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Subject Knowledge Audit

Design and Technology

Name: Route:

Minimum Competences for Trainees to teach Design and
Technology in Schools

To be awarded Qualified Teacher Status it is important that you are able to demonstrate that
you have secure knowledge and understanding of design and technology. You will be
qualifying to teach secondary pupils and the professional standards for QTS
( require that this knowledge and understanding should be at a
standard equivalent to degree level.

In relation to specific phases you will need to consider the following requirements:

For Key Stage 3 you must know and understand the National Curriculum Programmes of
Study for design and technology. You must know and understand the cross curricular
expectations of the National Curriculum and be familiar with the guidance set out in the
National Strategy for Key Stage 3.

For Key Stage 4 and post 16 you must be aware of the pathways for progression through the
14-19 phase at school, college and work-based settings. You will need to be familiar with the
Key Skills as specified by QCA and the national qualifications framework, and must know the
progression within and from design and technology and be aware of the range of associated
qualifications. You must understand how courses are combined in students curricula.

To this end at the Centre for Design and Technology Education at Sheffield Hallam University
we have adopted the DATA (Design and Technology Association model
which sets minimum subject competences of the newly qualified design and technology
teacher. Design and technology may be considered as four specialist fields of knowledge
bound together by a common subject core. The specialist fields of knowledge include Food
Technology, Materials Technology, Electronics and Communication Technologies and
Textiles Technology.

Each specialist field of knowledge can be considered at two levels. The first level can be
considered as the knowledge and understanding that enables the newly qualified teacher to
teach to KS3. The next level is the knowledge and understanding that enables the newly
qualified teacher to teach to KS4 and beyond.

In addition to the subject core, the minimum competence of a newly qualified design and
technology teacher will enable them to teach one specialist field of knowledge to KS3 and a
separate field to KS4 and beyond.

The model can be illustrated by the diagrams overleaf.

Diagrammatic representation of the DATA model of minimum


There are 17 separate elements that need to be considered for core competences.

Specialist Fields

There are four specialist fields.

Each field has designing (d), making (m) and knowledge and understanding (ku) components.



Audit Snapshots

Audit snapshot in September

Audit snapshot in February

Final audit snapshot in May

Use the auditing sheets on the following pages to interpret your own subject knowledge
profile with respect to the DATA model for minimum competences. Use the diagrams to keep
a visual record of your developing subject knowledge at key points in the professional year.

It will be important for you to monitor you own personal Design and Technology subject
knowledge profile now and as the course and your subsequent teaching career develops.
This audit will enable you to understand your strengths and identify areas for development. It
will enable you to take the appropriate options during the course and will provide information
to your mentor to ensure you get the most from your school placements. The profile will also
help you to apply for an appropriate teaching post and, in the longer term, to plan you
professional development.

You will be asked to consider your own competence in relation to a number of specific
statements taken directly from the DATA documentation. In the first instance you will need to
consider each of the statements in relation to your own feelings of confidence. As the course
progresses and you develop an understanding of the subject in a school based context you
will be able to consider each statement in relation to the level needed to teach at a each key
stage (and achieve competence at a particular level). Complete your self evaluation on the
proformas provided at each of the suggested points (September, February and May).
Aggregate and record the information on the snapshot diagrams. This documentation will
form the basis of discussions with your mentor and academic tutor.

Core competences in the context of design and technology

It is the intention that the core competences described below should be integrated with the
specialist fields competences, and they should therefore be read in conjunction with the
subject-specific fields of knowledge which follow. All student-teachers should cover the core
competences, regardless of the specialist fields.

What to do


Read the statements describing the Minimum Competences for Trainees to Teach Design
and Technology

Tick the Sept box next to each statement you think you have achieved. Consider what
evidence is available to support this. If there is some physical evidence (lesson plan,
artefact etc) archive this for use in your electronic portfolio. If the competence has been
demonstrated to a tutor or a mentor, get them to initial your tick.

Colour the corresponding segment in the Audit Snapshot diagrams

Revisit the audit at least in February and May. Use the audit to discuss your subject
knowledge profile with your mentor and academic tutor and to plan your personal

Core competences

Newly qualified teachers should be able to do the following:

Competence Example Sep Feb May
C1 Understand and use a range of strategies
and approaches to identify and clarify
opportunities for design.

Exploring the impact of ideas, design
decisions and technological advances and
how these provide opportunities for new
design solutions; analysing existing
products and solutions; evaluating the
needs of users and the context in which
products are used, including observations
of how well they function.

C2 Compile a design brief and respond
creatively to it, developing their own
proposals and producing specifications
for products. Know that a product design
specification has a number of

Functional, aesthetic, economic, technical,
environmental, ethical and social
dimensions and use these to evaluate
ideas throughout designing and making.

