962/2 Chemistry Paper 2 Sept 2007

I

2- hours 2

Name: .

Index No: .

JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI NEG.ERI SEMBILAN DARUL KllUS S

PE.PERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN

SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALA YSIA 2007

CffEMrSTRY

Paper 2

Two hours and thirty minutes

DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YO . ARE TOLD TO DO SO

Instructions toea ndida res:

Answer all the questions tnecrion A In the spaces provided.

All working must be shown. For numerical answers, units must be quoted wherever they are appropriate.

Answer any four questions from Section B. For this section, write your answer on the answer sheets provided. Begin each answer on a. fresh sheet of paper, and arrange your answers in numerical order. Tie your answer sheers [0 this booklet.

Answers may be written In either Malay or English.

A Data Booklet is provided.

This question paper has l4 printed pages

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For examiner"s use I

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Section A [ 40 marks] Answer all questions in this section.

1. The first six ionisation energies of an element X are given below.

ionisation energyJkJ mor '
first second third fourth fifth sixtl1
950 1800 2700 4800 6000 12300 (a) Write an equation, with state symbols, for the second ionisation energy of element X.

[ I ] (b) Use the data given above to deduce in which Group of the Periodic Table element X is placed. Explain your answer.

••••••••••• , •••••••• 0/ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• / ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••..••...••••••.•••

.................................................. ,. . .

[2]

(c) Copper is the ninth element in the first row of the d-block of the Periodic Table

(i) State the Aufbau Principle.

(ii) Write the electronic confizuration of copper.

····· ············· .. ·r·· .. ···-···· .. t·············~·· .

[3J

(d) The carbon atom uses hybridized orbitals to form bonds in the propene molecule, C3H6

(i) State the types of hybrid orbitals involved .

. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . , 'f :) Y'" ••••••••••• I ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(ii) Draw a labelled diagram indicating, the overlapping of orbitals and showing the types of bonds that are formed in the propene molecule.

[4]

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2 (a) In a titration experiment, 30.0 cnr' of 0.80 mol dm-3 aqueous ammonia (Kb=I.80 x 10 -)) was titrated with 1.00 mol dm' nitric acid.

(i)

What is the pH 0[30.0 em' 0[0.80 mol drn" aqueous ammonia?

Oi)

[2] Calculate the volume of nitric acid needed to react completely with 30 .. 0 cm ' of 0.80 mol drn-3 aqueous ammonia.

[21

(iii) Sketch and label the pH titration curve for the titration.

(iv) Indicate on your diagram above where a buffer is formed.

[2] [I]

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2(b)

A buffer solution was prepared from a mixture of 150 cm ' of 0.80 mol dm' NH3 and 50 crrr' of 1.60 mol dm" ~N03.

(i)

Calculate the pH of this buffer solution.

&) What will bethe pH of the resulting solution if20.0 crn ' of 0.05 mol dm-3 H2S04 is added to the buffer solution?

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3 (a) Aluminium chloride exists as a solid at room temperature. (i) Draw the Lewis structure for aluminium chloride.

[1 ]

(ii) Solid aluminium chloride is dissolved in a large volume of water. The

solution obtained is then tested with blue litmus paper which turns red. Explain this result.

.................................. ..;- ~ " .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • • .. • • • 0' .

.................................... ..:./ , .

........................... . ~ ~~~~ ~Jt:f~:~~ I .

At J+ (p{,) t 611 zAJ (J) --":> C ~p (Ut-D) (, J?t C~)

::::::::::::: :~!~ ):~:~::~:: :~~~~~~~\)~~ ~?::~: ii~r!./:~:: <~~ :~~~~)~: :o:~j~i~ + f{} 0 t~~

[2]

(b)

(iii) Aluminium chloride is used as a catalyst in the electrophi lie substitution reactions of arenes. Using toluene as the example, write an equation for the electrophilic substitution. oftoluene by chlorine;]

atJ "'lls ct13 . J (n3 -t- H C1

..... 0' !:.rJ..:. ~~rL -~~ ~ .

or{ho 0- . [I] PW"~

All the Group 14 elements form chlorides with the formula MCI4.

State the bonding and the shape of-these chlorides.

i. Bonding (

............... ~,:~.I.~ ~~ .. ~.I.~~.~~.~ - _ _ _. _ ..

II. shape:

....... , !.~.~~~~~~y ·1·:·············· .. · .. · .. ·· . ,,··········· .

