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You are on page 1of 4

T

he microwave industry recently found-

new uses for concepts familiar to solid-

state designers in the form of photonic

band gap (PBG) constructions. PBG construc-

tions offer the ability to produce substrates,

ground planes and other structures, which

have a forbidden frequency range, or band

gap, that does not support electromagnetic

waves. This behavior arises from some form of

periodicity, in either material characteristics or

in a circuit layer, that reacts to electromagnet-

ic fields in much the same way

that crystal lattice structures do.

PBG surfaces — which often

become magnetic conductors

within their band gaps, much

like a corrugated metal plate

with the correct characteristics

— have a number of exciting po-

tential uses to the microwave

and wireless design world. A few

examples include circuit board

ground planes (which cannot be

excited by long clock traces),

novel TEM-mode rectangular

waveguides,

1

antenna ground

planes (which do not image currents and sap

antenna gain) and shield surfaces to reduce

specific absorption rate (SAR) levels in cellular

phone users.

PBG surface structures designed for these

applications are currently being modeled with

custom algorithms. With the release of Ansoft

HFSS 7 and its associated Optimetrics™ en-

gine, a commercial finite element method

(FEM) package is for the first time capable of

solving more general categories of PBG devices.

The simplest microwave PBG structures are

solid substrates perforated with a rectangular

grid of holes, or their complement: a rectangu-

lar grid of dielectric rods in air. Assuming a fi-

nite number of periods, these structures are

easy to model for transmission characteristics in

many commercial electromagnetic packages us-

ing a waveguide simulator approach shown in

Figure 1. (Five periods in the transmission di-

rection are shown.) Example transmission spec-

tra obtained with Ansoft HFSS for five, six and

ANALYSIS OF PHOTONIC

BANDGAP SURFACES

USING ANSOFT HFSS

RI CHARD REMSKI

Ansoft Corp.

Grand Prairie, TX

Fig. 1 Dielectric rod PBG

crystal with waveguide

simulator cell defined

(Γ-X transmission

direction).

M

Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL

®

from the September 2000 issue.

©

2000 Horizon House Publications, I nc.

seven periods of a simple PBG crystal

structure are shown in Figure 2.

2

While the described technique

suffices for three-dimensional PBG

substrates, or “electromagnetic crys-

tals,” more directly useful planar or

layered PBG structures do not have

the necessary degrees of symmetry

for analysis in this fashion. Ansoft

HFSS Version 7, however, contains

the feature set necessary to model

these interesting new designs.

OPTIMETRICSAND EIGENMODE

SOLVER LEVERAGE

EXISTING FEATURES

One of the primary features neces-

sary for efficient modeling of general

periodic structures was introduced in

Ansoft HFSS 6: the linked boundary

condition (LBC). Similar to perform-

ing a Floquet-mode expansion, LBCs

allow imaging of a unit cell into an in-

finite array of such cells. However,

unlike a waveguide simulator, LBCs

permit unconstrained user-assigned

field relationships between the mas-

ter and slave boundaries composing

the LBC pair. They allow more than

two planes of symmetry, and remove

any assumption that the fields on the

boundary be forced either tangential

to or orthogonal to the boundary

faces (as is the case with perfect E

and perfect H symmetry). Linked

boundary pairs need not always be

parallel surfaces, and also need not

be perpendicular to other linked

boundary pairs, permitting a wide ar-

ray of lattice arrangements.

3

I n addition to the capability of

defining a lattice with a single unit

cell, the new eigenmode solver in

HFSS 7 enables direct calculation of

the permitted resonance frequencies

for a unit cell structure. Computation

can be performed over the entire

range of field relations between LBC

pairs by using Optimetrics. The Opti-

metrics interface automates the

process of altering parametrically the

LBC pair’s phase relationship to

match each value in a table of desired

configuration setups and executing

each resultant solution. Post-process-

ing capabilities within Optimetrics

permit charting of any combination

of input vs. output variables, includ-

ing generation of a display analogous

to the dispersion diagram commonly

referenced in PBG literature.

The structure shown in Figure 3 is

a square array of metallic patches atop

a substrate layer (ε

r

= 2.2), tied by cen-

tral vias to an underlying ground

plane.

4

This type of PBG structure is

of interest to the wireless industry for

antenna applications because it cannot

support a surface travelling wave with-

in its forbidden band. This behavior

permits its use as a ground plane with-

in the designated band, which could

enhance — rather than detract from

— antenna pattern performance. Ad-

ditionally, the possibility of diffraction

around the ground plane edges is also

reduced, which should allow for lower

SAR levels on the far side of the plane

from the antenna where the user’s

head would be.

