bqsic

hydroulic
volves
Buku ini merupakan sumbangan dari
lembaga Bantuan Pendidikan ([BP] Mittalama
Untuk dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar
Pol,teknik oan SMK Alat-alat berat.
iliTfi;rfifiih
Tidak untuk diperjuai-belikan atau diperbanyak
tl,lDEX
The following pages contain information about the folLowing hydraulic
valves found in Caterpillar hydraulic systems:
PAGE S{IBJECT PACE SUBJECT
5 Spool Valve
7 Sinple Relief Valve
9 Pilot-Operated Relief Valve
13 Plston-Operated Relief Valve
35 Orifice Check Valve
37 Sinple l{echanical
Protective Device
39 tlechanical Protective
Device with Spool Valve
15 Rest,riction-Type Relief Valve 43 tlydraulic Protective
Valve Co'mbined r'rith
Neutralizer Function
19 Make-Up Valve 47 Hydraulic Protective
Valve Combined with
Seguence Valve
ZL Flow Control Valve 51 Combiaation VaLve
23 Flow Divider Valve 55 Protective Reset Valve
25 Pressure Reduclng Valve 57 NeutraLizer Valve
27 Pressure Diffetential- 59 Hydraulic Shift Governor
Valve
5L PrioritY Valve
29 l{odifLed Pilot-Operated
Relief Valve 63 Rotary Selector Spool
33 Modulatlng Relief Valve 65 llodulating Reducing Valve
(Shown in Valve Station)
** * * * * * * *
INTROBUCTION
The illustrations in this book will help you to recognize the type of valve,
its purpose, how it operates, and where it is used.
It is suggested that you use a set of colored pencils to show oil flow
through the valve diagrams.
Keep this book as a reference; it will help you review the function and
use of hydraulic valves.
Befqre cwrmencing the review of hydraulic valves, consider the following
points, vhich will allow you to solve most problems:
t. SPRINGS:
-
Their purpose in hydraulic ci-rcuits.
A. Before pump commences oil flow, the springs will be fully
expanded to the lfulit of the housing or compartment r*rere
they are located.
B. They can be ccmpressed or expanded by oil pressure, but will
return to t.heir original length r^rhen the system is depressurized.
2. VALVES:
-
Simply block or control oil flor+.
(sornetimes at a predetermined rate)
3. PRESSURE: Comes only r+ith resistance to oil flow,
4. HYDRAT'LIC CIRCUITS:
Read them like a map; the valves are sign posts for oil
f ]-ow.
5. TROI'BLESHOOTING:
A. Get a clear pieture of the problem;
write down factors concerned if it helps.
B. Try to understand what must be done. A few minutes of
thought can save hours of labor.
C- Like any
journey,
start at the beginning and follor*
through to the source of the problem.
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4
SPOOL
VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
B16;f or direct the flow of oil to the desired circuit
2. TY PES:
ll-ftoo Positiqn
(i.e., !'orward, Reverse)
B. Three Position
(i.e., Raise, llold, Lower)
C. Four Position
(i.e., Raise, l{old, Lower, ftoat)
3. CONSTRUCTION:
A. La"ds that can be moved to select a circuit,
(i.e., l, 2 ot 3)
B. Throttling slots machined in lands to allow
Partial
flow,
(i.e.,
close blade control)
C. Ilachine grooves around the valve land to assist in lubricating,
sealing and centering the spool in the bore
4. \",IIIERE USED :
A.
-
B"ll,tozer hydraulic controls
B. Track loader hydraulic controls
C. Transmission hydraulic controls
D. Implement hydraulic controls
TR(IUBLESHOOTING
NgTii: High pressure applj-cation spool is not available without a matched body.
Low pressure application spooJ- (such as power shift transmi.ssion spool)
is many ti$es individually available.
Parts Books, in some instances, list .020tt oversize bore and spool.
Re;rson
--
to s;rl vilge body machj.ned oversize in utattufacture.
5
I{ALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTION
Blade or bucket drift
Jamming in bore
A. Leakage between spool
land and valve bodY
B. Worn seals
A. Foreign material
jamming spool
B. Valve body improperly
torqued at assembly
C. ]lounting face not flat
Replacement of danaged
c omponent s
Replace
Clean
Refer to speciflcation
for torque and
tightening sequence
SIMPLE RELIEF VALVE
\,
+
TANK
BODY
VALVE
OPEN
CLOSED
S EAT
<b
PUI,P
6
SIMPLE RELIEF VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
T6-T*TI maximum pressure
2, CONSTRUCIION:
ffi, sea,t and spring
3. OPEMTION:
Va'i-ve is initially held closed by spri.ng force. Pressure oil acts
upon the valve. Excessj.ve pressure (always sensed on upstream side of
circuit) wlll overccne the spri-ng force and open the valve to allow the
oil to be bypassed.
4. WHERE USED:
d,
---[o]rEessure
applieations wtrere exact pressure is not critical
B.
'
Booster and lubricatlon systems
C. When noise frm operation is not critical
TftOUBLESHOOTING
}TALFUNCTION POSSIELE CAUSE CORRECTION
Pressure
High pressure
A. Broken or weak spring
B. Faulty seat
C. Foreign matertal
jammed
under valve seat
D. Incorrect shi.ms
A. Poppet
jammed
B. Incorrect shims
Replaee
Replace or recut
Clean or replace
Adjust
Warped body; dirt
in valve
Adj ust
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PILOT-OPERATEII RELIEF UALVE
T. PURPOSE;
A. To limit maximum pre$sure
B, To protect the hydraulie system from pressure created by excessive
'
load or blocked line
2. CONS?RUCTTON:
m't
"alv%
two springs and unloading valve with orifice
3. OPEMTION:
Oil.nt"rs the relief valve housing and flows through the unloading
valve orifice to contact the piJ-ot val-ve.
lihen oil pressure rises to the relief valve settj-ng, the pilot valve
opers and dumps oi1 from the unloading valve spring charnber.
Since more oil can flow past the pilot valve than through the unloading
valve orifice, the pressure lesseas in the unloading valve spring chamber.
The unloading valve then moves up, allowi-ng full purnp flow to be dumped
into the taak.
{QIE:
Throttling holes in the base of, the unloading valve allow for
smooth dumping.
