Campus Plant Project Guide Fall, 2009 Purpose: To learn to discern important plant characteristics and identify the

most common plant species on campus. Requirements: 1. Draw and describe 25 species of plants (data pages). (100 points) 2. Identify 25 species of plants common to the Westminster campus. (100 points) Note: You will have 8 - 12 hours of lab time during the next four to five weeks to complete this part of your leaf project. The plant samples will be available at extra help Procedure: 1. Select a station and carefully observe the plant sample. Record a detailed description of the specimen (use the Key to the Common Trees of Askew Woods, the supplementary list and descriptions of other campus trees, and any field guides that may be available in the laboratory). Include the following: 11 native trees; 11 exotic plants (Kudzu, privet etc); 1 fern; 1 moss, and 1 lichen (a total of 25 data pages). You will be provided a list of the trees and invasive plants to include in your study. Your description should be composed of at least 8 characteristics for each specimen. (sketch) several (2-4) leaves for each specimen. Use your Sketching Leaves guide. Be sure to indicate how the leaves are arranged on the stem (alternate or opposite); make your sketch to scale, and accurately show the details of your written description. Drawings will be in pencil and other data sheet writings should be in black ink.
Example of a descriptive: Please refer to the example on page 2. Draw

3. Complete the “label” on each drawing (Scientific name, common name etc). Note: One drawing and description per page. Due date: TBA

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Example Data Page

Scale: 1cm = 1 cm

Name: R.K. Vermillion

Westminster Schools Fulton County, Georgia Scientific Name: Acer rubrum Common Name(s): Red maple Locality of Collection: The campus of the Westminster Schools Habitat: Mixed Coniferous-Deciduous Forest Collection Date: Fall, 2009 Description:
(1) Leaf type: Simple (5) Base : Cordate (2) Arrangement: opposite (6) Margin: Doubly serrate (3) Blade shape: palmately lobed (7) Status: NLS (4) Apex: Acute (8) Habit : Tree

North American Distribution, Environmental, Economic and Ethno-botanic Information

Sources:
Introduction: This is a “quick guide” to producing scientifically accurate sketches of leaves. Anyone can do this; it does not require even a moderate degree of “artistic flair”.

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If you follow these directions and practice, you well produce good to excellent work without having had a formal course in drawing. You may say, I can’t draw a straight line! Well, no problem, you’ll use a ruler! So let’s get started!

1. Select a specimen provided by you instructor. The specimen should fit the paper space, but it’s OK if some of the
specimen lies outside the frame. Just be sure to make an arrangement that will clearly show how two leaves are attached to the stem. The example below is a red maple and it has simple and opposite leaves. 2. While holding the specimen in place, lightly trace its outline as in figure one.

Figure one. 3. Next, study the arrangement of the veins, and lightly and accurately draw those using quasi-parallel lines. 4. Using a straight edge, lightly place a few parallel guide lines as in figure one (don’t cross the veins, but if you do,
erase the marks). You’ll use these guide lines soon to add hatching marks to your sketch.

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Figure two.

5. Next, using the quasi-parallel guide lines, add parallel hatchings to your leave as shown on the right hand leaf in
figure two. 6. Now, add some detail to the leaf’s margin (the red maple leave is “toothed”) as in figure 2 (leaf hand leaf). 7. Next, add more hatching marks to add depth to your drawing (this is the only thing we have done so far that comes close to art!). Leave the veins “un-hatched” as in figure two. 8. Finally, add some curved hatching marks to the stem (this will give the stem a cylindrical appearance). At this point you should have one leaf “detailed” and the other leaf outlined. You may stop here and receive full credit for your drawing. However, if you wish, you may complete the other leaf, but I wouldn’t do that until you have sketched and described the remaining specimens in your project.

Note: As you gain experience, you can experiment with hatching lines; curved hatching lines can reproduce a “wavy” leave surface.