C3 Research a wide range of information
sources appropriate to the design activity
being undertaken, texts, web-based, data
from primary research, etc.
Analyse, interpret and select appropriate
information to inform their designing.

C4 Use creative thinking strategies to
generate a wide range of innovative ideas
when designing.
Mind mapping, mood boards, thinking hats
strategy, exploring and experimenting with
ideas, materials, technologies and

C5 Make links between principles of good
design, existing solutions and
technological knowledge to develop
innovative products and processes.

C6 Generate, develop, model and
communicate ideas in a range of
appropriate ways; this will depend on the
specialist fields and the nature of the
design and technology activity within that

May include sketches, samples, swatches,
3D models, graphs, digital images,
prototypes, virtual models, photographs.

C7 Reflect critically throughout development
and manufacture when evaluating and
modifying ideas and design proposals.
Use the specification as a guide throughout
the design and production of products and

C8 Apply knowledge, understanding and
practical skills in a range of materials,
ingredients and technologies to design
and manufacture products or systems
within the relevant specialist fields.

C9 When planning and conducting design
and technological activities, give due
regard to the health and safety of their
pupils, themselves and other adults and
be aware of current, relevant health and
safety responsibilities, legislation and

For more detail regarding all aspects of
health and safety refer to Health and
Safety Training Standards in Design and
Technology, D&T Association 2007

C10 Demonstrate an understanding of the
criteria used to judge the quality of
Fitness for purpose, the extent to which
needs are met, visual and sensory
elements of products and systems and
whether resources have been used

C11 Demonstrate awareness of industrial
methods and approaches to design,
manufacture and quality control of
Batch, mass and continuous flow

C12 Understand that products have impact
beyond meeting their original purpose
and know how to assess products in
terms of sustainability.

C13 Judiciously use digital and other
contemporary technologies to enhance
teaching and learning as well as practice
in design and technology.

C14 Understand the historical and current
rationale for design and technology
education within the school curriculum,
across primary and secondary phases, its
links with other subjects as well as its
contribution to the cross-curriculum

These include identity and cultural
diversity, healthy lifestyles, community
participation, enterprise, global dimension
and sustainable development, technology
and the media, creativity and critical

C15 Understand the distinctive contribution
design and technology makes towards
the development of practical skills in
literacy, numeracy and ICT.

C16 Understand how design and technology
contributes to the development of a range
of personal, learning and thinking skills.
Such as independence, enquiring, creative
and reflective thinking, team-working.

C17 Nurture a creative teaching and learning
environment where pupils feel confident
and safe to experiment, explore and take


Materials Technology

Newly qualified teachers should be able to do the following:







Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
M.D.3.1 accurately sketch construction details
which show how wood, metal and plastics can be
used to make artefacts, including freehand
M.D.4.1 accurately sketch construction
details, using, where appropriate, recognised
conventions which show how a wide range
of materials might be used to make

M.D.3.2 accurately draw construction details using
formal drawing techniques, to show how wood,
metal and plastics can be used to make artefacts
(e.g. orthographic drawing);

M.D.3.3 make use of modelling techniques to
model artefacts made in wood, metal and plastics
(using basic modelling materials such as straws,
foam, card, polymorph);
M.D.4.3 more complex models can be used
to test a technological principle (e.g. using
commercial kits or components to test a
mechanical movement using cams or

M.D.3.4 use fundamental computer solid
modelling techniques i.e. extrusion and revolving,
to develop and test design ideas;
M.D.4.4 use fundamental computer solid
modelling techniques i.e. lofting and
sweeping to manufacture from 3D toolpaths
(e.g. curvilinear shapes)

M.D.3.5 create simple assemblies of computer
generated solid models to confirm the accurate
interaction of separate components;
M.D.4.5 create complex assemblies of
computer generated solid models to confirm
the accurate interaction of separate
components (e.g. a cam system showing
rotary to linear motion);

M.D.3.6 create 3D computer rendered images
which clearly show the desired surface qualities
(e.g. colour, texture of design ideas);

M.D.4.6 generate detailed working drawings
using CAD, including assembly, parts and
sectional views.

M.D.3.7 generate working drawings using CAD,
(e.g. cutting lists, dimensioning and appropriate
BS conventions);

M.D.4.7 create computer simulations and
animations to test product function.