4. WHERE USED:
A. Ali tractor bydrarrlic coo[rol-s
B. All track loarier hydraulic controls
C, AII scraper hydraulic eontrols
5. WIIY USED:
A. Less flutter or haurmering
B. Large volume of oil can be passed quickly through a large dump
portn with use of only a smal-l spring and small mechanical
cons t ruct ion,
C. llaintains uniforrn pressure with r,ridely dif ferent flow rates
I
TTOUBLESHOOTING
I{AT,FUNCTTON POSST}LE CAUSIi CORRECTION
Presgure setting high
Pressure settlng 10$
Erratlc operation
A
B
Iixcess number of shi:ns
Incorrect spring on
pilot valve
Pump flow excessive
Insufficient number of
shims
Foreign material
jammed
under pilot valve seat
Leakage frsn unl"oading
valve chamber
Pilot valve seat worn
Pilot valve spring
retalner toose
Unloading valve jammed
oPen
Unloadlng valve sticking
C
A
D
E
llorn ptlot valve
Remove and reset
Replace
tlatch valve to pump
Add and reset
Dlsmantle and clean
Replace O-rings
Replace
Assenftble correctly
Free valve 1n bore
Check for bore
di,s tor t ion
Check for foreign
material in oil
Replace
10
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12
PISTOT{.OPEHATEI} HELIEF VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
gl_
l,i*:-t maxi-mum pressure
B. Protect. the lines, cyllnders and vaLve fron pressure created
by an external force on the bucket
2, CONSTRUCTION:
ffiGIE", springs and shims
3. OPERATION:
OiT tr.pped in the hydraulic lines by the main control. valve can be
pressurized by an external force on the track loader bucket cr by
blocked bucket linkage, and is isolated fron the main relief valve.
The pressr"lre oil will enter the valve and act on the piston. hthen
sufficient force is available, the valve will move against the spring
and dump some oil until overpressure is relieved.
4. WHERT] USED:
i6iii-!l3Er
"f
rlier tilt circuit of botir the wheel and track-type loa<lers.
ln some cases, two pistons are used to sense pressures irr diffcrlnt
circults" Thc valve is then called
"dual
sensing.r'
TR0U BLE$H00Tll-lS
I{ALFUNCTlON POSSISLE CAUSE CORRiic'TION
Hose, tllt or lift
cylinder failure or
dauage due to
exeessive pressure
Relief valve
inoperative
Buckr:t drift
Relief valve inoperative
A Piston seized in
horrs ing
Hydraulie lock in
spring charnber
Ilurnp valve scized
l,eakage of O-rlrrg
seals, 0r
pa$t, valve
geat
llei ief valve opcning
bclor,'r pr(}s$ur(} sctting
of nrain reli-ef valve
t)
A
Rernove and repair
lle;r lace
C.lear drlitr pil$silgs
Replace lf daruaged
Clean or repl;rce
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RESTRICTION-TYPE RELIEF VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
ffi-ffially restrict purnp flow, and. establish the system pressure
2. CONSTRUCTION:
Valve with an orifice and chanber open to pump pressure flow and spring.
Some have a piston (slug)
in orifice chamber.
3. OPEMTION:
ffive cr"ates restriction to purnp flow by blocking the outlet.
As the system fllls, pressure rises through the orifice into the
ehamber and moves the valve against the spring until tEe outlet is
opened.
0i1 ean then flow past the valve to limit pressure rise.
A pistou (or
slug) used in the orifice chamber will allow a light
spring to control the actlon of the valve because the pressure oil
will be acting on a reduced area.
A poppet may be used to dampen the action of the valve by slowing its
closing rate.
4, \JHER.E USED:
Transmission hydraulic controls for some traek-type tractor$, track-
type loaders, small and large wheel loaders
TROUBLE$HOOTING
I,lALFUNCTION POSSIiLE CAUS}J CORRHCTION
Low pressure
tligtr pressure
Erratic cond{tion
Insufflclent number of
shims
Soft shins used and
bcaten out
Incorrect or broken
s pring
Slug
(if
used) nissing
I)r;rj-n p:rssages betrintl
slug blocked
Excess number of shi.ms
Pressure not entering
orifice
Valve scizcd in bore
Slug ( if used) seized
in valve
Incsrrect sprlng
RelieI valve larrd
worn frtm iiue abraslves
in oil
Interrnittent st ic.l<irrg
D
E
A
B
L
D
Add and reset
l{eplace wi th correct
hardened shlns
Replace
l{ep I ace
Reruove olrstruction
ilemove and reset
Clear blockcd
orificc
lteplace iI tlarnaged
Clean or rtlpl;rce
Dra in ;rntl f 1 trsh
sys t cm
Deterrnine source
of abrasives
Replace vorn parts
Hree valve irr bore
15
CHECK
VALVE
TAPERED SEAT
16
CHECK VALVE
1. PURPOSE:
To control oil to flow in one direct.ion only
2. CONSTR.UCTION:
Sprfng a"a;lve with a tapered seat; a round ball is sometimes
used instead of the valve shown here. In other ci-rcuits, the check
valve is free floating (has
no sprJ-ngs) or has an orifice in the
valve.
3. OPEMTION:
The valve will lift off the seat and control the flow vrhen the slight
spring force is exceeded.
4 . W}TERE USED:
In dozer, ripper, tilt cylinder and track loader bucket circuits to
seParate two circui-ts. In steering clutch clrcuits to prevent pressure
loss during transmisslon range selection on power strift machines.
THOU BLE$HOOTII'IG
I{ALT'UNCTION POSSISLE CAUSE CORRECTIOI'I
Bucket or dozer drops
slightLy when ririse
positions seleeted
A. Worrr seat
B, Worn valve
C. Broken spring
D. Dirt under valve
Recrrt or replace
Replaee
Replace
Clean
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18
MAKE.UP
VALVE
I. PURPOSE;
ilf6"iloil ro bypass tire pump and flow directly to tle cylinder
lines whenever reservoir pressure is greater than line pressure
2. CONSTRUCTION:
m-egffiT;a-and light spring. Valve will ah+ays be located below
reservoir oil level. There will be one for each circuit-
3. OPERATION:
ffi; oil pressure in lines is approximately 2 psi less than reservoir
pressure, the make-up valve unseats, allowing oil to flow to lines.