[2]

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(c)

Draw the Lewis structure for silicon tetrachloride. .......

'liln"

'" v.",

I

s.

/ \ \Ct~/

a ~ ...

" '1\

" ... lfCp

,,~ lC'OIl >(

1

[1]

(d) Silicon tetrachloride reacts vigorously with water whereas carbon tetrachloride is inert.

Suggest a reason for this difference in reactivity.

[ 1 ]

II. Write an equation for the reaction between silicon tetrachloride and water.

..... '~,:d~ "f" ~'U~'o" .~ .. ~':'o~ 't'4-'~a '['i]'

(e) Silicon tetrachloride can be reduced by zinc to silicon.

Suggest a use of silicon.

[ 1]

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W¢te stru. ctural formulae for all the structural isomers with the molecular formula e'Ji9Br.

[2)

Which of the above structural isomers (i) exists as a pair of optical isomers?

[I) (ii) undergoes elimination to form an alkene which exists as a pair of geometrical isomers?

[I]

(iii) when reacted with magnesium and followed by methanal will form 2,2-dirnethy\propan-l-ol?

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\,

~lhen reacted with potassium cyanide followed by hydrolysis will form pentanoic Vacid, CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH?

[1]

(b) OrIon has the structure

(i) What is the structural formulaofthe monomer of Orion?

[ I ]

(ii) Name the type of reaction in the formation of Orion)

[I]

(iii) Write the propagation steps if the polymerisation reaction follows the free radical mechanism.

[2] .

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SECTION B [60 marks]

Answer any four questions

5 a) Define the term activation energy.

[I]

b) The exothermic reaction between substances P and Q can be represented by the following equation

P (g) + Q (g) -t R (g) + S (g)

i) Copy and complete the reaction profile for this reaction, shown in Figure 1.

Indicate and label clearly the activation energy and the enthalpy change for the

reaction. [31

ii) Draw and label on the same axes, the reaction profile for the reaction when it is

catalysed. [ 11

energyl kJ

Reaction coordinate

Figure 1

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c) (i) Figure 2 shows the distribution of molecular energies for the mixture of reactants in (b) at a temperature T1• Copy and label the axes, on the same axes, draw the distribution of molecular energies for the same gaseous mixture at a higher temperature T2.

[3]

Figure 2

(ii) In Figure 2, the energy corresponding to the activation energy of the reaction (EA) is shown. On your drawing, indicate a possible energy corresponding to the activation energy of the catalysed reaction and label it 'EA catalysed. '

[ I]

(d) By using the kinetic molecular model, explain why at a certain temperature and pressure,

(i) A solid retains its shape and volume, irrespective of the type of container in which it is placed.

(ii) A liquid takes the shape of the container but does not necessarily fill it.

(iii) A gas takes the shape of the container and fills it.

[6]

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6 (a) An electrochemical cell is set up using copper and silver half-cells.

Cu(s) I Cu2+(aq) 1/ Ag'(aq) I Ages)

(i) (ij) (iii)

Write the equation for the overall cell reaction? Calculate the e.m.f of the cell under standard conditions.

The e.m.f ofthe cell is 0.45 V when the concentrations of copper(fI) ions and silver ions arep mol dm" and 0.70 mol dm" respectively.

Calculate the value of p?

What is the effect on the e.m.f. of the cell by adding a few crystal of sodium chloride to the silver half-cell.

[8J

(b) Define the standard enthalpy change of formation and tau ice energy.

[2J

(c) The table below shows the enthalpy changes for several reactions.

Reaction equations

HI
kJ
-710 ./
- 293 v'
-184 ./
-222 22n(s) + 02(g) -7 22nO(s)

By using the data in the table, determine the enthalpy change of formation of ZnS04(s).

[5J

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7 (a) Magnesium and barium are elements in Group 2 ofthe Periodic table. Compare the reducing power of both metals in their reactions with water. Support your answer with relevant data from the Data Booklet. [3]

(b) Solid barium amide, Ba(NH2h decomposes when heated to give barium nitride, Ba3N2 and ammonia gas. Write an equation for this reaction and explain whether magnesium amide, Mg(NH2)2 will decompose at a higher or lower temperature that barium amide. [4)

\

(c) Barium salts if soluble are highly poisonous .. Fortunately most barium compounds like barium carbonate, barium sulphate and barium phosphate are sparingly soluble. The solubility product of barium carbonate is 5.5 x 10-10 mol" drn? while that of barium sulphate is 1.3 x 10-10 mol2 dm-6.

