EINSTEIN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12




Department of Electronics and Communication
Engineering

Subject Code: EC-76


“ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN LAB”


Name : ……………………………………
Reg No : ……………………………………
Branch : ……………………………………
Year & Semester : ……………………………………




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EC-76 ESD LAB MANUAL

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LIST OF EXPERIMENTS



Exp.No Name of the experiment Page No

1 DESIGN OF AN INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

2 DESIGN OF AC/DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR

3 DESIGN OF PROCESS CONTROL TIMER

4 i) DESIGN OF AM MODULATOR AND DEMODULATOR

ii) DESIGN OF FM MODULATOR AND DEMODULATOR

5 DESIGN OF WIRELESS DATA MODEM

6 PCB LAYOUT DESIGN USING CAD TOOL

7 MICROCONTROLLER BASED SYSTEMS DESIGN

8 DSP BASED SYSTEM DESIGN

9 PSUEDO RANDOM SEQUENCE GENERATOR

10 ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT DESIGN
















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INDEX

EX.No DATE NAME OF EXPERIMENT PAGE No MARKS INITIAL









































































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Ex. No.1 DESIGN OF AN INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

AIM:
To design, construct and test an instrumentation amplifier using IC 741 and vary its gain
from 1 to 100.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Operational Amplifier IC 741 4
2 Resistor 10kO
1kO
150O
10
4
1
3 DRB


1
4 Bread Board
&Connecting wires
As required
5 Dual Power Supply 1
6 Rheostat

(0-100)O 1
7 Ammeter


(0-250)µA 1
8 Multimeter


1

THEORY:

INSTUMENTATION AMPLIFIER:
Instrumentation amplifier is generally required in any measurement system
using electrical transducers to enhance signal levels often in low voltage less than mV. Also
it is required to provide impedance matching and isolation. When the desired input rides over
a common mode signal special amplifier are needed so that difference signals get amplified
to an acceptable level while the common mode signals get attenuated.
The physical quantities can be converted into electrical quantities by using
transducer. The output of the transducer needs to be amplified to get the meter readings. This
amplification is done by using instrumentation amplifier. The output of instrumentation
amplifier drives of indicator or display system. The important features of an instrumentation
amplifier are high gain accuracy, high CMRR, high gain stability with low temperature
co-efficient, low dc offset, low output impedance.
Low input impedance may load the signal source heavily. Therefore high resistance
buffer is used preceding each input to avoid this loading effect. For V
1
=V
2
under common
mode condition. If V

2
=V
2
and V

1
=V
1
both the operational amplifiers act as voltage
follower. If V
1
= V
2
the circuit has differential gain by the formula V
O
/ (V2-V1)=1+(2R/R‘).
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
BRIDGE CIRCUIT:



INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER:





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DESIGN:
Output voltage V
O
=(1 +( 2R / R‘)) (V
2
-V
1
)

Differential gain A
d
= V
O
/ (V
2
- V
1
)

=1 +(2R / R‘)
Choose R = 10kΩ

For A
d
max = 100

100 =1 +(20kO/R‘)


R’

=20KO
---------
99
R’

max =200Ω.

For A
d
min =10

10 =1 +(20kO/R‘)


R’ min = 2.2KΩ.


I
L
= I
1
+I
2


I
1
= (V-(V
0
/2)) / R

I
2
= (V
0
-(V
0
/2)) / R



I
L
= (V-(V
0
/2) +(V
0
-(V
0
/2)) / R = (V-V
0
+V
0
) / R =V/R

I
L
is independent of R
L
. If R is constant then I
L
o V

PROCEDURE:
1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The bridge circuit was balanced by varying 100Ω Rheostat.
3. The output voltage V
1
and V
2
of balanced circuit were given as input to the
op-amp A
1
and A
2
.
4. Varying the resistance R
1
the bridge circuit the voltage V
1
and V
2
were
varied.
5. Varying the R

the output voltage was measured then the differential gain
was calculated using formula,
=20 log (V
O
/(V
2
-V
1
)).




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V to I CONVERTER:



PIN DIAGRAM:



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MODEL GRAPH:


TABULAR COLUMN:

Displacement
from initial
place (cm)
Output
Voltage (volt)
Output
Current (mA)
Gain =
(V
O
/ (V
2
-V
1
))
Gain =
20 log (V
O
/ (V
2
-V
1
)) in dB








































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RESULT:
Thus the physical quantities are converted into electrical quantities and by
using electrical quantities instrumentation amplifier was designed, constructed and
outputs were verified.
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:

DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:


PIN DETAILS:
AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:


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Ex.No.2 AC/DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR

AIM:
(i)To design, construct and test a AC voltage regulator using SCR.
(ii)To design, construct and test a DC voltage regulator using SCR.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:

S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transformer 230V/12V 1
2 SCR 2P4M 2
3 Diode BY 127 2
4 Resistor 100 kO
12 kO
2
1
5 Bread Board 1
6 Connecting Wires As required
7 CRO 1
8 DRB 1

DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:

S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transformer 230V/24V 1
2 SCR TYN 604 1
3 Diode 1N4001 4
4 Resistor 10 kO 2
5 Bread Board 1
6 Connecting Wires As required
7 CRO 1
8 DRB 2
9 IC 7812 1
10 Capacitors 1000µf 1
100µf 1






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DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:


MODEL GRAPH:

AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:



DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:

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THEORY:

The SCR is switched ON and OFF to regulate the output voltage in AC and
DC voltage regulator.

AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:

If the SCR is connected to AC supply and load, the power flow can be
controlled by varying the RMS value of AC voltage applied to the load and this type
of power circuit is caused as AC voltage regulator. Applications of AC voltage
regulator are in heating on load transformers for changing light controls, speed
controls and polyphase controls, induction motors and AC magnet controls for power
transfer. Two types of power control are normally used.
(1) ON-OFF control
(2) Polyphase Angle control
AC regulators are those converter which converts fixed ac voltage directly to
variable ac voltage of the same frequency. The load voltage is regulated by
controlling the firing angle of SCRs. AC voltage controllers are thyristor based
devices.
The most common circuit is the inverse parallel SCR pair in which two
isolated gate signals are applied. Each of the two SCRs are triggered at alternate half
cycles of the supply and the load voltage is part of input sine wave. The SCR is an
unidirectional device like diode, it allows current flow in only one direction but unlike
diode, it has built-in feature to switch ON and OFF. The switching of SCR is
controlled by gate and biasing condition. This switching property of SCR allows to
control the ON periods thus controlling average power delivered to the load.
In this circuit SCR1 is forward biased during positive half cycle and SCR2 is
forward biased during negative half cycle. SCR1 is triggered at the firing angle ωt=α
and supply voltage is impressed on the load resistance(R
L
). It conducts from the
remaining positive half cycle, turning OFF when the anode voltage becomes zero at
ωt=π.
SCR2 is triggered at the firing angle ωt=α+π and conducts till ωt=2π. Hence
the load is alternating in polarity and is part of sine wave. The firing angle of both
SCRs is controlled by gate circuit. The conduction period of SCR is controlled by
varying gate signals within specified values of maximum and minimum gate currents.
For gate triggering, a signal is applied between the gate and cathode of the
device. AC sources are normally used as gate signals. This provides proper isolation
between power.

DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:
If SCR’s are used to convert an AC voltage into DC voltage then they are
known as DC voltage regulators. Eg. Battery changes for high current capacity
batteries in DC voltage control only phase control is used.
The transformer is used to step down the voltage from 230V to 24V. This is
given as input to bridge rectifier. The bridge rectifier converts incoming ac signal to
unidirectional wave. Therefore we get full wave rectifier output at the output of bridge
rectifier. This is given as input to SCR. The gate of SCR is triggered with firing angle
of α. During positive half cycle, diode D1 and D2 conducts and during negative half
cycle, diode D3 and D4 conducts. The full wave rectified output is given to capacitive
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filter. The output of capacitor is dc that it eliminates ripple contents of bridge rectifier
output. The dc input is given to regulator IC. The unregulated output must be 2V
greater than regulated output voltage. The load current may vary from 0 to rated
maximum output current. The output voltage is regulated dc.


TABULAR COLUMN:

AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:


DRB 1 value(KΩ) Amplitude (V) T
ON
(ms)











DRB 2 value(KΩ) Amplitude (V) T
OFF
(ms)












DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:


DRB value(KΩ) Amplitude (V) T
ON
(ms)












Resistance R
L
(KΩ) Output (V)









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DESIGN:

AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR:
Triggering circuit for SCR:
12 V ac is rectified by diode BY 127. SCR 2P4M is used to trigger.
Let the current be 1mA. R=V/I=12V/1mA=12KΩ.
DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR:
Triggering circuit for SCR:
24 V ac is rectified by diode 1N4001. SCR TYN604 is used to trigger.
Let the current be 1mA. R=V/I=12V/1mA=12KΩ.

PROCEDURE:

AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. The supply is given by means of step down transformer.
3. Anode terminal of SCR1 is connected to the anode terminal of diode, is
connected to cathode of SCR1 by means of resistor as the load.
4. Hence the voltage regulation is verified at load terminal.

DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR:
1. Connect the two terminals at the top of bridge rectifier.
2. The positive terminal of the bridge rectifier is connected to one terminal at
the load and at the other terminal to anode terminal of SCR.
3. The pin 15 connected from the power supply to the load.
4. Then the DC voltage regulation is checked and verified.














RESULT:
Thus both AC and DC voltage regulators were designed, constructed and the
output waveforms were drawn.


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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




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Ex.No.3 SEQUENTIAL TIMER

AIM:
To design sequential timer to switch ON and OFF at least three delays in a
particular sequence using IC 555 timer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 IC 555 3
2 Bread Board 1
3 Resistors 33kO 3
100kO 3
220O 3
4 RPS 1
5 Connecting wires As required
6 Capacitors 10µf 3
0.01µf 6
7 LED 3


THEORY:

Sequential timer is the simplest formof the process control timer in which
many timing operations carried out sequentially one by one. Each timing operation is
kept in active condition for a predefined amount of time and then goes to off
condition. Similarly the controller activates all the operations as per the defined
timings.
This type of sequential controller is required for injection moulding machine,
back sealing experiments where it required to activate solenoids, relays other
activating mechanism for a predefined time sequentially one by one.
Sequential timer is used for control process. The timer IC 555 is operated in
monostable mode. The mode monostable multivibrator circuit is useful for generating
single output pulse of adjustable data form in response to a trigger signal. The width
of the output pulse depends only on external component connected to the op-amp. The
output of first multivibrator is given to the trigger input of the second one. Similarly it
is connected in sequential order. The time period of each timer determine the
triggering period of LED.







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PIN DIAGRAM:






MODEL GRAPH:




OBSERVATION:

LED 1 ON Time =

LED 2 ON Time =

LED 3 ON Time =



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DESIGN:

This relay should be energised for 1 sec.
ON Time T
H
=1.1*R*C
Here we design for 1 sec.
By choosing the value of R=100kO
The value of C approximated to C=10µf
Similarly we have
R
A
=R
B
=R
C
=R=100kO
C
A
=C
B
=C
C
=C=10µf

PROCEDURE:

1. The circuit connections were given as shown in circuit diagram.
2. The triggering is given to pin 2 of timer 1.
3. When the trigger pulse is given the LED glows one by one sequentially.


























RESULT:
Thus the circuits for sequential timer was designed, constructed and outputs
were verified.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FSK MODULATOR:

















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Ex.No.4 WIRELESS DATA MODEM

AIM:
To design, construct and test wireless data modem using FSK modulator(555)
and FSK demodulator (565).

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

THEORY:

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING:
A digital-to-analog modulation technique. Data is transmitted by shifting
between two close frequencies with ones represented by one frequency and zeroes by
the other.
Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a method of transmitting digital signals. The
two binary states, logic 0 (low) and 1 (high), are each represented by an analog
waveform. Logic 0 is represented by a wave at a specific frequency, and logic 1 is
represented by a wave at a different frequency. A modem converts the binary data
from a computer to FSK for transmission over telephone lines, cables, optical fiber, or
wireless media. The modem also converts incoming FSK signals to digital low and
high states, which the computer can “understand”.
Whenever the message or information signal rides over the carrier it is called
modulation. In electrical sense the operation of riding over the amplitude of carrier
means to alter the amplitude of carrier. This is called amplitude modulation of the
carrier. Thus the message signal becomes the modulating signal and it is transmitted
by variations in the amplitude of the carrier.
The transmission media suffers three major problems
A. Attenuation
B. Distortion
C. Noise

S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC557 1
2 IC 555 , 565 , 741 Each one

3 Resistors 58KO
47KO
1KO
10KO
600O
1
2
1
5
2
4 Capacitors 0.01µf , 0.1µf
0.02µf
2
5
5 AFO & CRO 1
6 RPS & Dual RPS 1
7 Bread board & Connecting wires As required
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FSK DEMODULATOR:
















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Due to these inherent problems, it is very difficult to have wide range of
frequency in the signals that are transmitted. Therefore to transmit data over wireless
medium, it is necessary to use a modulator which restore the number of frequency in
the transmitted signal by employing digital modulation techniques like ASK, FSK or
PSK. Also Binary PSK with non-coherent detection can also be employed.
A modem is a device that takes the digital electrical pulses from a terminal or
computer and converts them into continuous analog signal that is used for
transmission. The binary FSK technique is employed for modulating the digital
signals. IC 555 timer and transistor acting as switch, when the device acts as
transformer. PLL IC 565 can be used for demodulator. It consists of phase detection
LPF amplifier.