A unit cell model representation of

this structure (also shown in the dia-

gram) was constructed in Ansoft

HFSS 7 and assigned as the nominal

problem in an Optimetrics parametric

sweep. The top of the model volume

is terminated with an anisotropic per-

fectly matched layer (PML) construc-

tion. The variables for the parametric

analysis were the phase relationship

between each opposing pair of linked

boundaries. By varying the phase be-

tween the boundaries and calculating

the permissible eigensolutions for

each phase relationship, a dispersion

plot tracing the three sides of the irre-

ducible Brillouin zone (BZ) triangle,

shown in Figure 4, is obtained.

For a plot of possible solution fre-

quencies in the Γ to X direction, the

phase between the first pair of LBCs

is held constant at zero and the phase

between the second pair is varied

from 0° to 180°. For solution frequen-

cies along the X to M direction, the

phase between the second pair of

walls is held constant at 180°while the

phase between the first pair is incre-

mented from 0° to 180°. Finally, for

the M to Γ direction, both relation-

ships are simultaneously varied from

APPLICATION NOTE

LFig. 2 Transmission spectra in the Γ-X

direction for square rod PBG crystal with 1.2

cm cell size, 0.48 cm square dimension and

ε

r

= 10.2 showing five, six and seven periods.

LFig. 3 Square patch PBG ground plane and unit cell model.

L Fig. 4 Unit cell BZ and phase

relationships for HFSS eigensolution

analysis. (Linked boundaries are color-coded

for clarity.)

180° back to 0°. Using 10° increments

and eliminating the repeated (0°, 0°),

(0°, 180°) and (180°, 180°) points result

in a total of 54 eigensolution HFSS

project setups. All setups are generat-

ed for the user by the Optimetrics

package following simple construction

of a table of parametric combinations.

The list of 54 HFSS projects is solved

as an automatic batch sequence by the

Optimetrics package, and all pertinent

results are stored for easy comparison

from project to project.

APPLICATION NOTE

The results of this analysis are

shown in Figure 5. The horizontal axis

of each graph represents the changing

phase variable for one of the three BZ

triangle boundaries, and is analogous

to having the wave vector plotted in a

true dispersion diagram. Examining

the space between the lowest eigenso-

lution frequency for all phase combi-

nations and that of the next highest

eigensolution (which falls beneath the

light line at either end of the combined

plot), a band gap of approximately 10

to 15 GHz is clearly observed. These

simulation results closely match those

previously reported

3

for the same

structure, obtained using a custom,

non-commercial program.

UC-PBG DISPERSION

Another type of PBG not conducive

to analysis with a waveguide simulation

is the uniplanar compact (UC) PBG.

One such structure is discussed in the

literature,

5

for which a unit cell model

is shown in Figure 6. The cell dimen-

sion is 120 × 120 mils, patch is 100 ×

100 mils, inset cutouts are 27.5 × 40.0

mils, centered extension traces are 10

mils wide to end and substrate thick-

ness (ε

r

= 10.2) is 25 mils.

4

As with the

prior example, the unit cell structure

represents the nominal problem, termi-

nated on top by a PML surface layer.

The Optimetrics package is used to

vary the phase relationship between

the appropriate LBC pair side walls to

obtain dispersion data. Figure 7shows

the results for this analysis, which again

agree well with those published in the

referenced paper and obtained from a

custom approach.

FIELD POST-PROCESSING

FOR MORE DETAILED ANALYSIS

I n many cases, the dispersion dia-

gram is not the only parameter de-

sired from analysis of a PBG struc-

ture. Again, Ansoft HFSS and Opti-

metrics together provide a unique set

of capabilities for more extensive

evaluation of this class of problems.

Optimetrics permits post-process-

ing of any HFSS-computed quantity

as either a parametric sweep output

or as part of an optimization goal

function. Unlike competing products

that only provide data output or opti-

mization toward S parameters or oth-

er port quantities, even field analysis

results such as antenna patterns, radar

cross-section or other derived quanti-

ties can be plotted with respect to the

setup count or the parametric inputs.

For example, it has already been

mentioned that one application of PBG

surfaces is as an antenna ground plane.

Within the forbidden band not only

does the PBG surface not support a

travelling surface wave, but it also re-

flects incident radiation in phase, rather

than with a 180° phase shift as would a

standard metal ground plane. The re-

gion of the frequency band over which

L Fig. 5 Summarized dispersion diagram results for a square-lattice PBG.

M

Fig. 7 Summarized dispersion results for UC-PBG analysis using HFSS.

M

Fig. 6 UC-PBG unit cell model.

rics analysis closely matched results

obtained from reflection phase mea-

surements on actual PBG hardware.

