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Running Head: INDUCTION PLAN 1

New Teacher Induction Plan


Amy Jager, Andrea Steaban, and Kristin Weber
Oakland University
EA 754



INDUCTION PLAN 2
Introduction


Entering your first year of teaching is a daunting task and most new teachers have no idea
what to expect. Gilbert (2005) concluded that the pressures new teachers face could be
alleviated if they receive a comprehensive plan that includes: a variety of opportunities to work
with more experienced teachers including peer observations, having a veteran teacher as a
mentor, and reducing the amount of paperwork and non-instructional meetings. Many studies
have shown that new teachers are overwhelmed, frustrated, and underpaid. Approximately one-
fourth of new teachers leave the profession within four years (Hoerr, 2005). The hopes of this
induction plan are to keep new teachers in the profession and to help them refine their skills to
improve student success.
This plan includes a detailed plan for the first year of teaching. Topics cover a wide
variety of issues many new teachers face. Meetings will be held frequently throughout the year
and are designed to allow new teachers time to ask questions and voice concerns in a safe
environment. All meetings will start with a light snack and discussion on whats going well for
them and what they may have some challenges with and will conclude with some form of
feedback. The plan also includes a set of goals for this cohort of teachers to accomplish over
years two, three, and four. Lastly, the plan addresses all Learning Forward Standards for staff
development.
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New Teacher Induction Plan: Year One
Month: August

Topic: New staff orientation

Rationale: New teachers rarely get what they need to start off their first school year before the
school year starts. Often teacher-induction programs are theory-driven seminars on
pedagogy. While this may be helpful later on during the first year of a new teachers career,
what they need to begin their first year is an introduction to the place in which they will be
working, as well as an introduction to the mentor they will be working with to help them through
the first few years of their career. Studies suggest that new teachers are more likely to continue
teaching in their schools of origin when they receive mentoring from teachers in their subject
areas (Wayne, Youngs, & Fleischman, 2005, p.76).

Who Will Present: Building principal and teacher leaders

Goals: The goal of this session is for new teachers to understand what the school is about, what
its beliefs are, and how the school operates on a day-to-day basis.

Description: This orientation will last a full day and will take place before the rest of the staff
reports back to work in August. The first activity this group of new teachers will go through is
one that will orient them into the building culture. Teacher leaders will create a word wall that
captures different aspects of the building culture and tape them onto the wall. The new teachers
will look at these words or phrases and work together to try and draw meaning from those words
and phrases. Once they have gone through this part of the activity, the teacher leaders will give a
short presentation about what the mission, vision, values and goals are for this school.
The second activity that the new teachers will do is to visit their classrooms and other
classrooms of their departments to get a feel for how to set up their own classrooms. Teacher
leaders will talk about what classroom set-ups have worked for them and also what classroom
set-ups havent worked for them and why.
The third activity that the new teachers will do is to go on a tour of the building. A
secondary building can be quite overwhelming for new staff, so the principals and teacher
leaders will take care to point out important things like where the copiers are, where the teacher
workroom/lunchroom is located, and introducing them to the front office, attendance, and
counseling secretaries, as well as the building custodians.
The fourth activity will be a meet and greet activity with different leaders in the
building. This will include the building principals, media specialist, counselors, hall monitors,
union reps, and department heads. This will give the new teachers a chance to introduce
themselves and to understand who to go to for what problem.
The last activity the new teachers will go through will be to introduce them to their
veteran teacher mentor. This mentor relationship will be established by pairing the new teachers
with a veteran teacher in their subject area who understands the expectations that the district has
for this relationship. These expectations include allowing the new teacher to observe the
mentors classroom and also having the mentor observe the new teachers classroom, and
focusing the mentor relationship on improving the new teachers instructional skills in the
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classroom (Wayne, Youngs, and Fleischman, 2005). Once the new teachers and mentor have
been introduced, the mentor will show the new teacher how to set up things like the online grade
book and online attendance systems. This will allow the new teacher to feel ready for the first
few days of school.


