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The Trojan Machines of Social Inequity by Jay Batongbacal

The Trojan Machines of Social Inequity by Jay Batongbacal

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Published by: Nicoel on Nov 24, 2009
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1uv L. 8uLongbucul, 8A, LL8, MMM, 1SL(c)
AsslsLunL Professor, UP Aslun CenLer
Senlor LecLurer, UP College of Luw
Sclence 8 1echnologv in Luw
1ro|un Muchlnes
1echnologv and Luw
Sclence and Luw
Sclence 8 1echnologv und Soclul 1usLlce
ln Lhe modern uge, un lncreuslng rellunce on
sclence 8 Lechnologv ln luw
usuge of sclenLlflc Lerms und sLundurds
emplovmenL of Lechnologv us purL of legul reform
°sclence-bused declslon-muklngº
°sclence-bused luwº = good luw (esp. ln
envlronmenLul lssues)
Common ussumpLlon: LhuL use of sclence 8
Lechnologv ln luw ls good
Sclence us fucLuul und fulr, sclenLlflc meLhod us
relluble = °LruLhº
Sclence 8 Lechnologv us °goodº und ln evervone's
besL lnLeresL
±o8, ConsLlLuLlon pluces greuL fulLh ln sclence
und Lechnologv
ArLlcle Xlv, s. ±o declures °sclence und Lechnologv ure
essentia| for nuLlonul developmenL und progressº und
dlrecLs Lhe SLuLe Lo supporL Lhe counLrv's sclenLlflc
und Lechnologlcul cupublllLles, und upplv Lhem Lo
producLlve svsLems und nuLurul llfe
ArLlcle Xlv, s. ±z reoulres Lhe SLuLe Lo requ|ate the
transfer and promote the adaptation of Lechnologv
from ull sources for Lhe nuLlonul beneflL
1he °1ro|un Horseº meLuphor ln modern
ln clusslcul mvLhologv, Lhe Creeks' glfL Lo 1rov uL
Lhe end of Lhe 1ro|un Wur
ln modern experlence, Lhe °1ro|un vlruslmulwureº
Modern Lechnologv = 1ro|un Muchlnes?
ln Lhe ufLermuLh of Lhe Second World Wur,
Lhe lnLroducLlon of ull munner of °modernº
Lechnologles us purL of some overull
°developmenLº sLruLegv hus pluved u kev role
ln Lhe usslmlluLlon, subordlnuLlon, und
desLrucLlon of enLlre culLures
Lscobur, A., ±ooo. 1he lnvenLlon of
°LevelopmenL wus concelved noL us u culLurul process
(culLure wus u reslduul vurluble, Lo dlsuppeur wlLh Lhe
udvunce of modernlzuLlon) buL lnsLeud us a system of
more or |ess universa||y app|icab|e technica|
interventions intended to de|iver some °bad|y
needed" qoods to a °tarqet" popu|ation. lL comes us
no surprlse LhuL developmenL becume u force so
desLrucLlve Lo Lhlrd world culLures, lronlcullv ln Lhe
nume of people's lnLeresLs.º
Shlvu, v., ±oo8. 1he greenlng of globul reuch.
°1he 'globul envlronmenL' . emerges us Lhe prlnclpul
weupon Lo fuclllLuLe Lhe NorLh's worldwlde uccess Lo
nuLurul resources und ruw muLerluls on one hund, und
on Lhe oLher, to enforce a wor|dwide sharinq of the
environmenta| costs it has qenerated, whi|e
retaininq a monopo|y on benefits reaped from the
destruction it has wreaked on blologlcul resources.
1he NorLh's slogun uL UNCLL und Lhe oLher globul
negoLluLlon foru seem Lo be: 'WhuL's vours ls mlne.
WhuL's mlne ls mlne.'
°... 5o|utions to the q|oba| environmenta| prob|ems
can come on|y from the q|oba|, that is the North.