M.D.3.8 access design data, using IT relating to
for example the properties of materials, standard
sizes, fixings, adhesives and components;

M.D.3.9 create spreadsheets related to the
costings of materials;

M.D.4.9 undertake spreadsheet analysis for
costings and simulation of batch production;

M.D.3.10 investigate and disassemble and
evaluate a range of manufactured products made
from wood, metal and plastics, identifying the
processes involved in their production;

M.D.4.10 investigate, disassemble and
evaluate a range of products made from
resistant materials including modern
materials and smart materials;

M.D.3.11 identify and investigate the
manufactured technologies used to make a range
of artefacts (e.g. injection moulding, sand casting).
M.D.4.11 analyse and investigate the
advanced manufacturing industrial
technologies used to make modern mass
produced consumer products;


M.D.3.12 analyse and investigate the visual and
other sensory qualities in materials when
analysing artefacts (e.g. colour, texture, smell);
M.D.4.12 analyse and investigate the visual
and other sensory principles when analysing
artefacts (e.g. balance, harmony,

M.D.3.13 show awareness of different cultures
and recognise the influences on the development
of products (e.g. design movements, lifestyles,
consumer values);
M.D.4.13 recognise the importance of new
technologies, innovations and inventions in
the design of consumer products;

M.D.3.14 use fundamental computer solid
modelling techniques i.e. extrusion and revolving,
to develop and test design ideas.

M.D.4.14 consider a range of products and
evaluate their impact on the environment.

M.D.3.15 recognise that the materials used in a
product have a life cycle that may continue
beyond the life of a product.

M.D.4.15 recognise the need to consider the
reuse or suitable disposal of materials used
in product design.

M.D.3.16 consider how products are designed
with regard to sustainability.

M.D.3.17 consider the impact on society of a
range of products.

M.D.4.17 analyse the social consequences
of automated mass-production systems (e.g.
robotic assembly lines).

M.D.3.18 consider how the physiological aspects
of ergonomics can influence the design of
products (e.g. anthropometrics, dynamic

M.D.4.18 consider how the psychological
aspects of ergonomics can influence the
design of products (e.g. colour, shape and
semiotics can be used to convey meaning in









Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and Beyond
M.M.3.1 use the properties and working
characteristics of wood, metal plastics to meet
design requirements (including modern materials
such as polymorph, anodised aluminium);
M.M.4.1 use the properties and working
characteristics of a range of resistant
materials including smart materials such as
thermochromic film and EL panel;

M.M.3.2 accurately mark out, using appropriate
hand tools and take account of critical dimensions
and tolerances when using wood, metal and
thermoplastics (e.g. engineers squares, marking
gauges, centre punch, odd leg callipers);
M.M.4.2 accurately measure and mark out
considering appropriate tolerances when
using both precision hand tools and
machines, during the manipulation of a wide
range of resistant materials (e.g. vernier
calipers, micrometer);

M.M.3.3 accurately cut and waste, by hand and
basic machines (e.g. pillar drill and band saw),
wood, metal, and plastics to efficiently achieve
appropriate fit and finish;
M.M.4.3 accurately cut and waste, by using
machines (e.g. centre lathe, vertical and
horizontal milling), wood, metal, plastics to
efficiently achieve precision fit and quality

M.M.3.4 accurately deform, form, and fabricate by
hand and using basic machines (such as line
bender, vacuum former, punch tools and jigs),
wood, metal and thermoplastics;
M.M.4.4 accurately deform, form and
fabricate using appropriate methods with a
range of materials using complex equipment
(e.g. spot welder, vacuum bagging and
metal casting) and machine tools (e.g. box
folder and jigs);

M.M.3.5 effectively join wood, metal and
thermoplastic using appropriate hand techniques
and basic fixing methods (e.g. wood joints, knock
down fittings, soldering, brazing, adhesives etc);
M.M.4.5 effectively join a range of materials
using advanced techniques, complex
equipment and appropriate machine (e.g.
spot welder, complex knock-down fittings);

M.M.3.6 make use of CAM prototyping to fully
realise small product prototypes (e.g. rapid
prototyping, laminate assemblies).
M.M.4.6 effectively use CAM to integrate
product prototypes that combine various
technologies (e.g. control circuits into
manufactured products).

M.M.4.7 recognise that systems and control
can be integrated with a range of materials
to design and make artefacts (e.g. EL panel
and textiles, mechanisms and electronics

M.M.3.8 consider how, during making, the sensory
qualities of materials may influence the
development of the designed artefact (e.g. colour,
M.M.4.8 consider how, during making, the
qualities and properties of the materials may
influence the development of the designed
artefact (e.g. balance, harmony, proportion).

M.M.3.9 recognise and use a range of finishing
techniques for wood, metals and plastics.

M.M.3.10 develop a range of craft skills to
manufacture quality outcomes which meet design
M.M.4.10 demonstrate knowledge of the
relationship between skill and quality when
using and applying a wide range of materials
and manufacturing techniques.


Knowledge and Understanding







Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
M.K.3.1 consider and analyse the physical and
working properties, at a micro level, of common
woods, metals and plastics (e.g. tensile strength,
ductility, malleability, ease of moulding and how
this is related to the micro arrangement of
particles and fibres in the material);
M.K.4.1 consider and analyse the physical,
chemical and working properties at a micro
level of a wider range of woods, metals and
plastics (including modern and smart
materials), and how the micro arrangement
of particles and fibres in the material
influence macro properties;

M.K.3.2 understand the classification of wood,
metal and plastics, according to their micro-
structure (e.g. thermoplastics and thermosets);
M.K.4.2 understand, at a micro level, how
materials can be combined and processed to
create useful properties (e.g. the principle of
composite materials);

M.K.3.3 understand and recognise the elements
of 'quality' in manufacture.