(Example: quick dropping blade or bucket.) This prevents cavitation
in cylinders and lines.
4 . r{ilERts US ED:
Do#; ripper aud track loader hydraulic circuits
TROUBLESHOOTING
I1ALI.'TJNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE COITR[C'I'ION
Itlade or bucket drift
Blade will" not lift
Blade lacks down
pr essu re
A. Valve
jammed opcn
B. Valve
jarurned open
C. V:rlve
jammed
open
Clean or replirce
Clean or replace
0k:"irrr or rep.Lacc
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FLOW CONTROL UALUE
20
FLOW CONTROL VALVE
T. PURPOSE:
tloffiiae a predeterurined maximum flow rate to one circuit and
bypass excess flow to another circuit
2. CON$TRUCTION:
An oriEic" designed to pass a certain flow at a specified. pressure
differenti,al, and a valve to bypass or restrict excess oil. The
valve is loaded by a light spring and sometimes the orifice is
contained in the valve.
3. OPERATION:
TE'[Tif?fce, beeause of its size, creates a pressure drop across it
in.the direction of fl-ow. The force from tire higher pressure acts
on the upstream side of the valve. The force frorn tire lower pressure
plus the spring force act on the downstream side of the valve. When
the force differential between the t\,/o pressures rises above the
desired level (r+hen fl:r+ rises above de*ignecl amount), the valve will
then move towards the low pressure side, overeoming spring force.
This action will either bypass cxcess oil ar restrict ttre flow of oil
to the valve (dependlrrg on the constructton of the valve). Tl-re flow
through thc orif ice will rhen be rnirintaincd ;lt a retluired value.
4. \,iIi{ERE USEJ]:
'tlran"*i"'sion hydraulic controls, implement hydraulic controls
TROUBLESHOt}TING
}IAL!'UNCTION POSSIBLU CAUSE COITITIiCTION
I)oes not Limit flow
Flow rate too low
Valve seized irr body
l\
Full flow plug
i"ns tal l ecl
Valve sprirrg brokerr
or weak
Val.ve scized, p;rr:ti;rl Ly
closed
Orifiec plug inst;rllcd
Clean or replace
incorrect spring
Replace with
orifice plu;i
lleplace 6prlng
Cle:rn or replace
Rcpl;rce with higher
flow rate plug
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22
FLOW OIVIOER VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
To .q"aily divide the oil flow frorn a single
PumP,
regardless of
the difference in restrj-ction on the outlets, alLowing two separate
circuits to be supplied sj-multaneously witir oil from a single pump
2. CONSTRUCTION;
Sprol-A;ill.d tc-r atlmit o11 to center, then cross-dritled' to direct
oil to each separate outLet
3. OPERAIION:
'!{TTI'Toi[
outlets providing gqual restriction to the oil leavi.ng
the outiet passaBes 1n the body, the flow dj-vider spool will be
balanced in the center of the body"
I'Jhen the operator restricts oae outlet by applying one brake or
steering clutch and upsetting the balanced flow, a pressure rise
will cause the spool to move to tire low pressure side.
The spool itself r*ill then restrict the oil flow from the pump and
cause a pressure rise equal to the restrj-ction caused by the action
of the brake or steering clutch.
The oil flow fron the two outlets will then be equal.
4. lil{uitE IJSED:
garty
-oA;i
track loader steering clutcli circuits and track-type
traetor brake booster circuits
TNOUELESHOOTIHG
IlAL}'UNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTIOT.I
Lotu oil pressure when
one brake is applied,
correc t rril pressure
t+hen both br:akes are
applied
Pressure oil is
ava ilatr le to onr bra ltt:
boost er
Srake pressure is lor.r
A. Valve seized in central
position
A. Va lvc r;e iz.ed irt oue
crrrd uf tlody
A. lr{ain roliel vslve sel:
l.ow
B. Brake reli-ef valvc set
!uw
Clean or replace
Clean or rttpl;rct:
Itenove arrd ::ese t
Repl.rcu :;pr itrg
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24
PRESSURE BEDUCING VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
6*ie-dice
pump pressure (established by the nain relief valve), to the
requirements of the system
2. CONSTRUCTION:
ffildth;lug cfflpartment orifice open to downstream pressure'
The sprlng determines dovmstream system pressure.
3. OPEMTION:
ITEiiGtty, the valve is held open to flow by the spring.
B. Pressure must build up in the gownstream side and in the
slug ehamber.
C.'lJhen pressure builds up sufficient force in chamber, the valve
moves against the spring, reducing the pump flow and maintaining
the reduced pressure.
4. \{HERE USED:
ffiiEsi"n hydraulic controls -
D6C, 600 Series, 769, 824 and 834.
TROUBLESHOOTING
ITALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE
CORRECTIOI.I
Reduced pressure not to
speciflcation
Pressure not reduced
by valve
No pressure sensed
on dowrtstfeaur side
of valve
A. Incorrect shimming
B. Inlet pressure low
Spring failed
Slug ornitted during
assembly
Orifice blocked
Valve
jammed open
Slug seized in valve
Valve
jammed closed
Slug seized in valve
holding valvt: closed
Oil drain passage bettind
slug blocked
Orif ice open to
irutnP
Irre$sure
f1ow, lroldlrrg
valve closed
L
D
A.
B.
C.
A.
B.
t, -
D.
Add or remove shiins
Determi-ne if low
pressure is due to
main relief valve
setting or lack of
restriction on
dorrnstream side of
pre$sure reducing
valve
Replace spring
Replace slug
Clear blockage
F'ree valve in bore
Clcan or replaee
Free valve itr bore
Clean or replaec
Iletc rmine re;r son f or
trydraulic lock
De te rrnine re& son
,
posslbly caused by
pressure surgc from
down.s t reanr pusirlrrg
valve orifice into
pump flow chamber
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PRESSURE t}IFFEHENTIAL VALVE
PURPOSE:
T6'suppry oil at a consrant pressure differential to two circuits
CONSTRUCTION:
Valve with passages leading to spring compartrTrent and to the second circui-t
3. OPEMTION:
The-a;TEerential val-ve initlally blocks oil flow until pressure rises. This
Pressure
rise moves the valve against the spring and allows oil flow into the
secondary circuit.
As the pressure rises in tlre secondary cj-rcuit, oil will flow into the spripg
comPartment aad this will" be at the same pressure,as
the oil in the secondary
circuit.