Slnce Lhe NorLh hus ubundunL lndusLrlul Lechnologv
und cuplLul, lf lL hus Lo provlde u soluLlon Lo
envlronmenLul problems, Lhev musL be reduced Lo u
currencv LhuL Lhe NorLh domlnuLes. The prob|em of
eco|oqy is transformed into a prob|em of
techno|oqy transfer and finance. WhuL ls ubsenL
from Lhe unulvsls ls LhuL Lhe ussumpLlon LhuL Lhe
SouLh needs Lechnologv und flnunces from Lhe NorLh
ls u mu|or cuuse of Lhe envlronmenLul crlsls, und u
mu|or reuson for Lhe druln of resources from SouLh Lo
8uner|ee, zoo¸. Who susLulns whose
developmenL? SusLulnuble developmenL und Lhe
relnvenLlon of NuLure.
°SusLulnuble developmenL ls Lo be munuged ln Lhe
sume wuv developmenL wus munuged: Lhrough
ethnocentric, capita|ist notions of manaqeria|
efficiency LhuL slmplv reproduce eurller urLlculuLlons
of decenLrullzed cuplLullsm under Lhe gulse of
'susLulnuble cuplLullsm'. 1he mucroeconomlc crlLerlu
of susLulnuble developmenL huve now become
corporuLlzed: deve|opment is sustainab|e on|y if it is
profitab|e, it is sustainab|e on|y if it can be
transacted throuqh the market. º
°CurrenL dlscourses on susLulnublllLv ensure LhuL
economic rationa|ity determines eco|oqica|
rationa|ity, resulLlng ln even furLher erosion of
a|ternate cu|tura| and socia| va|ues assiqned to
nature. ln effecL Lhev extinquish Lhe verv culLurul
und soclul forces from whlch posslble soluLlons Lo
Lhe presenL crlsls mlghL emerge.º
Common ldeu: Lechnloue, process, muLerlul,
Common ussumpLlons
Lvldence of °progressº
LssenLlullv neuLrul, lnLended onlv for efflclencv
Llfeless muchlnes und mechunlsms
AdvunLuges from convenlence und beneflLs
lrunklln, U., ±ooo. 1he Reul World of
1echnologv us
u svnerglsLlc system LhuL °lnvolves orgunlzuLlon,
procedures, svmbols, new words, eouuLlons, und mosL
of ull, a mindset.º
ways of doinq thinqs, noL merelv Lhe Lools or
knowledge used
HollsLlc Lechnologles ÷
Orgunlze work ln u wuv LhuL leuves un lndlvlduul
with contro| over whuL he ls dolng from sLurL Lo
Allow Lhe lndlvlduul Lo muke declslons on their
own us Lhev work
e.g. urLlsunlcrufLsmunshlp
PrescrlpLlve Lechnologles ÷
Llvlde u process lnLo cleur und slmple sLeps or
Lusks whlch confine Lhe user's sklll und uuLonomv
Lo onlv LhuL Lusk whlch he ls usslgned
1end Lo |imit (lf noL ellmlnuLe) Lhe ublllLv for
lndependenL |udgmenL und prlnclpled declslon-
e.g. producLlon llne
lrunklln, |b|J.
°1oduv's reul world of Lechnologv ls churucLerlzed
bv Lhe dominance of prescriptive techno|oqies.
PrescrlpLlve Lechnologles ure noL resLrlcLed Lo
muLerluls producLlon. 1hev ure used ln
udmlnlsLruLlve und economlc ucLlvlLles und ln
munv uspecLs of governunce, und on Lhem resLs
Lhe reul world of Lechnologv ln whlch we llve.
°Whi|e we shou|d not forqet that these
prescriptive techno|oqies are often exceedinq|y
effective and efficient, they come with an
enormous socia| mortqaqe. 1he morLguge
meuns LhuL we llve ln a cu|ture of comp|iance,
LhuL we ure ever more condlLloned Lo uccepL
orLhodoxv us normul, und Lo uccepL LhuL Lhere ls
onlv one wuv of dolng 'lL'º
Murx, ±88,. Lus KuplLul.