M.K.4.3 demonstrate an understanding of
the relationship between skill and quality in
the production of artefacts in a range of
manufacturing contexts.

M.K.3.4 understand how the structure of wood,
metal and plastics, at a macro level, influence use
and effectiveness (e.g. cellulose layering, metal
particle layers and arrangements of polymer

M.K.3.5 understand and recognise the importance
of structural configuration when using wood,
metal, plastics (e.g. space frame, monocoque,

M.K.4.5 understand how materials are
combined together in a structural way to
resist forces (e.g. carbon fibres, Kevlar, and
aluminium honeycomb).

M.K.3.6 understand how wood, metal and plastics
resists forces, such as compression, tension,
torque and bending.

M.K.3.7 understand how a wide range of
standardised components influence manufactured

M.K.3.8 understand how the origin and
transportation of materials can have implications
for sustainability.
M.K.4.8 understand how materials can be
sourced with sustainability as a specific
requirement for a product.

M.K.3.9 know how materials can be reused and
recycled to extend their useful life.

M.K.4.9 know how reused and recycled
materials can be integrated into high quality
product design.

M.K.3.10 understand how the cultural and
historical use of materials can influence their use
in modern contexts.

Food Technology

Newly qualified teachers should be able to do the following:







Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
F.D.3.1 use strategies to generate, develop,
model and communicate ideas to develop food
products (e.g. mind mapping, mood boards, image
boards, annotated sketches, product analysis,

F.D.4.1 use a range of creative and
innovative strategies to develop original food
products (e.g. concept development,
attribute analysis).

F.D.3.2 explore a variety of research methods
including the internet, newspaper articles, existing
surveys, magazines etc.

F.D.4.2 access resources to inform food
product development (e.g. websites used by
food manufacturers).

F.D.3.3 investigate, research and evaluate food
products, historic and current, from different
cultures, and consider implications for the future.

F.D.4.3 analyse and evaluate a range of
existing products to inform decisions during
food product development, including
ingredient analysis, nutritional analysis and

F.D.3.4 use simple analysis techniques when
developing food products (e.g. ranking tests,
surveys) and use this information to inform
designing and making.

F.D.4.4 devise and apply testing procedures
when developing food products (e.g. triangle

F.D.3.5 investigate and select appropriate
ingredients and components, including modern
and smart ingredients

F.D.4.5 apply knowledge of ingredients,
including modern and smart ingredients and
production processes when developing food
products that are fit for purpose.

F.D.3.6 use ICT (word processing, DTP, clipart,
simple databases, tables, charts and
spreadsheets) to communicate and present ideas,
results and decisions.

F.D.4.6 use an appropriate range of ICT and
graphic techniques to generate, develop,
model and communicate design proposals in
an interesting and creative way (e.g. digital
media and CAD).

F.D.3.7 take account of health, aesthetic,
environmental, technical, economic, ethical and
social implications on food product development

F.D.4.7 consider the conflicting demands of
moral, cultural, economic, social values and
needs of the end user to design and develop
food products.

F.D.3.8 critically evaluate products to inform
development ideas, taking into account the needs
of the user (e.g. ethics, values, traditions, health
and available resources).

F.D.4.8 reflect critically when modifying and
evaluating ideas to improve food products,
taking into account the design specification.


Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond

F.M.3.1 plan and organise procedures for the
preparation, cooking and presentation of food
products (e.g. flowcharts).

F.M.4.1 plan and organise procedures for
testing components and making food
products, taking into consideration technical
issues relating to the making/manufacturing

F.M.3.2 demonstrate competence in a range of
practical skills (cutting, boiling, steaming, frying,
cake-making, pastry-making) to prepare and cook
food products and dishes.

F.M.4.2 Demonstrate skill in a wide range of
practical skills (meat preparation, fish
preparation) and quality control procedures
to prepare, cook and present single or
multiple food products and dishes.


F.M.3.3 select and use a range of small hand and
electrical equipment, safely and efficiently, and
can evaluate the most appropriate to use in
different circumstances (e.g. food mixers, food
processors, blenders).

F.M.4.3 select and use a wide range of
mechanical and electrical equipment to
ensure a high quality product, and able to
select the most appropriate equipment for
required outcome (e.g. mixture consistency.)

F.M.3.4 prepare and cook food products and
dishes using standard recipes.

F.M.4.4 adapt standard recipes to meet
specific consumer requirements.

F.M.3.5 select ingredients (including smart and
modern), for a range of different purposes, taking
into account sustainability and nutritional,
functional and sensory properties.

