2014

By Marcus Busby
5/31/2014
A GARDEN CITY OF TODAY
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Copyright © Marcus Busby,2014
I hereby assert the moral right to be identified as the author of this work

Marcus D. Busby 31
st
May 2014

A digital copy of this work may be downloaded from www.scribd.com/marcusbusby
All rights reserved. No part of this publication, images or text may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying
or otherwise without citation and reference to the author.




To contact the author:
Marcus Busby
Email: marcusbusby@gmail.com
Telephone 0033 (0) 617 811859
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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CONTENTS

List of illustrations…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
List of tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
List of charts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
1.0 VISION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 21
1.1 Distribution and Density…………………………………………………………………… 21
1.2 Travel and Mobility………………………………………………………………………….. 25
1.3 City Sectors………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
1.4 Land Use…………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
i) Patch Zoning………………………………………………………………………………. 40
ii) Built Space and Private Gardens…………………………………………………. 41
iii) City Green Space………………………………………………………………………… 41
iv) Green Belt and Wider Environment……………………………………………. 41
1.5 Landscape Pattern…………………………………………………………………………….. 47
1.6 Land Allocation…………………………………………………………………………………. 49
1.7 Implementation and Construction Phases………………………………………… 50
2.0 ECONOMIC VIABILITY………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
i) Progression and Growth…………………………………………………………………….. 54
ii) Linear and Non-Linear Growth……………………………………………………………. 55
2.1 Economic Activities in the Garden City……………………………………………… 56
3.0 POPULARITY………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

CLOSING STATEMENT………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71



A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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List of Illustrations

1. Examples of low Carbon public transport options 13
2. Howard’s original design overlaying the Garden City of Today. Note: The scales are matched. 15
3. Scale map of the Garden City of Today. 16
4. Travel Networks in the Garden City of Today 17
5. Sector model of the Garden City of Today 18& 27
6. Landscape zones in a Garden City of Today 19
7. Landscape zones in a Group of Garden Cities 20
8. Sub-divisions within the Garden City of Today. 22
9. Travel networks in the Garden City of Today (Section) 26
10. Model of the City Centre Sector with building allocation chart 29
11. Outer Central Sector - district model with economic composition chart. 30
12. Satellite Centre Sector - district model with building allocation chart 32
13. Intercity Commercial Sector - district model with building allocation chart 33
14. Intercity Route Sector - district model with building allocation chart 35
15. Figure 12. Inter-Vale Sector - district model with building allocation chart 36
16. Rural Districts Sector - district model with building allocation chart 37
17. Zone0 in the Garden City of Today (the built environment) 42
18. Location and Distribution of Landscape Zones in the Garden City of Today 43
19. Landscape Zones in the Garden City of Today. 44
20. Modern uses of industrial Hemp. 45
21. Landscape Pattern in and around the Garden City of Today. 47
22. Existing and Proposed Habitats for Lucanuscervus in Bournemouth 2006. 49
23. Spider diagram of Words conveying Viability. 54


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List of Tables

1. Summary of Guidance Figures for a Garden City of Today 14
2. Sectors in the Garden City of Today 18 & 27
3. Comparisons of area, population and density. 21
4. Spatial categories and distribution of building units and residents within the Garden City of Today. 22
5. Development land allocation per spatial category (Zone 0 land). 22 & 38
6. Building Asset Composition - commercial and social activities. 28
7. Land coverage in terms of footprint of built space and green space. 39
8. Patch and Zone Sizes in the Garden City of Today. 40
9. Comparisons of surface area per person. 49
10. Generalised implementation phases of the Garden City of Today. 50 - 53
11. Landscape zones; descriptions, activities and uses. 71 - 73




List of Charts

1. Percentages of Built Space vs. Green Space related to City Expansion 39
2. Percentages of Land Cover (Built Space vs. Green Space) as Population rises
using the Garden City of Today as a Settlement Development Model 40
3. Comparison of energy production in the UK in 1990 and 2010 by source 59
4. Comparison of energy production in the UK and the Garden City of Today 60
5. Energy output in the UK by source 2007 61
6. Energy output in the Garden City of today by source. 61



A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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“Thirty spokes together make a wheel for a cart.
It is the empty space in the center
of the wheel which enables it to be used.
Mold clay into a vessel;
it is the emptiness within
that creates the usefulness of the vessel.
Cut out doors and windows in a house;
it is the empty space inside
that creates the usefulness of the house.
Thus, what we have may be something substantial,
But its usefulness lies in the unoccupied, empty space.
The substance of your body is enlivened
by maintaining the part of you that is unoccupied.”

(Lao Tzu - Tao TehChing v.11)






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“The Tree of Life is embedded in the Snowflake,
its branches are as Crystals, it flowers as the Rose,
and its perfect fruit is the Dodecahedron.”

(Anon)




A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Introduction
This document outlines a city design based upon the extrapolation of Ebenezer Howard’s original
Group of Garden Cities described in his book Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
This document aims to provide an overall scheme or pattern for building a garden city. The detail
(such as building design, landscape design etc) maybe added through subsequent design proposals,
appraisals and selection processes. The nature of the pattern, which is fractal, allows the design and
implementation of the garden city to be undertaken at varied scales. This allows for varying degrees
of management. Projects can be managed on an individual scale such as the design and build of a
single house, and on larger scales such as the design and build of a neighbourhood, city centre,
district, or vale; each project can be managed spatially and temporally. The nature of the design
pattern allows for multiple projects to run simultaneously – to follow a non linear, but organised
growth pattern, such as can be found in a biological organism.
The original Garden City concept proposed by Ebenezer Howard was intended to address issues of
its time, for example poor sanitation, overpopulation in the city, areas of poverty, under-population
in rural areas, and a great range of issues outlined in his book. Please refer to Ebenezer Howard’s
“Three Magnets” diagram and text for more detail.
Today we also face issues, perhaps partly due to the success of urban and social planning over the
past century. The issues we face today are environmental, economic and social – as before, but
perhaps more complex. Many consider these issues to be on a global scale, whereas before they
were considered on more of a national scale.
It is possible to define the issues faced in the economy, the environment and society separately;
however, many believe these problems are profoundly interconnected. Rising energy prices and the
cost of living are a result of the scarcity or lack of access to natural resources which in turn are being
taken from the natural environment in such a way and to such an extent, that they are degrading the
natural systems upon which human life depends. Alternatives exist but the establishedeconomy as
we know it, depends upon certain methods of resource collection and distribution. If we adapt our
economy or prioritise the environment, it is feared the established economy may collapse. If we opt
for alternative sources of energy, the petrochemical industry, a key driver of the economy, may
collapse. If we focus totally on human needs, the natural environment collapses, and so on. Lots of
different people and groups are concerned for various reasons about the state of global affairs. On a
human level we are concerned for our children’s future, and for the future generations of humanity.
The ineluctability for change has come about because of a major and growing discrepancy between
the cultural and social products of industrialization, on the one hand, and generally desirable human
ends on the other. A fundamental anomaly exists of the following sort:
 The basic system goals that have dominated the industrial era (material progress, private
ownership of capital, maximum return on capital investment, freedom of enterprise, etc.),
 and that have been approached through a set of intermediate goals that include efficiency,
economic productivity, continued growth of technological-manipulative power, and
continued growth of production and consumption,
 have resulted in processes and states (e.g. extreme division of labour and specialisation,
compulsive replacement of men by machines, stimulated consumption, planned
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obsolescence, exploitation of common resources, environmental degradation, worsening
world poverty) which
 culminate in a counteracting of human ends (e.g. enriching work roles, self-determination,
conservation, wholesome environment, humanitarian concerns, world stability).
(Harmon and Markley et al, 1982. p190)
This document was written as a conceptual response and for submission towards the process of
implementing locally-led garden cities in the UK, in accordance with the UK Government’s
publication entitled ‘Locally-led Garden Cities: Prospectus, found at the following web address:
www.gov.uk/government/publications/locally-led-garden-cities-prospectus
With sincerity, it is hoped that the following pages may contain some usable elements towards
achieving the objectives outlined in the prospectus and also contained within the comprehensive
material and guidance from the Town and Country Planning Association, UK; found here:
www.tcpa.org.uk/pages/garden-cities.html
With dearest sincerity, it is hoped this document may offer assistance on the path to harmony.


Marcus Busby

A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Executive Summary

The Garden City of Today v2.0 document outlines a city design based upon the extrapolation of
Ebenezer Howard’s original Group of Garden Cities described in his book Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
The document aims to provide an overall scheme or pattern for a garden city. The detail (such as
building design, landscape design etc) maybe added through subsequent community-led design
proposals, appraisals and public consultation processes.
The nature of the pattern, which is fractal, allows the design and implementation of the garden city
to be undertaken at varied scales. This allows for varied degrees of management. Projects can be
managed on an individual scale such as the design and build of a single house, and on larger scales
such as the design and build of a neighbourhood, city centre, district, or vale; each project can be
managed spatially and temporally.
The nature of the design pattern allows for multiple projects to run simultaneously – to follow a non
linear, but organised growth pattern, such as can be found in a biological organism.
The key concept of the original Garden City concept was to assuage the, Town: Country, Garden:
City, Human: Nature Paradox. This Garden City is about the space that is not built, as much as the
built space. The city in this proposal is comprised of 52% green space 48% built space. Land use is
intensified, but also diversified and integrated, meaning more happens within the same space.
Its complexity is based upon the complexity of nature, where the whole is more than the sum of its
component parts. This Garden City is gestalt in principle and fractal in structure as we see in nature,
space and living organisms.
The proposal “A Garden City of Today” is a conceptual spatial design settlement model that is in
accordance with the real possibilities open at the attained level of intellectual and material culture,
resources and capabilities. It offers the prospect of preserving and improving the productive
achievements of civilisation. Its realisation offers a greater chance for the pacification of existence
within the framework of institutions, which offer a greater chance for the free development of
human needs and faculties¹.
The nature of the design conveys a holistic sense of perspective regarding current social, economic
and environmental challenges. It entails an ecological ethic coupled with a self-realisation ethic, in
that inhabitants have direct access to resources and services necessary for the satisfaction of
material and psychological needs within an ecologically balanced environment.
The city sector design, public green space and transport network are multileveled, multifaceted and
integrative, accommodating and combining various cultural, social and economic activities. Travel
focuses upon pedestrian, cycle and highly accessible zero-carbon public transportation through a
variety of means. The city is “abled” because it caters for the access and mobility of everybody
without exception. The philosophy behind this is the assertion that, “using dis/ability as a creative
starting point can actually generate an alternative kind of architectural avant-gard.²” The design
fosters a balancing and a coordination of satisfactions along many dimensions rather than
maximising concerns along one narrowly defined dimension (e.g. economic), and the spatial design
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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allows for experimentation; it is open ended and evolutionary whilst being modular, allowing stage
by stage completion, local stewardship and allows future expansion which is not to the detriment of
the established whole³.
The city limits in the proposal encompass an inhabited area of 58.77km² (22.69 Miles²) with a
projected population of 117,649. This equates to a population density of 2001.8 persons per km²
(5185 persons/Mile²).This density figure sits between that of the original Garden City of Letchworth
(1635 p/km²), and our most recent New Town, Milton Keynes (2583.6 p/km²), based on 2011 Census
figures.
The city is comprised of 16,807 multipurpose building units which house an average of 7 persons per
building. The entire land allocation for the Garden City plus surrounding Greenbelt (agricultural land)
is 172.17km², or 42,544acres. This gives an overall population density of 683.3 persons per km²
(1770 persons/Mile²). The United Kingdom as a whole has a population density of 255.6 persons per
km²*, thus land for the Garden City is around x2⅔more densely populated than land in the UK as a
whole. *2011 Census
Land use in and around the Garden City is defined by patch zoning. There are six types of zones with
accordant land uses. These have been briefly defined as follows:
Zone 0 – Buildings, houses or other
living/working areas, including any private
gardens.

Zone 3 – Farm-scale production; large-scale
orchards, herding animals, apiculture, main crops.
Zone 1 – Community Gardens/Allotments;
“localised” style food production.

Zone 4 – Large-scale Agriculture: Forestry,
Pasture, Arable, fodder crops etc. (Greenbelt)

Zone 2 – Market garden style, commercial food
production, community orchards etc.

Zone 5 – Wilderness, natural environment.