(i) Calculate the concentration of barium ions ina saturated solution of barium sulphate.

(ii) Suggest a reason why barium carbonate is more poisonous than barium sulphate when taken orally even though barium carbonate is less soluble than barium sulphate.

c 4] L

(d) Period 3 elements aluminium and sulphur form the oxides aluminium oxide, and sulphur trioxide. Discuss briefly the structure and bonding present in the two oxides. Write an equation between sulphur trioxide with water.

[4J

8 (a) Gaseous ammonia and chlorine react together to give nitrogen gas and solid ammonium chloride. With the aid of an equation, explain how ammonia is behaving as a base as well as a reducing agent in this reaction.

. (3)

@oxides of nitrogen are found in the exhaust fumes of motor vehicles. Explain how they are formed. Besides oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxides and unbumt hydrocarbons are also found in car exhaust fumes. Write equations for at least 2 reactions that occur in a catalytic converter and state the mixture of catalysts used in

the catalytic converter. [4]

(c) The pure vapour pressures of two compounds X and Yare 4000 Pa and 10 800 Pa respectively. X and Y do not form an ideal solution when mixed.

(i) Giving a suitable example, explain what is meant by an ideal solution.

Give three characteristics of an ideal solution.

(ii) Sketch a labelled vapour pressure-composition graph if X and Y form an azeotrope containing 25% of X and having a maximum vapour pressure.

[7]

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9 Four compounds P, Q, Rand S have the following structures shown below:

p Q R S
@ NH3 CH3NH2 CH,CONH2
I
NIb (a) Arrange the basicities ofP, Q, Rand S in increasing order.

Explain your answer.

[5]

(b) Azo dyes can be obtained through diazotisation of compound P and then coupling the product with phenol.

(i) State the reagents and the conditions required to carry out the two processes diazotisation and coupling.

(4]

(ii) Write the equation for the diazotisation reaction.

[I]

(iii) Draw the structural formula of the azo dyes obtained from the diazotisation of the compound T and then coupling the product with the compound .

NH2 OH

I @rC'Hl

®CHJ 0

T

[ I ]

u

(iv) Explain why diazotisation of ethylamine does not occur at low temperature.

State the organic product formed, [2]

(c) State the reagent and the type of reaction for the conversion of V o

I I

CHJ -C-Cl

to W.

v

.W

[2]

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10 (a) Each of the following pairs of compounds can be differentiated by performing simple chemical tests. Name the reagents used, state the observations and write balanced equations for the reactions that OCCUI.

(i) Methylcyclohexane and methylbenzene (ii) l-phenylethanol and 2 phenylethanol

(b) Cinnamon is one example of a carbonyl compound used as a flavouring agent. The structural formula of cinnamon is shown below:-

o

~ II

~CH~CH--C-H

(i) State the functional groups found in Cinnamon.

(c) Write balanced equations for the reactions between Cinnamon and (i) hydrogen chloride

(ii) alkaline aqueous potassium manganate(VII) solution at room temperature.

(d) The molecular formulae of some compounds that can be prepared from ethanoic acid are given in the scheme below:

Ethanol/cone. H,2S0.Jheat C4Hg02 p

CZH402 Etbanoic acid

~'i

C2I-i)OCI R

(i) Draw and name the structural formula ofP. [2] (ii) State the reagent and reaction condition that could be used for converting ethanoic

acid into Q. (2]

(iii) Draw the structural formula of the organic product of the reaction between anhydrous samples ofR with CH3CH2NH2o

END OF QUESTION PAPER

[6J

[2]

[21

[ I ]

Question 4:

(.

(a) Br
I I I I . [Any
-C-c-c-c-
, , , (l) CH)CH,CH,CH2Br 2, for 1
'"' mark]
Br
I I I I
-c-c-c-c- CR)-CHCH2CH) ,.
I I I I (II)
I 1 + 1
Br
Br
I I I ,
-c-c-c- Br
, I
-c- I .'
, (Ill) CH)-?~ CHJ :;
I I I CH)
-C-C-C-Br .
, I ,
-c- (IV) CEJ - CH - CH2Br
,
" I
CEJ
(i) (II) or 1
CH)-CHCH,CH:! \
I .
Br ,
(ii) (II) or 1
CH)-CHCH,CHJ
I
Br "
(iii) (IU) or 1
Br
- ,
CH)-y-CH)
CH~ .
(iv) (1) or I
CR)CH,CH2CH2Br
(b) H 1
.
(i) I
CH2 = C-CN
(ii) Addition #polymerization# 1
(iii) Propagation .
@. + CH2=C;H - @CH,.~:tr ,
CN CN
Phenyl ethyl radical 1
:
@-CH2.CHO+ CH,=CH - @.CH2-CH-CH2.CH' ,
I I I I
CN CN CN CN 1
'" accept R 0 to represent @. Total: 10 marks

!I

."'~

t>

':'-0.0

Ii

li·'·

, .