F.M.4.5 confidently select ingredients
(including smart and modern) for a range of
different purposes, taking into account
sustainability, nutritional, functional and
sensory properties.

F.M.3.6 critically evaluate the needs of the
consumer to prepare and make food products
which are fit for purpose.

F.M.4.6 use testing, modification and critical
evaluation to prepare and make quality
products suitable for the intended user.

F.M.3.7 take account of healthy eating models
relating to a balanced diet and specific dietary
needs (e.g. vegetarians, coeliacs, religious dietary
needs) when planning and cooking food products.

F.M.4.7 prepare and cook innovative food
products that take account of the needs of
specific members of society.

F.M.3.8 work individually or in a team to prepare,
shape, form, mix, assemble and finish ingredients
or component products.

F.M.4.8 understand and apply systems and
procedures used in food manufacturing (e.g.
CAM, Quality Control).

F.M.3.9 establish good hygiene and safety
practices when working with food (e.g. understand
and use the concept of HACCP).

F.M.4.9 work accurately and efficiently,
establishing high standards of hygiene and
safe practice.

F.M.3.10 have, as a minimum, the Level 2 Food
Safety Certificate.

F.M.4.10 Have, as a minimum, the Level 2
Food Safety Certificate.

Knowledge and Understanding

Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond

F.K.3.1 understand how the needs of the
consumer are applied to food product

F.K.4.1 know how consumer needs, and the
influences of advertising and marketing,
impact on the development and retailing of
food products.

F.K.3.2 know the main nutrients (e.g. proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and fibre)
and their effects on health.

F.K.4.2 demonstrate a detailed knowledge of
macro and micro nutrients and their effects
on health.

F.K.3.3 know current dietary recommendations
and understand how to achieve a balanced and
varied diet for good health.
F.K.4.3 apply knowledge of current
recommendations to meet specific nutritional
needs of target groups.

F.K.3.4 understand that ingredients can be
classified according to their physical and working
properties and characteristics (e.g. a gel, a sol, a
temporary or permanent emulsion, a foam, a
F.K.4.4 know the structural and performance
characteristics of foods and their role in food
products; and apply this to the selection of
preparation and cooking techniques (e.g.
protein coagulation, carbohydrates
gelatinisation and dextrinisation, and

F.K.3.5 understand how to manipulate and
combine ingredients and ready-made food
components to create a food product, including
modern and smart foods and their main functions.
F.K.4.5 know how to use different
ingredients (e.g. thickening agents, raising
agents, modified starches, emulsions,
foams) to develop an innovative food

F.K.3.7 know how food can be preserved and
understand the economic and nutritional impact
(e.g. jam making, freezing, pickling, dehydration).
F.K.4.7 know how the shelf life of a product
can be extended; understand the food
science of preservation processes and the
implications of these on the end user and the


F.K.3.8 understand the use of additives in food
production and how they can enhance nutritional,
functional and sensory properties (e.g. flavours,
colours, preservatives).
F.K.4.8 understand the use of natural and
artificial additives in food products, for
preservation, colouring, flavouring and
emulsification, and aware of the implications
of additives on health and the environment.

F.K.3.9 know what packaging materials are used
for food products and understand the economic
and environmental implications related to food

F.K.4.9 know current labelling requirements
and legislation that governs food labelling.

F.K.3.11 know how to scale up ingredients for
batch production.

F.K.4.11 know how to plan and produce a
manufacturing specification in order to make
a prototype in quantity (including one off,
batch, mass and continuous flow).

F.K.3.12 critically reflect when evaluating and
modifying food products.

F.K.4.12 critically reflect and evaluate during
the developmental stages of a food product

F.K.3.13 respond to briefs by developing
proposals and producing specifications for food

F.K.4.13 respond to briefs by carrying out
modification and reformulation by changing
ingredients, quantities and processes.

F.K.3.14 understand how food products reflect the
needs, beliefs, ethics and values of consumers
and how the products impact on lifestyle and

F.K.4.14 understand social, economic,
cultural and environmental issues related to
the preparation and manufacture of food
products (i.e. packaging materials/scarce
resources/transport costs/sustainability / GM
foods/organic/religious and cultural

F.K.3.15 know how to correctly store food
ingredients and products prior to, and after,
preparation and making.

F.K.4.15 understand the need for correct
storage of food including monitoring and
temperature control and the effect this may
have on the food. (e.g. dry goods, high risk

F.K.3.16 know the causes and prevention of food

F.K.4.16 understand the need for
appropriate hygiene and safety procedures
at all stages during food production, such as
sell by dates and cross contamination, and
aware of the risks of physical, chemical and
biological contamination.

F.K.3.17 be aware of the effects of social, cultural,
economic and environmental factors on food
choice (e.g. health, religion, cost, life style,
availability and 'nonrenewable).