Month: September

Topic: Introduction to the teacher evaluation system

Rationale: In 2011, the State of Michigan Legislature passed a new set of teacher evaluation
laws that changed the way teacher evaluation is done in the state of Michigan. Therefore, it is
essential that all teachers, new and veteran, become familiar with the requirements of these new
laws. This component of the teacher induction program will be based off of Farmington Public
Schools Teacher Growth and Evaluation System. This program requires each teacher to set both
a professional growth goal and a student growth goal as part of their yearly review process. The
professional growth goal must be based in sound pedagogical practices, and aligned with the
district initiatives that are currently being implemented. The student growth goal must be based
off of assessments that are given by the state, district and classroom teacher.

Who Will Present: Building principals, mentor teachers

Goals: The goal of this session is for new teachers to write their professional growth goal, and
begin the construction of their student growth goal (this would be due by October 1
st
, per the
evaluation guidelines set by the district).

Description: New teachers will select their professional growth goal that is aligned with the
teacher induction program. New teachers will also work with their mentors to develop a student
growth goal that is based off of assessments already in place (state and common district
assessments) and those assessments that could be developed by the classroom teacher during the
year. This process would also include a presentation by the mentor teachers on different ways to
collect the data needed to show growth on a student and professional growth goal.


Month: October

Topic: Parent communication

Rationale: Communication with parents seems like common sense; however, over the years the
relationship between teachers and parents has become very complex. Our society has separated
the roles of parents and teachers and as a result a lack of understanding, trust, and respect has
formed between parents and teachers. When a child falls behind, instead of working together to
help the child, blame is placed on parents or teachers (Comer & Haynes, 1997). Instead, parents
and teachers need to work together to help build a relationship that fosters student
success. Parent communication occurs in a variety of ways and is an important piece to the
relationship puzzle because it helps ensure the needs of each individual child is met.
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Who Will Present: Teacher leaders within the building

Goals: After this meeting, new teachers will have a clear understanding why communication
with parents is important, how to effectively communicate with parents, and when
communication is needed.

Description/Activities: The session will begin with a video clip titled Parent Teacher
Conference (2008). At the conclusion of the video, a whole group discussion will occur between
the new teachers and teacher leader facilitators. The goal of this conversation is to discuss the
importance of parent communication, obstacles teachers face when communicating with parents,
and suggestions for how to deal with these challenges. After the discussion, new teachers will be
asked to find a partner and role-play a parent-teacher conference. One member will be a difficult
parent (portraying any of the mentioned obstacles) and the other member will be the teacher
(using suggestions mentioned in the discussion). After five minutes, roles will be reversed.
The second activity will allow new teachers the opportunity to brainstorm effective ways
to communicate with parents. Individually, new teachers will begin to brainstorm different
methods of communication by creating a list. After about three minutes, new teachers will create
small groups and share their lists in a round robin fashion and then small groups will share with
the whole group to help create a master list. Once a master list is created, groups will be asked to
organize their list into categories based on different types of communication.
The session will conclude by having teachers create a parent communication plan. New
teachers should begin to think about what strategies they would like to implement in their
classroom, why they would use those strategies, and how often communication would be
implemented. It is also important for new teachers to have a plan outlining how they will
communicate with parents when a student is struggling/advancing academically, behaviorally, or
socially.


Month: November

Topic: Building classroom culture/classroom management

Rationale: Establishing a classroom culture is a very important task for all teachers. Often times
new teachers are so overwhelmed with the day-to-day demands of teaching that they forget the
importance of building relationships, developing procedures/routines, and having high
expectations of students. A well-managed classroom ensures the success of students.

Who Will Present: Teacher leaders within the building

Goals: The goals of this session will be to help teachers understand the crucial components of
an engaging, well-managed classroom.

Description:
The session will begin with teachers sharing stories of their favorite class; specifically,
how did the class look and feel, what types of procedures were in place, and characteristics of the
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teacher. New teachers will be asked to find common themes amongst all the stories
provided. After a discussion, the Rita Pierson: Every Kid Needs a Champion (2013) video will
be played. Teachers will be asked to share how the concept of relationships is crucial for
classroom culture. Next, teacher leaders will share personal stories of managing a
classroom. Time will be spent answering new teacher questions and concerns. Lastly, new
teachers will jigsaw a staff development guided titled Ten Strategies for Creating a Classroom
Culture of High Expectations developed by Myra Cloer Reynolds of Southern Regional
Education Board (SREB). After, a whole group discussion on how these strategies can be
implemented in their classrooms will conclude this session.