DESIGN:
FSK MODULATOR:
ON time T
H
=0.693R
B
C
OFF time T
L
=0.693(R
A
+R
B
)C
Total time T=T
H
+T
L
=0.693(R
A
+2R
B
)C
1
f
1
=-------------------------- ÷(1)
0.69(R
A
+2R
B
) C
1

1
f
2
=------------------------------------ ÷(2)
0.69(R
A
+2R
B
) C
1
C
2

-----------
C
1
+C
2
Duty cycle D=ON time/Total time=(R
B
)/(R
A
+2R
B
)=0.3
R
B
=0.3R
A
+0.6R
B

R
B
=0.75R
A

Let f
1
=1050 Hz, f
2
=1250 Hz, C
1
=0.01µf
From (1)
1
1050=---------------------------------
0.69(R
A
+2*0.75R
A
) 0.01µf


1
=---------------------------------
0.69*2.5R
A
*0.01µf

R
A
=55.2KO

R
B
=0.75R
A

R
B
=41.4KO

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PIN DIAGRAM:



MODEL GRAPH:




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From (2)
1
1250=------------------------------------------------
0.69(55.2KO+2(41.4KO)) 0.01µf*C
2

----------------
0.01µf+C
2
0.01µf+C
2

C
2
=-----------------------------------
0.69(138KO)1250*0.01µf


0.01µf+C
2

C
2
=---------------
1.19
1.19C
2
- C
2
=0.01µf
0.19C
2
=0.01µf
C
2
=52.63 nf

FSK DEMODULATOR:
Upper cut off frequency of RC ladder circuit f
H
=1/(2tRC)
Assume R
2
=R
3
=R
4
=R
C
2
=C
3
=C
4
=C
f
H
=(key in frequency+2 maximum frequency)/2


=(150+2(1250))/2=1325Hz
Let C=0.02µf then R=1/(2tCf
H
)=1/(2t*1325Hz*0.02µf )=7KO
f
0
=0.3/(R
1
C
1
)
f
0
=(f
1
+f
2
)/2=(1050+1250)/2=1150Hz
Let C
1
=0.01µf
R
1
=0.3/(1150*0.01µf)=26KO
f
lock
=8f
0
/10=(8*1150)/10=920Hz
f
capture
should be less than f
lock
.
Choose f
capture
=400Hz
f
capture
=(1/2t)\(2t*f
lock
)/(R
0
C
0
)
R
0
=internal resistance=3.6KO

C
0
=(2tf
lock
)/(4t
2
f
capture
2
R
0
)=920/(2t(400)
2
*3.6KO)=254nf



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OBSERVATION:

INPUT:
Amplitude = V
ON time T
H
= ms
OFF time T
L
= ms
Frequency f = Hz

FSK MODULATOR:
For positive half cycle
Amplitude = V
ON time T
H
= ms
OFF time T
L
= ms
Frequency f = Hz

For negative half cycle
Amplitude = V
ON time T
H
= ms
OFF time T
L
= ms
Frequency f = Hz

FSK DEMODULATOR:
Amplitude = V
ON time T
H
= ms
OFF time T
L
= ms
Frequency f = Hz









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PROCEDURE:

FSK MODULATOR:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The digital input was applied at the input of FSK modulator.
3. The square wave output was noted in astable mode by CRO.

FSK DEMODULATOR:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The FSK modulated output is given as a input in the demodulation
circuit.
3. The output of the demodulator gives a modulating signal by using
voltage comparator was noted.






























RESULT:
Thus the circuit for wireless data modem using FSK modulator (555) and
demodulator (NE 656) were designed, constructed and outputs were verified.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


PIN DIAGRAM:





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Ex.No.5 PCB LAYOUT DESIGN USING CAD

AIM:

To design Component/Board layout, PCB layout of the given circuit
using AutoCAD 2000.

PROCEDURE:

1. Double click on AutoCAD 2000 or ACAD.
2. Ensure that you select metric (i.e. you are telling AutoCAD that you will be
drawing in metres and millimetres NOT feet and inches) in the dialog box.
3. AutoCAD will now create a new drawing file named drawing1.dwg.
4. Select various electronic components from FileOpenAutoCAD
folderSample folderDesign Center folderAnalog Integrated
Circuits& Basic Electronics& CMOS Integrated Circuits.
5. Thus Component/Board layout is drawn by various AutoCAD commands.
6. Then PCB layout is drawn by various AutoCAD commands.

COMPONENT/BOARD LAYOUT:











PCB LAYOUT:










RESULT:

Thus the Component/Board layout, PCB layout of the given circuit using
AutoCAD 2000 was designed.

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APPENDIX

AUTOCAD COMMANDS

“CAD is a abbreviation of Computer Aided Design and the term “Auto” indicates the
company Name AutoDesk Inc., U.S., developed the Package AutoCAD.
Starting AutoCAD:
First, your computer should have Windows XP or Win 2000 Operating System.When
u switch ON your computer, the Operating System is automatically loaded. Youcan
start AutoCad by double clicking on AutoCAD icon on desktop of a computer.
DONUT:
Draws filled circles and rings.
Command: Donut or Do
Specify inside diameter of donut<10.0000>:Enter your value
Specify outside diameter of donut<20.0000>:Enter your value
Specify center of donut or <exit>:Click any point as center point

VIEWRES:
Sets the resolutions for objects in current view port.
Command:viewers
Do u want fast zooms[yes/no]<Y>: Press enter(fast zooms is no longer a functioning
option of this command and remains for script compatibility only)
Enter circle zoom present(1 – 20000 )<current>: Enter an integer from 1 – 20000 or
press Enter The model is regenerated.
VIEWRES controls the appearance of circles, arcs, ellipses and splines using short
vectors. The greater the no of vectors the smoother the appearance of circle or arc.
For eg if u create a very small circle and then zoom in it might to appear to be
polygon. Using VIEWRES to increase the zoom percentage and regenerate the
drawing updates and smoothes the circle appearance. Decreasing the zoom percentage
has the opposite effect.