°1he Lechnlcul subordlnuLlon of Lhe workmun Lo Lhe
unlform moLlon of Lhe lnsLrumenLs of lubour, und Lhe
pecullur composlLlon of Lhe bodv of workpeople,
conslsLlng us lL does of lndlvlduuls of boLh sexes und
of ull uges, glve rlse Lo a barrack discip|ine, whlch ls
eluboruLed lnLo u compleLe svsLem ln Lhe fucLorv, und
whlch fullv develops Lhe before menLloned lubour of
overlooklng, Lherebv dividinq the workpeop|e into
operatives and over|ookers, into private so|diers
and serqeants of an industria| army.º
lrunklln, sopta.
°Looklng uL Lechnologv us prucLlce, lndeed us
formullzed prucLlce, hus some oulLe lnLeresLlng
conseouences. One ls LhuL lL |inks techno|oqy
direct|y to cu|ture, because cu|ture after a||, is a set
of socia||y accepted practices and va|ues. Well-luld
down und ugreed-upon prucLlces ulso deflne Lhe
prucLlcloners us u group of people who huve
someLhlng ln common becuuse of Lhe wuv Lhev ure
dolng Lhlngs. Out of this notion of unifyinq practice
sprinqs the historica| definition of 'us' and 'them.'º
lrunklln sees u close reluLlonshlp beLween
Lechnologv, culLure, und socleLv
1echnologv us prucLlce or Lhe wuv Lhlngs ure done
=> behuvlor
Web of behuvlors => culLure
CulLure => deflnes socleLv und soclul sLrucLures
1hrough Lhe subLle modlflcuLlon of behuvlor
puLLerns, Lechnologv flrsL destabi|izes, und
Lhen reconstructs culLure, redefininq Lhe
soclul reluLlons, soclul reluLlonshlps beLween
soclul groups, und ulLlmuLelv reluLlons
beLween u socleLv und Lhe nuLurul world
MucPherson, C.8., ±o,¸. LemocruLlc 1heorv:
Lssuvs ln ReLrlevul.
°1he Lechnologlcul revoluLlon ln WesLern nuLlons,
lf lefL Lo develop wlLhln Lhe presenL murkeL
sLrucLure und Lhe presenL ldeologv, would huve
Lhe lmmedluLe effecL of strenqtheninq the imaqe
of man as infinite consumer, bv muklng
consumpLlon more uLLrucLlve.
°As Lechnologv mulLlplles producLlvlLv, proflLuble
producLlon wlll reoulre Lhe creuLlon of new deslres
und new umounLs of deslre... Slnce proflLs wlll
lncreuslnglv depend on creuLlng ever more deslre,
the tendency wi|| be for directors of the
productive system to do everythinq in their
power to confirm Western man's imaqe of
himse|f as an infinite desirer.º
llllch, l. ±o,¸. 1he 1ools for ConvlvlullLv.
°lL hus become fushlonuble Lo suv LhuL where science
and techno|oqy have created prob|ems, it is on|y
more scientific understandinq and better
techno|oqy that can carry us past them. 1he cure for
bud munugemenL ls more munugemenL. 1he cure for
speclullzed reseurch ls more cosLlv lnLerdlsclpllnurv
reseurch, |usL us Lhe cure for polluLlng rlvers ls more
cosLlv non-polluLlng deLergenLs. 1he poollng of sLores
of lnformuLlon, Lhe bulldlng up of u knowledge sLock,
Lhe uLLempL Lo overwhelm presenL problems bv Lhe
producLlon of more sclence ls the u|timate attempt
to so|ve a crisis by esca|ationº
Ulrlch, O. 1eclooloqy. ln Suchs, W., zoo±. 1he
LevelopmenL LlcLlonurv.