Common Names

Scientific Names Pinus taeda Oxydendrum arboreum Quercus coccinea; Q. rubra Magnolia grandiflora Liriodendron tulipifera 4

Loblolly pine 2 Sourwood 3 Scarlet oak or red oak 4 Southern magnolia 5 Tulip poplar (tuliptree)
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Red maple 7 White oak 8 Flowering dogwood 9 Sweetgum 10 Sourgum 11 Japanese honeysuckle 12 Mimosa (Silktree) 13 Chinese privet 14 Kudzu 15 Japanese Giant Timber Bamboo 16 Yellow grove bamboo 17 English ivy 18 Oregon grape holly (holly leaf barberry) 19 Autumn olive (Russian olive) 20 Japanese Wisteria
6 11.20. 21-22 TBA 23

Acer rubrum Quercus alba Cornus florida Liquidambar styraciflua Nyssa sylvatica Lonicera japonica Albizia julibrissin Ligustrum sinense Pueraria montana Phyllostrachys bambusoides Phyllostachys aureosulcata Hedera helix Mahonia aquifolium Elaeagnus umbellata Wisteria floribunda

(These are exotic plants) Polystichum acrostichoides
Your choice Your choice

Christmas fern 24 Moss 25 Lichen

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A Key to the Common Trees of Askew Wood The Westminster Schools Atlanta, GA 30327 Mr. Vermillion (Revised 8/2003) 1a Leaves needles or scales………………………………….2 1b Leaves broad……………………………………………...3 2a Needles in bundles of five..………………………..White Pine (Pinus strobus) 2b Needles in bundles of three………………………..Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) 3a Thorns present on stems or branches……………………..4 3b Thorns not present……...……………………………. ….5 4a Leaves simple………………………………………Hawthrone (Crataegus species) 4b Leaves common……………………………………..Hercules club (Aralia spinosa) 5a Leaves compound…………………………………………6 5b Leaves simple……………………………………………..10 6a Leaves twice compound……………………………Mimosa (Albizzia julibrissin) 6b Leaves once common……………………………………..7 7a Leaves opposite……………………………………………8 7b Leaves alternate………………………………………...…9 8a Leaves fan-like……………………………………..Buckeye (Aesculus sylvatica) 8b Leaves feather-like………………………………….Ash-maple (Acer negundo) 9a Leaflets 9 or fewer…………………………………..Hickory (Carya species) 9b Leaflets 9 or more and midrib “winged”………..….Winged Sumac (Rhus copallina) 10a Leaves simple and opposite………………………..…….11 10b Leaves simple and alternate or whorled…………....……12 11a Leaves lobed…………………………………………Red Maple (Acer rubrum) 11b Leaves not lobed………………………………Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) 12a End buds clustered; fruit an acorn……………………….13 12b End buds not clustered or, if so, fruit not an acorn…..….16 13a Leaf margins smooth, not lobed........................................14 13b Leaves feather lobed……………………………….…....15 14a Leaf widest near tip…………………..………………Water Oak (Quercus nigra) 14b Leaf width more or less uniform…………………….Willow Oak (Quercus phellos) 15a Leaves bristle tipped………………..……………Southern Red Oak (Quercus falcata) 15b Leaf tips without bristles………………………...White Oak (Quercus alba) 16a Leaves fan of feather lobed…………………………..….17 16b Leaves not lobed...............................................................20 17a One, two, and three lobed leaves present……….Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) 17b Only one type of leaf present………………..……………18 18a Leaf margins entire (smooth)……………….Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) 18b Leaf margin with teeth……………………………………19 19a Leaf distinctly fan lobed (5-7 lobes)…………Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) 19b Leaf not deeply lobed, bark peels in sheets……Sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) 20a Leaf heart-shaped…………………………………............21 20b Leaf not heart-shaped……………………………….……22 21a Leaf margin with teeth………………………………Basswood (Tilia heterophylla) 21b Leaf margin without teeth……………………………Redbud (Cercis canadensis) 22a Leaf margin with teeth……………………………………23 22b Leaf margin smooth (no teeth)……………………………26 23a Teeth fine (like serrated steak knife)……………………..24 23b Teeth course (more like a saw blade)………………….…25 24a fuzz on leaf midrib’s lower surface…..….…Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) 24b No fuzz on leaf midrib’s lower surface….…Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboretum) 25a Leaf base symmetrically shaped…………...American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) 25b Leaf base asymmetrically shaped…….........Elm (Ulmus species) 26a Leaf widest near tip…………………….….Pawpaw (Asimina trifolia) 26b Leaf widest near middle………………………………….27 27a Stem pith chambered………….........………Sour gum (Nyssa sylvatica) 27b Stem pith not distinctly chambered .........…Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)