F.K.4.17 understand the economic, ethical,
social and cultural influences on the design,
production and sale of food products, e.g.
packaging, scarce resources (seasonal
foods), transport costs (food miles),
sustainability, quality, religious and cultural
preferences, GM/organic/free range foods,
Fair Trade, Farm Assured products.

Electronics and Communication Technologies (ECT)

Newly qualified teachers should be able to do the following:







Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
E.D.3.1 make creative use of commercial
electronic modules when designing products in
other material areas (e.g. sound modules, digital
sound recorders, radio modules).

E.D.3.2 understand and use a systems approach
when designing with electronics.
E.D.4.2 creatively develop control systems
through the interconnection of kits,
components and subsystems.

E.D.3.3 understand and use graphical computer
control languages to design control solutions.
E.D.4.3 use control programming languages
to develop efficient control solutions.

E.D.3.4 use appropriate computer software to
design and simulate simple electronic circuits
using a systems approach.
E.D.4.4 use software to design, model,
simulate and analyse electronic circuits.

E.D.3.5 design simple mechanical solutions
incorporating cams, levers, gears and pulleys and
use software to simulate designs.

E.D.3.6 analyse the design of mechanical
electrical and electronic products in terms of who
they have been designed for, the design features
that suit them to these users and their technical
operation at a systems level.
E.D.4.6 make use of their technical
understanding of components and systems
to analyse and describe the operation of
mechanical, electrical and electronic
products and how they could be developed
for future use.

E.D.3.7 recognise that the development of new
technologies creates product design opportunities
and be confident in citing contemporary examples.
E.D.4.7 demonstrate an understanding of
expected future developments in electronics
and communication technologies and
convey these clearly (e.g. new consumer
products brought about by the digital
revolution, embedded computer technology
to produce smart products, the
convergence of information systems via
network technologies).

E.D.3.8 produce and interpret, simple circuit
diagrams using correct British Standard symbols;
produce and interpret, systems diagrams; produce
and interpret, flow charts; use simple formulae to
communicate principles and concepts.
E.D.4.8 create and interpret system
construction and functional information and
communicate it by means of circuit
diagrams, flowcharts, systems diagrams,
truth tables, graphs, tables, appropriate
formulae and mechanical diagrams.

E.D.3.9 present, and interpret, data on systems or
E.D.4.9 interpret and use manufacturers
datasheets for a range of components;
create and interpret clear and precise
manufacturing information for control

E.D.3.10 develop clear user instructions for
control systems.
E.D.4.10 develop user interfaces for control
systems through the selection of appropriate
input, process and output components to
ensure best effectiveness in meeting a
design brief.


Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 and beyond

E.M.3.1 systematically construct and test simple
circuits using stripboard and preprepared printed
circuit board
E.M.4.1 model and test system building
blocks making effective use of system
modelling techniques (e.g. breadboarding;
computer simulation);

E.M.3.2 use microcontroller modules with
appropriate electronic sensors and actuators.
E.M.4.2 understand how computers,
microcontrollers and electronic circuits can
be used to control a range of actuators (e.g.
electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic).

E.M.3.3 use appropriate computer software to
design and make printed circuit boards (PCBs);
E.M.4.3 use appropriate computer software
to design and simulate printed circuit boards
(PCBs) that are well matched to product
casing and take into account the need for
circuit testing; produce circuit boards which
have been developed with the relevant

E.M.3.4 prototype simple mechanical solutions
incorporating cams, levers, gears and pulleys.

E.M.3.5 analyse the manufacture of a range of
mechanical, electrical and electronic products in
terms of how the manufacturing processes and
materials enable production at an appropriate
speed and cost.
E.M.4.5 describe the advanced
manufacturing industrial technologies used
to manufacture modern mass produced
consumer electronic products (e.g. surface
mounting techniques, automated assembly,
rapid prototyping, injection moulding).

E.M.3.6 use systems based understanding to
describe the operation of a manufactured circuit.
E.M.4.6 analyse the performance of systems
in order to fault find using a range of
appropriate test equipment (e.g. multimeter,
logic probe, scilloscope).

Knowledge and Understanding

Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
E.K.3.1 understand that mechanical, electrical and
electronic systems can be interconnected to
achieve different purposes.
E.K.4.1 understand the requirements for
interfacing between sensors and processors
(e.g. signal conditioning and analogue to
digital conversion).
Understand the requirements for interfacing
between processor and output stages when
devices require higher power than the
processor can deliver.

E.K.3.2 understand the basic units of electricity
(use resistance equation to calculate current,
voltage and resistance).
Understand the use of resistors (determine values
using colour code).
Have knowledge of capacitor types and values
and their use for d. c. smoothing.
Understand the function of a diode.
Use LEDs and calculate series resistor.
Use buzzers and piezo sounders.
Use a range of switch types for input.
Use light dependant resistors and thermistors for
inputs to systems.