Before VIEWRES After VIEWRES

VIEWRES at 15 VIEWRES at 500

AutoCAD is a popular program because it can be customized to suit an
individual's needs. The toolbars are a good example of this. You can have the toolbars
you use most often on the screen all the time. You can easily make them go away so
that you have more drawing space. You can also customize them so you have the
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most common commands on one toolbar. For example, the dimensioning toolbar is
one that you will not want taking up space on your screen while drawing, but is very
handy when you're dimensioning your drawing.
Opening AutoCAD
Open up AutoCAD, you should be greeted with a screen asking if you want to open
an existing drawing or start from scratch. (Dependant on your version of AutoCAD,
the screen will be slightly different - The image shown below is for AutoCAD 2002).



Select 'Create Drawings', then 'Start from Scratch'. Ensure that you select metric (i.e
you are telling AutoCAD that you will be drawing in metres and millimetres NOT
feet and inches).
AutoCAD will now create a new drawing file named drawing1.dwg.
AutoCAD will default to 'model space'. For now it is sufficient to say that model
space is the blank space where all the drawing is carried out. Paperspace (now called
Layout space since AutoCAD 2000) isn't really required until we are ready to plot
(print) the drawing.

Toolbars
There are many toolbars available in AutoCAD. Go to View >Toolbars from the drop
down menu to see them all. For now make sure that the following toolbars are
checked:

Draw - Contains AutoCADs most common drawing tools
Modify - Contains all of the common editing commands such as erase, copy etc.
Object Properties - Contains 'layer' information as well as object colours and line style
options. (Covered Later).
Standard Toolbar - Contains open & save options as well as zoom & pan options.
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Object Snap - AutoCAD's intelligent drawing aid - joins lines at specific points.
(Covered later).

Arrange the icons to where is comfortable for you (A typical layout is shown below):
The Command Line
The command line appears at the bottom of the AutoCAD screen (as shown above)
and displays the commands entered. Commands can be entered into the command line
in text format, or by using the icons or drop down menus. 'Old School' Cad users tend
to type each command into the command line, as was required with older versions of
AutoCAD. It is much quicker to familiarise yourself with the tool bars and drop down
menus. There are times however when commands need to be typed into the command
line, these will be covered later.

Drawing Technique - AutoCAD's Co-ordinate system
Just before we start drawing, one more important point. AutoCAD works on a
co-ordinate system. When drawing, we can be very precise and specify an exact point
in space where a line should begin or end. The 2D co-ordinates system is based on the
horizontal and vertical axis named x and y. (This is shown in the bottom left of the
AutoCAD drawing area, the X Y icon is called the UCS).


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Title Bar - This will show you what program you are running and what the current
filename is.
 Pull-down menus - These are the standard pull-down menus through which
you can access almost all commands.
 Main toolbar - This has most of the standard Windows icons, as well as the
most common AutoCAD commands.
 Property toolbar - This toolbar gives a way to quickly modify an object's
properties, such as layer and linetype.
 Floating toolbar - This is a toolbar that can be moved around the screen, or
'docked' as the main toolbar is.
 Drawing space - This is where you draw. You have an almost infinite area to
draw and this is just a 'section' of the entire space.
 Scrollbars - These work like in other windows programs. You can also use the
PAN command to move around your drawing.
 WCS Icon - This is here to show you which direction positive X and positive
Y go. The W means you're in the World Co-ordinate System. (It can be
changed to a User Co-ordinate System.)
 Status Bar Tray Icons - These icons give you updates on items like reference
files program updates and print status.
 Command line - When you type a command, you will see it here. AutoCAD
uses this space to 'prompt' you for information. It will give you a lot of
information and tell you where you are in the command. Watch this line while
learning.
 Status bar - This allows to see and change different modes of drawing such as
Ortho, Osnaps, Grid, Otrack, etc.
 Tool Palette - Collection of tools in one area that can be organized into
common catagories.
Command Keystroke Icon Menu Result
Properties PROPERTIES

Modify >
Properties
Displays the
properties of
the object in the
Properties
Palette






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Command Description Options
COPY
or
CP
Draws a copy of selected objects using two methods -
- "base point" method, or "displacement" method.
M Allows multiple copies
to be made of an object
BASE Specifies origin of current drawing for subsequent
insertion into another drawing -- is normally set to
point 0,0,0
can be transparent
DONUT
or
DOUGHNUT
Draws filled rings with specified inside and outside
diameters