Employment and entrepreneurial opportunities abound, generalized into six categories (1°-5° & X° -
please refer to table 6, page 27 of main text) and range from very localised markets to global
markets; provisions are made for all levels of market operation. The city is also unique in that it has
embedded within it, a commercial supply system, which facilitates distribution of goods and
materials throughout the city, and indeed into external markets. The network of supply lines mirrors
the veins in the petals of a flower or leaf, drawing created resources from the environment in and
around the city; the main advantage being, city-wide availability of an import/export facility for
materials, goods and products greatly facilitating construction and subsequent economic operations
–including supplying modern cottage industries.
Homes, gardens and neighbourhoods are to be designed locally by residents supported by an expert
municipal team of designers, teachers and practitioners; designs of houses, gardens and
neighbourhoods are intended to be according to local needs, customs, extant designs and build
techniques, and locally sourced materials. It is envisioned that design and build at larger sub-regional
levels, i.e. district, vale and city level, is directed by the City Council working with teams of architects,
builders, planners, engineers, landscape architects and other cross-disciplinary expertise, from
artists and musicians to farmers, carpenters and builders.
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The aim of this city is as much remediation of natural systems as it is remediation of people and
community – “to facilitate the harmonious reintegration of humans into the natural systems of the
planet⁴,” to create a state of dynamic equilibrium, homeostasis and mutual benefit in terms of
social, environmental and economic systems and communities.
It is considered that, as the health of the ecological system in and around the city improves, the
knock-on effects are improved human health and improved prosperity. In one respect the City is a
place to live, in another it is a place to work; overall however, it is a place to grow. This city is
designed as a Garden City; a city that is also a garden –that can grow, flower and fruit.
¹Paraphrased from Herbert Marcuse (1964) One Dimensional Man: Various publishers.
² Boys, J. (2014) Doing Disability Differently: An alternative handbook on architecture, dis/ability and designing for everyday life. Routledge:
Taylor and Francis Group, London.
³Paraphrased from Harmon, W. W., Markley, O.W., (1982) The Changing Images of Man. Pergamon Press: Oxford. [Printed in UK by A.
Wheaton & Co. Ltd, Exeter]
⁴Quoted from a design course with Tomas Remiarz, of Permaculture Association Britain.
Key features:
 <800metre walk to nearesttravelnode. (See Transport Network Fig. 4, p17)

 City-wide school model and building provision. (See p65 – Education)

 50% public green space at city scale. (See Table 1 p14, and Fig. 6 p19)

 117,500 inhabitants, 16,800 multi purpose units. (See Table 1 below, p.14)

 Range of densities; >4288persons/km² in zone 0, averaging at 2002persons/km² at city scale. (Table 1)

 Integrated, multifaceted sector modeling. (See Fig.5 and Table 2 below, p.18)

 Gestalt principle, fractal structure. (See Figs 3,4 & 6 below)

 Carbon free, integrated and accessible transport network, pedestrian, cycle, array of carbon-free
public transport options. (See Fig. 1 below, Transport Network Fig.4 p17 and Section 1.2 of report)

 Carbon-positive energy generation. (See pp. 58-61 including Charts 3-6)

 Mixed land-uses – 5 types of green space. (Fig.6 p19)

 High land value uplift (through, job, resource & asset creation, infrastructure & agroecological output)

 Full and diverse employment opportunity, supported by local economy. (Table 6 p28 & 2.1 pp 56-67)

 Full array of build/housing options. (From commercial, city and satellite centres, to self-build homes)

 Modular, omni-successive, easily-managedimplementation. (See Table 10 pp.50-53)

 Easycommuting - a key design feature. (See Fig. 1 below, and Transport Networks Fig.4 p17)

 Remediation of ecology, psychology, economy are key design features. (Biodiversity key driver)

 Modular, expandable, adaptable spatial design. (SeeFig. 3 p16, Fig.4 p18 & Fig.6 p19)
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Figure 1: Examples of low Carbon public transport options
Top - Communal electric cars and bicycles in Paris 2014.
Bottom – Tram on a greenway in Bilbao 2006.


A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


15




Figure 2. Howard’s original design overlaying the Garden City of Today.Note: The scales are matched.

A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Figure 3.Scale map of aGarden City of Today.
Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Figure 4. Travel networks in the Garden City of Today

Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Figure 5. Sector model of the Garden City of Today
Table 2.Sectors in the Garden City of Today.
SECTOR DISTRICT NO. OF NO.OF % OF
NAME NO.s DISTRICTS BUILDING UNITS TOTAL UNITS
CENTRE 1 1 343 2
OUTER CENTRAL 2-7 6 2058 12.25
SATELLITE CENTRES 8-13 6 2058 12.25
INTERCITY COMMERCIAL 14-19 6 2058 12.25
INTERCITY ROUTE 20-25 6 2058 12.25
INTER-VALE 26-37 12 4116 24.5
RURAL 38-49 12 4116 24.5
COMPLETE CITY 1-49 49 16807 100


Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Figure 6: Landscape Zones in a Garden City of Today.

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A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


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Figure 7. Landscape Zones in a Group of Garden Cities.
Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


21
1.0 VISION

Description
1.1Distribution and Density
The city limits encompass an inhabited area of 58.77km² with a population of 117,649. This equates
to a population density of 2001.8 persons per km².This density figure sits between that of the
original Garden City of Letchworth, (1635 p/km²) and our most recent New Town Milton Keynes
(2583.6 p/km²), based on 2011 Census figures.
The city is comprised of 16,807 building units which house an average of 7 persons per building.
Some building units may house no people, whilst other units may house ten, fifteen or more – as we
find within any city. However, in the interests of minimising energy consumption, it is generally
considered that every building shall include residential space to utiliseheat-energy-transfer from
commercial activities – heated water and air, to domestic activities.
The entire land allocation for the Garden City and surrounding Greenbelt (agricultural land) is
172.17km², or 42,544acres. This gives an overall population density of 683.3 persons per km². The
United Kingdom as a whole has a population density of 255.6 persons per km², thus land for the
Garden City is around x2⅔more densely populated than land in the UK as a whole.
Table 3.Comparisons of area, population and density.
Settlement
Name
km² Ha Miles² Acres Population Density
people/km²
Garden City of
Today (2014)
58.77 5,877 22.69 14,522 117,649 2001.8
Howard’s
“Garden City”
36.42 3,642 14.06 9,000 32,000 878.6
Garden City of
Today– Metro
(2014)
172.17 17,217 66.48 42,544 117,649 683.3
Howard’s Group
of Garden Cities
- Metro (No.7)
267.09 26,709 103.13 66,000 250,000 936
Letchworth 20.12 2,012 7.77 4972 33,249* 1,653.5
Milton Keynes 89 8,900 34.36 21,992 229,941* 2,583.6
London (City) 1,572 15,7199 606.95 388,448 8,308,369* 5,285.2
London
(Metro)
8,382 838,201 3236.31 2,071,238 15,010,295* 1,790
United Kingdom 243,610 24,361,427 94,060.00 60,198,400 63,181,775* 255.6
*2011 Census. Figures from Wikipedia (Accessed May 2014)
The city is organised into seven Vales or municipalities. Presently, we can use the names that
Ebenezer Howard allocated in the previous proposition; Garden City, Gladstone, Justitia, Rurisville,
Philadelphia, Concord and Central City. Each Vale is comprised of 2401 building units, has its own
civic and commercial centre and accommodates 16,807 persons.
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22
Figure 8.Sub-divisions within the Garden City of Today.
Table 4. Spatial categories and distribution of building units and residents within the Garden City of Today
Category of Spatial
Unit
Quantity of Spatial
Units (in the city)
Building units per
category
Projected residents per
category
Building (plot) 16807 1 7
Street 2401 7 49
Neighbourhood 343 49 343
District 49 343 2401
Vale 7 2401 16,807
City 1 16807 117,649

At this stage it may appear that distribution in the city is totally homogenous, however the
homogeneity of the urban plan is balanced by the diversity of building types and the social and
economic activities found in each area.
Table 5. Development land allocation per spatial category (Zone 0 land)
Category of Built Spatial Unit Footprint (surface area) per category
m² ha acres km²
Building (plot)
1,693 0.17 0.42 0.00169
Street
11,849 1.18 2.93 0.012
Neighbourhood
82,945 8.29 20.5 0.083
District
580,612 58.06 143.47 0.56
Vale
4,064,286 406.43 1004.29 4.06
City
28,450,000 2845 7030.15 28.45

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23
The “Central City” Vale includes the main city centre, it is surrounded by six Vales (municipalities),
each with its own satellite centre,and thus there are seven civic and commercial centres in total
within the Garden City en bloc.
Each Vale is organised into seven districts, giving the city a total of 49 districts. Each district contains
343 building units housing 2401 residents. Because the districts each possess a variety of transport
links, their connectivity is used to define commercial sectors within the city. There are six types of
commercial sector integral to the city. Their names and distribution are indicated in Figure 5 and
table 4 below.
Each of the 49 districts is comprised of seven neighbourhoods, giving the city a total of 343
neighbourhoods, housing 343 residents each. Every neighbourhood has seven streets; each street
has seven building units, housing an average of 49 occupants. These are all guidance figures to
present the model.
The key concept of the original Garden City concept was to assuage the, Town: Country, Garden:
City, Human: Nature Paradox. Thus in the Garden City of Today, land use is intensified, but also
diversified and integrated, meaning more happens within the same space.
--0--
What is commonly found in cities which have grown and been added to, are pockets of residential,
pockets of industrial, pockets of office etc. plus land which has been enveloped such as agricultural
land, parkland and derelict land. This kind of zonal activity can isolate areas and fragment
communities:
“Urban areas have become progressively more segmented and zoned, with a separation between the places
where people live, work and shop. This is partly why social divisions occur. If you create these various zones…
you end up with… a lot of space wasted and a high dependence upon the car. If we build towns that need cars
for every aspect of life, we create an excessive dependence upon endless supplies of cheap oil. By segmenting
cities and their suburbs, putting different kinds of development into their own zones, cars can get about them,
but not people on their own. Zonal development risks the loss of social cohesion. If different levels [fields] of
society live separately there is less chance of a cohesive, wider community and that can allow for social
tensions to become overpowering.” (HRH Prince Charles, Harmony, 2010. p.238)
When land use is limited to one particular activity, it means that areas can become like ghost towns
when they are not being used, such as residential during the day, office during the night, retail
during the evenings etc. Having to travel to places of work, or places of recreationetc results in
increased mileage; we spend a lot of resources – money, oil and time, travelling. In addition to this,
land where food is grown is often miles away from where it is eaten, sometimes thousands of miles,
resulting in a highly inefficient and unnecessary use of transport. Food is produced using methods
which are highly mechanised, meaning less employment and higher dependency upon
petrochemicals – fuels, insecticides, fertilizers - and increasingly complicated and expensive
technology – there is an energetic deficit from all of this travelling, transportation and industrialized
agriculture. This deficit results in the depletion of natural reserves and the destruction of biological
systems that maintain a living and livable planet. The need and dependency we have developed for
the combustion engine drives the depletion and degradation of our planets reserves.
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24
By combining our land use activities on the same land, we can save energy and save land. Urban
planning focuses upon densification as a solution, in essence this works, but results in increased
stress upon people, infrastructure and services. When we are solitary it can be pleasant for a time,
when more people come we have more fun and this increases the more people arrive. After a
certain threshold, a place becomes crowded and it becomes increasingly stressful. For this reason,
densification cannot be a suitable direction. However, following the same principle of economisation
of space, we can overlap land uses and activities on the same land, but maintain a lower population
density. This means that less land is used overall, whilst simultaneously, people have access to more
land. This is why the Garden City model worked originally and can work now. It is better for people
and better for the environment.
We know that we need to reduce dependency upon the car and unnecessary travel and
transportation. We know that we need to live in harmony with the natural systems of the planet. We
know that we have to live more economically in terms of land use and resource use.
This city addresses these concerns directly. There is no dependency on the car, land uses are
combined. The city is designed to integrate social and commercial activities described in more detail
in the section on city sectors. Mobility is a key focus answered by a coherent and varied public and
commercial transportation system. The network is designed as a fractal thus the same transport
layout is reiterated at various scales using varying methods of transport, allowing for users to
navigate networks more easily as the same network of travel routes are reiterated at all scales.
Densification is answered by overlapping human activity and incorporating a large areaof green
space into the city effectively recombining food production into the settlement; biodiversity is
encouraged by the nature of the landscape pattern; the patch mosaic and linkages in the landscape
facilitate ecological connectivity. Food is grown locally and organically using agroecology as a guiding
principle – where the benefits of natural systems are recognised as solutions to improving our food
supply. The green spaces are multifunctional – places of food production, pleasure, recreation and
habitat creation by using appropriate scales of land use defined later in the section on landscape
zones.
Employment and learning, commerce and innovation are key activities for people living in the city.
The city provides jobs at all levels of ability and commitment. The work ethic is replaced by inspired
activity and direct satisfaction. The needs of the city, match the needs of the people and the
environment, thus like a garden, the more it is nurtured and tended, the more magnificent the
results – to a gestalt degree – the result is more than the sum of its components because nature
becomes involved, and we once again become involved with nature.
The city can feasibly grow from a village to a town, to a city to a megacity and beyond using the
same growth pattern, whilst the green space allocation rises accordingly at a rate defined by
tessellating the Koch snowflake. Thus the larger the inhabited area, the lower the population density
becomes at a rate which is higher than regional population density; for the UK, this rate is 260%
denser; theoretically resulting in more wilderness/nature reserves and a healthier wider
environment. This pattern of growth allows for future development to follow a pattern that is
coherent with an extant whole – coherent with the existing city. New developments can be
integrated without disrupting existing structures. This shall be illustrated more clearly later in this
document.
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25
1.2Travel and Mobility
We know the proportions of the body, what of its veins - its transport network? How do people,
products and services travel about the body of the city?
The city is designed to be 100% mobility-orientated. In fact, every social epicenter is a transportation
hub. There is one central station, 12 inter-city main stations, 48 inter-municipal minor stations,
around 120 Vale underground stops, plus 49 local transportation ports. The city is not designed
around the private motor vehicle; it is designed around public transport, comprised of bicycles,
electric cars/buggies, rail and light rail, and underground rail. There is however, vehicular access to
all points in the city for emergency vehicles and delivery/collection vehicles.
The city is “abled” because it caters for the access and mobility of everybody inclusive of disabled
persons without exception. The philosophy behind this is the assertion that, “using dis/ability as a
creative starting point can actually generate an alternative kind of architectural avant-garde,” (Boys,
2014); this ensures a built environment and transportation network in which there are fewer
accidents, has complete pushchair/wheelchair access, is child friendly, elderly friendly, and isperhaps
evenrobot friendly.
The transport network is comprised of intercity rail routes – connected to existing national rail lines,
an inter-municipal railway (City routes), local underground rail (Vale routes), and a network of
bicycle and buggy routes for non-rail travel (Neighbourhood routes). The city has an additional
separate rail network especially for commercial activities connecting the farms and factories to the
city centre and directly to national rail lines. This performs two roles for commercial operations, it is
a transport network for personnel to travel to and from places of work, and it is a means of
distribution, importation/exportation of goods and materials produced in the city, outer city farms
and factories. The supply route network is connected to the inter-municipal rail network and the
intercity national rail network. Goods can be imported and exported nationally and internationally
using this network.
Figure 9 below, is a close-up section of the travel network, with a scale and key. (For a complete
travel network map, please see Fig. 4 p17). The section in Figure 9 focuses on the Central City Vale,
and how this connects to the surrounding Vales using the national inter-city routes (indicated in
blue) and inter-municipal city routes (indicated in orange). Routes are indicated with lines, stations
are indicated with roundels. Please refer to the key.
The network is designed to cover the entire city at four scales; national, city, vale and district. There
is a fifth rail network, described above, being the commercial supply network. National scale travel is
by overland rail, city wide travel is again overland and light rail, vale travel is by underground rail,
district travel is overland and by pedestrian, cycle and buggy travel.
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Figure 9. Travel networks in the Garden City of Today (section)
(Complete map on p.17)
Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014
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27
1.3 City Sectors