Month: December/January

Topic: Ending the semester

Rationale: The end of the semester is always an overwhelming time for teachers and
students. In addition to administering exams and calculating semester grades, teachers must
begin planning for second semester and a possible new group of students.

Who Will Present: Teacher leaders within the building

Goals: After this meeting, new teachers will have a deeper understanding about the procedures
needed to close out first semester and begin second semester. The session will also provide time
for personal reflection.

Description: The first part of the session will focus on reflection and planning for second
semester. It will begin with ten minutes for personal reflection. New teachers will journal about
things that went smoothly, difficulties they faced, and questions they may have regarding first
semester. After personal reflection, teacher leaders will spend some time answering questions
that arose during first semester. Teacher leaders will also provide strategies for time
management during a busy two months of ending first semester and beginning second
semester. The second part of the session will focus on the procedures for ending first
semester. Teacher leaders will discuss how to administer exams, calculate semester grades, and
submit final grades. The meeting will end with a celebration of completing the first semester of
teaching by sharing some desserts and congratulations.


Month: February

Topic: Student support services

Rationale: During their undergraduate studies, most teachers complete a course where they are
taught the specifics about IEP 504 Plans and the various legal requirements that go along with
them. However, as Gilbert (2005) states in her article assumptions [are] made that need
reexaminingsuch as believing that school organizational procedures [are] clear to new
teachers. The layout of student support services within a building and the guidelines for
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working with students who receive these services can be confusing and overwhelming for new
teachers adding to the stress and confusion of an already exhausting year.

Who Will Present: Members of the Student Study Team including building counselors, social
worker, psychologist, academic interventionist, speech pathologist, and special education
teachers

Goals: Teachers will review the basics of IEP 504 Plans and other Behavior Plans. They will
learn what services are available to students with special needs as well as what the protocol is for
referring a student to these services. Lastly, teachers will learn strategies for helping students
with these types of needs be successful in their classroom.

Description: This half-day session starts with a review of the RTI plan for the building including
all tier one and two interventions in place. New teachers will then begin with an activity that
compares and contrasts IEP, 504, and other behavior plans. They will then do a meet and greet
with the various members of the Student Study Team who will present using a carousel format.
This will allow new teachers to have time to individually meet each member and have a chance
to chat about their specialized roles within the building. Next, special education teacher leaders
will lead new teachers in an activity to familiarize them in the process for referring a student to
any of the services available and what will happen at the various meetings thereafter. The last
part of the session will focus on strategies, options and interventions for helping students with
different plans have success in the classroom. Teachers will have options about how to spend
their time based on the students they currently have.



Month: March

Topic: Instructional Strategies

Rationale: New teachers come out of college with a plethora of ideas for how to instruct
students, but with little practical experience on what it actually looks like in the classroom. In
this session the new teachers will be taking a look at two research-based instructional strategies
that will help them plan lessons and units around the content standards for their courses and track
students progress toward the mastery of those standards. Using Marzanos Art and Science of
Teaching, the new teachers will learn about how to identify a clear learning goal and target, as
well as how to track student progress toward those goals. These two strategies were chosen
because they have the largest effect-size in Marzanos meta-analysis (Marzano, 2007). Not only
will new teachers learn about these strategies, but also how to apply them to their classrooms.

Who Will Present: Instructional coaches or teacher leaders trained in this methodology

Goals: The goals of this session are for new teachers to learn about creating a clear learning goal
and targets associated with that goal, as well as how to track student progress toward the mastery
of that goal.

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Description: Instructional coaches or teacher leaders trained in the Marzano protocols will first
go through the tenets of the elements on setting clear learning goals and objectives, as well as
tracking student progress. The new teachers will be able to view the observation protocols
associated with these two elements of Marzanos Observation and Evaluation protocols. Then
the instructional coaches or teacher leaders will go through some practical examples of how
these elements can be incorporated into a classroom, no matter what the content is being
taught. After this presentation, the new teachers will work with their mentors and PLC to
develop lesson plans that will incorporate these two elements into their daily practice. Mentor
teachers will observe the new teachers, and new teachers will observe the mentor teachers at
least once during this month with a focus on those two elements of teaching practice. Feedback
will be given to the new teacher on the strengths/areas for growth observed during the
lesson. Then the new teacher will work on improving those two elements with a future
observation cycle scheduled.