ERASE or E Erases selected entities from the drawing
EXPLODE Separates a block, dimension or hatch pattern into its constituent entities or makes a
polyline into a series of straight lines. In the case of a block that is exploded, if it
was originally drawn on the 0 layer, it returns to that layer, regardless of the layer it
was inserted on, and it loses its referential connection to the original block. In the
case of a dimension or hatch pattern that has been exploded, their parts go back to
the 0 layer, and are assigned the logical color (BYBLOCK) regardless of the layer
they were drawn on. In the case of an exploded polyline, it loses any width it may
have had.
LINE or L Draws straight lines <RET>In reply to From Point: prompt, line begins at
end of previous line or arc
C In reply to To point: prompt, closes the polygon
back to first "From Point"
U In reply to To point: prompt, undoes last line
segment
MOVE or M Moves designated entities to another location
NEW Creates a new drawing. When selected from a menu or typed in at the
Command: prompt, this command brings up a dialogue box which allows setting
a name for the new drawing by typing the name in the box, selection of a
"prototype" drawing or typing a name of the new drawing and then an =sign
and then the name of a drawing to be used as a prototype.
OFFSET Creates a new line, polyline arc or circle parallel to the <number> specifies
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entity and at a specified distance from it. offset distance
T "Through" allows
specification of a point
through which the
offset line, polyline,
arc or circle is to pass
OPEN Opens an existing drawing
ORTHO Constrains drawing so that only lines aligned with the
grid can be drawn -- usually means only horizontal or
vertical lines, however, if the crosshairs are rotated
through the "Snap" "Rotate" command sequence, the
lines drawn are constrained to being parallel with the
crosshair rotation. Constraint can be overridden by
snapping to a point or by entering exact coordinates for
endpoints.
can be transparent
OSNAP Enables points to be precisely located on reference
points of existing objects. This is the so-called
"Running Mode" of OSNAP, which sets selection
method to run continuously until set to NON (none) or
until overridden by selecting another "Interrupt Mode"
OSNAP method from the cursor menu. Combinations
of OSNAP methods can be used by selecting a series of
options separated by commas. For instance, if you want
ot always pick either endpoints or intersection points
when locating endpoints of lines, you would issue the
command as follows:
OSNAP <RET>END,INT <RET>
can be transparent
CEN CENter of arc or
circle
END closest
ENDpoint of arc or
line
INS INSertion point of
Text or Block
INT INTersection of
line, arc, or circle
MID MIDpoint of
line, arc, rectangle
side, or polygon side
NEA NEArest point
selected by aperture on
line, polyline, arc, or
circle
NOD NODe (another
name for a Point)
NON NONe -- used
when a "Running
OSNAP" is on to
temporarily turn off
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OSNAP selection
PER PERpendicular
point to line, arc or
circle -- when used
with an arc or circle it
will draw a line to the
surface of the arc or
circle heading toward
the center point
QUA QUAdrant point
of arc or circle (top,
bottom, right or left
side)
QUI QUIck mode --
this is a modifier to
one of the other
OSNAP options -- it
will find the first point
that meets the
requirements, not
necessarily the closest
point to the aperture.
TAN TANgent point
to arc or circle
QSAVE Saves the current drawing "Quickly" without requesting a filename (as long as file
has already been given a name)
QUIT Exits AutoCAD -- if the current drawing has not been Saveds in its current state, a
dialogue box will appear asking if you want to Save the drawing, Discard the
changes, or Cancel the Exit command
SNAP Specified a round-off interval for point entry so
that entities can be placed at precise locations
can be transparent
<number>sets snap alignment
resolution
ON aligns designated points
OFF does not align designatged
points
A sets aspect ratio (differing X
and Y spacing)
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R Rotates the snap grid and
crosshairs, and turns on SNAP
after, if not already turned on
S Selects either Standard
(rectangular) or Isometric Snap
grid
TEXT Draws text characters of any size with selected
styles
J Prompts for justification
options
S Lists or selects text style
A Aligns text between two
points, with style-specified
width factor, AutoCAD
computes approximate height
proportional to length of text
line
C Centers text horizontally
about a defined point
F Fits text between two points,
with specified height,
AutoCAD computes
approximate width factor to fill
the distance between the two
points
M Centers text horizontally and
vertically about a defined point
R Right-justifies text
BL Bottom Left justification
BC Bottom Center justification
BR Bottom Right justification
ML Middle Left justification
MC Middle Center justification
MR Middle Right justification
TL Top Left justification
TC Top Center justification
TR Top Right justification
VIEWRES Allows you to control the precision and speed of circle and arc drawing on the
monitor by specifying the number of sides in a circle. Acts like an AutoCAD
variable. Recommend that it be set to 2000.
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ZOOM Enlarges or reduces the display
magnification of the drawing, without
changing the actual size of the entities
can be transparent
<number>multiplier from original
magnification
<number X> multiplier from
current magnification
<number XP>multiplier of
magnification relative to paper
space -- used for plotting to get
right plot scale in each viewport
A ("All") fills limits of drawing to
screen
C ("Center") makes picked point
the center of the screen
D ("Dynamic") makes an adjustible
rectangular lens appear on the
screen which is capable of being
made smaller or larger and moved
to different positions over the
drawing and once set by the user,
the drawing will quickly zoom to
the location and magnification set
for the lens. This sub-command is
no longer useful because all
computers have very fast zooms
naturally now.
E ("Extents") makes the farthest
edges of the actual visible drawing
fill up the graphics screen
L ("Lower-Left") makes the point
picked become shoved to the lower-
left corner of the graphics screen
P ("Previous") zooms back to
whatever the last zoom, previous to
the current zoom was -- AutoCAD
stores about 10 of these, so you can
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walk backward in zoom
magnification 10 times
V ("Virtual Screen") makes the
largest area available to the
graphics card fill the graphics
screen -- this varies with the
quantity of graphics RAM that your
graphics card has
W ("Window") asks you to pick the
lower left corner and the upper right
corner of a zoom window and then
fits that window to the graphics
screen





















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Ex.No.6 MICROCONTROLLER BASED SYSTEMS DESIGN

AIM:
To design microcontroller based system for simple applications like security
systems combination lock etc. using 89c series flash micro controller.


APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. PC with windows operating system, RIDE IDE software, WINISP
software
2. 8051 microcontroller
3. RS 232C Serial Cable
4. Home Security System


PROCEDURE:
1. Use RS 232C Serial Cable to connect 8051 microcontroller through serial
port.
2. Set the DIP switch as follows
DIP switch1: RS 232
DIP switch2: PGM for Programming Flash mode, EXE for execution
Mode DIP switch3: INT
3. Write the ALP program (text document) in notepad, save as ASM
language (ASM format) in Micro 51.
4. Set the DIP switch2 in PGM for Programming Flash.
5. Run WINISP.
6. Set the parameter for the following fields in WINISP window
A CHIP: P89C51RD2
B PORT: Select Serial port connected to RS 232C Serial Cable
C OSC: 12MHz
7. If flash is not blanked, perform erase operation.
8. Load hexa file containing the object code to be programmed into flash
from Micro 51 by clicking load file.
9. Program the flash by clicking program part.
10. Set the DIP switch2 in EXE for execution mode.
11. Enter the password in Home Security System.
12. If a valid password is given, door will open.

RESULT:
Thus microcontroller based system for simple applications like security
systems combination lock etc. using 89c series flash micro controller was
designed and executed.

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PROGRAM:

$include(reg51xa.inc)
org 0000h;

IOCONT equ 0ffc0h ;
DCONT equ 0ffc4h ;address assign for lcd data line
CONTR1 equ 0ff0fh ;Control register of the 8255_1.
Port1A equ 0ff0ch ;Port A
Port1B equ 0ff0dh ;Port B
Port1C equ 0ff0eh ;Port C
Contr equ 0ff13h ;Control register of the 8255_2.
PortA equ 0ff10h ;Port A.
PortB equ 0ff11h ;Port B.
PortC equ 0ff12h ;Port C.

call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#38h ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; 5*7 matrix lcd init.


call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#80h ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; starting location .

call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#04h ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; Set cursor move direction.

call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#0Eh ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; enable display,cursor ,cursor blining


call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; clear display.