Figure 5. Sector model of the Garden City of Today
Table 2.Sectors in the Garden City of Today.
SECTOR DISTRICT NO. OF NO.OF % OF
NAME NO.s DISTRICTS BUILDING UNITS TOTAL UNITS
CENTRE 1 1 343 2
OUTER CENTRAL 2-7 6 2058 12.25
SATELLITE CENTRES 8-13 6 2058 12.25
INTERCITY COMMERCIAL 14-19 6 2058 12.25
INTERCITY ROUTE 20-25 6 2058 12.25
INTER-VALE 26-37 12 4116 24.5
RURAL 38-49 12 4116 24.5
COMPLETE CITY 1-49 49 16807 100
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Table 6. Building Asset Composition - commercial and social activities
Building
Category
Types of
Ownership
/Tenancy
City-wide
Allocation
%/

No. of Units
(total 16,807)
Main Activities Other
Activities
Types of
Premises
Community
Needs
Satisfaction


Inter-
National

Multi-
National
City
Ownership

Commercial
Lease
4.29%

x721 Units


BUSINESS

Cultural
development

Innovation,
Research and
Development
Education,
Software,
Advanced and
Alternative
technologies,
Ecology, Luxury
and Specialist
Retail,
Administration,
Business,
Commerce,
Residential,
Office, Lab,
Studio,
High-Street
Retail, Catering,
Innovation and
Advancement

Self-
Transcendence &
Self-Fulfillment


Inter-
Regional

National
City
Ownership

Commercial
Lease
2.79%

x468 Units
ADMINISTRATION

Knowledge
development

Civic, Social and
Community
Education,
Administration,


Residential,
Office, Lab,
Studio,
Retail, Catering,
Library,
Museum
Research and
Development,
Professional
Training

Esteem


Inter-
City

Regional
City
Ownership

Council Let

Commercial
Lease
8.35%

x1,404 Units
SERVICES

Honour
development

Learning Centers
Education,
Distribution,
Entertainment,
Leisure,
Recreation,

Residential,
Catering

University &
College

Schools
Social and
Community
Groups and Clubs


Belonging and
Friendship


Inter-Vale

Citywide
City
Ownership

Council Let

Commercial
Lease

Private

Private Let
19.10%

x3,204 Units
CONVENIENCES

Wealth
development/
value adding

Processing and
Manufacturing

Welfare
Education,
Local Business,
Processing,
Distribution
Trades
Crafts
Milling
Self employed
Home workers

Residential,
Restaurant,
Catering,
Retail,
Social Welfare,
Health
Civic Offices
Safety, Security,
Law and Order

Shelter and well-
being


Inter-
District

Local
City
Ownership

Council Let

Private

Private Let

65.26%

x10,872 Units
RESIDENTIAL

Corporeal
development

Natural Resources
Education,
Horticultural,
Agricultural,
Crafts,
Wholesale,
Forestry,
Distribution
Resource
Creation
Residential,
Hotel,
Guesthouse,
B&B,
Warehouses,
Industrial,
Workshops,
Studios,
Catering
Creation/
Collection/
Maintenance of:
Water, Food,
Clothing, Fuel &
Energy Sources


City
Commercial

Citywide
City
Ownership

Council Let

Private

Private Let

0.82%

x138 Units
COMMERCIAL

Stocktaking

Distribution

Collection
Education,
Storage,
Packaging,
Light industrial,
[Heavy
industrial
(outer-city)]
Storage,
Wholesale,
Warehouses,
Light Industrial,
Workshops,
Studios
Material Resource
Reserves

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29

Figure 10. Model of the City Centre Sector with building allocation chart
The City Centre Sector (Figure 10) is unique in the fact that it is also its own district. This Sector has
the greatest degree of connectivity to national and inner city transport links. The City Centre
indirectly linked with all six satellitecentres in the City. It is the only district directly connected to all
of the Garden City commercial lines and all of the farms and factories surrounding the City (situated
in landscape Zone 4 – seeFig. 3 p16). The City Centre Sector is the meeting point for all commerce in
the city, surrounding centres and with other settlements.
The City Centre has the highest percentage of commercial and business premises; 23% of building
allocation is dedicated to 5° international/multinational usage, whilst 14% is allocated to X° City
Commercial usage – also the highest percentage of City Commercial unit allocation in the city. There
are no 3° or 4° building allocations in this district. This district functions primarily as the trading
centre for the city en masse. Because of the large allocation for city commercial buildings (X°) and
large percentage of 5° buildings, the City Centre can act as an interface between the specialist
products and materials created in the Garden City and the wider international markets. The main
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30
focus is to innovate and grow outwards in terms of communications and market innovation. The
Garden City is designed to facilitate innovations in materials, products, systems, machinery, tools
and applications. Multinational players can benefit from being in this environment as the City will be
surfing its own wave of innovation aimed directly at sustainable technologies, products and services.
These are the future necessities and global markets already exist and are growing.
There is a 10% allocation for 2°Conveniences, this is nearly half the city average of 19.1% but reflects
the focus of the sector which does not feature 4° or 3° allocation. It is probable that civic offices and
social welfare centres will make up the greater proportion of this allocation, as well as a central A&E
specialist centre to include fire and ambulance services.

Figure 11. Outer Central Sector - district model with economic composition chart.
The outer central sector (see Figure 11) is comprised of six districts with identical transport
networks. Every district within the sector is bisected by a national travel route possessing a large
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014


31
central transport hub which links national rail with all levels of city-wide travel networks. The outer
central districts also benefit from each being linked to two different city commercial supply routes.
Two percent of the building stock is allocated for purely commercial uses, eight percent is dedicated
for international or multinational companies, these may be existing companies or companies looking
to trade at this market level; types of companies may be high street shops, offices, studios of various
types. Seven percent of the buildings are allocated to regional activities and services, such as
colleges and schools, and leisure and entertainment facilities e.g. cinema, concert hall, theatre,
hotels and restaurants.
19% of building usage is dedicated to local conveniences and trade. This allocation may include
anything from local firms, local trade and local restaurants to city social welfare facilities and civic
offices.
This leaves the remaining 65% for local uses, mainly in the form of residential, but can include
anything from educational and training facilities for residents in the town, to guesthouses and bed
and breakfasts. Residents may build houses which perform several functions such as guesthouse, art
studio/yoga room. Some may even have a small café as the frontage to their house. Diversity in the
type and use of buildings is encouraged all over the city. The main limitations are on the level of the
market a company is established/establishing itself in. Whilst opportunities exist at all levels, the city
is designed to nurture businesses and enterprises from the local level. It is of course recognised that
multinational companies have a lot to offer in terms of services and quality which is why they are
not excluded at all from the city. Their opportunity for expansion is however limited to ensure that a
resilient and diverse local economy can flourish. The reason for this is because it affords the city a
more dynamic and diverse economy. One of the key drivers of the City’s culture and economic
prowess is localisedinnovation. By creating an environment where diverse business opportunities
exist, alongside established firms the result can be a melting pot of innovation from the bottom up
and from the top down (in terms of their market placement).
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32

Figure 12. Satellite Centre Sector - district model with building allocation chart
Figure 12 details the Satellite Centre Sector. This sector is comprised of six districts positioned
equidistant from the City Centre. Each Satellite Centre district is situated at the centre of six
surrounding districts; two Inter-Vale districts, two Rural districts, one Inter-City Route district and
one Inter-City Commercial district.
Each of the six Satellite Centre districts features a central National link transport hub. This features a
national rail station, a city overland rail stop, a Vale underground station and a local bicycle and
buggy depot for district travel. Each Satellite centre has additional access to eight underground
district stations, indicated on Figure 12. The Satellite Centres are highly connected, possessing links
to all scales of travel within the city and beyond. The Satellite Centres are bisected by a national rail
line. Figure 8 details the various transport routes and their destinations.
In addition to diverse travel connections the Satellite Centres also feature all types of building
allocation, except commercial X°. The composition chart shows 63% primary - 1°, 14% secondary -
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33
2°, 8% tertiary - 3°, 7% quaternary - 4° and 5% quinary - 5° building allocation. The Satellite centres
are more geared around a diversity of social and economic activities as opposed to commercial
activities connected directly to the X° Commercial activities.
The Satellite Centres act more like market towns where products are exchanged, whilst the City
Centre is more of a trading town where materials and goods are collated and exchanged.