~

Question 5

' ..

Ea = activation energy

Ea'· ~ activa.tion energy

Correct curve + 'R + S'

P+Q

Show and label E.

R+S

Show and label llH =: -ve

Reaction coordinate

No. of molecules

[Axes and label correctly] (2) [curve for T 2]

Dotted line with ener less than E. and labelled Eo catal sed

The particles in solid are closely packed in fixed positions by strong attractive forces,

~.

substitution

answer

Total; 16 marks Max: 15 marks

Question' 6:

~ .

(a) Cu(s) + 2Ag (aq) -? Cu'«ag) + 2Ag(s) - stated of symbols needed I
(il
(ii) The e.m.f, of the cell- (+0.80) - (+0.34) - working 1
= +0.46 V - answer 1,
(iii) Cu(s) + 2Ag (ag)--- Cu·' (ag) + 2Ag(s)
E "" s: _ 0,0591 [eu2+ 1 I
"II •• 11 2 g [Ag+ Y
0.45 == 0.46 - 0.0295Ig-E, 1 -,
0.70
P = 1.07 mol dm·3 , 1
(iv) Ag (aq) + cr (aq) -- Agel(s) or
The cr ions form precipitate with Ag+ ions,
hence the concentration of Ag+ ions decreases I
. the e.m.f, decreases. I
6 Standard enthalpy change of formation of a compound is the enthalpy change (heat 1
(b) absorbed or released) when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements
under standard conditions ( or at 25°C and I atm pressure).
Lattice energy of is the heat energy liberated when one mole of the compound is I
formed from its gaseous ions under standard conditions at 25°C and latrn pressure.
(c)
Zn(s) + 'h 02(g) -? ZnO(s) -7\0/2 I
S(s) + 02(g~ -? S02(g) -293
S02(g) + Y2 02(g) -? S03(g) -184/2 1
ZnO(s) + SOJ(g) -? ZnS04(s) -222
,
Sum up the above 4 equation / [write the equation-of formation] I
Zn(s) + S(s) + 202(g) -? ZnS04(s)
Hence, enthalpy change of formation of ZnS04
= (-7\0/2) + (-293) + (-184/2) + (-222) I
= -962 kJ morl 1
. Total: 15 Marks

(c)
(ii)
"
,.:. (d)
".
~; Question 7

From Data Booklet

M2+ + 2e Mg

-2.38 V

(7) (a)

----">.

-..;;- M

Ba -2.90V

I + I

Element

EB (Ba2+/Ba) is more -ve than EB (Mg2+/Mg), thus Ba is a stronger reducing agent than Mg.

Hence Ba reacts vigorously with cold water and reduces H20 to

Hydrogen gas while Mg does not react with cold water but will only react with steam .

. Ba +2 H20 -7 Ba(OHn + H2 '

Or Mg + H20 -7 Mg(0H)2 + H2

OrMg + H20 -7 M~O + H2

(b)

Equation: 3Ba(NH2h -7 Ba3N2 + 4NHJ

Magnesium amide decomposes at a lower temperature

Ionic radius Mi+ < Ba2+; Mg2+ has a higher charge density than Ba2+

Mg2+ exerts a higher polarizing power on NH2' anion compared to Ba2+ / Mg2+ distorts the NH2- charge cloud morethan Ba2+; hence magnesium amide decomjloses at lower temperature

I + I

(c) (i)

BaS04(s) ~ Ba2+(aq) + SO/-(aq)

In a saturated solution. K,p = [Ba2+] (SOll 1.3 x 10.10 = [Ba2+f

[Ba2+] = -.J (1.3 X 10.10) working

= 1.14 x 10-s mol dm') answer

1

(max 4)

In the stomach, the ~astric juices are acidic and contain H+ ions -7

BaCO) + 2W -7 Ba + + CO2 + rhO ' (equation]

BaCO] is dissolved by gastric juices, the high Bi+ ions in solution cause the

poisoning. '

Ah03 is an ionic compound and thus has a giant ionic structure of AIl+ and 02• ions; hence the bonding is strong ionic /electrovalent between All+ and 02- ions

S03 has a simple molecular structure with weak van der Waals forces between S03 molecules.