E.K.4.2 use appropriate equations to support
the design and analysis of electrical,
electronic and mechanical control systems
(e.g. formulae for power, potential dividers,
amplifier gain, simple and compound gear
systems, pulleys, levers). Understand the
differences between bipolar and MOSFET
transistors and be able to interface these
amplifiers between low power source
devices and the higher power demands of
some output devices. Understand and use
the thyristor (SCR).

E.K.3.3 understand the use of potential divider
circuits with sensors and use them in switching
Have some awareness of the transistor
traditionally being used as a switch.
E.K.4.3 understand the operation of a wide
range of input and output devices and use
this knowledge to make considered
judgements in selecting appropriate
components for a design situation.


E.K.3.4 understand that data can be transferred
across a distance both with and without wires.
E.K.4.4 understand the principles of a range
of techniques for transferring data between
control systems separated by a distance
(e.g. infra red and radio and their associated
coding systems to ensure integrity).

E.K.3.5 use programming software to simulate the
control of simple products.
E.K.4.5 use programming software to
simulate sophisticated systems that are able
to control and respond to a wide range of
external devices.

E.K.3.6 Use programming software to programme
a microcontroller (PIC) for simple stand-alone
control using digital inputs and low current outputs
(e.g. LEDs, sounders), as typically found on
commercially available educational kits.

E.K.4.6 incorporate programmable devices
into control solutions (e.g. PIC based
Be able to use both analogue and digital
inputs to control systems and be able to
interface high current devices (e.g. motors)
to the PIC outputs.

E.K.3.7 describe feedback as a signal loop in a
system diagram and understand how it is used in
control systems to ensure that operations are
achieved successfully (e.g. limit switches and

E.K.4.7 use systems diagrams and
flowcharts appropriately to describe the
operation of continuous and sequential
control systems.

E.K.3.8 understand the relationship between
decimal numbers and the storage of these
numbers in binary format within a Microcontroller.
Use truth tables to describe and solve simple logic
problems which include AND and OR functions.
Have an awareness of logic gates such as AND,

E.K.4.8 analyse and design more complex
microcontroller based systems.
Understand the difference between binary
numbers and the binary coded decimal
(BCD) format which may be needed for
Understand the differences between parallel
and serial data output including baud rate.

E.K.3.9 describe a range of simple mechanical
levers, devices and drive systems including the
forms of mechanical movement and the use of
mechanisms to translate between them.
Appreciate the need for supporting structures in
the construction of mechanical and
electromechanical systems.

E.K.4.9 understand the principles of use of
an appropriate range of mechanisms,
including considerations of power transfer
(e.g. simple and compound gear trains,
pulley systems, cams).
Understand the relationships between force,
distance, speed, torque and efficiency with
these devices.

Electronics in Society

Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond

E.S.3.1 discuss the social and environmental
consequence of using new technologies including
the design of products to facilitate end of life re-
E.S.4.1 be aware of the environmental
impact resulting from changes in consumer
attitudes, e.g. the tendency of society to
move away from product replacement at
end of life and towards replacements when
newer products emerge.

E.S.3.2 be aware of emerging renewable energy
sources and the role of electronics in their
E.S.4.2 be aware of the increased energy
efficiency of new products and contrast such
gains with the carbon footprint caused by
initial manufacture and subsequent disposal.

E.S.3.3 be aware of the increasing loss of privacy
through electronic surveillance systems
contrasted with the increased levels of security
which such systems can provide.
E.S.4.3 describe the social and
environmental impacts of a range of
products and manufacturing systems e.g.
improved worldwide mass communications
through cellular networks and contrast with
the environmental consequences of (for
example) disposable batteries.


E.S.4.4 be aware of the economic reasons
behind the digital revolution in electronics
where the use of embedded
microprocessors has superseded the
traditional dedicated analogue circuitry.

Textiles Technology

Newly Qualified Teachers should be able to do the following:







Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
T.D.3.1 make and adapt simple flat patterns for
unstructured clothing and other products;
T.D.4.1 draft and adapt more
advanced/complex flat patterns and use
appropriate modelling techniques, i.e.
drafting, scale blocks, grading, fitting;

T.D.3.2 make simple paper models; T.D.4.2 know how models and patterns are
drafted and used in industry.

T.D.4.3 show an understanding of design in
creating fabric structures such as use of
knitting machine, and weaving looms).

T.D.3.4 make simple calico models/toiles. T.D.4.4 construct toiles for garments and
other products.

T.D.3.5 use ICT to explore and create shape,
pattern and colourways.
T.D.4.5 use a wide range of sophisticated
ICT software and hardware for exploring
shape, pattern and colourways.

T.D.3.6 use ICT databases to access information
for designing and making e.g. product analysis,
fabric properties, fashion, styles.
T.D.4.6 show an understanding of industrial
uses of information technology in producing
fibres, yarns and fabrics.