Figure 13. Intercity Commercial Sector - district model with building allocation chart
There are six Intercity Commercial districts which together form the Intercity Commercial Sector,
illustrated above in Figure 13, see the “Location within City” box to the bottom right.
Intercity Commercial districts are named so because they each feature a Commercial station link at
their outermost point. This commercial station is a link to two of the surrounding farms and factories
situated in landscape Zone 4. This means that materials and products can be directly supplied from
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34
two of these depots. This Commercial station is also a direct out-of-city connection to the national
rail infrastructure – useful for import and export of goods without the interference of inner-city
distribution systems/networks. This opens an opportunity in this area of the city for processing and
manufacturing industries to have easy direct access to resources, and also for shipments out of the
city into the wider market. In the model there is a 1% building use allocation for commercial
activities, such as warehouse and wholesale distribution.
There is also a 7% allocation for international/multinational enterprises and 8% for regional or
national enterprises. After the city is built, there will be a continued supply of materials resources
coming from the farms and factories; these can supply an expanding (industry) sector, which can
support extra-city markets created by the Garden City. This may take the form of supplying building
materials, timbers, textiles, oils, glues etc to other settlements, thus future markets exist for
businesses that are part of the Garden City economy.
19.1% allocation is assigned to Conveniences in the 2° category, see Table 6, p28. Activities for this
allocation focus on social welfare and health; it is considered that the best location for main hospital
premises is on the outskirts of the City where patients can benefit from more peaceful surroundings
and easier access to other settlements if necessary. The City perimeters may also be a suitable
location for emergency services as they can have broader accessibility to all points in the City. The 2°
allocation also includes opportunities for processing and manufacturing at the level of the City-wide
economy – catering for the needs of the inhabitants primarily. Table 6 has quite broad array of
activities within each category, to reiterate this is intended to foster diversity and opportunity for
the City’s economy. The table is a first draft and would benefit from further consideration,
discussion and input from other people.
There is no national link station for public use; however it is totally feasible to include a stop as the
national rail line bisects the district. The main station serves the City’s city-line rail network. It
features an underground Vale station for district travel, and a depot for neighbourhood travel via
bicycle and electric buggy/car.
The Intercity Commercial districts are all neighboured by two Rural districts and a Satellite Centre
district. Close proximity to the rural sector means that there are good opportunities for the rural
districts to benefit from the direct link to the two Commercial Farm/Factories via the commercial
station. This has the prospect of supplying small scale cottage industries to flourish due to easy
access to materials such as textiles and wood, there are many other products and materials to
benefit from such as oils and plastics which can supply specialist Vacuum-form workshops for an
example; they can make components for houses, bathrooms or any of the transport industries to
name a few.
The essence of the Garden City is to generate and supply resources and to foster the development of
skills and industry. This offers the seeds for prosperity and opens up many avenues for small
enterprise to commence, with the prospect of growing into wider markets. This is what is really
needed to re-create a sustainable, durable and resilient economy. Diversity of opportunities and
availability of resources allows for flexibility and adaptability which is essential for a dynamic and
“growable” economy to emerge.
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35

Figure 14. Intercity Route Sector - district model with building allocation chart
The Intercity Route Sector (See Fig. 14) is comprised of six districts located between the central
districts and the outer districts therefore situated as linkages between smaller and larger
enterprises. This is a good sector for businesses trading between international and national markets
to more local markets. These districts are directly linked to two Inter-Vale districts whichmean that
they can benefit from processed materials being fed from two of the outer farms/factories. If the
Inter-Vale districts take raw materials from the farms such as hemp fibre and process it into varied
textiles for instance, the Intercity districts may take it further into apparel, fabrics, bags and shoes.
These products can enter the Satellite Centres for city wide distribution and also go into the City
Centre for national markets, as an example.
There is building allocation for 1°, 2°, 3° and 5° activities, thus less focus on building allocation for
administration, library, museums etc. This is a sector for production of goods and services. This
sector also envelops the largest green spaces in the city – Zone 3, thus a lot of opportunity is created
for people to focus on large scale organic growing using agroecology practices. This Zone provides
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36
the majority of the food for the whole city, thus many of the buildings in the 65% allocation for 1°
Primary Residential/Horticultural will become occupied by people involved in these activities.
However please refer to Table 6, p28 to see a provisional list of activities and opportunities for all
the building allocation categories 1° - 5°.
Each of the intercity districts features a central city link station with a Vale underground station and
district bicycle/buggy depot. Each Inter-City district shares three additional District underground
stations and one more City line station (shared with the neighbouring Satellite Centre).

Figure 15. Inter-Vale Sector - district model with building allocation chart
There are 12 Inter-Vale districts making the Inter-Vale Sector (see Fig.15). These districts, by their
location and distribution serve the city-scale economy. Their task is to distribute and circulate
resources and goods about the City en masse. Interestingly, the Inter-Vale districts, together with
the Rural districts are not connected directly to the City Centre or any National rail lines.

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37
The Inter-Vale districts benefit from sharing a connection to one of the out-of-city Commercial
farm/factory supply lines. Each Inter-Vale district therefore has 1% building allocation for the X° City
Commercial line. These buildings will be warehouses and wholesale distribution markets, thus
materials and products from the out-of-city farms and factories can be delivered here, and enter
straight into the City’s trades and manufacturing businesses. Materials and products may be timbers
and building materials, seasoned woods for fine carpentry and furniture, hemp products for building,
bio-plastics, textiles etc, recycled materials either in compound form or up-cycled form, and so on.
This means that materials can be delivered straight to the city without necessarily going through the
city centre and secondary trading systems.


Figure 16. Rural Districts Sector - district model with building allocation chart
The Rural Sector is comprised of twelve Rural districts situated on the outskirts of the City (See
Fig.16). Although the Rural districts may appear out of the way they are profoundly well connected.
The Central Vale underground station permits users to traverse one neighbouring vale with ease,
whilst each Rural district is connected directly to a Satellite Centre, an Inter-Vale district, an Intercity
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38
Commercial district, an Inter-City Route district and its neighbouring Rural district all via the Vale
underground lines and subsequent City-line rail links. This benefits the City and residents equally; by
having easy access to a great array of district/sector types residents have a wide opportunity for
employment via an easily negotiable public transport network, or in the other respect people
intending to conduct light industry and/or cottage scale industries, have easy access to materials,
products and resources provided by the diversity of neighbouring districts.
The Rural districts are focused upon 1°, 2° and 3° activities. This means that small enterprises and
local businesses are very much suited to starting out in this sector. There are no allocations for 4°
and 5° scale activities, which are reserved for the majority of the rest of the town on key transport
lines.
The Rural districts, hence the name, are located on the fringes neighbouring the Zone 4 landscape
patches. The Rural Sector may be a suitable location for foresters, farmers, engineers, carpenters,
artists, artisans, woodland managers, ecologists etc - people who are directly involved in managing
and running the Landscape Zone 4 activities.

1.4 Land Use: Built Space, Green Space and Green Belt
The table 5 below (repeated from p22, earlier in the document) describes the footprint area of land
that is built upon within the City. The City indeed covers a greater area including its green spaces.
Table 5 outlines how much land will be built upon. Table 7 below describes the area of green space
and the area of built land, separately and in total.
Table 2. Development land allocation per spatial category (Zone 0 land)
Category of Built Spatial Unit Footprint (surface area) per category
m² Ha Acres km²
Building (plot)
1,693 0.17 0.42 0.00169
Street
11,849 1.18 2.93 0.012
Neighbourhood
82,945 8.29 20.5 0.083
District
580,612 58.06 143.47 0.56
Vale
4,064,286 406.43 1004.29 4.06
City
28,450,000 2845 7030.15 28.45

We can see from Table 7 below that the total area of land required for the Garden City is 5,875ha or
around 14,500 acres. Please note, the figures in table 6 vary very slightly from elsewhere in this
document due to taking a different route to the calculations (which included calculating the areas of
multiple tessellating Koch Snowflakes, a challenge for a Grade B mathematician, forgiveness please!)
What is interesting about the Garden City of Today is that the allocation of green space increases
with each category of spatial unit, however the population density in the built environment remains
relatively constant at a threshold around 4135 p/km², refer to Table 1, p14.
We can see in Table 7 that a District has a projected population of 2,401; similar to a village, it covers
a total area of 75 ha or 185 acres. 77% of a district is built space and 23% is green space.
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39
A Vale is more of a town-sized settlement with a projected population of 16,807. It covers a total
area of 630 hectares, or around 1,560 acres. 64% is built space, 36% is green space.
The Garden City of Toady has a projected population of 117,649, covers an area of 5,875 hectares or
14,500 acres (not including the green belt Zone 4 described below). The city comprises 48% built
space and 52% green space.
By taking this up one level more - just to see the figures, we can call it a “Multi-City” built in the
same pattern as the Garden City of Today. It has a projected population of 823,543 covering an area
of 52,500 hectares or 130,000 acres. This Multi-City is comprised of 38% built space, 62% green
space.
Table 7.Land coverage in terms of footprint of built space and green space.
Spatial
Unit
Popu-
lation
Built Space Green Space Total Space % built/
% green
ha acres ha acres Ha acres
District 2,401 58.06 143.47 17.1 42.18 75.16 185.65 77/23
Vale 16,807 406.43 1,004.29 224.22 553.5 630.65 1,557.79 64/36
City 117,649 2,845 7,030.15 3,030.54 7,484.50 5,875 14,514.65 48/52
Multi-
City
(Cityx7)
823,543 19,915 49,211.05 32,553.78 80,413.50 52,468.78 129,624.55 38/62

Charts 1 and 2 below plot an emergent curve; we can extrapolate this pattern and when population
reaches around 1.9million the percentage green space is very close to 99%. From this we may
propose the hypothesis that ‘this kind of settlement pattern is a way of integrating human
habitation and activity into the natural biological systems of the planet.’

Chart 1. Percentages of Built Space vs. Green Space related to City Expansion
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000
%

L
a
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o
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Included Land (Acres)
% Green Space
% Built Space
Log. (% Green Space)
Log. (% Built Space)
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Chart 2. Percentages of Land Cover (Built Space vs. Green Space) as Population rises using the Garden City of
Today as a Settlement Development Model

1.4iPatch Zoning
Land use in and around the Garden City is defined by patch zoning. There are six types of patch
zones with accordant land uses. These have been briefly defined as follows:
Zone 0 – Buildings, houses or other human
living/working areas, including any private
gardens.

Zone 3 – Farm-scale production; large-scale
orchards, herding animals, apiculture, main crops.
Zone 1 – Community Gardens/Allotments;
“localised” style food production.

Zone 4 – Large-scale Agriculture: Forestry,
Pasture, Arable, fodder crops etc.

Zone 2 – Market garden style, commercial food
production, community orchards etc.

Zone 5 – Wilderness, natural environment.

n.b. In-depth descriptions of the zones can be found in Table 11: Land Use Zones, pp71-73.
Table 8. Patch and Zone Sizes in the Garden City of Today.
Patch
Type
Patch Size No. of
Patches
Total Area of Patches
km² Ha Acres km² Ha Acres
Zone 0 28.45 2,845 7,030 1 28.45 2,845 7,030
Zone 1 0.0285 2.85 7.04 294 8.39 839 2,073
Zone 2 0.1742 17.42 43.05 42 7.32 732 1,809
Zone 3 2.4342 243.42 601.50 6 14.61 1,461 3,610
Zone 4 18.9031 1890.31 4671.06 6 113.4 11,340 28,022
Totals: 349 172.17 17,217 42,544
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000
%

L
a
n
d

C
o
v
e
r

Population
% Green Space
% Built Space
Log. (% Green Space)
Log. (% Built Space)
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1.4ii Built Space and Private Gardens [Zone 0]
Zone 0 represents the buildings and the green spaces around the buildings, such as private gardens
and other communal grassed/planted areas – such as are found in any city, town or suburban
housing estate. Zone 0 represents a total of 28.45km² of the total 58.77km² covered by the Garden
City at its limits, see Fig 17 p42.
1.4iii City Green-spaces [Zones 1-3]
Within the city limits there are three types of communal green space. These are represented by
zones 1-3, please refer to Fig. 18 p43.
Zone 1 is comprised of 294 patches, each patch is 2.85 ha or 7.03 acres. The total area of Zone 1 is
839 ha or 2,073 acres. Zone 1 is primarily used for local food production, with the intention of
supplying food at a neighbourhood level.
Zone 2 is comprised of 42 patches, each covers an area of 17.42 ha or 43.05 acres. The total area of
Zone 2 is 732 ha or 1,809 acres. Zone 2 is primarily used for market gardening supplying district level
markets.
Zone 3 is comprised of six patches each covering an area of 243 ha or 601.5 acres. The total area of
Zone 3 is 1461 ha or 3,610 acres. Zone 3 is primarily used as farmland within the City itself. It is
intended to supply a large amount of the City’s staple food supply and is managed as a large
scaleagroecology farm.
1.4iv Green Belt and Wider Environment [Zones 4 and 5]
Zone 4 may be referred to as the Greenbelt (See Fig 18, p43). It consists of six patches each covering
1890 ha or 4671 acres each. The total area included in Zone 4 is 11,340 ha or 28,022 acres. Zone 4 is
managed as a broad scale landscape. Its primary functions are industrial scale agriculture, forestry,
fisheries, arable, and livestock. This zone also includes large recycling depots and some processing -
the heaviest industry is found here in the form of smelting and recasting forges. These are to provide
metals and structural components for multiple purposes in the City including the construction of
railways, the manufacturing of public transportation and supplying structural building materials such
as steel frames. All classes of materials are recycled and processed here.
Primary materials produced by the managed forests in Zone 4 include a range of firewood to fine
timbers as well as specialised fungi products. Products from the farms range from building blocks
and mortars, insulation and plaster boards to paper pulp and threads for textiles. Other products
include combustible oils for motor vehicles to resins for glues and plastics. These products form part
of the commercial output for the Garden City and its contribution to the wider materials economy.
Revenue secured from the production and sale of these goods can employ a large workforce, both
for agricultural activities and also for recycling, processing and production jobs. A secure and
profitable industry generates stable tax revenues for future investment. The materials, and industrial
techniques and processes established with this industry enable similar ventures to be established
nationwide, indeed, internationally. Figure 20 below summarises some of the potential materials
and products markets to be further developed.
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Figure 17. Zone 0 in the Garden City of Today (the built environment)
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Figure 18.Location and Distribution of Landscape Zones in the Garden City of Today
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Figure 19. Landscape Zones in the Garden City of Today.

Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014
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45
Zone 4 Cont.