Month: April

Topic: Stress reduction

Rationale: With the wide range of professional supports available to new teachers, still often
overlooked is the area of reducing stress. Hoerr (2005) states we tend to consider teachers
challenges as confined within the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.the time during which
teachers interact with students and colleagues...New teachers must also confront the changes that
teaching brings about in the rest of their lives. A teachers ability to reduce stress as well as
address and resolve personal challenges goes a long way toward determining happiness and
professional success.

Who Will Present: Teacher leaders

Goals: Teachers will learn a variety of strategies to reduce stress that comes from various
aspects of teaching.

Description: This after school workshop will begin with new teachers entering into a tranquil
meeting room with relaxing sound-scapes playing, soft lighting and light refreshments. Teacher
leaders will introduce Mindfulness and lead new teachers in a short meditation to clear their
minds. Teachers will then do a jigsaw activity with several articles about stress
reduction. Articles include Twelve Ways to Beat New School Year Stress (Adams, 2009), Taking
Measure of Mind (Boyce, 2012), The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress (Brown & Nagel, L.,
2003), and Dancing in the Rain (Murphy, 2011). Next, new teachers will take time to reflect on
the types of activities that they would like to reserve time in their schedules for and how to
creatively plan to keep that time sacred. Teacher leaders will lead the new teachers through
another meditation to end the session. Before leaving, each new teacher will exchange contact
information with another new teacher and commit to checking in once a week to remind each
other to take time for oneself.


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Month: May

Topic: Closing out the year and reflection

Rationale: The end of the school year is extremely busy and is full of procedures and
paperwork. During an already stressful time, new teachers need direct guidance from teacher
leaders on how to handle end of the year items. In addition, teacher leaders and new teachers can
engage in conversations and, by doing so, can review common patterns of experienceand
bring expectations into alignment with the actual experience of teaching (McCann, Johanessen,
& Ricca, 2005). This will allow new teachers to better reflect on their first year.

Who Will Present: Teacher leaders

Goals: New teachers will learn end-of-year procedures for administering final exams, entering
grades, closing down classrooms, and any paperwork that needs to be completed. New teachers
will reflect on their first year of teaching and identify possible goals for next year.

Description: The first activity for this after school session will be a timeline activity where new
teachers think back to each month of the school year come up with one word to describe their
recollection of that month. They will write that word on that months chart paper. This activity
will provide the basis for group discussion (and most likely some laughter and reminiscing) that
will lead into individual reflection. New teachers will then write down three stars (things they
did well in their first year) and three wishes (things they would like to do better next year) which
will be collected and given back to them at the following years opening meeting. Next, teacher
leaders will share information about end of the year procedures including their own tips for
getting everything done. New teachers will get a blank calendar for the last three weeks of
school to jot notes about when they should start completing items. They will also get copies of
any paperwork that needs to be completed and have the opportunity to fill some of it out at that
time. The session will end with an invitation for all to meet for optional dinner at a local
establishment to celebrate survival of the first year!


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Part II

Year 2 Topic: Collaboration

Rationale: Many schools use a professional learning community model (PLCs) to collaborate
with colleagues to help improve success of students. Successful collaboration does not occur
overnight; therefore, the purpose of year two will be to provide skills that are necessary to
improve collaboration among colleagues.

Approach: After year one, teachers should be comfortable with the day-to-day aspects of the
building. Year two of this plan will dig deeper into collaboration and why it is important for
improving student achievement. Year two will run similar to year one, with monthly after school
meetings. Each meeting will begin with a light snack and will allow time for teachers to share
positive and negative classroom stories as well as seek help and advice for specific
situations. The meetings will then continue working towards the collaboration goals.

Goals: The goals of year two will focus on developing skills needed to effectively collaborate
with team members and how to create and maintain effective PLC teams.