The pressure of the oil in the spri-ng compartment cornbines with the action of
the spring to move the valve back agalnst the presPure of the oil in the primary
circuit.
The valve rorill tlren f ind a position wirere the pressure in the pri:lary circuit
equals the comtrined effect of the pressure in the secondary circuit and the
spring force. Regardless of inlet pressure,
the difference in pressure
bet,n/een
the primary and secondary circuits is always equal to the equivalent pressure
of the spring and is called the
"pressure tlifferential". It can only be altered
by changing the spring rate. This can be <lone by changing the spring itself.
IJtr1EI{E US ED:
Sme power shift transmissi-on control circui"ts; 600 lJlreel Tractor torque
divider transririssions
irlltY USIiD: 5.
a. Power shift transnissions
engagelnenf
b. 600 Series transillissions;
-
to ensure correct scqulrnce of cl utclr
part of the autotnatic shif t circrr it
TRt)UBLESHOOTING
I1ALFUNCTION POSS TIlLE CAUSE CORi{ECTION
Pressure differential
less t.han specified
Pressure dillerential
greatcr than speeified
Pressure not dropping
in secon,lary circirit on
transrnission whcn shift
is rnadc
Incorrect clr broken
spr ing
0iI leakrng from spring
chamber
Irrsuf ficient restri{:t i iln
on second circuit
fncorrcct spring
V;rlvc jarmmed
open
Differential valve
not opening dump port
Replace spring
Determi-ne cause of
lcakage
Blimiu;rte Le akage
Replace wiLll corrcct
(r,reaker)
spring
Replace courponent if
d;rm;rged
Hnsure valve free
in bore
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28
MODIFIEO PILOT.OPERATED RELIEF VALVE
t. PURPOSET
e.
.Get
maxj-mum system pressure for nonnal operating conditions
B. Relieve pressure surges at a lower value
2, CONSTRUCTION:
Ltad pGt"n, load piston orifice, load piston chamber, two springs,
pilot valve and unloading valve with orifice
3. OPEMTION:
Oil enters the relief valve housing and flows through the unloading
valve orifice to the face of the pilot valve and through a passage
and orifice to the load piston.
As pressure rises and is sensed in the load piston chamber, the load
piston moves to the right, eompressing pilot valve spring; this
increases the pilot valve pressure setting.
The load piston moves before the pilot valve because the area of the
load piston is larger than the face of the pilot valve.
When the load piston is hard against the stop, the pilot valve setting
is at the normal operating value.
The reroainder of the operation is identical to the operation of the
pilot-operated relief valve.
B. Pressure Surges
ffie1iefvalvehousingan<lflowsthroughtheun1oarl1ng
valve orifice to the face of the pi-lot valve and to the ori"fice of
the load piston chamber.
Because of the size of the orifice ln the load piston chamber, flow
ls restricted, creatlng a delay in pressure to the load plston and
resulting in a build-up of pressure along the passage to the faee of
the pilot valve.
Consequently, when a pressure surge exlsts, the pilot valve will always
open first.
The pilot valve opens and dumps oll frt-rn the unloading valve sprlng charnlrer.
The remainder of the operatlon 1s ldentical to the operation of the pilot-
operated rellef valve.
4, WHERE USED:
il?ITEie"; scraper portion of hydraultcs
B. 9BB main pressure rellef valve (loader portion)
29
TROUBLE$HOOTING
ITALFUI{CTTON
POSSIB I-U CAUSE
CORRTCTION
Itressrrre seIting low
Pressure setting high
Erratic operation
A.
B.
lllockcd lcad piston
ch;rmber or lf i.ce
Fcreign rnaterial
j,ammed
under pilot valvc seat
Leukage ftrm unloading
valve chambur
f ilot valve seat worrr
Unloadlng valve
jammed
open
Pllot valve spring broken
Incorrect spring on
Pilot
valve
Punp flow excessive
Unloadlng valve
sticki.ng
!.loru pilot valve
D
E
!'
A
A
Itismantle and clean
Dlsmantle and ctean
Replace 0-ring
Replace
Free valve ln bore
lleplace
Replace
llatch valve to
pLmp
Check for bore
dlstortion; check
for forelgn naterlal
in oil
Replace
30
NOTES
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32
MOIIULATING RELIEF VALVE
l.
tuRPosE:
fo get a variable system pressure and, depending on the application,
a delayed pressure buildup
2. CONSTRUCTION:
BasiEa Tt a relief valve htith a load piston behind the spring
3. OPEMTION:
As in the case of the nornal relief valve, it creates restriction to
pump flow by closing the outlet. If there is no pressure acting on the
load plston it relieves at a low pressure (usually called primary pressure).
When the load piston is charged with oil, the relief pressure inereases.
The maximum pressure is reached when the load piston is against the stop.
If used in conjunction with an orifice check valve, the pressure buildup
will be slo',r, yet the pressure drop will be rapid''
4. WHERE USED:
ffiE'ift transmission hydraulic controls
TROU B LESH O()TING
NOTE:
l'or further troubleshooti.ng, see
"Restriction-Type
Relief Valve"
(page 15).
IlALFUNCTION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Pressure remains at initial setting
No modulation
Slow pressure buildup and slow,
instead of rapid relief
A. Load piston sticking or seized
ts. No pressure buildup beyond the
load piston
A. Load piston sticking or seized
A. Load piston binding
B. Orifice check valve binding
33
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uo
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34
ORIFICE CHECK VALVE
1. PURPOSE:
6-li6-niae a different rate of flow to and from a load piston
2. CONSTRUCTION:
ChE;relv.-"ithout spri-ng but with an orifiee
3. OPERATION:
0ffro" the supply side moves the valve over and clgses the drain port.
Only a metered amount can pass through the orifice.
When the flow reverses, the valve i-s moved to the left and uncovers
the draj-n port.
The discharge through the drain will be rapid.
4. WHERE USED:
Frdeffi'Ift transmj.ssion hydraulic eontrols
TROUBLESHOOTING
I.IOIE: See also modulating relief valve
(page
33).
ITALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAI.'SE
No pressure buildup
Slow pressure relief
A. Check valve stuck, leaving
drain open
B. Orifice blocked
A. Check valve stuck with
the drain closed
35
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36
$ITUPLE MECHANICAL PROTECTIVE DEVICE
I. PURPOSE:
ldffi;er pressure in a system drops below a minimum value for a length
of time, the selector is moved to a safe or neutral posi-tion.