Figure 20. Modern uses of industrial Hemp.
(Adapted from internet image, source: www.facebook.com/Citizens.Action.Network)
Please note:Whilst industrial hemp is used as an example of non-food crops, readers are advised to
contact the NNFCC (National Non-Food Crops Centre) for detailed information on the variety of, and
conversion of, biomass to bioenergy, biofuels and bio-based products, or visit the website at
www.nnfcc.co.uk.
According to the NNFCC’s figures, if the entirety of Zone 4 was turned over to Hemp or Dual Hemp,
Gross annual market yields of between £13.8m to £14.2m for Hemp and Dual Hemp respectively can
be achievable. This equates to a potential Gross margin of over £6m/annum for the least valuable
raw material products from Zone 4 alone.
Profit margins are increased the further along the processing line a material can be taken. The
advantage of creating and processing products in-house, using raw materials grown in-house, in an
unsaturated market, is an increased profit margin. Raw materials for production do not need to be
procured from external markets, thus the market value is retained to the point of sale.
Hemp can be grown organically; it does not currently require any form of pest management.
According to the NNFCC Current fertiliser recommendations are in the order of 80-120 kg N/ha, with
little response visible at higher rates, 60 kg P/ha and 120-150 kg K/ha are also recommended.
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46

Hemp is also known to rebuild soil structure and improve soil productivity. Monocultural agriculture
in general, is best avoided according to ecological principles. This is due to the large-scale reduction
of biodiversity and the inherent instability of large monocultures which require high input levels of
fertiliser and pesticide treatments.
Zone 5
The wider environment is considered as Zone 5, indicated on figure 19, p44 . This is effectively
treated as nature reserve. In terms of profit and revenue generation, the touristic appeal of Zone
five increases with time as biodiversity increases by reduced levels of high-impact agriculture and
other ecological disturbances. Jobs can be maintained in Zone 5 for maintenance and management.
Many jobs will also be created in ecological programs such as the breeding and reintroduction
ofspecies,research can also be conducted on biological succession and ecological recovery. There is a
lot to be learnt which can be used to speed up the transition and rejuvenation of urban, and other
degraded environments and indeed, widespread ecological rehabilitation of affected natural systems
and processes in general.
In Zone 5, social (value to humans) and environmental value (ecological value) increases with time as
the ecological balance - natural homeostasis (dynamic equilibrium) is re-established. Increased
access to wilderness and its psychologically restorative effects are proven by several studies and can
be repeated through personal experience. The alteration of farming practices from intensive
industrial agriculture to less intensive agroecology has environmental benefits: for example,
increased biodiversity through habitat creation, increased ecological function and improved
psychological recovery through ecological, or environmental quality.
Zone 5 then, is the wider environment; managed, or unmanaged as wilderness and natural habitat.
This area is to be nurtured in such a way as to recreate lost biodiversity and native flora and fauna. It
is a huge nature reserve. It is fully accessible by the public and considered a resource in itself. People
may go there for holidays, research, camping, hiking, swimming and all activities connected to
nature and the countryside which has suffered greatly under the industrial era.



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1.5Landscape Pattern

Figure 21. Landscape Pattern in and around the Garden City of Today.
This Garden City is about the space that is not built, as much as the built space. It is comprised of
more green space than built space; such is the wider environment. Its complexity is based upon the
complexity of nature, where the whole is more than the sum of its component parts. The Garden
City is gestalt in principle and fractal in structure as we see in nature, space and living organisms.
The land masses, or patches within the city, all share the same pattern. The contemporary name of
which is the Koch Snowflake after the most recent discoverer, the Swedish mathematician Helge von
Koch, see Fig. 21 above. Mathematically speaking, the Koch snowflake has an infinite perimeter,
which is unusual for a 2-dimensional shape. The purpose of using such a shape is to maximize
landscape edge and to complicate the landscape mosaic - having the effect of deepening the
ecotone. By using a tessellating fractal landscape pattern, the structure of the landscape has
multiple scales, avoids homogeneity (due to its edge complexity and matrix of varying patch sizes)
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and therefore its overall
function is increased – the
pattern forms a meta-
habitat. This means that the
human settlement can be
reintegrated into the natural
systems of Earth’s ecology.
Natural environments are
not homogenous but rather
are composed of habitats
that vary spatially and
temporally in their quality
and suitability for animal
species (Wiens 1976, 1989;
den Boer 1981; Dunning et
al. 1992).
A species may occur naturally as a series of ‘local populations’ (SensuHanski and Gilpin 1991) that
occupy patches of suitable habitat that are separated from similar populations by areas of poorer
quality. Together such a set of populations forms a regional population (Bennett 1998, 2003).
The green spaces within the city and the greenbelt are tessellated, allowing for habitat corridors
where patches connect, aiding connectivity. At key points it is essential to maintain habitat corridors
and linkages in the landscape through wildlife crossings or ecoducts. Many examples of which can be
found via an image search on the internet.
Connectivity has been described as the degree to which the landscape facilitates or impedes
movement among resource patches (Taylor et al. 1993). Increased connectivity has the advantage of
allowing seemingly fragmented habitat patches to function holistically; employing the gestalt
principle. The green spaces en masse may be deemed as a meta-space (meta-habitat), in much the
same way that isolated populations within a given area are considered as a meta-population within
that area as a whole.
Organisms each have a range – the distance they can travel until they need to find another habitable
patch. Habitable patches therefore, are theoretically surrounded by a bubble representing half of
each organism’s range. We can call this imaginary range bubble a buffer. When buffers overlap it
means that the organism has an increased chance of finding another habitable patch, thus its habitat
opportunity is increased, and species mobility and patch connectivity are increased.
Figure 19 below shows (in blue) locations in Bournemouth (Dorset, UK) where Stag beetles
(Lucanuscervus) have been found. The blue polygons represent habitable patches; the blue line
represents half of the range of the beetle, where lines overlap it means the next habitable patch is
within the range of the organism. The principle of connecting habitat patches according to a species’
range is that habitable patches fall within the range of the organism thus increasing
habitatconnectivity and therefore the overall ecological function of the wider environment. The
yellow polygons represent green spaces within Bournemouth whichcould be modified to be
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49
habitable for the beetle. As you will see the yellow and blue lines overlap in a way which covers the
majority of Bournemouth. In this example, the existing blue patches represent isolated populations
within Bournemouth. By adding additional patches (in yellow) the previously isolated populations
are linked, thus the meta-habitat of the stag beetle covers almost all of Bournemouth. By increasing
the number of habitable patches within an area, landscape function is increased and biodiversity
increases.

Figure 22.Existing and Proposed Habitats for Lucanus cervus in Bournemouth 2006.
The landscape pattern in the Garden City is complex and connected. It allows for a natural ecological
habitat to exist within a human settlement.
1.7Land allocation
Table 9.Comparisons of surface area per person.
Settlement name Acres Population Acres per
Person
M²/person (√ M²/person)
= M x M
London (City) 388,448 8,308,369 0.05 202 14 x 14
Milton Keynes 21,992 229,941 0.1 405 20 x 20
Proposed Garden
City 2014
14,522 117,649 0.12 486 22 x 22
Letchworth 4972 33,249 0.14 567 23 x 23
London (Metro) 2,071,238 15,010,295 0.14 567 24 x 24
Howard’s Group of
Garden Cities -
Metro (No.7)
66,000 250,000 0.26 1052 32 x 32
Howard’s “Garden
City”
9,000 32,000 0.28 1133 34 x 34
Proposed Garden
City 2014 - Metro
42,544 117,649 0.36 1457 38 x 38
United Kingdom 60,198,400 63,181,775 0.95 3845 62 x 62
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1.8 Implementation
Construction Phases

Table 10. Generalised implementation phases of the Garden City of Today.
Phase Picture Urbanisation Landscape
Activity
Economic
Activity
1.

Land allocation.

Total land
allocation for
garden city is
172.17km²

The frame is
19km x 19km
(11.8 x 11.8 miles)
361km²/139miles²
Land identified
within greenbelt
area.

Land identified
for urbanised
areas.
Profitable
business plan
explained to
farm and land
owners and
leasers.
2.

Installation
commences on,
Primary routes.








Syndication of
farmers, opt out
schemes, fiscal
incentives.
Primary
infrastructure
Government
funded.
3.

Installation of City
Raisers Camp
(CRC) on the site
of the city centre

Supply route rail
network is
installed



Supply route
network built
with
Government
funding.
4.










Installation of
additional farm
buildings and
processing
factories.

Land allocation
for farming
transformation.
Land put into use
for the means of
the city build and
future activities

Coppice and
timber forest
planting


Recycling of
materials

Casting of steel,
iron and
aluminium

Processing of
plastics and tyres
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5.

Installation work
commences on
City routes travel
network.







Processing of
produce
commences


Govt fund

Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
6.

District
underground
installed








Processing of
produce

Storage of
materials ready
for distribution
Govt fund

Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
7.

Stations installed

Transport
network
completed






Distribution of
building
materials
commences
Govt fund

Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
8.











Satellite Centres
installed
Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
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9.

Central City
Raisers Camp
dismantled,
relocated to farms
and processing
factories which
are modified to
increase output.



Central city
gardens
Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
10.

Central City built
including central
station.








Satellite central
gardens
(Zone 1 Patches)
Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
11.

Outer central
district built









Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
12.











City routes district
installed







Central Zone 2
Patches
Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
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53
13.

Rural districts
installed









Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
14.












Zone 2 Patches Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
15.

Intercity districts
built









Zone 3s Recycled
materials and re-
cast metals used
in construction

Produced
materials used
16.

Built city
complete

City continues to
refine systems
such as food and
energy
production,
transport and
infrastructure.

Zone 0 and 1
Patches
5° (Quinary)
Economic
Activity.

Start-up
Investment
Loans repaid.


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54
2.0 Economic Viability


Figure 23.Spider diagram of Words conveying Viability.
Viability comes in two timeframes; start-up viability and sustainable viability. These act like a starter
motor, and the motor proper for a motorcar. The starter motor is powered by a pre-existing energy
reserve; the engine is powered by a fuel or energy source.
Start-up capital comes from the Governments large infrastructure fund. To be repaid with money
over time, or by establishing an agreement upon ownership of buildings and services within the
Garden City. Private investors can also invest financial capital, time capital, or materials capital.
Sustainable viability is secured with the various businesses and schemes described below, in what is
most easily referred to as a seed for a new economy. This Garden City is a seed for a new economy
and new innovations to grow. Economic activities are described in section 2.1 below.
Progression and Growth
The economy of the Garden City can emulate macrocosmic economic transitional growth on a
microcosmic scale. That means, if we look at how economies grow over time, from subsistence
farming economies to advanced technologies for instance, we can see there are transitions or
successions in human economies; pre-industrial, industrial, post-industrial, technological... etc These
successions are to a certain extent categorised by economic sectors – the primary, secondary,
tertiary, quaternary and forthcoming quinary sectors. Each previous economic sector lays the
foundation for subsequent sectors to emerge and develop, whilst retaining elements of the
previous. Farming is still present in an advanced tertiary and quaternary economy like that of the
UK; however it is no longer subsistence, but based upon advances in technology and understanding
resulting from continued economic development.
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To look at the picture of economic growth as a whole and to reapply it at a faster speed on a smaller
scale is how we can emulate macrocosmic economic successional growth. So we look at how things
occur naturally, and emulate them, feed them and nurture them based upon extant historical
knowledge and experience. We know this works because we can grow a rainforest in a matter of
years now that we understand the way the rainforest grows; the structures and components: Upper
canopy, lower canopy, climbers, bushes, herbs, roots, groundcover, livestock and insects can all be
(re-)introduced. We know what pioneer species are, and what functions they perform, we know
what type of nutrients and resources are needed at certain times, and we can apply them in
abundance to support and speed up the process of biological succession.
If we can speed up natural processes, through positive agitation or supplementary stimuli, to
achieve climax states or ecologies, why is an economy any different? We have to accept that there is
a physical climax to any biological process if something more than the input is to result, and in order
to appreciate the gestalt of the composition we cannot be the only ones in the tango. We only need
to afford ourselves a certain degree of physical comfort before we seek something beyond physical-
corporeal wealth. To some, that is considered to be increased longevity - indeed immortality, but to
all of us, the common principle is that we wish to live and die happily without regret. The extent to
which we create this for others is also the extent to which we have achieved that common aim in
ourselves.
The founding farmers/fathers of the USA grew Hemp to establish their economy. It worked before, it
can work again – that is the fundamental line. We now have the added advantage of superior
technology, making this process very much more facilitated. Power tools, machinery, advanced
knowledge and communications etc make this very viable and appealing. There are huge business
opportunities for farmers, traders, architects, planners, builders, engineers, gardeners, entertainers,
artists, bakers, chefs, teachers, and d.i.y.-ers and so on, not to mention the associated social
institutions and networks which can be re-established and supported by this new economy.
Non linear, and linear growth
If we follow linear growth, it means we are looking for the quinary sector – what is it? Following a
technological extrapolationist model we can conclude that it may be an expression of ever-
advancing technology in the form of robotics, extra-terrestrial travel maybe, artificial intelligence
and so on. Do we truly need this when we have not achieved environmental and social equilibrium?
There are many associated risks involved with technological extrapolation that do not favour the
human condition. Robots may become, or already are, more intelligent, stronger, faster and tireless
compared to humans. Many factors are involved when considering creating a species more
advanced than our own that may lack [human] reason or empathy resulting in potential competition
for the planet as a whole. We have all seen the films, thankfully. So what of a more advanced
human? Leonardo of Vinci designed the Vitruvian Man, perhaps as a template for our ideal physical
structure, although it is considered he was explaining the proportions found throughout nature as a
whole, what we now refer to as divine proportion, golden ratio, which it turns out is also connected
to human fractal dimensional preference which in turn describes ideal proportion, hence why
Pollock’s seemingly abstract blobs are appealing to many people. We have historical figures such as
Jesus of Nazareth who embodied the Christ, Siddhartha Gautama the Shakyamuni Buddha and
Muhammad of Mecca - all respect due to these people, who taught humanity the meaning of
humanity. These people have elucidated human advancement, but none of them as far as we know
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56
sought to advance humans specifically in the physical domain away from a relationship with [our]
nature. If we take into account the message these people shared, it was to continue our human
advancement in harmony with each other and with life. We must find equilibrium with, and within
the greater biological organism that is the Earth.
Therefore, regarding the quinary - the fifth economic sector; if each sector advance along the
succession of the economy is embedded in the next, then the quinary sector is hugely dependent
upon all that precedes it. Our entire existence is dependent upon the natural systems of the Earth.
Our entire species and civilisation as we know it has grown from the resources available from this
planet. Our individual bodies are fed by the Earth. Physically speaking, without the Earth, there are
no humans; with no humans, human knowledge ceases to exist and therefore all our creations were
in vain, including the economy. The wisdom and the spirit of the human experience may live on
somehow, but may no longer be embedded in a biological physical organism, such as the Earth; such
as our bodies. Therefore, the quinary economic sector must take into account natural ecological
systems in order to advance the species. Transgenics, genetic manipulation and so forth are
precursors, or interferences with, the emerging paradigm that is human:nature equilibrium – the
Quinary economic sector is an economy based upon ecological principles, such as dynamic
equilibrium and homeostasis. It is an economic system that does not deplete the natural resources
of the earth to the extent that the Earth itself is destabilised and becomes uninhabitable for human
life. Biological processes are recognised as processes to be emulated. This is not a new occurrence,
we see this in engineering solutions frequently – the classic example being the aeroplane wing which
is a giant copy of a bird’s wing, or the solar panel which captures light energy and transfers it into a
different form of energy like a leaf on a tree.
Photosynthesis and photokinesis are two ecological processes we can consider. Work is currently
underway to create matter from light. This is known as photosynthesis – it is how a plants grow,
converting light into plant matter through a chemical reaction.
Photokinesis is travelling or growing towards light sources – plants do this. Can humans realign
themselves with this process? To do this is to secure the long-term economic viability and vitality
that we currently seek.