S03 dissolves in water to form sulphuric acid as follows:

Total: 15 marks

Question' 8:

(a)

In the above equation, NHJ acts as a reducing agent, when it is oxidized to Nl gas. 1

It is acting as a base when NH3 reacts with W to form ~ + / the ammonia acts as 1

a proton acceptor.

" .

1 '

(b)

(c) (i)

Nl(g) + 02(g) -7 2NO

2NO + Oa -7 2N02 [either one equation]

Both oxygen and nitrogen comes from the air used to bum the fuel. The oxygen only combines with nitrogen at the ver}' high temperatures in the internal combustion engine'" .

Reactions taking place in the catalytic converter are:

2NOl + CO -7 Nl + 2COz }

CxHy + (x + y/4 ) O2 -7 XC02 + y/2 HzO } any 2

2CO +02 -7 2COl }

Catalysts are mixtures of the metals platinum, palladium and rhodium.

An ideal solution is a solution that obeys Raoult's Law. Examples:Benzene and methylbenzene

Properties of an ideal solution

• The intermolecular forces of attraction between the A and B molecules in the mixture are the same as that formed in the pure liquids

• - The heat of solution is always zero.! no enthalpy change

• The total volume of the mixture is the sum of the two volumes of the

individual liquids. "

(ii) Pressure(pa)

I he"id?~ 10800

4000V,

25%X

100"10 X

100% Y

[ Curve with max at 25% X 1

[ labelled axes with 4000 & 10800 Pa 1

Total: 15 Marks

1+1

Question 9:

,.

9 (a) 1. S<P<Q<R I
2. S is neutral, the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom is delocalised into I'
the C = 0 bond by the overlapping of orbitals
3. P is an aryl amine, less basic than the aliphatic amine R because the lone pair of I
electrons on the nitrogen atom is delocalised into the benzene ring.
4. Q is more basic than P because the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom is I ,
not delocalized.
5. R is the strongest base because the methyl group is an electron donor by I
inductive effect.
(b)(i) Diazotisation:
Reagents: Sodium nitrite solution, NaN02 and dilute hydrochloric acid I
Condition: 0 - 5 DC I
" Coupling:
Reagents: Phenol in alkaline solution I
Condition: room temperature I 0 DC I
(ii)
@NH2+HN02 -7 @-WCI- + 2H20
I
(iii) ~N=N~OH I
CH) C2HS
(iv) Aliphatic diazonium salt is unstable, will decompose immediately I
CH)CH20H I CH2'=CH2 r I
(c) Phenylaminelaniline I
Acylation I formation of amide I Total: 15 marks

'~it-";'~

1~/iL

.. , .. •.. ' .. ~f.'>' -. \.;~.,"

- .~ .

~.

, '~~'J.

Question 10:

lO(a) [Reagent] Acifified KMn04 , 1
(i)
[observation] methylbenzene turns purple colour solution to colourless while I
methylcyclohexane no changes
I
[equation]: C6HsCH) + 3[0] -7 4HSCOOH + H2O
(ii) [Reganet]: alkaline iodine aqueous solution I
[observation]: I-phenyletbanol forms yellow precipitate while 2-phenylethanol no I
changes / no ppt
1 ,
[equation]: CH)CH(C6HS)OH + h + OH- -7 CHh + C~sCOO-
(b) Double bond covalent, C=C 1
And aldehyde C=O
(i) Benzene ring [any two] 1
(e)
(i) C~s-CH~CHCHO + HCI -7 C6Hs-CH2CHCICHO or C~s-CHCICHO 1
(ii)
C~s-CH=CHCHO + 4[OJ -7 C6HS-CH(0H)CH(0H)CHO + H2O I
(d) H 0 H H
(i) I 1\ I I
H-C - C1- 0 -C - C- H 1
I I I
H H H
, 1
Ethyl ethanoate [or condensed structural]
(ii) NaOH(aq) or sodium 1
room conditions I temp 1
(iii) H 0 H H II
I 1\ I I I
H-C-C-N -c -C-H
I I I I
H H H
lor condensed structura!J· Total: 15 marks

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