'Jihe Stapleoton

hyeh~p ...... nt Pia ... defines: a n.ew develo,p· ment model for Denver 10r 1""",,, po·xi: co·nturl/".

The redeve'lopmool of the Stapleton s.l. Is bas4)d upo'n the principle 0' $y!:rtru~ .. ~mty. In ,addItion, tho physical Iplan Is based on, four 'ilP-JlIOrlOl,!"!t Il'oncepls= ~ the succossfull I'nta· 'gr,atlon Dr urban deve'l'opmentj, I .. nspo rt'aUon, nalural s.YGh .. ns and wildlife habitat; ,mg, a balanced mix of' uses and densities to PIIOVh,:lo vifi(;i ..... ~cc'essible. diverse 'neighborhoods ,and communltle,g; ~ a deslre' 10 IncorporQll!h Inlildl .. nd inliprov,e upon what is best about Denver~ neighborhoods. par'k$" 8.nd nalurar settings. and:fD.ur. _spo,nse to the environment. can· t .. xt and CHara.o1:et' of' the is.t,e and the communities thai surround it.





The Development Plan created for Stapleton is a, direct response to the contexts and principles described in the previous sections. Stapl,eton will be a unique mixed-use oommul1.ity capable of supponing more than 30,000 jobs and 25,000 residents. More than one third of the property will be managed for parks.recreation and open space purposes. Developed portions ofihe site will provide an integrated mix, of emp~oYll1e[lt. housing.recreation end access to public transportation,

SUlpktOIl'S reuse will support the health of surmnnding neighbornoods and provide .\luong ties [0 1J1C adjacem Rocky Mountam Arsenal National WildlHfe Area and LOWry educatioaal campus. Development and operation of the Stapleton community will provide a model for the region of serving the economic and socia] needs of people without degmdlng ihe natural environment. The process of restoration and redevelopment of the Stapleton s.ite will establish Denver and Colorado as world leaders in addressing the economic, social and environmental challenges of the next century.

The Plan reinforces Stapleton's role as a regional employment center, but through the creation of compact, accessible communities that integrate uses and create strong ties between the Stapleton site and the surrounding community.

s e ~I"H V" D Y t.o NT L ,,,.


Key F-eatures of the Vision

The Development Plan assigns approximately ,65 percent of Iti.e site 10 urban development and 35 percent to 11 mix. of open space uses, Development is organized ill ,eigITlt distincr districts. The districts each contain an identifiable center and emphasize the integration of employment and housing and walkable scale. The Plan reinforces Stapleton's role as a regional employment center, bUI, through the creation of compact, accessible ccmraunides that integrate uses and create strong ties between. the Stapleton site and the surrounding community, The open space system serves a major role in unifying the eigh~ districts, making effective regional connections and restoring l.lte ecological health ofnatural SYStelTIS on and otf the sae,

Any Development Plan for 8. site of mis sigruficant scale must provide a degree of:flexihility. The Development Plan identifies the general scale, character, density and mix of uses desired in each district. SpocillcJ1and uses, parcel conflgurations and the relationship between employmeru, hOl.lSil1g and other uses win vary as dcveloprneru proceeds. What are most important 10 establish now are the basic character of the site's mixed use districts and the basic comrramity lnfrastructure, open space, civic sires and other elements of the public realm which will guide the long-term development of'the site,

The Stapleton Development Plan describes a community that is different in irnportara respects mom IJHllly large scale suburboo. or urbaninfiIDl projects .. Key features of rile Development Plan include:

Li'nki:ftg the pifysiwl p.kmwith peQpfetluough tile illtegra~ tion of economit;: and social ol?jectives with development The challenge is not simply to fill available land or build buildings, it is to create successful communities for people, MoSL fundamental to the Stapleton Development Pian is HIe integralion of economic and social objectives with physical development. Creation of a new job base ill Stapleton provides an important oppornmity 10 increase and diversify employment opportunities available ill the City and County. Job creation




'11'0 SE'1I' THE ST .... GIEi FOR









Development of successful neighborhoods will require direct involvemerx in the namre and quality of educational and other services, enhancement of publicsafetyand promotion of opportunities for resident participation in all forms of governance and service delivery. The physical form of the community can do a great deal to support these objectives and foster a strong sense of community. Attention to the human aspects of development, however; win be essential for Stapleton to achieve ic~ stated objectives.

~ I" V A DL Y I 01£'" LAN VUH ...

must be accompanied by a commitmem \Q education, skill development and entrepreneurial oppornmity for disadvantaged and minority populations in our community.

Ali employment base of 30~OOO - 35,000 jobs can be ,cadil y accommodated over time on the site. The Havana. Street corridor and! areas north and south of 1~70 provide Significant opportunities for creating a manufacturing, assembly and distribution base OJ] the site. These areas offer rail service and easy interstate access. Section 10 on the far north and the interior area above the J-70 corridor provide significant office and research and development opportunities .. The area surrounding the existing terminal will become a regional destination uffering 11 mix of exhibition, entertainment, retail, office and other uses. Eaeh neighborhood center on the sire will also, provide opponunities for employment. In total, the Development Plan allocates roughly • ,200 Heres. or 54% of the developable land, to employment.usc.

The Plan also emphasizes establishing the site as III national cenleI for the development of environmental technologies, products and services; creating an environmental tecbnology incubator to support start up firms; creating tF.llirring and skill development programs designed to provide mea residents with the work skills needed by employers operating on the Stapleton site; and developing programs that encourage the participation of youth and! entrepreneurs, particularly from nlinority cotnmuaities.

Building true urban ",eighborlloods that have character, .identity ,and meet tile needrs of peopk

, Denver has a strong tradition of urban neighborhoods as the foundation of the commun~ty. The Development Plan reflects a strong cornmitrnent Lo the continuaiion of this tradition. Foremost, the Plan seeks neighborhoods that can enccurage and support diversity in age, income and ethnicity, These neighborhoods must be inclusive and accessible, Their physical form wiU emphasize defined centers for services and civic uses, walkable scale, access to ueerby employment, diverse transportation options, and strong connections to parks and mature. Theseare tm...my of the same qua1itie~ thal. have allowed some of Denver's strongest neighborhood to thrive over many decades of economic, sociaill. and technological change.

Within the ity and Counly of Denver. one percent of all public works projects must be invested iII public art. Public an, i an importanr pall of Denver's character. cultural expression and history, f1 creates memorable impressions in the rmnds of residents and visitors alike. The current ~ublic Art Program create. opportunities. for all people to experience art in a broad range of public spuce$. Stapleton will build UPUTli the m:i!;ting program by idenCizyillg additional funding sources and creating a Public Art Master Plan to provide guidelines ::lind a

vision for public art projects throughout the implernentation of the Development Plan, A Public An Master Plan will provide the opporumity for public art commission. within the site to re pond to the goals of the Development Plan, to provide a relationship between individual projects. and! provide a model for pnvare development on the site 10 incorporate public art.

Stapleton's mixed use neighborhoods can accommodate an ultimate population of approximately 10,000 households. The average density of residential areas for the entire site is roughly L2 units per acre, sufficienrto supportreasonable public trans" pOJ:i!atiun service. HIgher densities are provided for in close proximity to neighborhood centers, tm.J:]S,i~ stops and. major public amenities. Each neigbbozhocd on site is organszed around a center and provides a variety of mobility options beyond the automobile including walking, bus, bicycJIDg, rail transit (along the Smith Rood corridor) and the use of telecommunications to substitute for the need fm- travel.

School facilities will be located in neighborhood centers, w.ill be mulri-use community facilities and will. play a central role in the life of the surrounding neighborhood. Stapleton.neighborhoods will provide a range of housing types and densities that support diversity.

lnJ;eg.ra.ting nature and wildlife with tile urball ,enrinmment on a permanelJi basis

TIle open space system planned. for Stapleton is rich and diverse. The system. includes a wide runge of opportunities, from urban parks, trails and recreation facilities, to extensive nataral areas that suppO!1 significant wildlife and allow the restoration of native plant and animal communities that have been displaced or eliminased, This focus represents a return to Denver's naturai hersage as a city established on me prairie. In its scale and diversity. the Stapleton system is ulllike anything undertaken by this community since the Cillty and Cmrnly's basic urban aJIId mountain park systems wereestablished roughly a century ago,

The Stapleton open space system includes more than t,OOO acres of parks, trails, recreation facilitiesand natural: areas. The principletrail corridors are along Send Creek, Westerly Creek. and the newly created open spac-e corridor connecting Sand Creek with tih.e Rocky Meuntain Arsenal National Wildlife Area. The system includes a championship golr course above 1-70 anda nine-bole learning ceurse along Westerly Creek, A major ballfield and outdoorrecreation

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complex is loeated between Sand Creek and ]-,70 west of Yosemite Parkway. An urban agriculture remer and equestrian facility are accomrnodared on the north side of Sand Creek just west of Havana Street. A m..1jor urban park is provided at the confluence of Sand and, Westerly Creeks. as well as II number of smaller SCMe parks and public spaces. Parkways and landscaped drai~ways connect neighborhoods to each other and to the major components of the open space system. Signillcant areas of prairie and ripadan corridor restoration, partlculady in the northern half of the s.i~e" wi]] drd111atica'lly increase the wildlife habitat provided by the site. A 365-ll.cre Prairie Park in the far northern portion of the site, primarily above 56th Avenue, will bethe centerpiece of these restoration efforts,

The open space system is completely integrated with the' urban community that will develop around it.

Perhaps equally important, the open space SySt~Ilr1 is complete- 1y integrated with the urban community that will develop around it, The sys~em is functional It addresses stormwater luanagement, water qllalitty improvement, hrigatlon and other development requirements. n is also a. defining element of the ,oommtmitieslhaiL will emerge at Stapleton. All. portions of the slite and alltypes of land use have slrOng connections to the ~;ys~1!l. Denver isa city whose early identity was largely framed by parks and parkways. The transformation of Stapleton's Ldentity from airport to mixed use community will be even nlorodfuredly dependent an the development and care of its open, space and natural resources,

Implementing a more su.~tainable pattern of derelopment .tha:t supports economie tmdcommunity needs, but cons umes fewer natural. resourcesand creates fewer .impacts on (he niUll1Yll enviro.nment

The Development Plan is rooted in the presunrptionihal eeonomic, soc~all andnatural systems rmrst be sustainable over time. Our region is beautiful and fragile. and iIIL search of betier methods to accommodate our needs without degrading the nanrral heehh and. beauty of our home. The Stapleton Development PIm 31.reS.~CR efficiency in the use of resources and the reduction of enviromnen!al impacts,

This sastainable philosophy is reflected in many different aspects of the program, Land lise planning and comrnunisy de!lign slIess compact, mixed use communities that are walkable and transit-oriented. These cluaracreristics can reduce automobile dependence and crmssions and increase the efficieflcy of service delivery; Approaches to community infrasi:ru.cLure stress water reuse, energy and water censervarlon. renewable SOUrcM of energy supply and innovative stormwatermanagement approaches to maximize epportunities for on-site irrigation and water quatity improvement. The solid waste management strategy seeks to achieve 8 zero net corsribution from the site to local landfiils, in part druroUigh the creation of a "resource recovery village" on sire to promote waste minimization; recycling and reuse. Transportation technologies emphasize bus and rail transit, bicycling, walking and alternative fuels for vehicles. TI,e Development Plan also emphasizesthe need to support demollstrationsoitechnologies.and practices on gilt that support the-project'.'; basic sustainable development objectives.