°lor Lhe culLures of oLher counLrles, Lhe reoulslLe
psvcho-soclul prepuruLlon of people und Lhe culLurul
LrunsformuLlon looks much more LruumuLlc becuuse lL
confronLs Lhem wlLh un essenLlullv ullen culLure.
Throuqh techno|oqica| 'deve|opment aid' more
euphemistica||y ca||ed technica| assistance, from
industria|ized countries, they receive 'tro|an
machines' (to use Robert 1unqks's phrase), which
conquer their cu|ture and society from within.
1hev ure forced to qradua||y absorb an a|ien
industria| work ethic, Lo subordlnuLe Lhemselves
compleLelv Lo unuccusLomed Llme rhvLhms, Lo vulue
ob|ecLlve reluLlons hlgher Lhun humun reluLlons, Lo
experlence lncreuslng sLress und Lo regurd lL us
normul, und Lo uccepL |obs wlLhouL regurd for
moLlvuLlon or meunlng. Wuge lubour und commodlLv
feLlshlsm expund, und Lhev deflne Lhe compeLlLlve
sLruggle of ull ugulnsL ull us Lhe soclul svnLhesls. lL
becomes self-evldenL LhuL everyone is to be a
mechanica| coq in a qreat production apparatus
dominated by the wor|d market.º
CulLure serves us Lhe lnLerfuce beLween
socleLv und Lhe nuLurul world
Luw ls u componenL of u socleLv's culLure
As u svsLem of prucLlce, luw muv ulso be seen
us u purLlculur Lechnologv
Roscoe Pound's soc|oloq|cal jot|sptoJeoce:
Luw us u hlghlv speclullzed form of soclul conLrol
ln developed pollLlcul socleLv, Lhrough whlch Lhe
svsLemuLlc und orderlv uppllcuLlon of force of such
u socleLv ls upplled
1he purpose of Lhe luw for speclflc Lechnologles
cunnoL be deLuched from Lhe muchlnerv und
Lechnloues lL reguluLes
Mlchel loucuulL's qovetomeotal|ty
1he pervuslve reguluLorv ucLlvlLv of governmenL,
whlch focuses speclflcullv on Lhe conLrol of socleLv
Lhrough Lhe °sclenLlflcº Lechnloues of modern
economlcs und emplovmenL of u complex runge
of luws, reguluLlons, und pollcles LhuL secure und
mulnLuln soclul und economlc prucLlces.
CovernmenLullLv Lends Lo lose Lhe ublllLv Lo ucL
dellberuLelv und purposlvelv for Lhe common
good, und lnsLeud seeks Lo ensure whuL ls
convenlenL for euch of Lhe Lhlngs governed
AnLhropologlcul descrlpLlon of luw
Luw luvs clulm Lo u duul churucLer: lL furnlshes Lhe
normuLlve 'mup' lnformlng Lhe llfe-world of u
socleLv's members us Lhev experlence lL, und lL
provldes one of the centra| means throuqh
which qovernment exercises a steerinq ro|e.
Hence u soclologv of luw musL be concerned wlLh
common|y accepted standards and with
imposed requ|ation, with the domains of 'order'
and of 'domination.'
Close slmllurlLles
Orgunlzed bodles of knowledge
Rellunce on normuLlve rules und prlnclples, speclul
procedures und meLhodologles
PrucLlced bv respecLlve experLs wlLh hlgher-Lhun-
uveruge ouullflcuLlons
8oLh ofLen percelvedlrelled upon for neuLrullLv,
fucLuullLv, und purpose (for common good)
Holmes, O.W., ±8o,. 1he puLh of Lhe Luw.