2. CONSTRUCTION:
Station"ry piston with a spring-ioaded cyllnder
3. OPERATION:
Ttle oj-lrthat cornes in through the rod fills the space between the
piston and the cylinder. As it compresses the spring, it allows
free movement of the selector spool valve. Ilhen the oil pressure
is lost or the engine is stopped, the spring moves the seleetor
lever to neutral. A check valve in the piston allovs quick charging
during pressure increases, but the oil in the cylinder can onl"y leak out
at a controlled rate when the sensing pressure decreases. Therefore,
the control does not act upon a short pressure drop
(as could happen,
for instance, r*hen a gear is changed).
4. I'IH8RE USED :
P"wer shift transmissions of scme early machines
TR0U BLESH00TII'lG
IIALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE
Selector lever
any gear
cannot be moved into
Se]ec tor lever is
neutral r^rhen the
Ilot returned to
englne is stoppcd
Selector lever
jumps to lower
gear on deeelerating the engine
A. Linkage obstructed mechanically
B. Transmission pump defect
C. Spring broken in modulating
relief valve
D
E
Piston and cylinder seized
Passage for oil supply to
protective device blocked
Leaking protectice device
A. Tlght Iinkrge or spool valve
B, Piston arrd cylinder r:f
protective devicc seized
C. Spring broken
A. Transmission pump has low
output
B. Suction screen blocked
C. Aeration irt suction line
37
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38
MECHANICAL PROTECTIUE DEUICE WITH SPOOL VALVE
1. PURPOSE:
ffiT6'e oil pressure is low in the system, it prevents oil flow to
the dlrect.ional clutches.
2. COI.ISTRUCTION:
ATCpG tnechanical protective device with spool valve
3. OPERATION
i,ihen there is no oil pressure, the piston is extended, making it
inpossible for the speed selector to be placed in any gear which
also means tlrat the passage (A) to (B) will be closed.
llhen the devi-ce is charged, it cnmpresses the spring whieh now gets
shorter, so that a speed may be selected if desired.
Should the engi-ne be stopped with the selector lever in any gear'
or the oll pressure be lost for any reason, the device pushes tire
spool valve to the left to Neutral position, which interrupts the
passage (A) to
(B).
A check valve in the piston allows quick charging during pressure
lncreases, but the oil in the cylinder can only leak out at a
controlled rate when the sensing pressure is lower. Therefore, the
control does not act upon a short pressure drop (as eould happen, for
instance, when a gear is changed).
4. I'IHERE USED :
Polrd-shift transmissions of some early rnachines
39
TROUBLESHOOTING
ITALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE
Selector lever cannot be moved into
any gear
Selector ls not returned to
Neutral when the engine is
stopped
Sel-ector lever
juurps
to lower
gear on decelerating the engine
A. Linkage obstructed mechanically
B. Transmission pump defect
C. Spring broken in modulatlng
reli-ef valve
D. Plstorr arrcl eyllnder seized
E. Passage for oll supply to
protective device blocked
F. Leaki"ng protective device
A. Tight linkage or spool valve
B. Piston and cylinder of protective
device seized
C. Spring broken
A. Transmission pump has low output
B. Suction screen blocked
C. Aeration i-n suction line
40
NOTES
41
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42
l.
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5.
HYORAULIC PNOTECTIVE VALUE
OOMBINEO WITH NEUTRALIZER FUNCTII)N
PURPOS[:
A. To prevent the rnachine from rnoving when the engine is started vith the
selector lever in a gear position
B. To neutralize the transmission when tire left brake pedal is depressed,
in conjunction with the neutralizer valve
CONSTRUCTIOI{:
Spo6T ;ive*with various lands; in reset position, held by a spring
to close the passage to the directional clut.ches
OPERATIOII:
A.
't^Jh""
the machine is started r*ith the selector lever not in lleutral
,
oil witl not be able t.o get from passage (A) to (B) which eventually
leads to the directional clut.ches.
Placing the selector lever in Neutral provides pressure frotn passage
(C) which can reach cavity (E) through the orifice
(l). In reaction'
the valve 1s puehed to the left, opening the passage (A) to
(B). If
now the selector lever i-s moved to }.'orward or Reverse, the increasirrg
pressure at
(A)
can open the valve completely and we have pressure at
(B) and pressure in a directionaL clutch.
There is a connection from the neutralizer valve to passage (D). In
nornal operation, the valve closes tl'ris passage, but if the Left
brake pedal is applied,
(D) is connected to drain' Because more oil
can drain out than gets int{) cavity (E)
,
the valve rnoves to the ::iglrt
separating passages (A) and (B) but not so far that the orifices
(2)
are covered by the land, This interrupts the po\rer flora tltrough tire
transrnission. l.lhen the neutraLieer valve i.s released
'
passage (D)
will t:e blockeii and the oil that enters the hole's (2) shifts tlre
valve open again.
WIIERE USED:
ffie?=Ei?t transrnission hydraulic controls; for instance, 980
0n scraper transrnissions, s similar type of valve is used, but
without the neutraLtzer function.
B.
4.
ReviseiJ 2184
43
TROUBLESHOOTING
IIALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE
llachine rnoves when
with the seleetor
position
the engine is started
lever in a gear
Ilachine does not
selector is moved
Reverse
move when the
to Forward or
A. Direction clutch, binding
B. Spool valve rnisadjusted
C. Combination valve sticking
that holes (2)
communicat,e
with (A)
D. Spring of protective valve
broken
A. Linkage probleru
B. Wrong spool valve adjustment
C. Leak in the directional clutch
or in the llne to it
D. Protective valve sticking
E. Neutralizer valve sticking
l'. llodulating relief valve spring
broken
C. llodulating relief valve stuck
open
I
J
Load piston of modulat.ing
relief valve stuck in the
reset position
Transmission pump failure
Torque converter failure
44
HOTES
45
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46
1.
from moving wiren the engine is started rsith
gear
lirrough the transmission when oil pressure
)
J.