CONCLUSION

The exciting study of PBG struc-

tures has until now been constrained to

modeling via custom algorithms or —

in those few cases where sufficient

symmetry exists to use a waveguide

simulation approach — to a finite num-

ber of periods in transmission-only

models. With the advent of Ansoft

HFSS’ eigensolution capability and its

integration with the parametric analysis

capabilities of Optimetrics, the RF de-

signer can now utilize a commercially

available, commercially supported soft-

ware package for more general cate-

gories of PBG analysis and design.

Analysis can obtain direct finite period

transmission, true eigensolution disper-

sion results and field data for a wide va-

riety of possible lattice shapes and sym-

metry conditions.

References

1. F.R. Yang, K.P. Ma, Y. Qian and T. I toh, “A

Novel TEM Waveguide Using Uniplanar

Compact Photonic-bandgap (UC-PBG)

Structure,” I EEE Transactions on Mi-

crowave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47,

No. 11, November 1999, pp. 2092–2098.

2. J.D. Shumpert, W.J. Chappell and L.P.B.

Katehi, “Parallel-plate Mode Reduction in

Conductor-backed Slots Using Electro-

magnetic Bandgap Substrates,” I EEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and

Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, November

1999, pp. 2099–2104.

3. I . Bardi and Z. Cendes, “New Directions

in HFSS for Designing Microwave De-

vices,” MicrowaveJournal, Vol. 41, No. 8,

August 1998, pp. 22–36.

4. D. Sievenpiper, L. Zhang, R.F.J . Broas,

N.G. Alexópolous and E. Yablanovitch,

“High-impedance Electromagnetic Sur-

faces with a Forbidden Frequency Band,”

I EEE Transactions on Microwave Theory

and Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, Novem-

ber 1999, pp. 2059–2074.

5. R. Coccioli, F.R. Yang, K.P. Ma and T. Itoh,

“Aperture-coupled Patch Antenna on UC-

PBG Substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Mi-

crowave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47,

No. 11, November 1999, pp. 2123–2130.

Richard T. Remski received his BSEE from

the Georgia I nstitute of Technology, Atlanta,

GA, in 1988, having specialized in microwave

and antenna design. Before coming to Ansoft,

he worked for various aerospace contractors,

performing design and analysis tasks on

classified airborne antenna and avionics system

applications to support the F-16, A-12, B-2,

F-22 and V-22 aircraft programs. He has been

with Ansoft for nearly three years, where his

tasks include technical support, application

development, software Q/A and user training.

APPLICATION NOTE

the reflected energy adds most con-

structively (phase shifts of only a few

degrees plus or minus from the inci-

dent signal) is a subset of the band gap

itself. Using Ansoft HFSS and Opti-

metrics, the reflection phase resulting

from an incident wave excitation (aver-

aged on a suitable evaluation plane) can

be calculated with respect to incident

wave frequency as an output. This ca-

pability is made possible by the post

processor’s Field Calculator, a staple

feature of Ansoft HFSS that has been

continually maintained and upgraded

in each new release.

To illustrate this usage, another ex-

ample project has been constructed

from the designs presented by

Sievenpiper et. al.

4

and shown in Fig-

ure 8. This hexagonal lattice PBG

surface could not be solved in any

form using a mere waveguide simula-

tor. However, by modeling a unit cell

with LBC side walls and running a

parametric sweep using an incident

wave excitation at different frequen-

cies, the reflection phase can be cal-

culated directly from field results.

Assuming that the reflected signal

is evaluated at a distance d away from

the reflection plane, the expected re-

flection phase from a perfect metal

ground plane would be

I f a PBG structure is placed with its

top face the same distance d away

from an evaluation plane, the Field

Calculator can be used to obtain the

average reflection phase at the evalu-

ation plane by calculating

where S is the evaluation surface. (The

scattered E field data from an incident

wave project are directly available as

an input to the Field Calculator fol-

lowing the nominal HFSS solution.)

An integrated macro language al-

lows the calculator routine necessary

to obtain φ

PBG

to be automated by

recording user operations in the nom-

inal project. Optimetrics then replays

the macro for each setup during the

solution batch process. The difference

between the reference metal plate re-

flection and the PBG reflection (with

an adjustment factor of 180° to center

the desired result about zero) is iden-

tified in Optimetrics as the final

sweep output of interest.

The results of this analysis are

shown in Figure 9, with points ex-

tracted from the measured data pub-

lished in the referenced paper. I n this

case, the Ansoft HFSS and Optimet-

φ

PBG

scattered

S

S

Phase E ds

sds

=

( )

∫

∫

ˆ

φ

λ

= •

180 360 –

d

L Fig. 8 A hexagonal lattice high impedance PBG on ε

r

= 2.2 substrate.

P

H

A

S

E

(

°

)

120

60

0

–60

–120

FREQUENCY (Hz)

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

HFSSRESULTS

MEASURED RESULTS

Fig. 9 A comparison of HFSS-obtained

reflection phase results

and measured data.

M

(degrees)

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