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mov dptr,#MYDATA ;
mov r7,#80h ;1st line data display
mov r3,#16 ; r3 load display characters length
lcall display ;call display routine

mov dptr,#MYDATA1 ;
mov r7,#0c0h ;2nd line data display
mov r3,#16 ; r3 load display characters length
lcall display ; call display routine
call delay ;
call delay ; call delay routine
mov r4,#3 ;this value initialise for no time wrong password access

jump_start:call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; clear display.
mov dptr,#MYDATA2 ;
mov r7,#80h ;1st line data display
mov r3,#9 ; r3 load display characters length
lcall display ;


;~~~~~~
;4*4 matrix key read
;8255_1 Assign Port A and Port C are output port and port B is input port
key_start:mov dptr,#CONTR1 ;Dptr load Control register address.
mov A,#83h ;Acc load 83hex.
movx @dptr,A ;Dptr point to Acc .
mov r2,#06 ;no of character use in password.
mov dptr,#4000h ;dptr contain address of 4000h.;this address location
continiously contain password character.
back_keystart:mov r0,dpl ;dpl contain lower byte of dptr.
mov r1,dph ;dph contain higher byte of dptr.
dec r2 ;decrement r2 value.
mov a,r2 ;Acc load r2.
jnz getdata ;Acc!=0 load another char.
ljmp end1 ;If Acc==0 goto password compare.
getdata:mov A,#00 ;Acc load 0.
mov dptr,#Port1A ;PortA init.
movx @dptr,A ;Port1A load 0.
continue:mov dptr,#Port1B ;key Read continiously checking
movx A,@dptr ;Acc load dptr point to the value.
anl A,#0fh ;logical operation of Acc and 0f.
cjne A,#0fh,key_Next ;if Acc!=0x0f read char
sjmp continue ;if Acc==0x0f key continiously checking


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;ROW 1 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
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key_Next:mov a,#0eh ;Acc load 0x0e.0x0e is 4th row of key pad.
mov dptr,#Port1A ;dptr load port1A address.
movx @dptr,A ;dptr point to Acc.Port1A load Acc value.
mov dptr,#Port1B ;dptr contain Port1B address.
movx A,@dptr ;Acc load dptr point to the value.
anl A,#0fh ;AND operation for Acc and 0x0f.
cjne A,#0fh,ctrow1 ;compare Acc and 0x0fh
sjmp row1 ;Acc==0x0f go to row1.if Acc!=0x0f go to ctrow1.
ctrow1:cjne A,#0eh,Next30 ;compare to colomn wise key.
mov A,#30h ;Acc load
0x30.0x30 ASCII char is '0';
ljmp key_end ;
Next30:cjne A,#0dh,Next31 ;
mov A,#31h ;Acc load 0x31.0x31 ASCII char is '1';
ljmp key_end ;
Next31:cjne A,#0bh,Next32 ;
mov A,#32h ;Acc load 0x32.0x32 ASCII char is '2';
ljmp key_end ;
Next32:cjne A,#07h,row1 ;
mov A,#33h ;Acc load 0x33.0x33 ASCII char is '3';

ljmp key_end ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ROW 2 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

row1 :
mov a,#0dh ;Acc load 0x0d.0x0d is 3rd row of key pad.
mov dptr,#Port1A ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov dptr,#Port1B ;
movx A,@dptr ;
anl A,#0fh ;
cjne A,#0fh,ctrow2 ;
sjmp row2 ;
ctrow2:cjne A,#0eh,Next34 ;
mov A,#34h ;Acc load
0x34.0x34 ASCII char is '4';
sjmp key_end ;
Next34:cjne A,#0dh,Next35 ;
mov A,#35h ;Acc load 0x35.0x35 ASCII char is '5';
sjmp key_end ;
Next35:cjne A,#0bh,Next36 ;
mov A,#36h ;Acc load 0x36.0x36 ASCII char is '6';
sjmp key_end ;
Next36:cjne A,#07h,row2 ;
mov A,#37h ;Acc load 0x37.0x37 ASCII char is '7';
sjmp key_end ;




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;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ROW 3 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

row2:
mov a,#0bh ;Acc load 0x0b.0x0b is 2nd row of key pad.
mov dptr,#Port1A ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov dptr,#Port1B ;
movx A,@dptr ;
anl A,#0fh ;
cjne A,#0fh,ctrow3 ;
sjmp row3 ;
ctrow3:cjne A,#0eh,Next38 ;
mov A,#38h ;Acc load
0x38.0x38 ASCII char is '8';
sjmp key_end ;
Next38:cjne A,#0dh,Next39 ;
mov A,#39h ;Acc load 0x39.0x39 ASCII char is '9';
sjmp key_end ;
Next39:cjne A,#0bh,Next41 ;
mov A,#41h ;Acc load 0x41.0x41 ASCII char is 'A';
sjmp key_end ;
Next41:cjne A,#07h,row3 ;
mov A,#42h ;Acc load 0x42.0x42 ASCII char is 'B';
sjmp key_end ;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ROW 4 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

row3:
mov a,#07h ;Acc load 0x07.0x07 is 1st row of key pad.
mov dptr,#Port1A ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov dptr,#Port1B ;
movx A,@dptr ;
anl A,#0fh ;
cjne A,#0fh,ctrow4 ;
sjmp key_end ;
ctrow4:cjne A,#0eh,Next43 ;
mov A,#43h ;Acc load
0x43.0x43 ASCII char is 'C';
sjmp key_end ;
Next43:cjne A,#0dh,Next44 ;
mov A,#44h ;Acc load 0x44.0x44 ASCII char is 'D';
sjmp key_end ;
Next44:cjne A,#0bh,Next45 ;
mov A,#45h ;Acc load 0x45.0x45 ASCII char is 'E';
sjmp key_end ;
Next45:cjne A,#07h,key_end ;
mov A,#46h ;Acc load 0x46.0x46 ASCII char is 'F';
sjmp key_end ;
key_end : mov r7,A ;
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call display2 ;display key read char.
mov dpl,r0 ;
mov dph,r1 ;
mov A,r7 ;
movx @dptr,A ;get char Store to Dptr .Dptr Base address 4000h.
inc dptr ;Vary dptr.each char contion cotinious memory 4000hto4004h.
lcall delay ;delay routine.
jump:ljmp back_keystart ;if get another char goto back_key start.
END1:lcall compare ;two string compare routine.; compare Enter password
routine compare :
mov r2,#5 ;r2 load count of char .
mov dptr,#Password ;dptr contain base address of the Password.
mov r3,#00 ;r3 load 0x00.
equal:mov r0,dpl ;r0 contain lower byte of dptr.
mov r1,dph ;r1 load higher byte of dptr.
mov a,#00 ; Acc load 0x00;
movc a,@a+dptr ;Acc contain code segment data.
mov B,A ;B reg. load Acc.
mov dptr,#4000h ;dptr contain address 4000h.
inc r3 ;
mov a,r3 ;
sjmp jump2 ;
incr: inc dptr ;
jump2:djnz r3,incr ;
mov r3,A ;
mov A,#00 ;
movx a,@dptr ;
cjne A,B,NOT_equal ;compare Acc value And B reg.value.
mov dpl,r0 ;
mov dph,r1 ;
inc dptr ;
djnz r2,equal ;
lcall step_motor ;Call step_motor routine .
mov r4,#3 ;
ljmp jump_start ;
NOT_equal:djnz r4,busser_0ff ;
mov A,#82h ;
mov dptr,#CONTR1 ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#Port1C ;minimum 3 times Put wrong password.after buffer is ON.
movx @dptr,A ;
lcall access_stop ;display Access denied.and system not access it when after
reset.
sjmp Re_start ;
busser_0ff:call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; clear display.
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mov dptr,#MYDATA4 ;
mov r7,#80h ;1st line data display
mov r3,#16 ; r3 load display characters length
lcall display ;
mov dptr,#MYDATA5 ;
mov r7,#0c0h ;2nd line data display
mov r3,#16 ; r3 load display characters length
lcall display ;
lcall delay ;
lcall delay ;
ljmp jump_start ;
Re_start:sjmp Re_start ;