HYDRAULIC PROTECTIVE VALVE
COMBINED WITH SE(IUENCE VALVE
PURPOSE:
A. To prevent the machine
the selector lever in a
B. To interrupt power flow
is lost
CONSTRUC?1OII:
TroE;ing-loaded spool valves. In reset posit.ion, the sequence valve
closes the passage to the pressure control group and clutches.
OPER!{TION:
E. tlhen the engine is stqrte
,
the reset.
ure to enter at
TA),
The protective valve rernains at reset position and the oil coming in
at
{B)
goes to drain at the protective valve. There is not enough
force createcl in the slug cav
j.ty
(
1) to inove the sequence valve to
the 1eft.
lJhen the selector lever is moved to lieutral, the reset valve, which is
i-zed oil to enter parisage
(A), This moves the protective valve to tlie left and closes the drain
port.
Tiie oil entering passage (ll) builds up pressure and the reactitrn in si"ug
cavity
( 1) moves the sequence v;rlve to tlie lef t.
The oil now has tire prissage open and oil can f lor+ from
{B)
to (C).
If the enginr: is stopped or if the oil pressure drops below a safe
level, tire protective valve spring iorces tire valve spool over to
tire right, relievlng tire pressure in tire slug cavity
(l) to drain.
The seqirence valve is then forced to tlle right by its spring and
separates the passaCe (B)
to (C).
lihen the engine is stiirted or tire
l)ressurc
reBititred, the selector
Iever must be moved to l{eutral position first in order te reset
the protective v;:lve and open tire passaSe
{B)
to
(C)
by tite sequence
valve.
$ltERH Utiiio:
Power -irilt transntlss
j-r:n
trycl rar;llc corlf,rol:j ( for instartce, 9uS,
t)92,
8?_4, Bl4)
4.
47
TROUBLESHOOTING
PROBA.BLE CAUSE
IIALFUNCTION
A. ilirectional clutch binding
B. Reset valve mlsadjusted
C. Protective valve seized at the Left
positiorr
D. Protective valve sPring broken
E. Sequence valve stuek oPen
F. Sequence valve sPring broken
A. Reset valve misadjusted
B. Spool valves misadjusted
C. Leak in the directional
clutch
or line to it
D. Clutch fai-lure
E. Protective valve sticking in reset
position
F. Sequence valve sticking in reset
posit.ion
C. Passage to slug cavity
(l) blocked
H. llodulating relief valve spring
broken
I. l{odulating relief valve stuck open
J. Load piston of modulating relief
valve stuck in reset
Position
K. NeutraLizer val-ve stuck in'
applied position
L. Transrnission
PumP
failure
11. Torque converter failure
ilachine moves
started
with
in gear
when the englne is
the selector lever
Itaehine does not move \.rhen the
selector lever is moved to Forward
or Reverse fr<rm Neutral
48
NOTES
49
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50
1.
COMBINATION VALVE
PURPOSE:
al-Eotective valve
B. Differential valve
C. Flow control valve
D. Check valve
CONSTRUCTIOI'I:
Vafi;;ith *etering orifices loaded by two springs of which only
one is in contact in reset position. Passagas to or from the
modulating relief valve, the directional spool valve, the load
piston of the directional spool valve, directional clutches and
drains.
OPflRATION:
A. Prtt.ctive Valve
ffiiSStartedwiththetransmissionseIectorlever
to the selector lever position, will
erter passage
(B) where it can pass through the holes
(2).
I{aving equal pressure on both sides of the spool' the spring
will keep it in the reset position and passage (C) cannot receive
oil. The machine cantt move.
llovj-ns, the selector lever to Neutral connects passage
(B) to drain
the selector valve gio"p. Oil entering
Passage
(A) now moves the
valve until 1t relieves into passage (B). The load piston of the
modulating relief valve is connected to drain via
(C) or
(F) depending
upon the application. This establishes the primary pressure in
Neutral.
B. Differential Valve
ffier is taken out of the Neutral position'
passage (B) is again connected to pump flow and system pressure.
This same pressure enters passage (A). llora the valve can move
tu the right to sequence the clutch engagement. The difference
between tire speed and directional clutch pressures is controlled
by the eombined force of the two springs.
C. Flow Control Valve
ffiir
to pass through into
ices
(l) allows only a speeific arnount of oil
the directional clutches during filling'
2.
3.
D. Check Valve
P"ss"ge CT
This allows
relief valve
is blocked when the valve works, as explained
pressure buildup behind the load piston of tile
In Neutral position of the spool valve, and
tlhen gears are
passage (3) is connected to drain (C) or
(F) (depending on
application) which quickly lowers the system pressure.
L.iI{EITE USED:
So-" p"r"t sirift transmission controls
(for instance'
966C, 950, D4D, 94L, 9518)
under B.
modulating
changed,
the
L2 14 llotor Graders,
4.
llo oil can pass through orlfj-ees
(1) in the Neutral position.
NOTE:
51
TROUBLESHOOTING
I{ALFIJNCIION POSSIBLE CAUSE
l{achine moves
with selector
when engine is started
lever in a gear position
Machlne does noE move
is moved lo fonrard or
Neutral to a speed
when the selector
revelse or from
Rough shifting
A
B
C
D
Li,nkage problem
Wrong spool valve adjustment
Directional clutch binding
Combination valve stuck in a
position so that holes (2) are
open to passage (C)
Linkage problem
Wrong spool valve adjustrnent
Leak in the directional cLutch
or the passage to it
Cornbination valve stuck in
reset position
Itodulating relief valve spring
broken
llodulating relief valve stuck
open
Load piston of modulating
relief valve stuck in reset
position
Transmission pump failure
Binding cluteh plates
Combination valve sticking
A
B
C
D
E
_r
G
H
A
B
52
NOTES
53
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o-
PROTEGTIVE RESET VALVE
1. PURPOSE:
G-pr"".nt the machine from moving when the engine is started with
the selector lever in a gear
2. CONSTRUCTION:
Normal spo"1 valvel meehanically connected to the speed control spool
valve
3. OPERATION:
ffiETeutral
positJ-on can pump oil enter the passage to the protective
valve spool to reset it.
4. \FItl[RE US ED:
Po"d;hlTt transmission hydraulic controls (for instance, 988,
gg2, g|q,
834)
TROUBLESHOOTIHG
NOTE:
!'or further troubleshooting hintsi see Protective Valve combined r^ritir
Sequence Valve
(page
47).