Topics:
The True Colors inventory (Miscisin, 2001) will be administered to help understand
characteristics of different personalities and how they work together to form effective
teams.
Active listening skills will be developed and practiced throughout year two.
A book study of Crucial Conversations by Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler
(2011) will be facilitated to help teachers feel comfortable having difficult conversations
with team members.
Steps needed to create an effective PLC team will be discussed. These specific topics
include: developing trust, norms, goals, and roles/responsibilities for each member
Identify different stages of teams and identify the current state of PLC teams within the
building and how to change to a different stage (Richardson, 2005).
Throughout year two meetings, members will have ample opportunity to reflect on their
current PLC teams and how they can bring specific skills to the group to improve the
overall effectiveness of the team.


Year 3 Topic: Instructional Strategies

Rationale: After the first two years of this plan, teachers should be comfortable with the day-to-
day operations of teaching. The focus of year three will shift to refining instructional practices in
the classroom.

Approach: The third year of professional development will focus on an active learning model,
which allows teachers to have new strategies modeled for them along with time to practice and
reflect on these new strategies (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009). These workshops will
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be held on a monthly basis for two hours after school. A light snack or dinner will be provided
during each meeting in order to nourish the teachers before learning takes place. This year of
professional development will rely heavily on teacher leaders working with the cohort of new
teachers on best practices for instruction.

Goals: The goals of year three will focus on introducing the new teacher cohort to research-
based instructional strategies that will help them improve their teaching practices in the
classroom.

Topics:
This years meetings will focus on a selection of strategies from The Art and Science of
Teaching by Robert Marzano (2007). Teacher leaders will model a few strategies and
then help the new teacher cohort plan a lesson incorporating one of these strategies.
New teachers will conduct peer observations of each other with their mentor teachers to
give feedback on strengths and areas for growth in each strategy.
Introduce the cohort to Total Participation Techniques written by Himmele & Himmele
(2011). Each new teacher will be given a copy of this book to help them plan student
engagement techniques into lessons on a recurring basis. This book will be a book study
for the cohort over a series of a few months. Teacher leaders will incorporate a strategy
from this book during the new teacher meeting so that the new teachers can see the
strategy in action. Time will be given for the new teachers to develop lessons that
incorporate these techniques.


Year 4 Topic: Grading and assessment

Rationale: By year four, teachers have had the chance to settle into their teaching identities and
become familiar with the district, building and curriculum. As fourth year teachers move
towards tenure status it is imperative that they examine and consider modifying their grading and
assessment practices, which most likely originated based on the practices that their mentor or
others in their PLC had in place during the teachers first years.

Approach: This year of professional development will be conducted using a book study model,
using three books over the course of this year. These books include Robert Marzanos
Formative assessment and standards based grading (2010), Ken OConnors How to grade for
learning (2009), and Rick Wormelis Fair isnt always equal: Assessing and grading in the
differentiated classroom (2006). This year will also contain several workshops (once per
marking period), PLCs, and coaching for the new teacher cohort.

Goals: Teachers will examine assessment and grading practices using current research and
methodology.

Topics:
Teachers will learn ways to incorporate formative assessments into daily lessons.
Teachers will use assessment results to inform instruction.
Teachers will modify grading practices to accurately reflect student learning.
Teachers will examine existing assessments and create alternative assessment types.

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Part III


Learning Communities: A wide array of staff members from the building are involved in this
teacher induction plan. New teachers will be surrounded by others who are committed to
common goals, continuous improvement, shared responsibility and learning for all.

Leadership: From the first day that new teachers report, this plan envelops them in a network of
support for professional growth and learning. Teacher leader models are involved in each step of
the induction process so that new teachers not only have their mentor as a support but also those
in other leadership roles within the building. This will allow new teachers to get a
comprehensive view of leadership and what it looks like to advocate and lead by exemplary
practice.

Resources: Resources available at the building level are easily overlooked. This plan
maximizes the use of human resources within the building as sources of information and
experience and uses various staff members in each session. In designing this induction plan
specific priorities were kept in mind that would be crucial for new teachers at particular points
during the school year. In addition, some skills and practices are periodically monitored or
revisited multiple times during the plan. These were intentional decisions meant to increase the
effectiveness of the induction program.