°1he Lrulnlng of luwvers ls u Lrulnlng ln loglc. 1he
processes of unulogv, dlscrlmlnuLlon, und deducLlon
ure Lhose ln whlch Lhev ure mosL uL home. 1he
lunguuge of |udlclul declslon ls mulnlv Lhe lunguuge of
loglc. And Lhe loglcul meLhod und form fluLLer LhuL
longlng for cerLulnLv und for repose whlch ls ln everv
humun mlnd.º
°l cunnoL buL belleve LhuL lf Lhe Lrulnlng of luwvers led
Lhem hublLuullv Lo conslder more deflnlLelv und
expllclLlv Lhe soclul udvunLuge on whlch Lhe rule Lhev
luv down musL be |usLlfled, they sometimes wou|d
hesitate where now they are confident, and see
that rea||y they were takinq sides upon debatab|e
and often burninq questions.º
Holmes, O.W., ±ozo. Luw ln Sclence, Sclence
ln Luw.
°1he Lrue sclence of luw does noL conslsL mulnlv ln
u Lheologlcul worklng ouL of dogmu or u loglcul
developmenL us ln muLhemuLlcs, or onlv ln u sLudv
of lL us un unLhropologlcul documenL from Lhe
ouLslde, un even more lmporLunL purL conslsLs ln
the estab|ishment of its postu|ates from within,
upon accurate|y measured socia| desires lnsLeud
of LrudlLlon.º
Pound, R., ±oiz. Soclul conLrol Lhrough Luw.
°ln Lhe modern world, luw hus become Lhe
purumounL ugencv of socia| contro|. Our muln
rellunce ln Lhe socleLv of Loduv ls upon Lhe force
of pollLlcullv orgunlzed socleLv. We seek Lo ad|ust
re|ations and order conduct Lhrough Lhe orderlv
und svsLemuLlc uppllcuLlon of LhuL force. AL Lhe
momenL Lhls slde of Lhe luw, lLs dependence upon
force, ls Lhe one mosL lnslsLed on.º
Kuhn, 1., ±o6z. 1he SLrucLure of SclenLlflc
PresenLed Lhe developmenL of sclence noL us u
sLeudv, orderlv uccumuluLlonlreveluLlon of fucLs, buL
from chunglng clrcumsLunces und posslblllLles from
dlfferenL fronLs
1he °purudlgmº und °purudlgm-shlfLº
Normul, uccepLed Lheorv (domlnunL purudlgm)
Anomulles (unexplulned phenomenu) uppeur und uccumuluLe
New, compeLlng Lheorv uccounLs for unomulles us well us
°oldº sclence
°Newº Lheorv becomes Lhe normul, uccepLed Lheorv
Purudlgms und Lhelr ussumpLlonslcomponenLsl
lmpllcuLlons ure uccepLed us °LruLhº for us long us
Lhe purudlgms ure domlnunL
WhuL ls Lrue depends on whuL ls generullv
uccepLuble uL Lhe Llme Lhe clulm ls mude
l.e. whuL flLs lnLo prevulllng noLlons of whuL ls °sclenceº
(dogmu!), NO1 NLCLSSARlLY whuL ls Lrue, und cerLulnlv
noL for ull Llme .
lrwln, A. und 8. Wvnne., zooi.
MlsundersLundlng Sclence? 1he Publlc
ReconsLrucLlon of Sclence und 1echnologv.
Cuse sLudles of sclenLlflc conLroversles ln publlc
declslon-muklng, focus on role of pollLlcs und
lnLerucLlon beLween soclul groups und Lechnlcul,
sclenLlflc, medlcul experLlse
MunlfesLlv pollLlcul declslons cun be camouf|aqed us
u pure Lechnlcul und sclenLlflc declslons
SclenLlflc oplnlon soughL Lo supporL mu|or pollcv
conLroversles lnvolvlng sclenLlflc und Lechnlcul experLlse
(e.g. energv developmenL, conservuLlon)
1he purpose of sclence ln Lhese conLroversles ls
ofLen to de|iver a quiescent pub|ic
Sclence us u Lool for pollLlcul persuuslon
UncerLulnLv us un opporLunlLv for leglLlmlzuLlon of
conLroverslullouesLlonuble soclul cholcesldeclslons
Lhrough sclence
Schuffer, S. und S. Shupln, ±o8¸. LevluLhun
und Lhe Alr Pump: Hobbes, 8ovle und Lhe
LxperlmenLul Llfe.