Basic choices about 1aJ11d use patterns and cammunity infrastructure can have i'::11l0tm0I1S implications for the long-term resource needs and impacts of the Stapleton. community. The Development Plan identifies .imporlantc~oiccs that call result in infrastructureand operating practices that are efficient, affordable and more environmentally benign, In addition, the Pmn calls for approaches that provide the ultimate users of die site with more options, more information and more incentive to manage resources wisely. Stapleton is iliUl'ellded to be a place of innov uti on in these areas, and a center for the development of environmentally-oriented technologies. services and businesses.

The Development Plan identifies important choices that can result in irfrastructure and operating practices that are efficient,

affordable and more environmentally benign.

SEt..::,.IDI"-4 " A I 0.,..,. I-OS·MCN. PL.AN VI ION


Stapleton has the pO/ential to inregmre economic. social and envirorlmetUal obj~cJives in ajashion unique within the region. The re£'ullw/ll be anesuuordinary se! oj"c()ltImmtl'ies that comhinl! s(rong Den ver Jrodilions wit1lll(!wjol'rns or innovation. Definingfeatures will incltlde;

1. Link With Nature: Srapleion will demonstrate the m 0$1 successful integration of urban activity with wildlife and the natural environment in Colorado.

Sttlpietoll will serve as a catalyst for restor:atiol'l and Inti] development in the Sand Creek and Weme~ly Creek rorriders, Staplejon will] provide approximately 1,68(1 acres of open spare. much of 'it restored native grasslands. sneam eorrrdnrs and animal habitat. The Arsenal wildlife program willI 'be extended onto the StapletoI!l property amd cannected to the Sand Creek warerway, StrapletoIl and Lowry together will increase therecreatiaaal and open space opportmitiM p1'Ovkled by the Denver park system by 50 percent. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal. National Willdlife Area will become the premier urbsn wildlife refuge In the CQUDtty.

2. Urban Villages:

Development I}] S1!apletoll w ill occur in a series. of u rbal1 centers or villages. Each will provide :'I mix of emp loyment and housing. as well as walking access to public transportation and recreation. These ceaununides will be efficient people-oriented and accessible, They will support a diverslty of income. age and cthJl!ic groups and address the demand for locally accessible, quali!y public education,

.3. Mobility:

Stapleton must provide all unparalleled set of mobility options to employees, residents and visitors. These options must de-

emphasize the car and allow for dramatic reduction in the ownership, and usase of personal eutornobiles on the site. Walkable neighborhoods. housmg/employment links .. an attractive bikeway system and a vari.ety of forms of transit and paratransir will be used to expand mobility options.

4. Best Technotogies and Practices :

Stapleton will be developed with u commitment to use the best technologies an d Ilrtu.:ItiCC.'l available in creating and managing the urban environment Systems will be efficient. environmentally benign and economical,

5. "Green'" Business Elivil"Ornnent: SlaplelOll will be a regional employmern center and offew' a newenvironment for businesses seeking to reduce consumption of narural resources and become more competitive in a gIDobru. marketplace, Stapleton will offer all environment that encourages demonstrations and supports innovation, Sraplelol] will also be a center for envlmamenial business and a leader in advancing the developmem of environmentally-oriented products and services.

6. Community Linkage:

The economic opportunities created at Stapleton must be lied directly to individuals witli the h'JtRtestecolJomic needs. Job creation and investment at Staple[oR must be linked [0 training, skill developrnem und entrepreneurship opportunities. The outmigradon of middl income families must be reversed. Stapleton will be a tool for Investing in people and strengthening Ihe communities around the site, tlfld protecting and enhancing the social and economic well beill~ of children and their families,

7. Governance. Service Delivery and Panicipation:

Stdpieton provides [he opporn:ll'licy to explore new forms of governance. ser-

vice delivery and citizen participation that empower people. These features can expand opportunity. increase the level of community commitment and enhance the overall health of the community, Stapleton will encourage innovation and demonstrate new !lpproache.~ 1-0 the use of regulatory structures, market mecha-

ni!.'I11S and oornrnurrity-based initiatives.









T'UR.E!. il'RANSP,OR.'m'.ATI'DN.


... ·OU C,AN O:FTEN DEii' 'lSI! A



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The Development Plan presented here was not derived if! the; abstract and imposed 01'\ the site, The Development Plan bas grown out of a careful analysis that has considered the site's local and regional context. a wide variety of community objectives and a set of specific inrenricns regarding the purpose and form of this new community that are summarized in, the Guiding Principles presented, in Section IV of jhlsplen,

What follows hereare descriptions, ofthe essential structuring elements of the Development Plan - open space and parks. traI1fiportarjon, services and landuse and urban design" The layering and mtegratioll ,of these elements is whan defines the form and character ofthls "new" place, The approach taken places strong emphasis on the following;

• The community thl:l~ emerges at Stapleton must respond to its immediate neighborhood and regional context. Stapleton is not an island, but 3J pan: (If !he community fabric 'that must be reconneered. It's future lise will be .heavily influenced by existing patterns of land use and by larger narural, transponation and infrastructure systems (h<Jit cross and converge on the site,

• The pattern of urban development ontae property will be significantly shaped by restoration of natural. systems. and the ereation ofa new jpennanent open space system, Development and bealthy natural areas can be integrated on a permanent basis.

• The prov ision of In'U:lspOl1!:ation. and utility servicesto the new Stapleton OOJlIlmuruly is an integral componeat of comrnunity development. Decisions regarding these systems are fundamental to the form and life of tl1]S newcommunity .

• A conscious attempt has been made LO apply the principles, developed to the creation of viable urban aeighbornoods, The structure of these neighborhoods emphasizes districts with definablecenters; mixing of uses 10 support d.i1/ersiw,efticien~ -cy and mobility objectives: walkable scale. transiterientation,

and a defined hierarchy of streetsiprominent roles and locations for public spaces and civic uses: and an extension of some of the best ~ldii:fuoru; of Denver nei.ghborhood s, parks and public spaces.

The overall success of the environments created at Stapletoll for work, home, play and other uses will be a function of the abili~ to-thoroughly integrate land uses, man-made aad natural systems and me sire and its larger community coruext The [physical structure of the communiLy seeks no combine many old and new approaches, pursue efficiency and Hvability ssmultimeously, and create a diverse, urban mixed use. community mat call a.ttrnct the SUPPQrt of the marketplace aad the loyally and comminnear of lts residents and users,

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The structurIng elements of the development plnl'lj open space Rnd paril:!!II. tranll!pol't;at.ion. s..,.nrh.e .. , .and ,land ....... and uFban "eai'gn, win begin 10 o.rganize daveropment ,areall, on 'the Siapieion alte.



The Big Picture

Stapleton 'sopen space ~)'8I.em builds 011 Denver's rich park legacy of traditional community parks and recrearion facilities, parkways and greenbelts connecting neighborhoods, natural realUreS defining tile city and a. visionary string of mountain parks. The PI fin also expands (ill' tmditlonm ideas of a. park with irs Hi~ Pl:ainl.i landscape restoration, extensive natumJ systems, and commitmem towarer quality, wildlife and habitat development 'The Stapleton open space system is a blend of the best of Denver's past and present parks and a new attention 10 Denver's lost landscapes and critical need for env ironmental stewardship.

Approximately 35 percent of the Stapleton site will be devoted to some form of open space. This system will address a variety of goals fur Denver, including:

I, Contributing In a dramatic change in the physical appearance and identity of the Stapleton site. 'fhe investmentin open space will not only increase adjacent property values. it will expand martel opportunities" create long-term value and provide each new neighborhood with an identifiable center and defined edges.

2. Meeting local and regional demand for open space and recreation nppormniries. As important, Stapleton eaables Denver to providemajor; speciallzedreereation facilities For the city atlargellmt ifi cannot provide elsewhere. These facilities induCID alighted outdoor 1'lports complex, gomf courses. agricultural and equestrian facilities and a .Iarge urban park. for northeast Denver.

), Complementing Illite classic urban park system of the City and County, the mountain park system on the west. with a bold regional system on the east that celebrates, !be original. Denver landscspe of High Plalns plants, wa,ter and animals. The Stapleton system will support tiliterestoroliol1 of namral systems on sire and establish and maintain extensive. wildlife bnbitat.

"e" V .;

4. Prollidingcosn effective and environmentally beneficial approaches to water management on site. TIle open space sysrem is designed ro accommodate !ill offhe site's stonnwater management and m ('IOt..year flood control re(fIIirements.. The system also UIie8 natural ftllrJuon. constructed wetlands, water reuse and! other techniques to improve water quality and. minimize the use of SCarc-e water resources for irrigation.

5. Reconnecting Stapleton to the rest of the !;it,y and region. Maior regional trail connections willbe provided between Str<1pletoll and the Platte River and High Line Canaltrail systems, Lowry Air Force Base, the RockyMountain Arsenal Nationa] WildHfe Area and adjacent neighborhoods. These trail llnkages, along with extensions of Denver's historic parkways, will greatly encourage pedestrian W1d bicycle travel

Approximately .35 percent of the' Stapleton site will be devoted to parks, recre ... ation and open space.

Approximately 1,680 acres ·of the Plan is devoted to some form of park, open space or stormwner management. The break ~ down of components ofthe system is roughly as follows:

• formal parts (neighborhood and large urban). 250-275 acres. This commitment In formal parksis comparable to the ratio of parklaads to residents in other portions of Denver.

·0· special facilities (outdoor sports. complex, golf courses, agricui.mta1 center). 350-400 acres.

'. namral areas, creek and trail corridors and. floodplain (Sand Creek, Westerly Creek, Sand Hills Park). 600-650 acres.

• parkways and greenways carrying Stonilwater. 375-425 acres.

NOTE; Double CQunlingaj open space acreage occurs when areas perform multiple jUlictions.

:SOCIAL TOOL, PR!~A.I!·!':J.:'"







SIC",.'rtON v C I 0 V LOI"IIoN PLA

TVU r'"TU A IN lC- l N

Sustainable Re~'of"ce8

As rhis list indicates, lfile open space system planned for Stapleton is diverse and complex. Open space improvements will support restoration and enhancement ofhabkat in all areas ofthe Stapleton site. The reintroduction of original High

within a. renewed urban fabric. This goal, will be realized at many scales throughout Stapleton, from a regional scale establishment of sandhills prairie and restoration of the historic forested stream channels of Sand and Wesl:erly Creeks to the smallest habitat ~. in garrlens or schoolyards.

