and required development.  Isolated life  Alienation of tribal's from their culture because of interference by the missionaries.

Tribal Problems

Numerous

tribal revolt took place before independence. After independence the movements are of following types – Movements seeking political autonomy ( Nagas Mizos, Jharkhand ) Agrarian movements ( Gonds Bhils of M.P.) Forest based movement ( Socio-religious and socio cultural movement. (Bhagat movement among Bhils of MP)

Tribal Struggles

Abolition

of Bonded Labour in 1976. Organizing LAMPS ITDP Improvement through 20 Point programme Establishment of TRI Creation of TRIFED

Development Programmes

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