2.1 Economic Activities in the Garden City
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Agroecology, sustainable forestry and aquaculture are all growth areas. Investment in rehabilitation
of natural habitats, such as rivers and waterways to increase native biological stock is a sustainable
industry. Introduction of reservoirs and wetland systems to retain surface water and create habitat
is investing in our future. Planting of rotation coppice woodlands creates a truly sustainable
resource. A softwood plantation for medium term makes sense in meeting medium term needs,
hardwood plantations for long-term investment. It is a matter of urgency for large-scale farming to
shift into a more diverse type of agriculture. Food is to be produced locally using smaller-scale, less
intensive organic methods. A great number of jobs are created by re-employing people into this
field. Industrial farming is still undertaken to an extent in Zone 4, focusing more on non-food crops.
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There are 28,000 acres of land allocated to Zone 4; that is sufficient land to produce over 14,000
tons of hemp seed for oils, and nearly 57,000 tons of hemp straw for fibre and hurd based on figures
published by the Government’s NNFCC (National Non-Food Crops Centre) consultancy. This is a good
start.
Mining and Quarrying
The standard practice of mining and quarrying is replaced to a greater extent by recycling and
recasting of materials. It is foreseen that a great deal of materials are currently stored in obsolete or
derelict motor vehicles, other machinery and buildings, and indeed those which may become
obsolete through replacement. These materials can be processed to produce materials for new
construction and manufacturing. Examples of recycled and reclaimed materials to be reused:
Metals
Glass
Plastics
Rubber
Textiles
Stone
Bricks and Roof Tiles
Timber
Insulation Materials
Windows, guttering, doors
Bearings Locks and hinges etc
Manufacturing
Automotive: design, engineering and production of alternative forms of travel will become a major
profitable industry for the Garden City, UK, Europe, developed and developing world. The
opportunity exists to partake in this transition to clean-energy public transport systems. The Garden
City can lead the way in this renewal. Participants in the project can donate their cars for instance, to
be used for components and casting new components in the production of new transportation. For
instance, there are sufficient materials in ten cars to produce one new rail carriage and 20metres of
railway line. This is an approximation to make the point.
Large opportunities for employment and new businesses exist in the manufacturing of tools and
machinery; through the design and engineering of tools and machinery for new requirements,
created by the new economy. Production of tools and machinery to refine processing methods for
recycling and new materials sources are essential to driving the new economy. Manufacturers can
be individuals or small businesses making specific hand tools up to large businesses making farm
machinery for instance.
Clean-energy devices; a large amount of micro hydro components are currently produced in Turkey
for example. An opportunity exists to localise production of clean-energy devices, and to further
develop new devices for the open market.
Pharmaceuticals, Infoceuticals, Natural Remedies, Essential Oils. This can also be a profitable area
for agriculture; herbs and base compounds can be grown in specialised facilities employing
hydroponic and LED (sodium) light equipment. Production can be year-round and 24 hours a day.
New treatments and traditional treatments can be researched, tested, developed and produced. A
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large opportunity for research and testing exists and shall be allocated a suitable budget in order to
create products for the market.
Through the creation of textiles, further manufacturing opportunities are created: apparel, fabrics,
bags, shoes and socks etc using modern hemp-derived materials and to some extent recycled
textiles.
Regarding packaging; changes in source materials for packaging are already here. We have plastics
made from cellulose, see www.biopak.com.au. Hemp is also a source material for a whole range of
packaging solutions. A large market already exists and can be challenged by new sustainable sources.
Established companies may also continue to make use of the recycled materials made available by
the Garden City. Established packaging companies are encouraged as much as new companies to
make use of the resources that are to become available through the Garden City commercial
infrastructure, designed to facilitate delivery of materials and distribution of products.
A large emphasis is placed upon funding and supporting innovation in the Garden City of Today.
Further innovations can be fed into the manufacturing sector.
Electricity, Gas and Energy
Electricity production is to be localised and supported by a plethora of smaller-scale electricity
generating units. Storage of electricity shall take the form of communal AHI battery reserves
(Sodium ion batteries) stored in warehouses. Please see Aquion Energy (www.aquionenergy.com)
for an example. 20 MwH warehouses have been designed by this company. 18 kilowatt hour
batteries have been mounted on a standard M100 Pallets. These pallets are then stacked in
warehouses, providing grid-scale energy reserves. Charged by solar, wind and hydro.
Direct energy sourcing – is a return in many ways, to traditional means of harnessing kinetic energy.
Old methods shall be re-employed, with modern advances applied to increase efficiency. We have
numerous new materials and engineering advancements to streamline old methods. A simple water
mill, once employed nationwide relied on seemingly archaic technology, but the principles laid the
foundation for a renewal. Instead of oiled grinding bearings we can now employ modern materials
and engineering solutions such as Teflon and ball bearings, improving efficiency significantly.
Direct energy means there is no transferral or transition of energy type – for instance from kinetic to
electric. The force is used directly such as for water powered wood mills. These applications are
extremely specific to site and need, but a huge diversity of methods shall be employed accordingly in
order to satisfy social needs and support materials processing.
Biomass is to be a major product of the Garden City – as a sustainable resource. Biomass is literally
grown on site in and around the Garden City. This can be further processed into briquettes from
compacted chipped material and also into charcoal from brash leftover from firewood and other
timber related activities.
The ease of distribution of electrical energy is a major advantage. By reassessing our needs and our
usage we can re-determine energy creation and distribution. It is recognised that vast amounts of
energy are required in heavy industrial processes for instance, not to mention powering office
computers and laboratories, hospital equipment etc thus it is essential to keep such volumes of
electricity available. By slightly shifting our domestic lifestyle, we can reduce dependency on
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accustomed electrical conveniences, whilst the convenience can be maintained by being replaced
through innovative design solutions or using alternative energy sources. This reduces the need to
accumulate vast reserves or sources of electrical energy for domestic purposes alone, freeing up
electricity for non domestic uses.
Electrical energy production and distribution can be designed specific to place. But on the whole, as
mentioned earlier, electricity generation is decentralised vis-à-vis localised, whilst storage is
centralised to ensure efficiency, stability and availability.
In the chart below we can see a gradual shift away from Coal, more towards gas from 1990 - 2010.
Gas is a cleaner fuel to burn, however still requires extraction, collection and storage. Alternatives
exist, which are perpetual and clean. The Gas market has a ceiling for efficiency and supply, clean
alternatives exist now (e.g. wind, hydro) with no foreseeable decline in supply or demand and the
efficiency of energy capture can only improve with funding and time. We can see a very gradual
transition towards clean energy in the UK looking at Chart 3. Globally we see a far more significant
change. Indeed if we look at clean renewables individually, we see their installation and energy
production increasing dramatically.

Chart 3. Comparison of energy production in the UK in 1990 and 2010 by source


0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

Energy Source
Comparison of Energy Production in the UK
1990 and 2010
2010
1990
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Chart 4. Comparison of energy production in the UK and the Garden City of Today.
Chart 4 shows a comparison of the UK today, and Garden City in its earlier stages. It is likely that the
garden City will need to rely on certain imports of energy to begin with, if the economy is to have a
rolling start. 16% is the hypothetical figure cited above; this includes coal, petroleum oil and gas.
These imports shall be used by heavy industry and other industrial processes, as these energy
sources are extremely potent and can provide sufficient energetic “torque” to allow certain
industrial processes to be undertaken – such as smelting and kilning as well as supplying any
mechanised production/processing lines. This dependency shall be gradually reduced as energy
production increases and energy usage becomes more economical.
With a projection of around 16% importation of energy, the Garden City can still contribute towards
national grid profits. The idea is not to eliminate the existing economic markets, but to create a new
economy using the old one as a fuel. The garden city shall create new market opportunities,
investments can be shifted, resources can be shifted, skills and jobs can be reallocated. The key is to
aid the transition, not to encourage a collapse. This is one of the key elements to the Garden City
objectives. It is a new plant in the garden, where existing stocks no longer fair with changing climatic
conditions; the Garden City brings new plants and new stock to the garden suited to the new
climate.