TIle components of the open space system must be carefully integrated in order LO prevent conflicts. No piece of the system can be oae-dimensional. A golf course, for instance, must support broader objectives such as habitat development, water

Plains landscapes will incorporate a variety of indigenous types conservation and reuse" ltraH connections, stormwater manage-

ofvegeration and provide a viable sc8Jle and healthy environ- ment and public access,

ment for wildl:ife. This restoration will affect the kind of trans-

formation of l:he who~e site that is. crucial to building the vision Managemenl amI Fnndiug

and identity of the new Stapleton, Healthy habitat areas will add A system of this scale and diversity will require new approach-

value to the site as aesthetic and recreational amenities. with es to development snd Iong-term funding and management

trails, 'wildlife viewing areas, picnic are ..... and volunteer resiora- Phasing wiU also be a critical issue since open space develop-

lion opportunities. These habil:lils will enhance and benefit from merit (and its costs) may precede adjacent residential and COrTI-

the storm water drainage system" and provide a model of mercia! development (and their revenues). Open space devel-

reduced irrigation demand in public spaces. opmen costs, like the rest of the infrasiructnre, will be shared by development fees, city funds, philanthropic and other exter-

The sustainability of indigenous landscapes depends not only 011 the restoration and protection of significant natural areas but also on maintaining vital biotic corridors, and OJ) landscape management practices !hat su tain the natural processes of the larger ecosystem, The goal is to restore and manage the indigenons plant andanimal communities of the Western High Plains

lIral!nage ComdQ!" I!m~r.ttiio.,=, A .,""""ol'k o' cI .... i ...... "'.,. corrido .......... ill co.,.. neel dovolopt'Hil neiglibomoods 10 W:estel'l'y' 'Creek and other primary dralnagewa~ •• senring 10 detain water and clea.n polluta.nts fraI!n'the urban runoff. A5slonnwoier infiltrates along the canal, It w II sustain II netwo!!'k of trv_ ~ ..... ~iOL A pedeshian. path Will allow access, tor periodic maintenance and cleaning.

nal SOIJrCCii of rnnainl;,: and otlJer special revenue mechanisms,

Long-term management and maintenance responsibilities will require similar sophistication, Formal parks. from neighborhood to large urban parks. and recreation facilities must be SIILPported either by city revenues generated by development en the site, special district fees or other financial tools. The regional, High Plains system will require apartnership with other interested agencies and jurisdictions, 1"111'\ extensive greenways carrying s~orrnwatel'. 100" must have a solid funding source to finance their maintenance. The development program must take advantage of opporturnnes to reduce costs and capture value through the development and operation of me open space system, Elements uf this system will increase adjacent land values and broaden market opportunity. The inregration of flood control, natural irrigation and WOller quality treatment through filtration can also offset costs that would otherwise be incurred for more expensive infrastructure to satisfy the same requirements. Native plaots and namral areas can also reduce overall maintenance requlremears,

TI1e parks plan below identifies the major componenta of the Stapleton open space system. These include:

1. Mqjo1' UrbaJ~ Part (Uli11'lud'E (HI 111£ (UX(jillpanying mop); This park, pklnned for the southern end of the sire. to the east of the termnal area, will be sim ilar to traditional Denver parks, such til; Wasrungtol1.. Cheesman and City Parks.

Jt will CO\!~r approxirnately 175 acres. bordered on two edges by Westerly and Sand Creek greenway corridors, The pad:: will accommodate a variety of 1l5eS - from playing fields to social garnering areas - serving as an amenity both for new residential and commercial development un the site, and for existing neighborhoods.

2. Swulhilb Prairie Pork (M un: tJU! map): This, park will 00 tbe defining characteristic for the northern half of the site. 11 will be approximately a 365-acre restoration of the originall.amdscape ~ of this area - the Sand Hills Prairie - bringing a sense of the High Plains back into Demel'. The park's topography of rolling sand hills, vegerared witli taU and short prairiegrasses, cottonwoods, willows and other shrubs. will attract a wide variety of birds ~md small mammals. Among other U.'IeS, the park: will provide I:lJ1 entryway into the - ational Wlldlife Refuge under development at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlite Area to the north. The scale ,and unique character of the site wIH require a major restoration effort. It will be managed to protect the restored prairie ecosystem, while providing maximum opportunities for public enjoyment and learning through bicycle!pedeslrian ttail systen1S, bird/animal watching, pienieing and scenic drives, restoration deruonstradon areas and volumeer ac:rivit:ies.

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The Sltaplatan P,aiilk,,!, Hu·creation and Opilln Space Plan will become .. na1:tllnallll' l"GCognbed mode'l or !l'ft$1;aralion and IntegratiDn of a dHet"Se ,set 01 urban and nalural land UIIIGIII.



3. Co1trtn.fmity Parks (A cmdGmllllap):

TIle plan calls for the creation or expansion or three communityscale parks of 20-40 acres each. These parks will featme playing fields and. in ~wo cases, be co-located with elementary schools.

4. Neighborhood Parks (8 tl1ld COli map): There will be several smaller parks (up 10 10 acres eacb) within easy walking distance for families and children, In some cases. these may serve as transition areas. between diffe:rent types of development (c.!!. single family homes, commercial areas and mllilriple family res i.deuces), or as importam components of a neighborhood center,

5. Parkways

(0 and POll map): Parkways will provide continuity bel ween L11Iditional Denver neighborhoods and new development at Stapleton. Parkways will be developed along selected major streets as well as Sl11aJJ neighborhood streets, where they will SCm: ~IS local park areas and enhance real estate values, Parkways will also inCOIPO "<lte grass-lined dirainage swales and trail systems in many area s,

6. Outiloo.r Sports Complex (I tm map): Adjacent to Sand Creek, a 107~ acre outdoor recreationul area will be accesr ible by bike. transh and car to groups both day and night. Tins area could poleruially include a full range of amenities. including lighted basketball CQUltS. ball fields. etc.

7. Go1/CorJrses (D and L on map):

TIle plan calls for two courses to be developed on the Stapleton sire: one, a youth tmining course and driving range' at the south end of the site ad~acent to Wcslerly Creek: and the other. ::m 18-hole championship golf course integrated with the Sand Hil1s Prairie restoration to the north. Both would seek to minimize environmental impact thrOL.lgh wmer reusefor irrigation, [ow chemical use, l1abi,t"'dI development and integratlon of nansal lsndscapes

8. Urbun Agrlcliiturol Center (J Oil map); This renter is Lu be located 011 or ad jUl:coL 10 tl1e site of the current city nursery, lnitiaJ plans are to develop a community farm, market and garden area with an equestrian center and pregramrning for at-risk popwatim~.

9. Trail Syste'ms.:

Extensive trail! systerns are planned throughout the Stapleton site for both recreation and commuting (pedestrian" bicycle and possiblyeque trian) .. Trails will be located along Sand and Westerly Creek corridors, and through the central habitat and open space corridor 10 the northeast. as well 3S along roads and in parksand drainage corridors. Trail improvements will provide both 'local andregional access,

10. BllUfLake EnvirollllUmttll EducatilJ1zArea; The City and COUJ.ity of Denver has already COI11Irntted over a million dollars to funding For resterarion and development: of the Bltif Lake area as an milan environmental education facility. BluilJLake has Significant wildlife resources. and is located! adjacent to Sand Creek Pru1nerships with Iocal, stale and federal agencies wil'l support united programming for school children in the fall of 1995.

11. Greenway Corridors: The Sand and Westerly Creek corridors will be lmportent elements of the Stapleton parks and open 'pace system. Both corriders will be the focus of intensive resource inventory and restoration efforts, Once developed. they will provide regional trails and wildlife corridors and will provide narural water quality enhancement features (ponds and wetlands) for lillirlace water drdinage. Both efforts will require extensive cooperation between 'the cities of Denver, Aurora, and Commerce City and among local, regional, stale and ('in some cases) federal agencies" TIle Sand Oeek Conidor also offers the opportunity to C0IlI1ocl the existing PIaI'tl1! River and lligh Line cansl trail sy~, lormiag a loop for there linear systems.

Since itll origins in the last cenruty, parks and natural features have been the defining elements of Denver's neighborhoods and urban fabric, The Stapleton Dcve10pmeDl Plan builds OIl tlhis legacy, but also expands i[ to include a broader apprecialion for ll.i:itI:ural and rnan-made landscapes, Denver's tradition of parks and park WHyS can be extended onto the site and conneeted [0 extensive open space areas that transition from formal urban spaces to far more naturalareas. The Stapleton sy stem will forge important connections to regional trail systems, adj<l.cem neighborhoods, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National WildUJe Area and Lowry open space and recreation faclllries, This system can alsn increase understanding of our narural environment, its resources and our role as responsible stewards [or future generations.

AND Iii' TIMB THE:RE'S ... 0




THO' MAiN BI!GllN:S ..









TRIil:E IN D~NVe;If.I. OI!lR



........ A bUXUAY 4.."-0 JOY NO

W)lO LlfJE IN A'lI"lhlDER.ED



W'.G.M. STOll!!, THI!.


le:5SONS F-'"~OM AN UF:l9AN


II .....

The PI.3n for Restoration of Soils, Vegetation and Wildlife Habitat

The Stapleton Development Pli'ID envisions urban andnamral environments tha.t strengthen each other for their mutual benefit. Restored' sire soils, vegetation communifies and animal habitat will play an important role in the making of new. herilllhy Denver communities.

These natnral system concerns have been incorporated into the Parks, Recreation and Open Space initiative as a key structuring element of the Development Pian.

Aviation use has allowed for degraded topsoil conditions and severe changes to natural site grading, The vegetation of the Sl1llP!eton site today has been so modified that, with me exception of a few patches along Sand Creek; virtually all of the histori c vegetation has been eliminated. As a result, oruy degraded reronant 0' the native prairie and riparian habitats are left and these fail to capture any of the drama, scale Or beauty of the original Colorado landscape. These fragments also are neither large enough nor continuous enough to sustain the indigenous 1P1m:Jt and animal cemmunities of the region. Redevelopment of the Stapleton site offers the opportuulty to restore the patterns and the functions of the larger ecosystem tlrJmt wjlll be required if these natural values are to be sustained into the future within me Denver metropolitan area,

The proposed open space system in~egrates a. unique milt of natural area'>, outdoor sports facilities, drainage corridors, multi-use trails and scenic urban parks and parkways. The p~an includes traditional parks and parkways as well as restored native landscapes, The best landscape images of urban and rural Colorado will be brought together to change Stapleton. Familiar landscape types such as golf courses, park drives and re .idential streets will be retained but subtly modified to reflect the goals of sustainability, The management of

these landscapes will fosler native plants and animals and also se rv e as models for reduced irrigation demand as wen as innovative and. cost effective stonnwater eomrol and pollutant reduction. More than any other single feature, the restoration of the landscapes of the High Pssins will affect the kind of transformation ·of the whole sire Itbat is crucial tto building the vision of the new Slaple£on.

A comprehensive restoration and maaagement :>trlltegy is included in the Development Plan support docurnentallon. The

The Stapleton Development Plan envisions urban and natural environments that strengthen each other for their mutual benefit.

intent is simply to reintroduce the matrix of mixed prairie vegctarion landscapes naturally found on the site. lndruled are Upland Landsca~ types such as short grass prairie and sandhllls prairie, Riparian La:nd~aJ;le types sueh as sandbar channels, lake bonoms and lake fringes, and Modified Prairie Landsc.age types such as woody draw and prairie !.Urf. These landscapes will in rum support. a diverse mix of wildlife and provide important lliUlbitat connecdons for regional wJ]dLlfu resources.

Major Habitat Types

Upkmd Larulscape ~ s1W11graS8 prairie

The shongrass ~r-.l!irie. characterized by shoner, more drought resistant grasses .• OCellI'S where there are heavier, liner-textured clay soils that prevent waterfrom pelfColtlljng to depth. en the larger open spaces in the southern part of the Stapleton site, sbortgrass praine can be restored ~i~cem to Sand and Wesler!y Creeks. Jf could also be used at ilie farthest margins of drainage carridors in this portion of the sire and along landscape edges where an alternative to turf is desired.

Upland Landscape - .mndhills prairie

TIle sandhllls p.mhle will be Ihe prilDW)' prairie ffiandscape of Stapleton. wi.lli. its eemerpleee at the Prairie Pane The ierrain consists of gendy undulating bills oriented roaad creared by the prevailing WlO&. 'Iallgrass plid.irie occurs in the High Plains where the more perrueable soils allow moisture to peruo!ale deep into the sand. Sand blowout;') and sandhill depressions cam. also be round in me rolling prairie dune environments.

Riparian LandSCQpe - sm,.(/bQrclumtre!s Ail the drainageways within the larger open space system of Stapleton are modelled 011 sandbar channels - free-flowing, wide, tilat, main channels. within which minor channels are free to braid and meander. Sinuous lines of cononwoods grow 011 higher ground and thick patches of sandbar willows with occasional peachleaf wi.llow grow within the channels.