;Access denied subroutine
access_stop : call Bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ; clear display.
mov dptr,#MYDATA6 ;
mov r7,#80h ;1st line data display
mov r3,#16 ; r3 load display characters length
lcall display ;
ret ;


;Stepper motor routine
;stepper motor rotate clockwise and anticlockwise direction
;control register set 0x80 all Ports are output port.
step_motor :
mov A,#80h ;
mov dptr,#Contr ;Control register address assign Dptr.
movx @dptr,A ;all ports are output port.
;Stepper motor rotate forward direction
mov r3,#0 ;
back5:mov dptr,#Port1C ;
movx A,@dptr ;
jz forward_end ;
mov dptr,#stepper ;
mov r1,dpl ;
mov r2,dph ;
mov r0,#04h ;
call rotate ;call rotate subroutine.
inc r3 ;
mov a,r3 ;
cjne a,#13,back5 ;
forward_end:call delay ;
;Stepper motor rotate reverse direction
back_6:mov dptr,#reverse ;
mov r1,dpl ;
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mov r0,#04h ;
call rotate ;call rotate subroutine.
djnz r3,back_6 ;
ret ;


;door delay routine
delay1 : mov r7,#01h ;
back3:mov r6,#0A1h ;
back1:mov r5,#0ffh ;
next:djnz r5,next ;
djnz r6,back1 ;
djnz r7,back3 ;
ret ;

;Steper motor rotate clockwise and anti clockwise direction.
rotate : back_:mov a,#0h ;
movc A,@A+dptr ;
mov dptr,#PortA ;
movx @dptr,A ;
call delay1 ;
inc r1 ;
mov dpl,r1 ;
mov dph,r2 ;
djnz r0,back_ ;
ret ;


;Bussy_check subroutine
Bussy_check :
mov A,#02 ;
mov dptr,#IOCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
back:movx A,@dptr ;
anl A,#80h ;
cjne A,#00,back ;
mov A,#00 ;
mov dptr,#IOCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
ret ;

;lcd enable rotine
lcd_IOCONT :
mov A,#00 ;
mov dptr,#IOCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
ret;


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;lcd display subroutine
display :
back4:mov A,r7 ;
mov r0,dpl ;
mov r1,dph ;
call bussy_check ;
call lcd_IOCONT ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
mov A,r7 ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov dpl,r0 ;
mov dph,r1 ;
mov a,#0h ;
movc A,@A+dptr ;
mov r6,A ;
call bussy_check ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#IOCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov A,r6 ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov dpl,r0 ;
mov dph,r1 ;
inc r7 ;
inc dptr ;
djnz r3,back4 ;
ret ;

display2 :call bussy_check ;
mov A,#01 ;
mov dptr,#IOCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
mov A,#2ah ;
mov dptr,#DCONT ;
movx @dptr,A ;
ret ;

;delay routine
delay: mov r7,#003h ;
back_3:mov r6,#0ffh ;
back_1:mov r5,#0ffh ;
next_:djnz r5,next_ ;
djnz r6,back_1 ;
djnz r7,back_3 ;
ret ;




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MYDATA :db " Vi Security " ;
MYDATA1 :db " System ";
MYDATA2 :db "Password: ";
MYDATA3 :db 0eh,0dh,0bh,07h ;
Password :db "00000";
reverse :db 0ah,06h,05h,09h ; ANTI CLOCKWISE DIRECTION
stepper :db 09h,05h,06h,0ah ; CLOCKWISE DIRECTION
MYDATA4 :db " checkyour ";
MYDATA5 :db " Pass word ";
MYDATA6 :db " Access Denied " ;
end;






































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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION:














































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Ex. No.7 DESIGN OF AM MODULATION AND DEMODULATION
Date:

AIM:
To design AM signal using multiplier IC for the given carrier frequency and
modulation index and demodulate

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 IC MC1496 1
2 Bread Board 1
3 Resistors 51O,1 kO,6.8
kO,50 kO
3,5,1,1
4kO,750 O,1.2
kO,600 O
220 kO
2,2,1,1,
1
4 RPS 1
5 Connecting wires As required
6 Capacitors 10µf 1
0.001µf,0.1µf,0.0
1µf
1,2,1
7 FG 2
8 Diode IN 4001 1



PROCEDURE:

- Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
- Give the modulating signal to pin no 10 through the FG.
- Give the carrier signal to pin no 10 through the capacitor of 0.1µf using
another FG.
- Note down the AM signal at pin no 6.
- Choose the amplitude level of converter keeping frequency at constant depth
of modulation was calculated.
- Give AM signal to pin no 1 of demodulator circuit.
- Note down the demodulator signal at pin no 2 of IC 1496.








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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
AMPLITUDE DEMODULATOR:

















MODEL GRAPH:











TABULATION:















THEORY:
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Modulation: It is the process in which the characteristics of high
frequency carrier wave is varied in accordance with instantaneous value of
other wave.

Amplitude Modulation: The amplitude of carrier wave is varied in accordance
with the instantaneous values of message signal is called amplitude
modulation.The bandwidth of the AM is twice the bandwidth of the base band
signal. The amplitude modulation wave also produces two sidebands(Upper
and Lower).

The extent of amplitude variation in AM about unmodulated carrier amplitude
is measured in terms of a factor called modulation index defined as the ratio
of modulating signal amplitude to carrier amplitude. This factor also known
as depth of modulation, degree of modulation and modulation factor(ma).

If ma<1 then the modulation is called under modulation, ma>1 then the
modulation is called over modulation, ma=1 then the modulation is called
critical modulation.

AM Demodulation: It is the process of extracting the message signal by using
a same carrier that was used for modulation from the modulated signal.

The most commonly used AM detector is simple diode detector. The
signal at the secondary is half wave rectified by diode D. This diode is the
detector diode the resistance R is the load resistance to rectifier and C is the
filter capacitor. In the positive half cycle of the AM signal diode conducts and
current flows through R, where as in negative half cycle, the diode is
reverse biased and no current flows. Therefore only positive half of the AM
signal appears across R. Capacitor reconstructs the original modulating signal
and high frequency carrier is removed.