0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
35.0%
40.0%
45.0%
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

Energy Source
Comparison of Energy Production
UK
Garden City
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Energy output in the UK roughly has the following distribution (Based on 2007 figures):

Chart 5. Energy output in the UK by source 2007
The Garden City of Today shall utilise alternative sources of energy. Energy production for the
Garden City of Today shall look more like the following:

Chart 6. Energy output in the Garden City of today by source.
38%
36%
13%
11%
2%
Energy Output in the UK
(by source)
Oil
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclear
Other/Renewables
4%
8%
4%
13%
12%
28%
19%
12%
Energy Output in the Garden City
(by source)
Petroleum Oil
Natural Gas
Coal
Biomass
Vegetable Oil
Solar
Wind
Hydro
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Water Supply, sewerage, waste management, remediation activities
Water is to come from a variety of sources. The traditional sources such as aquifers – spring and
bore hole for drinking water. Water usage shall be heavily supplemented by rainwater harvesting
and filtering.
Sewerage is to be handled using a series of WET (Wetland Ecological Treatment) systems, (for some
examples please see www.biologicdesign.co.uk) Using the example of sewerage we can describe an
example of modern techniques and approaches to be employed in the Garden City en masse. We
can use diggers, bulldozers, materials, skills, tools etc to build a sewerage treatment plant that uses
electricity in the filtering, digestion, chemical processing, stabilisation and dehydration of raw
sewerage into what is commonly known as Tera – sewage sludge fit for agricultural application as a
soil conditioner. This is an excellent process, resulting in useful end products – clean water and soil
conditioner to name the most obvious ones. This process does resolve the issue of dealing with toxic
and dangerous raw sewerage sludge, and is an extremely successful method of sanitation. The
process does however require a significant amount of energy and the use of chemicals to deliver
safe and useful end products.
How can we also create safe and useful end products but reduce the energy usage? We can either
supply clean energy from clean renewable sources, or we can create an alternative system
altogether - Ideally one that creates safe and useful end-products and uses no energy.
Thus to take the reapplication a step further; using the same diggers, bulldozers, materials, tools etc
new methods can be employed to build a WET system – Wetland Ecological Treatment system.
(Please refer to www.biologicdesign.co.uk). A WET system uses no concrete to build, no electricity to
function, requires minimal maintenance and does not use chemicals in any stage of the process. It
results in the creation of wetland habitat, clean water, and biomass fuel in the form of willow and
elder coppice. Energy is used in the extraction and processing of the biomass, however this energetic
expense is repaid with the biomass. This example exhibits how reassigning existing machinery, skills
resources etc can result in clean renewable energy and virtually zero maintenance costs.
This process therefore requires no energy to run, produces habitat and biodiversity and supplies a
source of cleanly-derived energy in the form of biomass. The market is huge for similar installations.
Biologic Design has installed WET systems all over the UK for both domestic and industrial
applications. One of the largest is the WET system for Weston’s Cider.
Waste management, is treated more like mining and quarrying by the Garden City. It is an
opportunity to collect and process free materials. Investment in materials processing innovation is a
priority. Uses and processes for all materials are a key focus for innovation, research and
development. New developments form part of the information economy. On the whole, the city will
invite local municipalities to deposit their waste at the recycling plants. In return, salable, usable raw
materials are created. Donors can be paid in raw materials, or offered discounts in lieu of their waste
deposit. In Japan, ticket vending machines accept payment in plastic bottles towards travel tickets!
Remediation activities are inherent in virtually all the activities found in the Garden City. The City is
designed to remediate natural, economic and social environmental disorders. The garden city is to
act as the leader in such activities and then to provide expertise and assistance nationwide in the
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remedial transition from a socio-economic culture towards a redeemed socio-ecological culture
where wealth can be generated, not apprehended or extracted from the world around us.
Construction
Construction methods and therefore the construction industry in the Garden City shall be
determined by the materials and techniques used. An emphasis is placed upon traditional
techniques and natural and recycled materials applied with innovation.
The construction industry in the Garden City shall be setting a benchmark for the evolution of the
Construction industry in the UK. New methods and practices applied in the Garden City shall set
standards for the rest of the UK and future developments shall follow in its footsteps. The intention
is to use existing methods, skills, tools and machinery and reapply them in a modern way.
The majority of construction materials are grown, recycled and recast from the recycling plants and
farms. The building practices and materials may vary according to geographic location, but will
employ locally abundant materials. The Garden City can grow all future building timbers in Zone 4
Woodlands. Very traditional techniques are to be employed mixed with some modern materials.
Buildings are both wooden and steel framed. Walls can be from stone, brick, clay, wattle and daub,
hemp blocks and various recycled materials. Insulation canbe from wool, hemp and recycled
materials and textiles. Roofing can be steel, wooden, slate, stone, recycled, rubber and PV tiles to
mention a few. It is well known by now that many excellent methods have been extensively tested
and proven to work and are indeed being used all over the UK, Europe and the World by Architects
and builders. Please see www.earthship.com for one example.
The majority of building materials are to be grown and produced from industrial hemp plantations in
Zone 4 – the Green Belt. These materials together with recycled materials shall be used to build steel
and timber frame structures. The walls shall be made from a variety of materials, ranging from
stone, to hemp blocks, and straw. All, plus many more of these methods exist and shall be employed
en masse to create the City. This City can train a workforce on the job. Future revenue may be
created through training and extra-city construction contracts.
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicle and motorcycles
The city has a commercial supply rail network, connected to a series of commercial storage facilities
for distribution in the city during build and for maintenance, and later for national sale. Wholesale
markets shall be developed around this citywide infrastructure.
Retail trade accommodates for all types of retail, from multinational to local retailers.
Food and many necessities are produced in the city by inner-city farming and products resulting
from the industrial hemp farms.
Mechanical engineering and vehicle maintenance has a large role to play in the garden city mainly
due to the innovations in travel introduced by the city. Mechanical engineers who live in the city can
expect to be employed on innovative engineering projects, research and development and the
refining and maintenance of these new vehicles. Training other mechanical engineers outside the
city and assisting with technical expertise in writing maintenance manuals and software can
continue into the future.
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Transport and Storage
Ample facilities exist within the city and on the city outskirts for storage. The city is to be highly
connected to existing infrastructure in the UK. Indeed direct connections to national rail lines,
special linkages to national road networks in the form of park and ride, combined with
distribution/collection facilities allow private motorists and commercial motor vehicles to access the
city directly and indirectly.
For example a private motorist shall park their car outside the city and travel by public transport into
the city. When in the city, there is a plethora of transport options. A visitor for instance can buy a
card similar to an oyster card (or even an oyster card) to use on all public transport networks
including cycle and buggy hire. Profits can be generated for the city using this system.
Commercial motorists, such as for transport/delivery should expect to collect or deposit their loads
at the satellite commercial stations situated in Zone 4. For specialist deliveries into the city itself,
permits may be granted by the City Council.
Accommodation and Food Services
It is foreseen that many people will visit the city to witness the innovation and partake in the
environmental quality and health improving nature of the city. People will also be visiting on
business and for training purposes. An emphasis is placed on catering and hospitality in the city. It is
to be renowned for great food and very comfortable hotels, guesthouses and bed and breakfasts. All
catering and hospitality is greatly encouraged. These can be private up to multinational enterprises
and are located within the city according to sector model planning.
Information and Communication
One of the primary functions of economic activity in the Garden City is to continue to advance and
implement innovation and research into alternative technologies. The Centre for Alternative
Technology is the spearhead of this movement in the UK; the Garden City can act as an additional
campus. The Garden City is very much an educational centre. The aim of the garden city is to study
and develop useful information and to exemplify its communication to the rest of the nation and to
a global audience. Information is freely available in the garden city, with the belief that this fuels
innovation and therefore stimulates stagnant areas of the existing economy. Communication can
help to improve this movement.
Financial and Insurance Activities
Investments, stocks and shares can and shall be made available for investors. As important as social
and environmental activities are financial ones. The Garden City ought to attract significant attention
from experts in investment. Insurance also has its place and office space is available for such
activities.
Real Estate Activities
The Garden City shall be owned by its occupants and by its Council, in a very similar way to
Letchworth. Offices, Laboratories, Retail units, Commercial buildings etc shall all remain the property
of the Garden City. It is not possible for external companies to buy property in the Garden City, but
properties are offered through commercial leases. Profits gained by the Garden City can be used in
order to purchase more land to expand agricultural activities if necessary, but the aim really is to
encourage farmers to adopt new methods for their farms and to join regional co-operatives
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whichunify large scale operations into a coherent landscape management. This removes the
incentive to grow according to international stock markets and focuses upon regional needs and
ecologically sound management of landscapes.
Profits from the Garden City to the Garden City Council may be forwarded to assist the Government
in the building of new Garden Cities. Surplus building materials created from one garden city, after
its completion can be allocated to new developments. As stated earlier, once the City is complete
the agriculture and processing factories shift priority from creating building materials to creating
food and other necessities for the city. Building materials are still produced for building maintenance
and further developments/expansion but direct needs of the City are catered for first. Surplus can
then be allocated to the wider economy as salable goods, or start-up investment for additional
garden cities.
Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities
As mentioned above, the Garden City can be a centre of excellence in ecological design and many
other fields; please view Schumacher College prospectus, and also the Centre for Alternative
Technologies. It is hoped the Garden City may become an additional campus for similar activities and
to work in partnership with such institutions from the outset.
Administrative and Support Services Activities
The Garden City Council is linked to Central Government. The Garden City Council is the link
between the people who live in the City and people in Government who take decisions. Good
communications and a sense of unity/joint responsibility are encouraged, an ethos of creation with
not against each other is fostered.
The Garden City focuses upon simplification and transparency. It supports continued development
of online services, with attendant software supported by human representatives.
Public Administration and Defence; Compulsory Social Security
A very important element to the Garden City is social care and rehabilitation. With a projected
population of 117,649 it is considered that there will be around 28,000 children, with around 5,000
of these at nursery age at any time. There will also be around 19,500 people of retirement age, with
approximately 2,600 of these people potentially needing care assistance. In the Garden City, care of
the elderly and of the young may be combined in some facilities, the Garden City shall also offer
separated facilitiesto ensure a variety of methods of care for all 5,000 young and all 2,600 elderly.
People suffering from incapacity will be assisted by well-being specialists and offered therapies via
specialist health centres. Depending on the severity of their conditions, appropriate remedial or
rehabilitative activities may be recommended. These can be a combination or single method ranging
in anything from gardening to acupuncture, massage, aromatherapy and physiotherapy, plus more.
Criminal offenders are to be treated with nurture and assisted in personal development.
Education
The Garden City of Today employs a whole-city-model that is based upon the idea that the whole
world is a stage – we are all students in this school called Earth and there is no limit to
understanding or imagination. The schools within the Garden City benefit from multiple teaching
facilities situated city-wide, in all sectors. Direct exposure to industry and commerce, services and
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experts in the field is an extremely valuable learning aid. There are to be traditional school facilities,
such as dedicated school buildings for classroom, examination, registration and administration type
activities. The additional buildings spread across the city are primarily for educational purposes – in
that schools have priority over all other users, but these centres are also to function as community
centres, meeting halls, galleries and exhibition rooms, temporary studios, pop up shops and
workshops, they act like village halls within the city. They are of very simple design and maintained
by their local communities. As innovation is a core concept in the city, these community buildings
are fundamentally places for innovators and scholars of all ages to meet, discuss and share research,
designs and models, and elucidate their ideas – much like an amphitheatre in ancient Greece, but
weatherproof, and priority is given to the children. Children and the public may attend educational
presentations; teachers and their classes may use these buildings as a base whilst visiting a certain
industry, sector or business etc. Education and Innovation are to maintaining vitality and viability for
raising future generations.
Human Health and Social Work Activities
As mentioned earlier regarding social care, young and old integration is very much encouraged and a
tradition to be re-embraced. Our elders and our children are the most important members of
society. They have the ability to shape our lives through a simple storytelling or by playing out a
game which triggers a realisation deep inside of us. If we cannot learn from our children or from our
elders we may find ourselves somewhat abstracted. Caring for others is one of the most
fundamental actions a person can undertake. We learn responsibility through caring for others and
in turn this responsibility has positive effects upon ourselves and the way we lead our lives. By
integrating young with the old we re-embrace ancient tradition. The oldest members of our
community have many experiences and memories to share; they have been living in the physical
realm for a longer time than younger members of the community. The greatest transfer of
accumulated experience is from the eldest to the youngest, thus our children may benefit from life
experience taught by the most experienced. The youngest of us have the most vitality, verve and
energy – children lighten the atmosphere and make us laugh. This is what our elders need, thus the
traditional relationship of youngest with the elders can be facilitated and made common place. The
elders benefit from the energy and animation of the youngest, whilst the youngsters benefit from
the life experience, conversation, storytelling and skills of the eldest. Many activities can be shared
and many skills can be transferred. Cooking, gardening, painting, drawing, playing musical
instruments, singing and so on are all examples of this exchange waiting to be re-normalised and the
social and health benefits are beyond conventional treatments.
Wellbeing as a lifestyle is the modus operandi regarding human health. In the past we had very
much more active healthy lifestyles and diets. In the Garden City this is a very similar case. Lifestyles
are much more active and diets are more localised, seasonal, fresh and organic. It is projected that
around 65% of people will be employed in jobs related to the outdoors and food. At present only 1%
of British people work in agriculture. The Garden City is very much about returning to the land and
returning to Eden – not geographically speaking, but by growing it all around us. The Garden of Eden
is well described as a place abundant in fruits and herbs; we have seen many paintings depicting this
place, now the opportunity comes to grow it and to realign with nature. Many people long to be
outside and in touch with nature. Here is the opportunity! The health benefits, both physical and
psychological are well known, therefore this kind of lifestyle can go a long way in addressing human
health.
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Traditional and alternative therapies, so long as accredited by recognisedorganisations are very
welcome in the Garden City. New treatment methods and therapies may be developed – along the
running-theme of innovation, and can become recognised as such through successful treatment of
cases. It is recognised that practitioners need to be certified and recognised by other practitioners in
the field. By reason, this is possible as it is in the nature of health practitioners to want to advance
the field of health. Significant funding is available to support this continued research and
development.
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
Artists, musicians, poets, performers should flock to the city. There are ample flexible jobs from
gardening to catering. Accommodation is affordable and time is plentiful. Many resources exist for
creatives to get creative. The community halls mentioned above are ideal rehearsal and recital
facilities. It is up to the artists and entertainers to shape this in the city, and resources and
opportunities are offered to support artistic endeavours, because this awakens, brightens and
enlivens culture.
Other Service Activities
Sports, tourism, swimming and nature, plus much more!
Activities of Households as Employers, Undifferentiated Goods and Service Producing
Activities of Households for Own Use
Very much a core activity, as part of a localised, but internationally trading, circular economy.
Activities of Extraterritorial Organisations and Bodies
Such organisations are invited to hold offices in the city, conferences are encouraged and
interdisciplinary discussions deemed key to keeping the Kingdom United, to keep Britain Great and
to fortify international relations. To celebrate different cultures and allow for their wisdom to be
explained and compared is vital.
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Urban agriculture(All credits to Guillaume Ceterrier) source: Internet.
3.0 Popularity& Promotion
A town completely energetically independent, generating profit; it is now a reality.
What do we think about walking around a town covered in flowers, with vegetation and food
growing everywhere? The air is clean, the town is energetically sufficient, people are happy and
satisfied. It sounds like a dream but it can be a reality.
Actually, our society is far away from that and facing various problems such as ecological issues:
extreme weather events are having greater effect, and natural catastrophes are more numerous.
Countries are flooding, others are suffering droughts. Our food contains GMO and pesticides. The
ecosystem is being destroyed and it’s affecting all of us.
The issues are also social: drugs and alcohol addictions, unemployment, the price of living keeps
increasing. People are struggling everyday and have to take two jobs to pay their rent and sustain
their family. Because of the high density in the town and the difficulty to find a job in the
countryside, people with low salaries live in the suburb so they travel every day for a few hours in
often congested transport networks. The health impacts have to be taken into account.
This brings us to a problem of depression and loneliness plus the additional huge task to cure it, has
an impact on the economy. Indeed in this state of need, people have to look closely at their budget.
They can’t afford to buy clothes or renew their TV or microwave resulting in economic losses in the
cycle of products. Therefore companies cannot reinvest in new technologies or marketing and
research. What people would like is to be able to afford to spend time with their family, enjoy their
professional life and having their primary needs met: clean water, unadulterated food and a home.
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The Garden City with its revolutionary model is an alternative solution to these issues. Indeed, it’s
organised in a way to develop different city centres and business areas simultaneously. All of these
parts are linked and accessible by public transport, bike or electric car.
Inhabitants of the town can find an appropriate spot in regards of their needs (whether that means
living in the countryside, or in the centre) and suited to their budget. The City Council can help with
the insertion of new residents by advising them about the different possibilities and opportunities
accessible to them.
The aim of the green spaces is to develop an ecosystem that invites inhabitants and visitors to walk
around the town and enjoy each part of it: there are no barriers to creating harmony. The council
can be the link for this common-unity and will be able to assist and offer to people what they want
by working with them according to the needs of the person. A variety of structures can be set up to
federate this community: exhibition rooms, communal rooms, children’s gardens and schools.
This system can bring inner peace and peace between people. Therefore it will initiate a virtuous
circle, creating innovation and seducing investors by its trend-setter position.
People want a life full of authenticity, they are bored of lies and do not believe all of what the
political representatives say. They need a town at a scale in which they can work, enjoy a good
situation and feel confidence again.
Through a mix of trained people, resources and technology, the Garden City of Today can be a
perfect example of an ecological town for the UK to show off. It can be the first town in which all the
houses are autonomous. It can be an ecological test town to prove it can be done. Surely, a lot of
investors will be keen to give it a try. A crowd founding strategy can also be established to finance
this project.
Closing statement
The aim of this city is as much remediation of natural systems as it is remediation of people and
community.
Economic prosperity is an expression or result of Harmony - like interest in a bank account which is
kept in credit. The bank balance of peaceful well-being is healthy and prosperous. Economic
prosperity can be reflected with financial prosperity, particularly whilst ecological assets are
maturing, such as the coppice and hardwood plantations. As food and biological material-producing
systems mature and grow – as they become increasingly established, production increases. The
health of the ecosystem improves and the knock-on effects are improved human health and
improved prosperity.
In one respect the City is a place to live, in another it is a place to work; overall however, it is a place
to grow.
This City is designed as a Garden City; a city that is also a garden - that can grow, flower and fruit.