Riparian Laml.f>cape- s~tI'lJcl1nSidi! prairie

If] the lower area, along tile prairie -,,!'ream corridors. l'witchgrnss covers theentire ground except where the stream channel is actively eroding, Swjrchgrass should be established early Oil so that as the sile gers wener the plants can spread. Prairie cordgrass can be planred across the bottom of fhe channel us h will grow in

Riparian LamisclIPt! - lake bottom Where 3i basin isconsrructed for stormwater management, ,eil:her [0 improve watcfLluOO ly or to comrel tlooding, the model will be the playa lake. Pl.aya lakes are ephemeral waterbodies that are found throughout the plains region, The playa lakes at Stapleton will be designed to maintain groundwatercontact and to build Lip the . 'ground water mound" th~l wil~ develop beneaththe basin. Continuous groundwater contact allows ihe basin bottom to support a rush meadow tha~ will reduce pollutants and lmprove wale, quality,

RipariCllJ Landscape· lake fringes. Water bodies that fluctuate between wet and dry are found throughout the high plains region, At the upper reaches of tl:1 e playa basins and alongtheir margins there will be less frequent oontaer with groundwater and the rnoisnire regimen will fluctuate more dramatically, These frmges are characserized by spike rush and dense stands of prairie cordgrass,


Modii'/kd' Prairie LandscQpe

• woolfy draw

The woody dra w is an intermediate prairie landscape zone where root systems can access water sources below. Example species are box elder, green ash, serviceberry, American elm. red-osier dogwood. ponderosa pine and burr oak.

Modified PmiME Landscape - prairie turf

Many buffer or transition areas will occur in 'the restored urban and natural landscapes, Turf areas should be durable, eMily mainrained and water conserving. Indigenous examples are haffale

smnding water. W~ wheargrolSS has a, wide J1IJ1!!,e of tolerance grass, blue gmmma gr:.4SS and western wheatgrass.

and can be plumed when tile channel is still relruive.!y dry. Larerlr

will be able. to role rate tlooding and grow even in srumiing water.

S-1 '1


S "'OH \t C O""U.Ol'M NT Pt. ..... 5IRUcrUR.NG EL~""EN1~

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T 'a iral pniri4 $$I:nILr. lh k.Ilfii: l';;l~

Idl_ l,..-lo.;dlr;r:-;"'" 4- W"''''' rJlCl, ~ B~IT""I:rn.:r. .. 'f>II,\

The lI.bllat Plan identifies locations "011" Ihe mhc;ad prairie vegetation land!!li'ca:pe typel!!l on Ihe Stapl~e,toD site. It iIIg!!!trate's the intograllon o. natural areD9. tr,"' ..... ltiorl>· .. I pall"klond .. and urban develDpment.

'5I:;CTJoi'< vel D~"'Il"LON'Ir:"T I'Ll'll' STIHIC'. tllUNG ELI:M !:Nl!!:


E, tre",.lined loca. d .... ina.a co",ldoJ" connectIng .adJace:nt urban neiglitiboi'h.DOd Uows ii:'IlNUgh to' W_U.rly C.reek;

A bird's-eye view !'gO~!"g ~o!.lth ~!gngl 1'! '! 1/~ """i!e '"",nglll of Westerly Creek between Sand C!I'ee:k and Monlvle·w lIou'levard. Thls seg_en.t 0' th.e l:o .... :II;lor ,con.j:!dng the. lollowl,ng ele:ments:

F) hle.l'a.l'Cbv ·of sUl'll.ace ch,u,nefs .an4 ea.rial$ i;:t;orivoy s'iormwalier from tlal"ge;r u:rbanlZied basl,n. to water qual.· lty treatmenlareas;

Al' Ihc:call8tlonand i'091:o1'81;10n, of :the natul"a.1 "'imam cOlTldor w.hel'B alrn.fafl run.ways preVloU81l1' constrlcled I.Gcal and regrional .51o;nn flows;

GI) pond'S and wetlands wh.ru 8·toJ'mwatol' i:I~ le.mpol'arl. 1]( detaIned .allowlnglol' blologlcs'iuptake and sedimentation 0' poUutonts ond n .... 'ri'l;In'ts:

BI moJorurboft pork od]:acent to, tflo blstrl'·ct .. emplo!f'" ment nelgtlborlilood;

HJ III :se!'iles, of gra.de ,=,onll"Ol dirop structures sliablflze the Stll'e81i1111 bed, pll'evefttlngfUl'ilhe,r erosl:on; and

I) .... ethmds at the edge 0" Saud Cl'eek: valley provide wlldll"£! habitat and hnp_ve Wester;ly Creak stormw'o·te .. 'qua lily bufu" .. , entering Siond Q.reek.

D" l .. a .... l.ng gol'."ou .... e· adjacent In We.ste:rl·w Creek .and Ihe Disftdct I residential neighborhood~


-- ---------------------------------

Ec:~ION v C I;> ElQ "'E[,;T 'I. N

~I"" lU " , E 1:;1'0



The Denver region has one of the highest per capita mtes of vehicle ownership inthe nation and is grappling with (he air quality impacts of a largely automobile-based systent From 1980 to [991, vehicle miles travelled in the region increaaed by 35% .. As the metropolitan region continue. s to gro,w, the number of privately owned vehicles will grow as well As suburbs continue their outward expansion, commute distances will lengthen and vehicle miles traveled will grow. Resu~ting impacts to ail" qualityand roadway congestion are likely to worsen.

The Stapleton Development Plan offers !ill alternative approach to development and mobilky that seeks to reduce vehicle miles traveled and resulting air quality impacts through land use design, multiple modes of transit, and transportation demand management .strategies. Diverse transportation options will be a long -term key to Stapleton's success as a. pl ace of employmen~,hOlJSing and recreadon,

Existing Conditions

As an island surrounded by development, the. Stapleton site is reasonably well served by streets leading up to' its perimeter. As an operating airport, however, Stapleton has created a significant barrier Lo easewesr and nOrlb/soudl continuity in tth.e area's roadway sys~cm. 1-70 is the only roadway corridor crossing the site, p.rovidil1!g two regional access points, the Quebec Street and Havana Strees interchanges. Primary east/west streets leadlng to the perimeter of the s~te are 56th Avenue, Smirh Road, Martin Larhes K:m.g Boulevard and Montv1ew Boulevard. Primary ilOnh/SOLlth streets leading to the perimeter include Quebec Street and Havana Street, A 11umberofneighborilood streets also intersect with the see's perimeter on the west, south and northeast

In addition to the I~ 70 road way corridor, the Union Pacific rail main line also crosses the site. TIlls Line travels through downtown and is aprimary corridor in the nations] system, Sun:o!Jnding neighborhoodsare currently provided with reasonablyefficient bus service, a network of on-street bike trails and pedestrian sidewalks, ExiSIDlg bus service for the Stapleton site serves only the rermlnallocarion, No regional l:I"ails of any sort CrOSS the Stapleton propeny.

Land Use Design

Fundamental to tile Development Plan are compect.transit-oriented.mixed use neighborhoods. Wallittble scale, mixed use neighborhoods encourage walking and transit use by generating many rela.tively short trips. These trips are spread out

ib fOlJgWi. the day creating a steady demand for translt as opposed to tlle peak morning and evening rush hours. Also fundamental are greater densities aroundaccess points for public transportation, Greater densities will maximize the number of peop]e who either live or work within walking distance of public transportation, increasing the likelihood of its 1.IlSe. In each district of the site, minimum densities necessary to supporttransis are incorporated i.nto the Plan and all employment areas are located wifhinwalking or biking distance of housing.

Travel Modes

Rai~ Transit

'he existing Union Pacific rail corridor crossing the site south of I~ 70 along Smith Road is cm:rently the proposed alignmen L for rail transit in rhe east corridor as defined by the Regional Transponanon District (RID). The Development Plan supports lhis specific locaLiclIl, and rccemrnendstocaring two iutermodal facilities along me corridor at its iIUersectmon witti Syracuse Street and Yosemite Parkway. These facilities will link rail tf'dIlsir, bus nansit, bikeways, pedestrian networks and automobiles

Jt-r-d., ... rJ I H.~ Ibl~ !t\'r.1itfll 11f.1!~rnn..k UIl.d 11"II11~1J ":h~I~

1~il"Drhill""-l8LU 1,(jJIJ.I(iII tkibl1 1 .. ':1'1,1' ":'tl'l"!l'.Io r .SIUtl) 4n:JI

TRANSIT P.LAN: AJlpo"liiQIU!' ·M' ttl!!! fiila willi be withb. '·ive minutes walkiing distllln¢ .. C1/4 _lie 0·' le9s) of pub. Lie tra'rlsportatiolf!' Fiix.ed rail service in the 1-7OJS_itb Rd. Conldol' 15 ~u:rrent:ly lundar study. The DevelopmEllll1 Plan prupuslHj ntU .s ... llui'i$ .r.;,,'. SmIth Road at .syracuse Sb'eel and Yosemile PaJlkway.

S"'-"'ON Ii <: CEV LO MCtfT PLIIN !5 RU U I". £ .. ~

within OD.e single facility. These locations can also serve regional connecdons to downtown, DIA, ~he Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area and the Lowry campus. The east corridor wil l be studied over the next 18 months by the Denver Regional Council of Govemmerss (DRCOG), Colorado I:mpartmeni of'Lrarupolilatiol1 (CDOT) and RID to determine which Lmnsporratioll improvements will serve the corridor most efficiently. Tills effort must be ceetdiaated witIJ. Stapleton's. redevelopment. Thegoal will be to maximize the potential fOl" funnn mil investment and cornpllmentary adjacent development to generate s:iglliflcant transit ridership and reduced automobile reliance

in ~lis portion of 111e Smi Ill. Road. corridor;

Bus Service

IntToduction of bus service to the site will require logical

extensions of existing routes, The Stapleton Development Plan providesnecessary through street connections for bus Setvice to operate through the site and iill.[O surrounding loeations. Bus stops will be located. throughout die s~1:e: in locations that will ensure all residents and. workers are within a five minute walk of a SLOp. AU district and neighborhoodcenters will be

served by this roue structure.


TIle DeveillopmenL Plan .is designt:d 10 encourage greater usage or bicycles for recreation and commuting, A comprehensive bicycle network. has been developed for the site as an extension of tllile reate structure defined in the Denver Bicycle Master Plan, TIns network features off-stJeeu regional bikeways parallel to Sand Creek; Westerly Creek andihe major open space, corridor in 11m nonhcm half of ihe property ooi'l.l1ealng Sand Creek 10 lhe Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area, An extensive collection. of signed on-street bike rotlt~ serves all portiocs of die site. Por on-street bike routes" the curb lane will be at least 15 feet wide .10 accommodate bolfuvehides and bicycles.


WI!1.L AS "UIlIJI!I'i.Q,.H eoll'!-

B.,"".N= .. I)"""",,·OT (CBI»)



sAND CREIEK 1'RA'L: The ex;lsting runwR? tunnel stn.octUI'e' could be opened up with the .arc'hed wall ailements remaining for historical intereST.


5It;~'TION V C I Or: "'-LU I'I'l N'1 Pt-" ...


I _.- O;n .. rreet j\'h"'I·u~c T.,.n.

Ibl~ HIr. ..

~ Of(--Hr=t Mlll,i·I ... ' T.-.U II ... tlliI1'.Ic ..