MALFUNCTION PROBASLE CAUSE
llachine moves when the engine is
started with the selector in a
gear position
llachine does not move when the
selector lever is moved to
Forward or Reverse out of Neutral
A. Protectlve reset valve
misadj ust ed
A. Protective reset valve
misadj us ted
L.
55
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56
IIIEUTRAIIZEil VALVE
I. PURPOSE:
ffiI*otf the oil flor.i to the directional clutches in a power shift
transmission when the left brake pedal is depressed
2. CONSTRUCTION:
Cpoof A1'v-e is held by spri-ag force in such a position that the oil
golng to the clutches has a direct passage through to the directional
clutches.
.
3. OPEMTIoN;
G-G reset position, the oil can pass straight thro$gh to the directional
clutches. When the left brake is appl-ied, oi!- or air pressure shifts the
valve over and, in so doing, blocks the passage to the directional clutches
and opens the cluteh to drain. This will interrupt the power flow through
the transnission.
4. WHSRE USED:
Por{d;fri3t transmissions of wtreel loaders
TRBUBLESHOOTIHG
MALFUNCTION POSSISLE CAUSE
Transmission does not neutralize
Transmission does not transmit
Power
Leak i-n oj-l or air line of
brake systectr
Neutralizer valve sticking
Mechanical fallure ia
transmission
Torque eonverter fallure
llodulating relief valve
sticking
Neutralizer valve sticking
applied posit,ion
Broken neutralizer valve
spring
B
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58
HYBRAULIC SHIFT GOVERNOR
I. PURPOSE:
Iffiaing upon transmj-ssion output shaft rpm, variable pressures are
created
--
working against the reference pressures.
2. COI{STRUCTION:
R"t"ti"gT;sing with 3 reducing val-ve spools of different weights.
Two of the valve spools contain slugs which are different in size.
3. OPERATION:
Basicalit, each of the 3 reducing valve spools represents a normal
reducing valve. Since the whole governor rotates, the reducing valve
spools are subject to centrlfugal force" The centrifugal force replaces
the spring action in a normal reducing valve because it is trying to
open the incoming pressure to the outlet side.
The outlet pressure, as in a normal reducing valve, is acting to close
off the inlet.
yhen
it has reached a certai_n value.
Due to the design of the reducing valve spools, there are various outlet
Pressures
produced at. any given speed, The pressures are not adjustable.
These pressures work against a fixed reference pressure in the selector
valve spool group (not
shown).
4. WHERE USED:
uya;;m;controls of semiautomatic scraper transmissions
TR()UBLESHOOTING
I{ALFUNCTION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Transmission does not automatically
shift up at all or stops shifting up
at 4th or 6th speed
Transmission selects 4th, 5th or Bth
speed as soon as the shift lever is
placed lnto the second gear
A. One of the three reducing valve
spools is stuck, closing off the
incoming pressure
A. One of the 3 reducing valve
spools is stuck in a position
so that the incorni"ng pressure
goes directly to the outlet
side
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PRIORITY VALVE
I. PURPOSE;
To mak. sure that o!1 ls supplied to a particular circuit before it is
pennitted to flor^T to a second circuit
2. CONSTRUCTION:
Th" *"st b""ic priority valve group has one inlet and two outlet.
passages. There are several varlalions of this design, but the results
of valve operation are the same for all types.
3. 0.P9MTrON:
Supply oil enters the inlet passage and flows to the prJmary circuit.
At the same time, the oil opens the poppet valve and fills the slug
chamber. lJhen the pressure of the oil in the prlrnary circuit and in
the slug chamber increases to a specific value, the spool moves against
the spring force and permits oil to flow to the secondary circuit. A
pressure desrease (during a shift for example) will cause the valve to
close and block flow to the secondary circuit,
4. WHERE USED:
Tra"smis.sion hydraulic controls
--
L Series Tractors, 8-speed
semiautomatic transmissions, and 7-speed automatic transmisslons
5. WHY USED:
alEeries Tractor transmissions
--
to make sure that oil is available
for operation of the steering clutches and brakes before any
transmission clutches are engaged
B, B-speed semiautomatic and 7*speed automatic transmissions
--
to
make sure that oil is ;:vailable for operation of the automatic
eomponents (autornatic pressure control group, hydraulic governor,
and automatic sel-ector group) before any transmission clutches
are engaged
TROUB LESHOOTING
]IALFUNCTION POSSIILE Ci\USE CORI{.ECTION
Trarrsmission c-Lutches
do not engage
Transmission clutches
slip during eilgageulent
Brakes release
slowly or not at
all (L Series)
A. Valve stuck closed
1l , Opening pressure lr->o
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A, Valve stuck opcn
B'. Openirrg pressure too
low
A. l{estriction or blockage
in primary circuit
Free valve in bore
Adjust pressure
setting (remove
shims)
ur replace s1:rlrrg
l'rue v;r'l ve in l:ore
At-l;ust pressure
st: [, t ing (.rdd shirns)
or repLace spring
Detennine cause of
restricti()rl
()r
blockage and remove
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ROTARY SELEGTOR SPOOL
I . PI]RPOSE:
Direct" the flow of pilot oil to inltiate clutch engagement; provides
drain ports to initj-ate clutch decay and prevent clut.ch engagement
2. CONSTRUCTION:
ffi rotary selector spool
j-s
basically a rotating shaft. lrith a hollow
center. A plug and screen assembly divides the cent.er cavity into two
separate charnbers. A detent cam is lnstalled in one end of the spool.
3. OPEMTIOI'I:
The ce"ter chamber which houses the screen is normally filled with
pilot oil. The chamber which does not contain the screen is always
open to drain. i'lhen the spool is rotated to a gear position, pilot
oi1 from the outlet ports is directed to a pressure control valve group
to inj-t.iate engagement of the appropriate clutches.. At the same tirne,
the drain ports cause the clutches which uere engaged in the preceding
gear range to decay. The detent cam helps to locate each gear position
of the spool.