Result:
Thus the AM modulation and demodulation circuits were constructed
and modulation index was calculated.


CIRCUIT DIAGARM:
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FREQUENCY MODULATION:











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Ex. No.7 DESIGN OF FM MODULATION AND DEMODULATION
Date:

AIM:
To design FM signal using IC 566 for the given carrier frequency and
demodulat the FM using PLLNE 565.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.
No
Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 IC 566 1
2 Bread Board 1
3 Resistors 39 kO,5.6 kO,
2.7 kO
1,1,
1
4 RPS 1
5 Connecting wires As required
6 Capacitors 0.01µf, 0.001µf 1,2
7 FG 1


THEORY:
Modulation:
It is the process in which the characteristics of high frequency carrier
wave are varied in accordance with instantaneous value of other wave.
Frequency Modulation:
Frequency modulation is the process of varying the frequency of a
carrier wave in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal
without any variation in the amplitude of the carrier wave. Because the amplitude of
the wave remains unchanged, the power associated with an FM wave is constant.
When the modulating signal is zero, the output frequency equals f
c
(centre frequency).When the modulating signal reaches its positive peak, the
frequency of the modulated signal is maximum and equals(f
c
+f
m
). At negative peaks
of the modulating signal, the frequency of the FM wave becomes minimumand equal
to (f
c
- f
m
).Thus, the process of frequency modulation makes the frequency of
the FM wave to deviate from its centre frequency(f
c
).By an amount ( +or - Δf) where
Δf is termed as the frequency deviation of the system. During this process, the total
power in the wave does not change but a part of the carrier power is transferred to the
side bands. There are two types of FM they are
1.Narrow band FM
2.Wide band FM

Frequency demodulation
It is a process which is used to receive the origin of signals.


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MODEL GRAPH:














TABULATION:


































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PROCEDURE:

- Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
- Give the modulating signal to pin no 5 through the FG.
- Note down the corresponding amplitude and time period of the FM modulated
signal.
- Apply the modulated signal as input to the PLL.



































RESULT:

Thus the frequency modulation and its demodulation circuits were designed
and waveforms are plotted.


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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
















TRUTH TABLE:































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Ex. No.8 PSUEDO RANDOM SEQUENCE GENERATOR
Date:

AIM:
To generate the pseudo random sequence using linear feedback shift
register and verify the output using truth table.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.DFF(IC 7484)
2.XOR (IC 7486)
3.Digital Trainer kit
4.connecting wires

PROCEDURE:

- Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
- Logic inputs are given as per the circuit diagram.
- Observe the output and verify the the truth table.


























RESULT:

Thus the pseudo random sequence was generated using linear feedback shift
register and the output was verified using truth table.
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ALU PROGRAM:















































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Ex. No.9 DESIGN OF ARITEMETIC LOGIC UNIT
Date:

AIM:
To write HDL program for designing arithmetic logic unit and
simulate it using xilinx ISE9.2i.

SOFTWARE USED:

XILINX ISE 9.2i


PROCEDURE:

i) Open project navigator.
ii) Go to the file and click the new project
iii) Type the project name as “synthesis”
iv) The “property wizard” is open to check all properties such as
product, categories, family, device etc. then click next
v) Create new source wizard appears then click next
vi) Project summary is displayed then click next
vii) Go to the project and click “new source”
viii) Then type the full name “half adder” as well as select verilog
module then click next
ix) “Define module window” here we assign the input and output of
half adder, clicks next and click finish
x) Type the program and save it
xi) Make sure that the source is in “BEHAVIOUR”
xii) Then click the ISE simulator and view the signal window
xiii) Force the input data corresponding circuit
xiv) Simulate the program using ISE simulator













RESULT:

Thus the HDL program was written for arithmetic logic unit and
simulated using xilinx.

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Ex. No.10 DESIGN A DSP BASED SYSTEM FOR ECHO CANCELLATION
Date:

AIM:
To write A Matlab program for echo cancellation.

SOFTWARE USED:

Matlab


PROGRAM:
clc; clear all; close all;
format short
T=input('enter the symbol interval T');
br=input('enter the bit rate value br');
rf=input('enter the roll off factor rf');
n=[-10 10];
y=5000*rcosfir(rf,n,br,T);
ds=[5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 5 5 5 5];
m=length(ds);
n1=length(y);
i=1;
z=conv(ds(i),y);
while (i)
z1=[z,zeros(1,1.75*br)];
z=conv(ds(i+1),y);
z2=[zeros(1,i*1.7*br),z];
z=z1+z2;
i=i+1;
end
%plot(z);
h=randn(1,length(ds));
rs1=filter(h,1,z);
for i=1;length(ds),
rs(i)=rs1(i)/15;
end
for i=1:round(x3/3),
rs(i)=randn(1);
end
fs=[5 5 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 5 5 5 2 5 2 5 2];
m=length(ds);
n1=length(y);
i=1;
z=conv(fs(i),y);
while(i)
z1=[z,zeros(1,1.75*br)];
z=conv(fs(i+1),y);
z2=[zeros(1,i*1.75*br),z];
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z=z1+z2;
i=i+1;
end
fs1=rs+fs;
ar=xcorr(ds,ds);
crd=xcorr(rs,ds);
l1=length(ar);
j=1;
for i=round(11/2):11,
ar1(j)=ar(i);
j=j+1;
end
r=toeplitz(ar1);
l2=length(crd);
j=1;
for i=round(12/2):12,
crd1(j)=crd(i);
j=j+1;

end
p=crd1;
lam=max(eig(r));
la=min(eig(r));
l=lam/la;
w=inv(r)*p;
e=rs-filter(w,1,ds);
s=1;mu=1.5/lam;
ni=1;
while(sle -10)
w1=w-2*mu*(e.*ds);
rs
y4=filter(w1,1,ds);
e=y4-rs;
s=0;e1=xcorr(e);
for i=1:length(e1),
s=s/length(e1);
if(y4==rs)
break
end
ni=ni+1;
w=w1;
end
figure(1);
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(z);
title('near end signal');
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(rs);
title('echo produced in the hybrid');
subplot(2,2,3);
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plot(fs);
title('desired signal');
subplot(2,2,4);
plot(fs1);
title(' echo added with desired signal');
figure(2);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(y4);
title('estimated echo signal using LMS algorithm');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(fs1-y4);
title('echo cancelled signal');































RESULT:
Thus the LMS Algorithm based Echo cancellation System has been
designed and verified using MATLAB.
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