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6/20/2014

Understanding Stresses and Modular ratio | RCC Structures | Civil Engineering Projects
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Stresses in Steel and Concrete | Building Construction


In one of our previous articles, we discussed Basic definitions and formulas.
Now we will move on with our discussion on Permissible stresses in concrete and steel and
Understanding Modular ratio.

Permissible Stresses in Concrete


Reinforced concrete designs make use of M15 grade concrete. The permissible stresses for different
grades of concrete is different. They are given below:
Sr.
No.

Concrete Grade

M15

M20

M25

M30

1.

Stress in compression

8.5

10

1. Bending

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2.

Stress in bond (average)


for plain bars

0.6

0.8

0.9

1.0

Assumptions for S ingly reinforced

3.

Characteristics
compressive strength

15

20

25

30

S ections | RCC S tructures

Also refer for other values in IS :456-1978

Reinforced Concrete Slab


Concrete Steel
Modular Construction

Permissible Stresses in Steel


The permissible stresses for different grades of steel are given in the table above.
The different grades steel available in the market with their market names are as follows:
Mild S teel

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Grade I steel is known as mild steel. The abbreviation used for Mild steel is (m.s.)

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6/20/2014

Understanding Stresses and Modular ratio | RCC Structures | Civil Engineering Projects
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High Tensile deformed steel has two types. They are as follows:
1. Grade Fe415 (Tor-40 or Tistrong I)
2. Grade Fe500 (Tor-50 or Tistrong II)
The names of the high tensile deformed steel have been derived from their manufacturers.

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For example:
Tor-Isteg Steel Corporation in Calcutta manufactures Tor-40 and Tor-50. Hence, the name.
Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd, Calcutta manufactures Tistrong I and Tistrong II.

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( Being aware of the names of the manufacturers is important for students


especially those studying Civil and S tructural E ngineering.)

Understanding Modular Ratios


It is defined as the ratio of moduli of steel to the moduli of concrete. It is denoted by the
letter m.

m=E s/E c
The modular ratio is not constant for all grades of concrete. It varies with the grade of concrete. Es/Ec
is generally not used to calculate modular ratio for reinforced concrete designs.
As per IS : 456-1978;
m is calculated by the following formula:

m = 280/3 c bc

where,
cbc = permissible compressive stress in concrete in bending.

Calculation of Modular ratio values for different grades of concrete


Grade of concrete

Modular ratio

M15

m = 280/35 = 18.66

M20

m = 280/37 = 13.33

M25

m = 280/38.5 = 10.98

M30

m = 280/310 = 9.33

It should be remembered that rounding off the modular ratio values is not permitted by Indian
Standard.

We shall discuss the following in our succeeding articles:


Assumptions for singly reinforced sections
Design procedure for Singly reinforced section I
Solved Numericals for Singly reinforced beam | Method I
Design of Singly reinforced sections | Design Method 2
Solved Numericals for Singly reinforced beam | Method 2
Moment of Resistance for Singly reinforced sections
Solved numerical example | Moment of resistance
Solved numerical example 2 | Guide to singly reinforced sections
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Assumptions for S ingly reinforced S ections | RCC S tructures


S olved numericals for S ingly reinforced S ections | Design Method 1
Design Methods for S ingly reinforced S ections
Numerical ex ample 2 | S ingly reinforced S ections
S olved Numericals for S ingly reinforced S ections | Design Method 2

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