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Refractive Index

Experiment # 2

Group members:
Amoy, Rose Ann
Bacal, Nathaniel
Caddarao, Patrick
Objectives
• To determine the indices of refraction of the
different proportions of liquids in a binary
mixture.

• To determine the specific and molecular


refractivities of each proportion of liquids in a
binary mixture.

• To compare the observed molecular


refractions with calculated values.
Materials And Apparatus
rubbe
a n ol r stop
m e t h per

analytical
balance

toluene
p i p p e tte
calibrated

r
droppe
graduated cylin
ders
cot
m e t e r to ns
pyc n o
Abbe Refractometer

thermometer
illuminating
eyepiece

prism

Adjustment handwheel
eyepiece thermometer

prism

illuminating
pulsating dial

Adjustment handwheel
Procedures:
(1) 25 ml methanol + 0% toluene
x = 0.00 mL toluene
(2) 25 ml methanol + 10% toluene
x / (25 + x) = 0.1
x = 2.78 mL toluene
(3) 25 ml methanol + 20% toluene
(2.5 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.2 x = 3.125 mL toluene

(4) 25 ml methanol + 30% toluene


(5 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.3 x = 3.57 mL toluene

(5) 25 ml methanol + 40% toluene


(7.5 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.4 x = 4.167 mL toluene
B.
(1) 25 ml toluene + 0% methanol
x = 0.00 mL methanol
(2) 25 ml toluene + 10% methanol
x / (25 + x) = 0.1 x = 2.78 mL methanol
(3) 25 ml toluene + 20% methanol
(2.5 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.2 x = 3.125 mL methanol
(4) 25 ml toluene + 30% methanol
(5 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.3 x = 3.57 mL methanol
(5) 25 ml toluene + 40% methanol
(7.5 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.4 x = 4.167 mL methanol
(6) 25 ml toluene + 50% methanol
(10 + x) / (25 + x) = 0.5 x = 5.00 mL methanol
Methodology:

1. Prepare different volumes of


the liquids one at a time.
2. Weight by difference the pycnometer
with the pycnometer with liquid mixtures.

3. Compute for the density.


4. Clean the prisms by
putting a drop of acetone.

Gently wiping with cotton

5. Rinse the prism with


distilled water.
6. Use a dropper to transfer
droplets of the sample.

7. Note the temperature on


the thermometer.
8. Rotate adjustment handwheel. So that
the demarcation line is distinct and that it
intersects the cross hairs.

9. Rotate pulsating dial to adjust the


brightness and darkness of this

pulsating dial
Adjustment handwheel
10. Take the readings at least three times
each time.

Ri= 1.37124

Read:
Ri= ???
1.50284

Ri= 1.350115
11. Let cotton absorb the liquid on prism.

12. Repeat the same process for the


mixtures prepared in step 1 as test liquids.
Thank you… ü