HlsLorlcul sLudv of u debuLe beLween z well known
sclenLlsLs of Lhe ±6
cenLurv on Lhe proper wuv Lo
guln knowledge: Hobbes udvocuLlng uxloms und
prlnclples, 8ovle udvocuLlng experlmenLul
Modern sclencelsclenLlflc meLhod orgunlzes Lhe
creuLlon of LrusLlcredlblllLv efflclenLlv
WhuL ls Lrue depends on Lhose few wlLh Lhe
reoulslLe LrusLlcredlblllLv
l.e., Lhose wlLh credenLluls, known cupublllLles, or who
followed uccepLed meLhodologles, NO1 NLCLSSARlLY
whuL ls Lrue, und noL becuuse of some reuson bevond
humun sub|ecLlvlLv
lor luw und pollcv, sclence und Lechnologv
provldes no assurance wlLh respecL Lo
soundness, lmpurLlullLv, und purpose
Sclence 8 Lechnologv |ust as fa||ib|e us unv
oLher busls of luw, Lo produclng soclul
Worse, sclence und Lechnologv ls we||-suited
Lo dellverlng 1ro|un Muchlnes
Mlller, L., ±ooo. 1he Prlnclples of Soclul 1usLlce.
°Soclul |usLlce ls ubouL how Lhe qood and bad Lhlngs
ln llfe should be dlsLrlbuLed umong Lhe members of
humun socleLv.º
°When, more concreLelv, we uLLuck some pollcv or
some sLuLe of uffulrs us soclullv un|usL, we ure
clulmlng LhuL u person, or more usuullv u cuLegorv of
persons, en|ovs fewer advantaqes Lhun LhuL person
or group of persons ouqht to en|oy (or beurs more of
the burdens Lhun Lhev ouqht to bear), glven how
oLher members of Lhe socleLv ln ouesLlon ure furlng.º
Young, l.M., ±ooo. 1usLlce und Lhe PollLlcs of
°whuL ls lmporLunL ls noL Lhe purLlculur puLLern of
dlsLrlbuLlon uL unv purLlculur momenL, buL Lhe
reproducLlon of puLLerns of dlsLrlbuLlon over
soclul |usLlce ls Lhe ubsence of institutiona|ized
domination and oppression.
Soclul 1usLlce concerned wlLh Lhe pursulL und
proLecLlon of soclul vulues und preferences,
whlch ure noL reveuled, und ofLenLlmes even
desLroved, bv Lhose promoLed bv
conLemporurv sclence 8 Lechnologv
Lfflclencv v. LoulLv
ReducLlonlsm v. lnLegrlLv
ALomlsm v. CommunlLv
LewonLln, R.C., ±oo±. 8lologv us ldeologv:
1he LocLrlne of LNA.
°When we free ourselves from Lhe ldeologlcul blus
of uLomlsm und reducLlonlsm und look souurelv uL
Lhe ucLuul reluLlons beLween orgunlsms und Lhe
world uround Lhem, we find a much richer set of
re|ations, re|ations that have very different
consequences for socia| and po|itica| action Lhun
ure usuullv supposed...º
ln Lhe deplovmenL of sclence 8 Lechnologv
for soclul ends, Lhe ouesLlon Lo be usked ls
noL °whuL does Lhe sclence 8 Lechnologv
do?º, buL ruLher °on whose side shou|d the
science 8 techno|oqy be?º
Sclence 8 Lechnologv should be bounded und
dlrecLed by society, not the other way
around, Lhrough Lhe medlum of luw und

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