T.D.3.7 use CAD/CAM to enhance fabrics (e.g.
embroidery software and hardware, draw and
paint packages for stencils, transfer and
sublimation printing, laser cutting).
T.D.4.7 use CAD/CAM to assist the
designing of more advanced products (e.g.
computerised knitting, plotting, computerised
embroidering and plotting, laser cutting).

T.D.3.8 make simple representational and
technical drawings fashion and product.
T.D.4.8 use fashion illustration techniques
and technical fashion drawing conventions
as used in industry.

T.D.3.9 use small scale commercial
design/presentation techniques, (e.g. mood
boards, story boards, mind maps, sketching,
T.D.4.9 demonstrate a high level of skill in
the production of commercial display
techniques, (e.g. mood boards, story

T.D.3.10 use strategies to plan and communicate
accurate making (e.g. flow charts, pattern
conventions, orders of work).

T.D.4.10 produce pattern layouts for different
fabric widths.


Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and Beyond
T.M.3.1 use a range of techniques for adding
colour, pattern and texture finishes (e.g. dyeing,
printing, laser cutting, embroidering, appliqu).
T.M.4.1 demonstrate more advanced
application of appropriate techniques for
adding colour, pattern and texture finishes
(e.g. dyeing, printing including ICT, puff
binder, embroidering, devor).

T.M.3.2 use simple tests to identify the properties
of fabrics.

T.M.4.2 be aware of and have an
understanding industry based fabric tests.


T.M.3.3 simulate technical finishes (e.g.

T.M.3.4 use basic pattern marking conventions
(e.g. grain, cutting, fold and stitching lines).
T.M.4.4 use a wide range of pattern marking
conventions (e.g. numbered balance marks,
placement markings).

T.M.3.5 use fabrication and manipulation
techniques (e.g. darts, pleats).
T.M.4.5 use more complex shaping
processes (e.g. gussets, inserts, fully

T.M.3.6 use knowledge of fabric construction
grain, strain and loads in designing and making.
T.M.4.6 show awareness of industrial testing
processes, industry standards and

T.M.3.7 apply simple fastenings (e.g. Velcro,
button/ holes, zips).
T.M.4.7 apply a greater range of fastenings
to a commercial standard.

T.M.3.8 use simple techniques for making and
finishing seams (open seams, overlocked seams).
T.M.4.8 use more complex techniques as
appropriate (double machine stitched
seams, neatened open seams).

T.M.3.9 use simple reinforcing techniques, e.g.
fusible web.
T.M.4.9 use complex reinforcing techniques,
e.g. facing/interfacings, casing, boning.

T.M.3.10 make edge finishes machine hems,
swing needle stitches, overlockers.
T.M.4.10 make a wide range of edge
finishes e.g. hems/frills, binding, piping,

T.M.3.11 safely and accurately use cutting tools
(e.g. scissors, shears).
T.M.4.11 use a wide range of cutting tools
where appropriate (e.g. knives and rotary

T.M.3.12 demonstrate safe and accurate use of
machines and overlockers.
T.M.4.12 demonstrate safe,
advanced/creative use of machine
technology, e.g. free machine technology,
dedicated embroidery machines,
embellishers, buttonholing.

T.M.3.13 have gained the Design and Technology
Association (or other appropriate) certification for
Health and Safety for secondary teachers in the
core and in textiles technology.


Knowledge and Understanding

Key Stage 3

Key Stage 4 and beyond
T.K.3.1 classify fibres, yarns and fabrics; T.K.4.1 understand industrial production of
fibres, yarns, fabrics.

T.K.3.2 understand how properties affect choice
and use of fibres, yarns, fabrics;
T.K.4.2 understand how to exploit properties
of fibres, yarns and fabrics to create desired

T.K.3.3 know about construction and finishing
techniques for fibres, yarns and how such
techniques can enhance both technical and
aesthetic properties;
T.K.4.3 show understanding of industrial
processes and technological fabrics and
finishing fabrics including use of advances in

T.K.3.4 be aware of the properties of a range
'smart' and modern materials.
T.K.4.4 have a wide knowledge and
understanding of the properties of, and use
of, modern and 'smart' industry based

T.K.3.5 understand the principles of making in
T.K.4.5 understand industrial production
processes (e.g. quality control and
assurance, costing, couture/custom made,
batch, and mass production).

T.K.3.6 understand input, process and output in
mechanical, electrical and electronic textiles
equipment including CAD/CAM.
T.K.4.6 use individual design work in
combination with input, process and output
in mechanical, electrical and electronic
textiles equipment including CAD/CAM.

T.K.3.7 understand and apply the principles of
sustainable materials where possible/appropriate.
T.K.4.7 understand and apply the principles
of sustainable materials where