4 . I.]HERE US ED;
ffi-peed semiaut.ornatic transmissions with individial clutch
modulation (ICl{)
TROUBLESHOOTING
I1ALFUNCTlON POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTION
Transmission reroains
in a particular gear
Transmisslon clutches
do not engage
llore than two clutches
try to engage
A. Spool stuck in one
position
Screen in pilot
chamber plugged
Pilot chamber outlet
ports plugged
One or more drain
ports plugged
Free valve in bore
Disassemble valve group
and clean screen
Disassemble valve group
and clean ports
Disassemble valve group
and clean ports
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MODULATINO REDUCING VALVE
(sH0wN rN vALvE sTATl0N)
PURPOSE:
ffitrofs the pressure rise, maximum pressure, and rate of decay for
a specific transmission clutch
CONSTRUCTION:
The;A;T?irng reducing valve consists of a spool
,
a ball check valve,
a slug, a load pistont two load plston springs, and a load piston orifice.
In the application shown, the modulatlng reducing valve is part of a
"valve
station.tr The additional components in a va,l-ve station include: an outer
cover, a select.or piston, and a decay orifice. Some modulating reducing
valves are equipped as shown with a pin in the center of the load piston
springs; other valve groups do not have the pin.
OPERATION:
mer start-rp, supply oil is always avall-able at the reducj-ng valve
spool. Valve movement and clutch engagement cannot begin, however,
until p1lot oi1 frorn the rotary selector spool moves the selector
piston to the left. llovement of the selector piston accomplishes tvo
purposes: (l) the drain passage at the decay orifi.ce is blocked, and
(2)
the load piston springs are eompressed.
Compressing the load pi-ston spr ings rnoves the reducing valve spoo-l to
the left against the force of the
j-nner
spring. This opens the supply
passage (fron the pump) and permits pressure oil to flow to the clutch.
As the clutcir fil1s, pressure oil opens the ball check valve and fills
the slug cnanber at the left end of the reducing valve spool. At the
sane
*.ine,
oil flows through the load piston orj.fice and fills the chamber
betneen ihe end of tire load pi-ston and the selector piston. The load
piston oriflce provides a pressure drop and time delay in the flow of oil
to tlte ioad pistc-rn chamber. This helps control the rate of modulatlon.
l'ril-i-ng the Load piston chamber is made possible wiren tire selector piston
coL'ers tire irain p;rssagc at ti-re decay orifice.
Tite ciuicir pressure ancl the pri-.ssurc in the slug chanber increase at the
s.r::re rrrte. Just atter t.he clutch
j-s
filled, the pressure irr the sLug
cita:.',:er ::ioves tlre rerlucing v;ilve spr:rol to the right. This novernent restricts
t:re.i.-;; of
1.lressurt',
qil
to ti-re clutch and briefly limits the irrcrease of
cLutc:: pressure. The pressure in the load piston ch;lrnber tllell moves tite
Loau.;l-ston iurtirer to thrr 1eft. This increases tl're spring force and reopens
tlte suppil' passage perntit ling tlre clrrLt:[r pres;r;ur(: to agai"n incrcase. Iliis
c_!,cle continuesi until thc load piston iras rnoved courpleteLy lo Llre l.eIt-
( aga in:; I tire stop) , Thc cltrtch pressllre is then at its nsxiululn se t titlg.
Drrrir: :rodulatlon, t1:e retluciug valve spooL riloves lcl L ;tnd riiltrt wht.tc thrr
Ioatt pi-sLort rnLlves srntlotlrly tr; tittt Lcft,
,\s Liie
-
irrtt:ir prcssrlrr.l incrcases to naxinunt, the operation of valve $fatiolrs
titat are equipped with;1. pin in the center of their load piston springs is
sli.;;iLi_r il i l ii:rent th;rn thc opr:r.ation of statiorrs that do rrot have p,irts. lleirr
the enci oi the modtrlation cyclc, the pin corrtacts the reducirrg valve spool
,
noves tire spool completely to the lef t, and opens the clutch passage tr.r
supply oi-l. At this point, modulation ends and the clutch pressure
65
->
4.
immediately increases to the maximurn, During the time that the clutch is
engaged, the reduclng valve spool remains conpletely to the left
(as
shown) and the clutch
pressure ls equal to the system
Pressure.
Valve stations.that do not have pins in the cent.er of thelr load piston
spri-ngs control" clutch pressure settings that are lower than the system
pressure. At 1he end of the modulation cycle, the pressure in the slug
chamber moves the reducing valve spool a small distance to the right to
restrict the flolt of supply oll to the clutch. This is the
"metering
positiontt of the redueing valve spool. In this positicn, the valve
naintairrs precise eontrol of the clutch
Pressure.
During a shtft, the pressure of a clutch being dlsengaged does rrot
imrnecliatety drOp to uero, Instead, ttre clutch pressure decreases at
a controlled rate, Clutch release
(decay) is lnitlated when the pilot
oil chamber at the rl-ght end of the selector piston is draincd' This
permlts t.tre selector piston and the load pJ-ston to move to ttre right'
CLutch pressure starts to decrease, but cannot drop to zeto until the
ehamber between the load piston and the selector piston is drained'
The only way that oil can flow out of thls chamber is through the deeay
orifice wtrich waa uncovered when the selector piston moved to the right.
As the load piston springs force the oll frorn the load piston chamber,
the clutch pressure gradually decreases. lJhen the load piston has
moved conpletely to the rtght, the clutch
Pressufe
is zero.
WHERE USED:
An
,g'E!-_ed semiautquatic transmissions with individual clutch modulation
(rGr)
66
TROUELESHOOTING
}IAI,FUNCTION
POSSI3LN CAUSE CORRECTION
Clutch slips during
engagement
One or more clutehes
do not engage
Transmlsslon shifts
harshly
Lortr clutch pressure
setting
Partially restricted
load piston orifice
Pl1ot ptessure low or
at zero
Restricted load piston
orifice
Reduclng valve spool
stuck closed
Selector piston stuck
in bore
Load piston stuck in
selector plston
tligh clutch pressure
settLng
Reducing valve spool
stuck open
A$just pressure setting
(add shinrs) or replace
spr ings
Clean or replace load
piston orifice
Chbck operation 0f
priority reducing valve
and neutralLzer valve;
Check for partial
restrictlon of pi.lot oil
supply port and passage
Clean or replace load
piston orifice
Free spool in valve body
Free selector piston
outer cover
Free load piston
Adjust pressur€ setting
(remove shins) or
replace springs
Free spool in valve body
87
NOTES
68
fATERPILIAR'
SEBVO526
November,
'19€i{l