----- crr-..tI.l1!~1 MIIIU-uar;l 1"ralllll 50111 a.Q.cI

•••••..•• Eq""-''"'" T.-l/O

TRAILS PLAN: Multll-use pedeaIFl"n. bike and aq~_trl:an trails _IU ·connect the :alte',s mhted u_ !:Listrieb and link the· .aite with tt(e !!'eglon.,

Pedestrian Walkways and '('rails

Sidewalks will be provided adjacent La all streets. Special pedestrian amenities will 00 provided in the area between Quebec Street and Yosemite Parkway. and Smith Road and 29th Avenue to help mitigate the pedestrian impacts of wider streets and mtersections, The Development Plan also includes 0\ number of parkways with significant landscaping thaI. will encourage pedestrian use and designates multiple use trail linkages to connect the site into [he reglonal trails system. Trails lie within mapped street UT open space areas. Regional

tnril<: include the Ssnd Creek Trail connecting the Platte River Greenway east through Stapleton into Aurora to the High Line Canal, t:he Wester'iy Creek Trail from tile Sand Creek Trail ultimately to the High Line Canal Ilhrougb

Lowry, and a new trail from Sand Creek northeast along me Sandhills Prairie Parkto the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area. Fingers from these backbone trails win penetrate development areas via the surface water drainage system, parks and parkways. The multi-use Sand Creek Trail will also have an equestrian component for its full length. .on Stapleton ..


Recognizing that 1-70 is currently the only major roadway across the site" a number of roadway improvements will be required to reconnect the site with neighborhood and regional systems.


Until the 1-70 corridor study is complete, it is impossible 10 know how the site will be Impacted by future potential improvements. Accordingly, a 300 to 350-foot eavelope is beng reserved for these as yet unspecified improvements with additional buffering and drainage along the perimeter. The total corridor width for all of the-so combined purposes equals 700 feet. All travel demand modeling for the ire assumed eight through Janes for 1-70. If this does not become the case, the sine and capacity of each recommended roadway will need 1:0 be reevaluated. Irrespective of me results of the study. it is dear, however; that both the 1-70/Havarul Street interchange and line 1-70fl-:270/Quebee Street interchange will need to be redesigned to accommodate the ultimate access needs otthe site through these key points. More specific design recomrnendations will be made as part of (he 1-70 corridor study.

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611 .... P,ru:li:t:,[1

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5TJI UCl'U"UiG [;i.41' ~"TS.

The Stapleton Development Plan provides necessary through street connections

for h'MS service to operate through the site and into' surrounding locations.


STRE.Eli PLAN: The ba,sic grJd of' Nonhea$f Denver will be ,e,g'ended onto the sile. IH'I;p~~ .. 1 ." .... "' . .,0;:ti.;:;n .. wm occur along' 56th Ave., ,Sm1th Road, ::i!:6th AVQ., 49th /47tb Aves •• S,yracllse, SI., and Yosem1te Partkway wlth'llII I>hQ $rt",,"Q:!-I .. bl;"'~ St!. Havan .. S,t_., Mont.d ...... Blvd. aad MaJ'lln Lutiher King Blvd. pl'Ovlde I,mpoll'tam, PIOri!'ft\>b;H' con .... .,.,it>IJl:O,


Primary recommendedstreet improvements are broken down between llmtl1!south and eastr/west improvements, Final street improvement design win require coordination with existing pla[J,s (if jilri.sdic'-iotl,~ surrounding lhe site.

The primary north/south streets include Quebec Street, Syracuse Street, Yosemite Parkway, Havana Street and Peoria Street.

Quebec Street: Currently Quebec Street is a two-lane facility s()u~h of23rd Avenue, a four-lane facility between 23rd Avenue and 29th Avenue, and a stx lane facility between 29th Avenue and 1-70. III order to accommodate projected 2015 regional traffic volumes of 20,(01) to 29,000 vehicles pee day, it is neeessary 10 widen Quebec to !fOUT lanes between 29fu Avenue and Colfax Avenue, Widellirlg is consistent WtLJl the Lowry Redevelopment Plan and would not be required, unHl Ihe soumwestern portion of the site is substantially developed. Right-ofway will need to be acquired to eonstruet this facility.

N orth of 1-70, the Pllan proposes a realignment of Quebec eastward to provide improved access to 1-270, a IUgh capacity connection to J-70 and an appropriate entrance into Districts VI and VII. A connection back to the exi s!:ing Quebec SU'tlet alignment north of 1-270 occurs at 56th Avenue. It must IJe noted thaJ! the aligmr:nent represented is conceptual, Determination of a final engineered alignment will be the result of a future saidy involving Commerce City. the COOT and. the City and CoWlty of Denver; Final constmction will not be necessary until 11m northwest portion of the Site is actively under development

Symcnse Street: Syracuse Street is a two-lane neighborhood street serving the East Montclair neighborhood. It will be extended 110li1!ll into the site to serve neighborhoods planned ill District I and will be tenninated near Fred Thomas 'Park

North of 26th Avenue, if will be continued as a four-lane facility to serve District IT and will not extend north of 1-70.

Yosemite Parkway: Yosemite P.rnkway provides dilrec~ coixinuity from 561t1.Avenue to Montview Boulevard through the "heart" of tile development. It will bridge over bom the milroad corridor and 1-70 using existing roadway bridge structures that will remain in place. Yosemite Paskway will aha provide access to rhe businesses along Colfax Avenue and to tae Lowry campus to the south.

Havana SlTeet.: Havana Streetprovides continurty from 56th Avenue to 26th Avenue, where it will terminate. The segmen! between 56th Avenue and. T-70 is currently a four lane facility, Havana Street between 1-70 and 26th Avenue is lnitiatly proposed as a two lane facillry, bur right-of-way should be preserved, for a fUMe four-lane section to accommodate future development,

Peoria Street: No changes LO Peoria Street are proposed, although several streets, serving the Stapleton site will now connect to it They include 26th Avenue, Smith Road, 47tb Avenue and 56th Avenue.

TIle primary casU/weest streets include 561:h Avenue, 47d1 Av·enue, Smilllil Road, 35th Avenue, Martin Luther King Boulevard, 29m Avenue, 26th Avenue, 23ld Avenu.c and Montview Boulevard.

56th Averme; Fjfty~s1x1h Avenue right-of-way will becapable of ultimately aoconnnOOatlng a parkway of upto six-lanes with a landscaped medlan, setbacks and limited access. Wimin 90 days nf the closure of Stapleton. cousnuetion on two lanes of 56u. Avenue will commence. Consnuction willil utilize materials recycled from [he Srapleton airfield,

tl7th Averm.e: Forty-seventh .Avenue. rtans~ti,onmg to 49tl1 Avenue, will providecontinuity through ~he north half of the development from Quebec Street Lo Havana and Peoria Streets. This will be a four-laae facility with minimal truck traffic.

Smith R()trd~' Smith Road currently penetrates me site from !he east and wese but is not continuous. It will be connected and reconstructed I1!S a four-lane facility with an intersection with

Yosemite Parkway The Smith Road corridor will provide a major easrwesr connection and' will accommodate rail trans~t; bicycles and pedestrians as well as anromcbiles.

s <:710,.. Y C I O,"V"LOI"I"1ENT PLJ\N

5'TAIJ TUI.N i_LC I";I"~

will be developed Wltb detailed design and engineering of the open space system,

Transportation Demand M:a.nagenlent Strategies

35th AVelllle, Mar-iin LlJll,ftr King IJOlllevur-duRd 29t1l

A~mle: Thirty-fifth Avenue, Martia Luther King Boulevard Transportation demand management (TDM) suategies are and 29th Avenue are intended to serve ~he proposed high densi- intended to maximize the people-moving capability of the

ty terminal area in District TI. The cxlsti:nlg MLK Boulevard/Quebec Slreetimersection will be preserved 10 provide a high capacity "front door" [0 tile terminal area development sires. Both 35fuand 29Ih Avenues will be "diseonnecred" west of Quebec Stnreet to discourage brave] through the residential Park Hill neighborhood to the west The emergence of a majrJlI" regioaal traffic generator at the terminal rna y necessitate modifications tothese ooofiguratioJ]1l and other C{lIH1G(lLions different or in addition to those the Plan cUlJrently recommends. fu addition, more detnilell inlersection design in this area may result in further modification te the street system,

26th Al'l'm lie rTwenty-sixth Avenue provides continulty through the south half of the site from, Quebec Street to Peoria Street IL will be discontinued west of Quebec Street 10 discourage, travel through neighcorhoods to the West It will be a standard four-lome street west ofYose:mite Parkway, and a fourlane residential parkway east of Yosemite Parkway.

23ni Avenue: Currently, 23rd Avenue carries more traffic through Park Hill than Monrview Boulevard and 26th Avenue combined. It will be extended into the site until j~ intersects YQs,emire Parkway;

Montl'iew Bmdev.f1Ttl: No changes to Montview Boulevard are proposed, other than a large, landscaped setback oa the north side along the Stapleton property.

Scenic Parkways; Two scenic parkways will be located along the m.ajor open space and drainage corridors. One wHI fo]low the south bank: of Sand Creek across the site. The other will travel along the Sandhills Prairie Park open space network in Ihe nonhhalf of the site, Final Locations for these parkwii)'s

transportation system by iacreasing 1he number ·of persons in a vehicle, or by influencing the time of; Dr need to, travel, To accomplish these types ofchanges in travel behavior, a combination of incentives and disincentives are typicruly used. Examples of IDM strolegies for the Stapleton area include:

Residential. Nei~lhborhooos

• Neighborhood transit subsidy (Ben-Pass) progr-am

• Tele-work, teleconference centers in neighborhoods

• 'Iele-service centers (banking, city services, library access, etn.) .• Latest communication technologies (home shopping, ere.)

Daycare, health and public services md schools in neighborhood centers

Commercial/Retail/Office Development • Establishing Ill!:lXi!TII1Um parking ratios

~ Charging for parking

.. Reduced-price, preferendal location parking for carpool/van

pool users

• Subsidies for transit and taxis for retail customers

• Enrployer-based Bee-Pass program

• Compressed work weeks and other alternarive work achedules such as staggered. shifts

• Supportre.tail and restaurant facilities W]thill walking dis-

ranee of workplaces

• Shared fleet DHow-emission vehicles for midday travel

• Shuttles L{)/tirom DIlA or tolfmm transit station

• Bicycle parking, lockers mud showers

• Health clubs in office developments

• Guaranteed Ride Home programs 9 Rideshare matching

~ Providing ready access and encouraging use of aitem.'1tiv.e fuels

• Financial incentives for riaMharin:g, bicycling or wanting

Multll Use Streets

tExtensive Bikeways

5 Mfnule walk 10 bus

Rail 1li-ansi:li


Su:::r • ., .. V .:: 'D<.v <.0. MUn PLA'


Intelligent Vehicle Highway Sy&1ern

• In-home transk information

• Travel advisories (changeable message sigas, highway advisory radlo, persona] communic .. ation devices, smart kiosks: etc.) • Incident detection and! response infermation

Successful implemen I arion of some or all of these strategios will require early establishment of a Transportarion Management Organization (TMO). The TMO would be responsible for incQrporating and implementing strategies in new development rather than trying to retrofit them in established areas of development which may be resistant to change.

PARKING AND P,A:RKWAY' ILLIIJSTRAYIONS= On site parking ar'D'as and SDrno parkways, such as extended 35th Or 29t:tI Avenu.es. ara eliCamples of multiple use right-ol-wBY deslgln. A coordinated approach will Integrate DYb!!e: salety. tl'a:nspDrtatJDn, I.alllodscape. drainage and water quality fu.nctions. MaintenanCe concerns: are InCOl\'Poi',ated DS wen.

Abovo 1\',lght 'or example, parking lot' I'Unoff is lti..ncted 10 a s8ries of connected shallDw la'nd&eaped bashl. In order to det .. ln stonnwaler. romove urban pol'lutants and irrigate drought tolerant Hnd rip!!!flan pI8ntl'n9 •• n,e shallow basl'ns Gonnee! to eRher on.site or regional detentiQn "",GillS via draln.go corridors.