Data: A solid understanding of the educators participating in the teacher induction program is
necessary for planning meaningful professional learning. Because these will all be first year
teachers, each topic of this four-year plan is based on some type of data or research from experts
in the field of education who have studied teachers in their first several years. As the plan is put
into place, feedback will be requested from the new teachers after each session and will be used
to modify future sessions if needed.

Learning Designs: A variety of teaching methods and strategies are woven throughout each
session of this four-year plan so that all types of adult learners can achieve its intended
outcomes. Active engagement is promoted and learners are given choices in their learning
whenever possible as well as opportunity to work collaboratively with others--two strategies
strongly suggested for adult learners (Drago-Severson, E., 2011).

Implementation: The primary goal for the new teacher induction program is to provide support
for new teachers as they learn and embed that new learning into practice. Therefore,
implementation requires integrating a variety of supports over time as well as constructive
feedback and reflection.

Outcomes: When new teachers are provided support for and are held to high standards for their
own teaching and learning it increases results for all students. A new teacher induction program
such as this one that integrates authentic, relevant, and job embedded learning allows for this to
happen.

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References
Adams, C. (2009, October). Twelve Ways to Beat New-School-Year Stress: tips for staying calm
and taking pleasure in your work as the school year ramps up. Instructor. p. 50.
Boyce, B. (2012, March). Taking the Measure of Mind. Shambhala Sun, pp. 43-49; 81-82.
Brown, S., & Nagel, L. (2003, May-June). The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress. The Clearing
House, p. 255.
Comer, J. & Haynes, N. (1997, July 1). The Home-School Team: An Emphasis on Parent
Involvement (web blog). Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/home-school-team
Darling-Hammond, L. & Richardson, N. (2009). Teacher learning: What matters? Educational
Leadership, 66(5), 46-53.
Drago-Severson, E. (2011, October). How Adults Learn. JSD, 10-12.
Farmington Public Schools Professional Growth and Teacher Evaluation Process. (n.d.)
Retrieved March 21 from the Instructional Services Wiki:
http://instructionalsvcsorgldrshp.wiki.farmington.k12.mi.us/file/view/TeacherEvaluation
R9%209%2013.pdf/453367166/TeacherEvaluationR9%209%2013.pdf
Gilbert, L. (2005). What Helps Beginning Teachers? Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 36-39.
Himmele, P. & Himmele, W. (2011). Total participation techniques: Making every student an
active learner. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
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Hoerr, T. R. (2005, May). Meeting New Teachers' Personal Needs. Educational Leadership, 82-
84.
Marzano, R.J.. (2007). The Art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective
instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano, R.J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for
increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano, R. (2010). Formative Assessment and Standards Based Grading. Bloomington:
Marzano Research Laboratories.
McCann, T. M., Johanessen, L. R., & Ricca, B. (2005). Responding to New Teachers' Concerns.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 30-34.
McCrosky, M. (2008, November 9). Parent Teacher Conference (video file). Retrived
from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=feR1lhqu8-0
Miscisin, M. (2001). Showing Our True Colors. Riverside, CA: True Colors, Inc. Publishing.
Murphy, J. T. (2011). Dancing in the Rain. The Phi Delta Kappan, 93(1), 38-41.
O'Connor, K. (2009). How to Grade for Learning. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.
Patterson, K., Grenny, J., McMillan, R., & Switzler. (2011). Crucial conversations: Tools for
talking when stakes are high. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Miscisin, M. (2001). Showing Our True Colors. Riverside, CA: True Colors, Inc. Publishing.
Pierson, R. (2013, May). Rita Pierson: Every kid needs a champion (video file). Retrieved
from: http://www.ted.com/talks/rita_pierson_every_kid_needs_a_champion
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Richardson, J. (2005). Transform your group into a team. Tools for schools: For a dynamic
community of learners and leaders, 9(2), 1-7.
Ten Strategies for Creating a Classroom Culture of High Expectations. (n.d) Retrieved March 24
from the Southern Regional Education Board website:
http://publications.sreb.org/2004/04V03_Ten_Strategies.pdf
Wayne, A.J., Youngs, P., & Fleischman, S. (2005). Improving teacher induction. Educational
Leadership, 62(8), 76-78..
Wormeli, R. (2006). Fair Isn't Always Equal; Assessing and Grading in the Differentiated
Classroom. Portland: Stenhouse.