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Hanski, I., Gilpin, M. (1991) Metapopulation dynamics: brief history and conceptual domain.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 42: Issue 1-2 pp 3-16.
Harmon, W. W., Markley, O.W., (1982) The Changing Images of Man. Pergamon Press: Oxford.
[Printed in UK by A. Wheaton & Co. Ltd, Exeter]
Hemenway (2000) Gaia’s Garden: A Guide to Home-scale Permaculture. Chelsea Green Publishing
Company, VT, USA.
HRH, Prince Charles, Juniper, T., Skelley, I. (2010) Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World.
Blue Door: HarperCollinsPublishers, London.
Mars, R. (2003) The Basics of PermacultureDesign. Permanent Publications: Hampshire, UK.
Mollison, B. (2009) Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual. Tagari Publications, Tasmania, Australia.
Taylor, P.D., Fahrig, L., Henein, K., Merriam, G. (1993) Connectivity is a vital element of landscape
structure. Oikos, 68: 571-573.
Weins, J.A. (1976) Population responses to patchy environments.Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics, 7: 81-120.
Weins, J.A. (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology.Functional Ecology, 3: 385-397.
Websites
www.aqionenergy.com Sodium ion, grid-scale energy storage systems.
www.biopac.com.au Biodegradable, cellulose-based plastics and packaging.
www.biologicdesign.co.uk Wetland Ecological Treatment Systems, ecological sanitation.
www.earthship.com EarthshipBiotecture; energy, water, food, sewage independent,
utility-freethermal housing made largely from recycled materials.
www.nnfcc.co.uk National Non-Food Crop Centre.
http://www.theworldgeography.com/2012/06/unusual-bridges-for-animals-wildlife.html Ecoducts.
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71
Appendix

Table 11: Landscape Zones; descriptions, activities and uses.
Zone Ross Mars
The Basics of
Permaculture
Design
Toby Hemenway
Gaia’s Garden – A Guide to
Home-Scale
Permaculture
Bill Mollison
Permaculture – A Designers Manual
0 House or other
human living areas.
House. Zone 0(The house or the village) In
this zone belongs good house design,
attached greenhouse or shade-house,
and the integration of living
components such as sod roof, vines,
trellis, pot plants, roof gardens, and
companion animals. In some
climates, many of these structures
are formed of the natural
environment, and will in time return
to it (bamboo and rattan, wattle and
daub, thatch, and earth-covered or
sheltered structures).
1 VEGETABLE
GARDENS:
Intensive sheet-
mulched food
gardens, pond,
shade house,
greenhouse,
rainwater tank,
tool shed. Some
fruit trees, such as
Lemon. Low
windbreak around
the garden
MOST VISITED; INTENSIVE
USE AND CARE. Structures:
greenhouse, trellis, arbour,
deck, patio, bird
feeders/bath, household
storage, workshop. Plants:
herbs, greens, flowers,
dwarf trees, low shrubs,
lawn. Garden Techniques:
Intensive weeding and
mulching, dense planting,
espaliering. Water Sources:
rain barrels, small ponds,
grey-water, household tap.
Animals: wild birds,
rabbits, guinea pigs, soil
organisms, and beneficial
insects. Human Uses:
modify house
microclimate, daily food
and flowers, social space.
Zone 1Those components needing
continual observation, frequent visits,
work input, complex techniques
(fully-mulched and pruned gardens,
chicken laying boxes, parsley and
culinary herbs) should be placed very
close to hand, or we waste a great
deal of time and energy visiting them.
Within 6m (20ft) or so of a home,
householders can produce most of
the food necessary to existence, with
some modest trade requirements. In
this home garden are the seedlings,
young trees for outer zone
placement, perhaps “mother plants”
for cuttings, rare and delicate
species, the small domestic and quiet
animals such as fish, rabbits, pigeons,
guinea pigs, and the culinary herbs
used in food preparation. Rainwater
catchment tanks are also placed
here. Techniques include complete
mulching, intensive pruning of trees,
annuals with fast replacement of
crop, full land use, and nutrient
recycling of household wastes. In this
zone, we arrange nature to serve our
needs.
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72
2 ORCHARDS AND
POULTRY: Garden
beds. Animals such
as chickens or
other poultry,
earth-worm farm,
rabbits or guinea
pigs. Aquaculture
tanks or ponds.
Hedges and
trellising utilised
for edge effects.
Compost heap.
Small orchard of
fruit and nut trees.
SEMI-INTENSELY
CULTIVATED. Structures:
greenhouse barns, tool
shed, shop, wood storage.
Plants: staple and canning
crops, small orchards, fire
retardant plants. Garden
Techniques: spot mulch,
cover crops, seasonal
pruning. Water Sources:
Well, pond, grey-water,
irrigation, swales. Animals:
rabbits, fish, bats, poultry,
soil organisms, beneficial
insects. Human Uses:
home food production,
some market garden crops,
plant propagation, wildlife
habitat.
Zone 2This zone is less intensely
managed with spot-mulched
orchards, main-cop beds, and ranging
domestic animals, whose shelter or
shed may nevertheless adjoin Zone 1
or, as in some cultures, be integrated
with the house. Structures such as
terraces, small ponds, hedges, and
trellis are paced in this zone. Where
winter forces all people and animals
indoors, joint accommodation units
are the normality, but in milder
climates, forage ranges for such
domestic stock as milk cows, goats,
or poultry can be placed in Zone 2.
Home orchards are established here,
and less intensive pruning or care
arranged. Water may be piped from
Zone 3, or conserved by species
selection.
3 CROPS AND
PASTURE: Larger-
scale orchards and
geese, living
mulches, goat pen,
bee hives, fodder
plants, windbreaks
for house,
firebreaks.
FARM ZONE. Structures:
feed storage, field shelters.
Plants: Cash crops, large
fruit and nut trees, animal
forage, shelterbelts,
seedlings for grafting.
Garden Techniques: Cover
crops, little pruning,
moveable fences. Water
Sources: Large ponds,
swales, storage in soil.
Animals: Cows, horses,
pigs, sheep, goats, other
large animals, soil
organisms, beneficial
insects. Human Uses: Cash
crops, firewood and
lumber, pasture.
Zone 3 This area is the “farm” zone of
commercial crop and animals for sale
or barter. It is managed by green
manuring, spreading manure from
Zone 2, and soil conditioning. It
contains natural or little-pruned
trees, broad scale farming systems,
large water storages, soil absorption
of water, feed-store or barns, and
field shelters as hedgerows or
windbreak.
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73
4 WOODLOTS AND
AGROFORESTRY
(long-term
development),
dams, agroforestry
(extensive tree
culture),
shelterbelts,
windmills, farm
stock. Swales,
drains, dams and
other water
harvesting
strategies.
MINIMAL CARE.
Structures: Animal feeders.
Plants: firewood timber,
native plants. Garden
Techniques: pasturing,
selective forestry. Water
Sources: Ponds, Swales.
Animals: Large animals,
soil organisms, beneficial
insects. Human Uses:
Hunting, gathering, grazing.
Zone 4 This zone is an area bordering
on forest or wilderness, but still
managed for wild gathering, forest
and fuel needs of the household,
pasture or range, and is planted to
hardy, unpruned, or volunteer trees.
Where water is stored, it may be as
dams only, with piped input to other
zones> Wind energy may be used to
lift water to other areas, or other
dependable technology used.
5 WILDERNESS,
natural forest or
bush. Catchment
area and flora and
fauna preservation.
Wildlife corridors.
Forest re-growth.
Reforestation.
WILD; UNMANAGED.
Structures: none. Plants:
native plants. Garden
Techniques: Unmanaged.
Water Sources: Ponds,
creeks. Animals: native
animals, soil organisms,
beneficial insects. Human
Uses: Inspiration, foraging,
meditation.
Zone 5We characterise this zone as
the natural, unmanaged environment
used for occasional foraging,
recreation, or just let be. This is
where we learn the rules that we try
to apply elsewhere.


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74
Sources of geometric study:



A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014

75

Extrapolations of Ebenezer Howard’s Group of Garden Cities.

Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2012
A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014

76

Landscape Zones in a Garden Mega-City
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A Garden City of Today Copyright © Marcus Busby, 2014

77
Please See:

Poundbury: Idealised Town Structure
Page 239, HRH Prince of Wales, Juniper,P. &Skelley, I. (2010) Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our
World. Blue Door Publications:HarperCollinsPublishers London.
ISBN 978-0-00-734803-9

The above image is referenced as a source of reference with regard to being a source of inspiration
behind this work. I wish to thank HRH Prince Charles for writing such a comprehensive book for His
people and His nation and for the huge contribution he has made to the transition and return to
ecological and social harmony.



Another source of great Inspiration are the geometric designs of Islamic art.
For a stunning publication and collection of examples, refer to the following publication:

Eric Brourg, (2013) Islamic Geometric Design. Thames and Hudson Publishers, London
ISBN 978-0-500-51695

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