Above left for exampl.,." 8mall rain show,ers are c,ollected wi.hin the parkways in cleanable e,ana'is a'l: the bottom eduo 01 a broad ..... dian channel that directly Infiltrates stonn,_I;e:r. iirrigatiing adjacent streettreall. Larger alarms: ~re c:onweyed to "he regional st.-eam network b)I' tho grass-I'inod lOedian ehannel which a lilia, acts all a Iinaar park. AI,ong the side=>, 1,,[ght-D"Way is alsD resell'"ed fcu'lpadasirilans and bic'ycU&t&.,




For much of its history, me S~pleton site was open land or in agricultural! use. Urbanizatioa .uf ibe property began in earnest in the late 19:205 with the OOIlSInICtiOIl of Denver's first municipalairport. Smce that lime, the sHe has been extensively modified. Many physical :jmpmvemen~ and an extensive system of Infrastructure have been added over thelast 65 ye.'lTR to support the gro\ving demands of aviationactiviry.

Upon ihe airport's closure in ['995, a new set of requirements and service demands will begin to emerge. Improvements and infrastructure originally created to serve aviation must be adapted and/or replaced withlarger and different inlrastrucnrre systems designed to serve non-aviation use. In its present form. Stapleton is only panmuy prepared fa support extensive reuse. Irs existing infi'astrocture is concemrared ill the southwestern portion of the site. It lacks internal systems sufficient to' accommodate sullstrultiali employment. hoo:~ing and oiber activities on site.

Natural systems of ropography, vegetation and drainage have also been destroyed or sigJIifiC3!111)' altered. hi addition, the nnerior of the site is disconnected from much of the local and regional sYSI~1:ilS of tr.:U1Sportati!>Il!, open space and service delivery,

lFtmdarncnta.l to the task of redevelopment is the abi:lity to design and coastmct new systems to support new mixed-use oommnniries and public use of the sire, Existing infrastructure and improvements will be adapted, reused or recycled whenever possible .. Significaat new infrasructure Investment in energy, water, wastewater, srerenwater, solid waste, telecommunications, transportation and open space systems w:il1 be required. These investments must be made in a fashion tlmI is cost-effective and supports the larger sustainable development objecHves of'tbe redevelopment program,

S.'::' .Ort V C .. DI '" LOS r 1"11 PLAN

STFlI r(:TU J1'IU iCL- ~j('"NT.s

Stapleton inlrastruenrre must pr-ovide cost-effective, low mainrenanee and environmentally sustainable approaches TO urban service delivery. It must integrate urban and matLllr'.ll systems. n must respond to the liJniJtatimis of traditional infrastructure provision where systems me often built and operatedin isolation from one another and from consideration of broader env Ironmental and social costs, For example, storrnwater has traditionally been conveyed directly from streets to underground storm. drains to rivers as quickly WI· possible. This approach eliminates oppormnitles for on-site irrigation and increases water quality impacts. Whe~ solid waste is Indiscrlminetely landfllled, opportunitles to reclaim its value as a resource through reuse, recycling andcompostiag are also lost. Energy production is of tell associated with reduced air quality and glob-

Stapleton infrastructure must provide cost-effective, low maintenance and environmentally sustainable approaches to urban service delivery.

at wruming impacts, fossi] fuel mill.ing and geopolitical strife, bu.1 mew dcvelopmerns of Stapleton's magnhude are often designed with insufficient attel1rio:nro energy conservatice.

Stapleton provides an opportunity to integrate utility systems in a way that recognizes resource values in both inflows (wa.ter, energy, consumer goods from raw materials) and outflows (wastewater; stormwater, garbagel.nnd captures these values through conservation and reuse wherever posslble, Stormwater runoff channeled through grass-lined swales provide.~ irrigation fer green Sp'<RCCS and is filtered through vegetation, improving downstream water quality in river systems. Solid waste, presorted and processed, produces raw materials for local end-use








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industry production activity or compost for soil amendment, Energy conservation Iihrough both demand and supply-side management reduces consumption andinternallzes costs, Proposed. systems will ~IUls be both more resource-efficient and eost-effective.and will minimize environmental impacts.

The new systems developed for Stapleton must facihtate efficient use of natural resources, provide diverse mobility options. support compact communities, promote restoration of natural systems (habirnl:; plant communities, water quality; erc.) and take advantage of technological advancement and opportu niities for demonarationprojeets.

Meeting Future' Service Demands

Fundamental to redevelopment is the delivery and pricing of a wide variety nf urbanlnlrastrucune services Lo the people living. working andrecreatLng on the Stapleton site, Existing improvemenrs will be adapted, reused and recycled whenever possible, but significant new investment in infrastructure will be necessary,

With environmental responsibility as a principle focus ofthe development program, implementation must go further rluln simply identifying the delivery of utilities to the site. New community infrastructure services must be; sustainable over time. TIle goals have been no define cost-effective approaches to service delivery that make a project truly sustainable, to integrate systemic solutions when possible, and to produce efficient. durabfe and manageable solutions. In addition, .it will be import<lllt to. price these services 'in a. manner that accurately refleces tileir eost - including economic, social. and envtronmentail costs. Accurate pricing will! provide incentives for achievement of a sustainable urben form. FOLII areas arehighlighted in order LO &'rr:U:lilsinil:eam mtegra~ed systems approach They are storm-water managemern, energy raanagemenl, water <lIld Wi:l"lewater managemeot and solid waste management

Storm Water Management and Flood CmtJrol' Cun;eotiy. 5capJetolll bas a very limited set: of stormwater management improvements. TiJle portion of the site below I~'70 has some piped eollection facilities that direct

storm water flows to Sand Creek and Westerly Creek. The balance of me flows are smface flows carried by the topography to these same wrucrw,ays. Noah of ]-70,1he site l1as litde in [he way of stormwater management facilities. The soil is extremely sandy and porous. and most of the rainwater is absorbed directly lilLo the ground. TIJi~ infiltraEion is possible beeeuse so large a proportion of ihe northern half of the site is open land with no impervious surface.

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WIN 111~¥f C"IJ.lJJIJVI m PQIt. C'~Ill.

The SUrtaG!EI

WDt~ Management Plan .. In, adCl!itiun to' addressing the '"" !lI.~"':5 dl'plDage

2E~~~~~~'I~~~~~;.;jkd and Hood conlFIQI

heeds, die p'lan

will ,contribu.te 10

PQlmti'gn nXIi.u"tiotl. wildlife, habitat, water CQn&8rv;a.. (io ... public open ,space develop,meni: and reduced ,capital Inve&t'ment.

• provlslon of a more cost-effective solution than traditional The goal of the Development Plan is to use innovative building

piped systems. and! conununity design, technology and merketmechanisms to

• creation of water amenities; streams, ponds and wetlands decrease the overalt energy demand at Stapleton, and to incorporate "clean" energy sources wherever possible,

Non-aviation use of the site will drm.uaticaUy increase the amounL of connecred anpervions surface in many areas uf the property, and pmucularlly north of 1-70. Mach higher concentrations and volumes. of water will need 10 be accommodated. TIle existing grade will tend to direct surface flows 10 the nonhwest towards Cernrnerce City and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National WiJdl:ife Area. Commerce City's stormwater system is nor designed or intended to manage these 'flows, and the Arsenal can accept onlyblstorlc flows due to its unique clreumstsnces (coruainisg and treeting groundwater llows as part of (he overall cleanep program),

The project team has worked withthe Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, Denver Wastewatem: and other agencies to develop, a comprehensive flood control and stonnwater management system for Stapleton. This system wi11:

• avoid piped collection systems and rely primarily instead on storage and management of water on sire through a series of swales, small channels, storage facilities; and a new riparian corridor north of 1-70, with an outfall at S an d Creek near Quebec Street;

• handle the vast majority of the site's storrnwater management needs in the public realm to ensure ongoing mnmtenance, assist narural irrigation of public spaces and providegreateJ' sire development flexibility;

• serve multiple purposes, including:

• irrigation of natural areas;

• establishment of vegetation for wildlife habitat;

• lOo..ye.:1r flood detention:

• extensive use of natural I'Ull1uion to control nonpoint source pollution and improve water quality,


The Surface Water Management Plan illustrates the essential elements of thls system. This approach allows for state-of-theart management of stOllnwater. Regional detention is maxirnized, water is essentially harvested from private property to irrigate and improve public spaces, and overall capita] investment ill IilLe sire is reduced.

Energy l,danagement Durieg the last to years, energy efficiency ill American iml!uRIry (home building, automobile menutacnntog, etc.) has improved Significantly in response to market demand. The social costs of energy consumption include environmental damage and geopolitical conflict over fossil fuel sources; the risks of nuclear power; air pol] ution, potential climate change aad fhe consumption of forest, desert, river and ocean habitats. These relationships are increasingly apparent to consumers, who have developed a greater interest in conservation, and in products that have reduced impacts 011 the eavironment III addition. buyeJS of real estate increasingly consider long-term energy COS(:; !:IS a factor in purchase decisions.

During the last 10 years" energy efficiency in American industry has improved significantly In response to' market demand.

ar I: TI )' V CD" L.OPI'I '" P "If


A::; pmt of the Stapleton Development Plan, an analysis identified potential energy requirements for the site and scenarios for meeting those requirements. Once again, the goal was La explore the most effective options likely 10 be available over time to meet euel:g)' requirements while promoting efficient use of resources and reduced impacts on the naturaJ environment.

Three different demand scenarios were examined, each presuming different levels of conservation and demand-side managemem, These, cenarios illustrated the potential at bulldout to achieve savings of 50, 60 and 70 percent over current standardpractices, relying on presently available technology. The analysis emphasizes the critical role of demand-side stm'al'egies as the most cost-effective and most readily available components of an overall energy trategy for the site. Demand-side management includes all forms of design. coosuuction and operating practices that reduce energy consumption. Demandside efficiency wjIIJ be directly affected by land use patterns, building orientation. density, landscaping, solar access, wind protection and other factors.

Supply-side options Were also evaluated, Given the 3Ch40 year anticipated buildour of the site, Ii number of renewable SOUIreS can playa role in meeting the site's supply requirements, The analysis specifically examined wind electric conversion systems, solar thermal applications. distributed and concentrating photovoltaics and fuel cells, The OOSl competitiveness and opportunities 10 incorporate tJiJC.'iC approaches may vary:, but Stapleton does provide an ideal selung for demonstrations of these and otberrenewsble rechaologies, even in the short term.

11m report also examined the potential role. of village-scale dismel energy systems and opportunities for comrnercial/indusuial energy cascading amUJilg different energy users on the Stapleton site. District energy systems may be a viable a![Lem,aUve to distributed (individual) heating, cooling. and hot water systems. These systems could meet the thermal and electric demand requirements of a properly balanced mix of users min im izing the peak demand of the electric. millry. Opportunities for cascading on the site should also exist. given the potential close proximity of industrial.cornmercialand residential users.

• Maximiz/! COlIsl!rl'Qtion IliJ"(}!Igfl demand-side strategies.

• E.rtab1i,~h energy peifornwFlce ~'tQndf)rdsfo/" bllildings rather than presc,.ibe levels of COI.rI/x>rumt peljVrmrltlce.

• Ensure solar access rights 'hrollgh multi-level solar :'OI!illg.

., Us life-cycJJ! cos, llllaivs/S to se/til:l demand ... side tCc/1JI%Ries.

~ Dl!Vtdap appropriate zoning, codes, ml'l!fLtml.\' tmd i/lCel'llive.~ to enmlimgelreqllire ,r:!Iergy IJ.fficieni site and QuildiflS des/gllS.

• Develop liN/age-scale enel'g)' sy.Hel1'lS (cogeneratio!l) based

on mixed rafld.l~se XI."f!Ii£lrios Ihat suppon I!Jitll"iO' mOllogemtmf l,>(/Qis.

• bUfall rel1el'.'('Jble energy demonstnuion proj(xts

• Use tree pll1l11ing in reduce lzellfing and eoolflzg '(J{Jd;~ nil site.

• Deve/np energy book-Ill'. delivery.transmissioll and end use pri - iflg J·chedliles 111m cTicOLffage et:msel"vatinll

Water and Wos/ewater ManagemerU

Denver. though located in a semi-arid region, has long enjoyed its status as an irrigated community, Water consumption imhe Denver metro area (at an average raie of L5J gallons per petsonper day) has grown SlecldUy over Lime, and has skyrocketed in recent years with population growth. 'Ihistrend has not been without costs to me region. Water use in Denver has implications not only for the long-term vlability 'of our rivers and groundwater but for the viability of regional agricuhure and critical wildlife habitat 011 me South Plane and other regional rivers,

Current Denver water supplies are adequate to support the full buildone of Stapleton, However, Stapleton represents an opportunity ('0 demonstrate new approaches to water use, reuse and

conservation, Efficient use of the-resource, through the use of new technologies and rnanagement practices, can provide 11 model for thewe .. u,

Potable water for the Stapleton site is provided by Denver Water. Stapleton has been essemlally a ;private system for all of its history. AU of its existing on-sije improvements for water distribution were constructed and operated by the airport Stapleton's system must now be adapted, extended, and integrated with the I"C-~L or the plI.b]i.c water system.

Wastewater services are currently handled by the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, In addition to their other service delivery responsibilities, Denver Water and Metro Wastewater are each currently studying options mor a northeast metro area reuse water system,

A.~ with all other services, the goals regarding Vhl.ter and Wastewater have been to maximize efficient use ofshe resource, to minimizeenvironmental impacts, and 1.0 suppcn me broader objectives ofthe redevelopment program. Over the course of the redeveloprners program, we should be able to move towards an ideal in which:

• lise of potable water is greatly reduced from pres em: consumption patterns;

~ non-potable water reuse and stomrwater flows play an increasingly greater role ill meeting irrigation, industrial aill! other non-human eonsurnptien demands;

• reuse water is supplied hy wastewater treatment facilities rreating l10ws Ihal currently move rhrough the site or that in the future are generated on siie.:

• water management approaches wi II' reduce demand. contribute to water quality improvements in the South Platte River basin and support habitat development and restoration on site.

Achievement of these objectives willrequire a phased approach. Some options, such <1S enhanced COD!<CrvatlOI1, measures. are available immediately. Others, such as regional reuse programs or signifleantreuse of wastewater !'lows gei1er-

,5"1;;1'1(>" 11 r: r 0" or"'f:';"f PI.I!oN T~nlCTUR'.l'NG I::L t'U:N 1_

ated 011 site, will need to be anticipated now but will nOI· be possible to implement unril later stages of the pr-ogram.

Short. Te.nn Po/jcies

• Implernen; aggressive ccnservationand demand maaagernent pro,grams.

• fnstall dual distribution systems within pubLic open spaces.

• Use nontr1butary groundw.uer to supplement dual distributinn system until on-site wastcwatcrflowa are sufficient to meet supply needs for &rriglltion.

• E:xploreoppormnilies for a one-milliou-galloa-per-day reuse program with Aurora's Sand Creek Wru;lewalerThe.aun~nt Plant immediately adjacent to the sllE.

.. Explm:e options fur divemng find trealirig wastewater flows in the 56tb . .Ayooue s<mitary sewer at a sateIli!e l:I'eattnent fac i1i1y on site.

'" Pursue' wetlands banking oppon:llIlities and tncorporsee best available technologies for water quality managemerx in sil.e I'eStora11ion, open space and storm dnlinn.ge improvements.

Mid and Long Term Policks

Continue above efforts, and:

• Bxplore possible expansion of Sand Creek 1TC'{ltme.nt facilitie~ and increased reuse volumes.

• Pursue opportunities to work with Metl'O Wastewater to receive additional reuse flows as part of its response to SO-111m Plane River ware,· qualityissues or i.tseil1uellt managemem program.

~ Pursue similar reuse opPorlllnilies with Denver Wmer through future phases of us water reclamation project

• Apply local or sub-regional ;pproache-s to wastewater treatment and reuse as oppmtunaties arise,








!'OUND~D IN 1 E'90 TQ



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It should be noted that ~he recommendatlons described on the previous pages with tcSpect to water reuse will require a high degree of lntergoveannenral cooperation between various service providers, The Metro ·Wast<ewat.er Reclamation IDislrict is responsible for tresnnent of wastewater collecredby Denver within Denver's boundenes, Denver's cun:ent comractnal relatiombip requires the direction of alltlowsto the District's treatment system. The B oard of D lreetors of the Metro District, as well as other policy makers, willi need 10 ultimately approve a number of ~he more innovative concepts described. above, AU of [be relevant service providers have expressed a w illingness to pllrsue me genttal service objectives identified for the Stapleton site,

S alid Waste Matragement The average American generates 4-4 pounds of solid waste per day, resulting ill a national rota! of 20S million tons per year, according to the US.

En virormental Protection Ageney, Even though landfill eapaeity and disposal costs are not perceived to be a constraint in the Denver region, there are incseasmgcoacerns and consequences resulting from our waste disposal practices, Much of what we dlspose Is reusable! recyclable or ccmpostable, In ,additioll, the enrirc process of raw mtleriru development, use and disposal has economic and environmental consequence-s ..

In planning for the Stapleton site, emphasis has been placed on achieving higher ratios of recovery and reuse of materials. Evaluation of solid waste options for the sitebegan with an evaluation of the volurae and composition of waste a communi ty .of Ih e size planned for S lapleton would c urrenily generate, Strategies were then evaluated fur moving the community as close as possible to a condition of no net waste: l.e, no contriburlo.n of waste to local landfilla,

At mlJ buildout, the Stapleton community is anticipated to produce 25,00{) tons of waste products per year. The strategy developed for the site includes reduction of this volume" as

well as opPQrtuniUi.es to impart material 10 the site for reuse as part of an overall solid waste management system. The strategy addresses lland.lingmid processing of material, remanulacturlng opportunities and institutional policies required to support suecessfnl implementation of the program, Many cOl1lponen~ of this p100 are considered viable in the current market

.. Develop a resource village on site to address processing of recyclable material.. yard waste, household hazardous waste and construed onjdemoHtion debris,

·ldellt~fy public or private organizations to manage and/or provide the following services:


- operation of te('1rc.lable materials processing facility:

- operation of yaEd~waste compooling facility, in eomblnation with a clean source of sludge, to be recycled a:.~ part of Stapleton land restoration:

- handling and trenspertetion ofhousehold h!lzmum.il\i W<L~Le:i:

- operation of construcnondemcthton debris processing


- collection of weI/dry wastes from commerci al aml Il!;~iden~ tial generators;

- operation of end-market manufacturing facilities to create reusable products from processed. reusable, recyclable and eompostable I'oateria.ls.

.~ Coordlnate with the City and County of Deliver and Stapleron develaprnem managcmen! elltity to implement a solid waste rare. structure and public education programs necessary to achieve slDuree reduction

• Establish procurement policies that maximize the ILlS.C of reusable or recycled content products iII development. operation

and mainenence of the site,


S'fR·!.I~'fI.!'RI"G. ElI..t:ME'I'IT~



TIJ.e land use plan and. development program for Stapleton reflect me site's context and the principles adopted to guide redevelopment. The land use plan describesa substantial mixed-use commanity which could support an ultimate employment base of more than 30,000 jobs and 10,000 households in <I unique environment; II series of urban v mages that. each provide aCCeSS to employment, housing, public traaspertation and open space. Districts ofthe site are organized around identifiable reenters that Sllpport a. variety of services and civic uses. The emphasis is Oil compact, walkable communities and strong ties between the Stapleton site and U1.e surroundingcommunity,

The land use plan reflects Stapleton's future role as a signifiemu employrnem center; Stapleton represent'S an important opportunity to create !lJI employment base - in response to the significant trend towards concentration of employment growth in suburban areas, At the; Sa:L1lfl~ tillile, Ihe Ph'ID Ol:ttempts to ereate integrated communhies rather than large; slngl~use dlstriers, The integration of jobs and housing (onTIS part of an overall strategy 1.0 increase access and reduce vehicle miles and regional air q~alitylmpacrs. This plan also suits tJ\1esize ·of the site; absorbing such a Iarge property in the Denver marketwould be difficult Wi'll101Jt a broad mix of uses.

The land use plan is intended to be flexible. No one can pro. diet masket demand of absorption of land Witli any accuracy uver 30 or 40 years. As a result, !fu.a mix of uses and densities must remain somewhat flexible - particularly for portions of the site likely ~o be developed in later phases of the project Wllilat are, most important to. establish now are ihe general character, scale and density of the mixed-use oommunity and its districts, as well as rlle basic COJllluuJJity infrastructure, open space, civic sites and otherelements of the public realm. Specific land uses parcelconfigurations andrelationships among VmOLlS forms of employment. housing and other uses should be derermined more definitely as development and ~he

S, CT'"N \i C I 0 VH OPMEtP· PL ... l<

'I ~C'TUR'~ G. ~r::M J: r.r T ~

process of district planning, zoning and platting proceeds.

The development program defines the land use allocations, average densities and. ,l1nticipated employment and population totals projected for bui/dout of the site, Some of these pararnetees will vary over time, but the development program provides a feasible baseline, consistent wnhcurreat and anticip~d market conditions.

The development program assigns 65 percent of the site to urban development and 35 percent to a mix of open space uses (stormwerer management, parks; golf ccurses, recreation fscililies. trails and natural areas), Approx imatelylf percent of the site wiU be required for parkways, sl'l~els and other forms of pllblic rights-of-way. With all forms of open space and public riights~of~way accounted for, approximately 2,285 acres of net developable property remain. Of this acreage, 52 percent is allocated to all forms of employment andeomrneecial use-s, 41 percent to residential use and 7 percenttQ institulional/culru:ml use, The figures 'on the fallowing page describe tile prelhnlnary Land Budget for the site.

The land use plan reflects Stapleton's future role as a significant employment center.

TIle allocation described above supports appreximarely 10;000 housilJl,g units with approximately 25,000 residents (at densities thar vary from Ihrec to sixty dwelling units per acre) and approximately 17-20 million square feet of office, commercial and industrial space (at fleor-ro-area ratios ranging from 0.3 to 1.0). In addition, ],680 acres of parks, recreation and natural areas are provided by the development program, Portions of ~his system also address necessary SLOMI drainage mana.gement and water quall ly improvement feq ui remeats of the site.






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'FI~d~ntJlil A¥<l1ragfJ i 1.4 dWe,c,,, SECTION V C I OEYEI.DNlENT PL~N ~"f"fl~' ,..~ If 1"". i.1- f!' T

The Preliminary Land Use Allocation and Building Program Summary provides a illustrative summary of rile development program's land allocation, densities, squ~ footages, unit totals and poplll.alionand employment goals. TIle densities assumed for employment and residential uses \11m be influenced by market demands over time. ill some areas, increased deruity of activity would further enhance project economics and llnpfOVe

the c:fliciency of II! variety of forms of transponatton and ser- The district and neighborhoad centers help establish neighbor-

vice delivery. Increased densities !in some locations could hood identity. Each is sized according to its role within each

increase demands on. the capaci ties of some elements of neces- district, S orne are modest and local in size and function, pri-

sary inii-astructlU"e as weU. Reductions in densities below those dt..jJkted in tile Prelirninmy Land Use Allocation and Building Program Silmmruy could adverseilly affect project economics and wowd likely reduce Iln.e efflde.m:y of service del Ivery aad i_l1crea.«.e some forms of environmental ·Impacts.

The district and neighborhood centers help establish neighborhood identity.

Distr.icts and C e liters

The land use concept for the sit;c divides the Sblpletoll, property inro eight distinct district'S. Each dlstrtcr is intended to support. a mix of uses. The specific mix of uses depends upon location, size, site characteristics and adjacencies. The districts vary from providing gre~n diversity to circumstances where one or more use'! predominate, In eveiY case, the goo! is to promote, dlverseand successful communities rather than isolated, singleuse developments.

Each district consists of a neighborhood, a groUphlg of neigh. borhoods or a special-use area. The districts have defined edges andan idenHfiable center. The edges Can be nalaral or man-made feamres. Open space areas, drainage corridors, golf eourses, high volume regional. ro.adways <Or [ower density residcntial neighborhoods can all serve as edges.

marily serving; the nearby populaLion. Others are larger III scale, incorporating a greater mix of uses intended to service H larger population. Each center will include a public place of some kind (a park, square, community garden), an educational facility (elementary school, daycare, etc.) and a public U"lI.Jl.Sit stop. 111JeSe centers can also serve as a location for other public bnildings and uses (church. post office, Library; meeting hall), In addltiou ~hc centers can.provide retail services and employment oppnnunines wi:trun walking distance of home or workplace,

Mixed Use Distrids

Mixed' use districts are essential to acbieving the project's social, economic and env ironmental goals, Mixing of uses has farreaching lmpllcanons wi~h respect to crime, economic and social diversity. transi~ and access, operating costs and utiliLY costs,

Crime -Planning for a vanety of residential uses adjacenL to and! within oommerciaill developments will aUow tho1.llghlflJI introduction of people and activity to areas which would otherwise be aonnant after business hones, Potential benefits may include reduced crime aad vam:laliSID. helping to increase land values.

Diversity- Mixed-use and mixed-density developments can help acnieve economic and social diversity by providing a variety of housing products for family I;:lzeS, age groups and OCQnomic levels. A diverse neighborhood will encourage regional migration to the site.

Transit and, Access - Mixed-use developments encourage 11m IJse of transit by generating many relatively shant: trips. These trips are spreadthroughout the day creating it steady demand for Iinills:j~ as opposed to the pell!k morning and evening rush hours,

lIIustratlvo plan showing t:he .0991.·, b1e llIuil'dout 0,' Ih.e Di>l!uic:t I c4Jntlv,.. A _ties o·f uses are grouped aroundl lEI. two aeft) neig .... borhuod park Qr' square. They i.ncludo, communit»' giU'deDs, day care, a:n elenl.t)mpry scho·ol. a bus .stop" services. nelg'hbol'l" hood bUsinDs:ses. CtlUR;1!! :sit •• , an"e'lelleI'ly ml'd'rlse hOl.ls·in,g.


Average residential densities for the different districts runge [rom eight dweUing ilnTI:ts/acre to [8 dwelling l!lJ1i.ts/acre. Eight dwelling wits pel' acre is considered to bethe mlaimum necessary ~Q support public transit,


)01. .siqgle fruTl il)". d t!i25hed

'1 Zero Oi rll'leSingle fillTli1y. rownhouse

4. '1:n,wn h~~ with stacked flats ,s, T' :.uniJJes. three fnrnwes, carnage OOU!ieS

6. c3un%\U apamnem!l. garden apw:rn'~nI§

1>. MiNhi~h'I.'JNC aprutnlenl t}uihiings 3SS11 ~ ~kl;d pw1dflgj

!:n::c: IIOr. V C , O"'''I:,-OP''lIli:~f P ...... H

+uuc r u H'IN E Ml N1'

Operational Costs - The proper integration of desmgn elements in amixcd-use development FeW]L'i ill operarional savings i.n energy, maintenance, security, managemetu, com rnunications, utility access, parking and water supply,

Utility Costs - Mixed-use developments diversify enCll'gy and! uti lilY demands which causes a lowering of peak usage. In tum, this C!In cause areduction in utility rates.

Traditional Denver residential neighborhoods such as Park Hill, WashingtClll Pm:k and Congress Park have pockets ofiaereased density and mixed use which enhance the quality of life wi{hin these neighborhoods. Future neighborhoods of Stapleton will share thesequalities !mdexploif 1he benefits outlined above.

The density of residential or employment-related development in each district is typically described with net dweUing units per acre (for residential development) or floor-to-area ratio (for employment-related development). Bolli of these measures can be confusing and easily misinterprered, Dwelling units per acrecan vary substantially depending onihe type and mix of housing units as shown in the adjacent chart.

3 ... 'i dwellin I,1l1i1J;/l'lel a~ 6-9 dwC!. lin unitS/rei acre

ff..12 dwelling Yl11t';/ncl acre

10-14 dwel ling tinits/net""acre 'I G-W dwellillg lffi1t.~Jnet acre.


2;(1-30 dwcl,lill..!! lll~tsi"eI acre

The Pal'lk INIIII neighborhood" lil!1llmedmtely w.O:!t 0' D'i$ih·ic~·", I and II. hI shoW'n In an aerial .. Ie ...... "I1he rDsid.enliaJ streel giliid and alley pattern will be ~peated lin new Sta.p:leton neighborhoods as will the integratio,n ,o,f IniSt'ltutlona' •. COlTimerei.p1 an.d other frafld, uses.

Denver m'8identiii!lln.igh'!u!mQQd~ lIG'hJet D great villrlety 01' bloek; pat.erns, den.sl"'esO!Ind Olb '0' 1I",<>$.




l.I~ri~ "'III

." ... .0.-

l>l,;t,,", V


I);Hl[<;I 1111

"--""'~.i'iiI! - • ..!fcI" ....

I~~ .... _I.

MajDr litreetli and DptiD s;paCB impraVBment:& define eight land ''':!IV ,dlslriet:s within _:he Stapleton, De,velepmenl P!'pn. TheSQ'and U'S8 dih.,b'i(:t$ are, intiended io sl.Ipp"Fl 1I mhl: o,f u$'U$, but, e.u"h _Itt. ,a :separate a,nd d'isl11nc,t c,har,aell'er. The goal of each diistr;ict is 110 prDnlole divE!r:\!e IInd,!lii!!iCce'nfid c,ommu!i!itle,& ,",;!lither than iSolat., ,ed. slngle·uge d'evelo,pmen,ts. Gene .. al e:haracte ... sc,ale and oden91· ties are defined, bu'l: 5'ubstantiiaIHexib'lli,tV' is IProvided fo'r a v,ari·, '@t:, ,pf ma!!'Jcet ~!!ipO"$Q!!I!.

DeVl<LOP E...·n PLA"

S u':'l t.ntr["llota [L.!:..M l:, r~ 15


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... , ... -.1111l"1li tf I. tJca«l • ..,.,oloo:

Iw. - PdtlPllllll IJI~ 1II~~m:I.d r,t1::IIIJ,.1 "Lt.hI'tlLl!l'Ioodii qll("1 ~pt'J.l.I~IL !i:!II'l.I-l-Iofol" ,"'ot!1Pi"lIId'll"",

E [~fiUI, .... hoo..oII IMS \IHI1lur~:bOIlI *' !II~~~~!I

Each dist:rlcl willcon.tai:n a diS1,rict: center toO help OSlablish "',BJgh:bQrhoDd ildgntity:. U6BS, wi.hiD ,each center wiilli Y,ary. but all: a mlnl'mum will Include a pl,lbllc area (park.sql.lp,n;t, CDMHI!.Ini't.y lliJarden,'. ani ed.ucational facility (elementary 5ch .. ul, daycHl'el, - and a transit stop., Maoy centers will includo em p,layma nt, and Ia.rger cente'i'9 mp!o' ~I"'D eontp'IA ... nn'!.!. o;qrrnn,,!!'el~J !!!~erldce8i and olher' pu'blic !:Iundings.

_"",roN" C 'OIN~un "LA'" ...... cnnIUJoId ..........

The urnan Intenectlon of Drake and Lemay jin East: F'ur! '001110.11 demon~"ate'!li the .. ucee9slul integr.aUDn ,0' land uses. ThBW.odwiI!!!rd-G!g .... 'no' Illd,,'!!>t;rhd campus, Q(lCUpI .... , th .. norihwe .. t "', ...... nel' lupperrigbtt. ,A lake and 'luxury hauarngara to' 'he nv:r1i'IU.llist. A ch,urch cemplcx Is, on title sou1heas,t, cornel'. A 'H!lt>l'!lil c;.n~OJI" and !'I'Ig[I!ifamily housfng I. 10 'the southwest.

Wall:ac8' P'ark in llbu Pe!1ver ~hI}OIOglC!'ill Cenwr p-ovldes a shared amenttwthat: buffell'S high density office and NiSidenfla1 10W"l'$on th,e we,st from lower density 'townhomo B,nd 811'11:1:10 lamilll Muidng devoiD" ment! 10 DIe east.,

The Chowl/" Crook ncighboll'hQod loda:;- p:rov:ldS!5 an !l!xBmple ,gf' i!! ~o .. regigna! de!!-' th'l.,.Ir;m pnd activity center. surro'undedby an lLl'ft. thatIoFHn""I'Uon .. homl rnediu:n1 de_ :!illy commercial, ,office and re:si:dential tU:lOe.s 101 a prodominatol!(Il'O'5idCII!Ua'l enviIronment 0.' ,single famtliy hO!ITU,s and tow.n- 1!10!f"'~:!!. A .r~nsnJi;ln $!mU,jJI1I'10;0 Ihl:!! on.eo mall' :Geeur lin Iho terminal :al'e1ll '(P:istll'ic1 II, ,on the Staplet'on&ita. IRegional d!l!~linil!!l-

t!on U S8ttb. tlflrlQ!npli may bQ surround·

eel b!ll' a t", of o.M., .. , conunel'OlOlQi and

Ihlllou.s!in.g uses 'thai wlU uRimately transllion 10 It~e· single .amillf housing lin Dl61ri1el II andl .. adJ'illcent e:xlllting neighborhoods.

While the projected buildout density of a district will remain constant to preserve its ul1im!l.te characler; !he mix of indiv idmll uses which will defime the densi.ly may vary in response to demographies, economics and lifestyle changes. For insmnce, a net. density of eight dwelling units pel' acre will berealized under ekher of the following scenarios:

Garden apts., townhouses 25,

2-3 families 20

Small.lot slngle family 20

Urge 101 single family 35

3 slory apts., gardenupta, 2-3 families

SmaU lot single family Large ]m single family


2~) JO 3{) 40

Within any given district, the site wiill be able to accommodate a v ruiety of product Iypes and densities while still meeting the overall density and land use goals which will ultimately define (he eharacter of the district

Floor-to-area ratiu (FAR) describes the extent of development on a given site in comparison to the site's overallarea, Fm example, iran office building coven; 25 percent of !II site end is one story in heigbt, the FAR is 0.25, If the building is four stories in height. [he FAR would 00 l.0. The building has a floor area equivalent to covering the entire sire with a one-story building. FAR is a useful measure, IrlthOUgJl density calculanons based solely Oil FAR cam be deceiving. Low density, suburban style office parks can have very low FARs due to the signlficam amount of land devoted (0 surface parking and landscaping, but still accommodate individual. structures ef substantial height and mass.

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