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Leaf Margins, Apices, Bases, and Types
Leaf Margins: Be aware that variation exists among cultivars and individual plants within the same
species. (Adapted from http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hort/bio.html)

entire
no kind of marginal division or nearly lacking marginal division
Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood)

serrulate
having very small, sharp straight-edged teeth pointing to the apex
Oxydendrum arboretum (Sourwood)

serrate
having sharp, straightedged teeth pointing to the apex
Tilia americana (Basswood)

doubly-serrate
primary teeth have smaller secondary teeth
Ulmus alata (Winged Elm)

dentate
with sharp, wide teeth that are perpendicular to the margin
Fagus grandifolia American Beech

crenate
with shallow, obtuse or rounded teeth, scalloped

sinuate
uneven margin, alternately deeply convex and concave Quercus bicolor

undulate
having a wavy up and down edge Fagus sylvatica

incised
cut, irregularly and more or less deeply and sharply
Platanus occidentalis (Sycamore)

ciliate
bearing hairs on the margin Begonia x semperflorenscultorum

Leaf Apices
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Be aware that variation exists among cultivars and individual plants within the same species.

acuminate
tapering with somewhat concave sides to a protracted, acute point Catalpa (Catalpa)

retuse
notched slightly at a usually obtuse apex Liriodendron tulipifera

acute
sharp, tapering with essentially straight or slightly convex sides to a point Amelanchier

emarginate
shallow notch at the apex Alnus glutinosa

obtuse
blunt, rounded enough for an angle of 90 to be placed inside Myrica pensylvanica

cuspidate
with an apical cusp--an abrupt, sharp, rigid point Cercis canadensis

truncate
nearly or straight across at the apex Liriodendron tulipifera

mucronate
short, sharp, spiny tip at the apex Quercus imbricaria

Leaf Bases
Be aware that variation exists among cultivars and individual plants within the same species. 8

cuneate
wedge-shaped, narrowly triangular Nyssa sylvatica

oblique
slanting with unequal sides, lopsided Celtis occidentalis

acute
sharp, tapering with straight sides at a 90 degree angle Euonymus alata

truncate
straight across at the end Liriodendron tulipifera

rounded
rounded like an arc of a circle Zelkova serrata

cordate
heart shaped, having two rounded lobes forming a deep sinus Cercis canadensis

Leaf Shape
Be aware that variation exists among cultivars and individual plants within the same species.

lanceolate
length greater than width, broadest at the base, narrowing to the apex, lance-shaped Fraxinus pennsylvanica

ovate
more or less rounded at both ends and broadest below the middle, eggshaped Cornus florida

elliptical
ellipse-shaped, narrow at each end, widest at the middle Cotoneaster dammeri

cordate
more or less rounded at both ends and broadest below the middle, eggshaped Cercis canadensis

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elliptical
ellipse-shaped, narrow at each end, widest at the middle Nyssa sylvatica

oblong
longer than wide, sides parallel, rectangular with rounded corners

linear
parallel sides, long and very narrow Hemerocallis

auriculate
having auricle(s) -- earshaped lobe(s) at the base of leaves or petals Arabis caucasica

obovate
inversely ovate, broader above the middle than below Myrica pensylvanica

oblanceolate
inversely lanceolate, broader above the middle and tapering to the base Ilex glabra

spatulate
oblong with the basal end narrowed and the apical end rounded, spoon-shaped Myrica pensylvanica

needle
slender leaf of many conifers Pinus sylvestris

palmately lobed
three or more lobes radiating fan-like from a common base Acer saccharum

pinnately lobed
segments or lobes along each side of a common axis Quercus palustris

scale-like
small appressed leaf or bract Juniperus

awl-like
tapering from the base to a sharp point Juniperus

Leaf Types (Broad)
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simple
not compound, not divided into secondary units Cercis canadensis

pinnately compound
compound leaf with the leaflets arranged on both sides of the rachis or axis bract Fraxinus americana

Palmately compound
three or more leaflets radiating fan-like from a common basal point of attachment Aesculus hipocastanum

Bipinnately compound
twice pinnate, the primary leaflets are divided into secondary leaflets, also written 2pinnate Gleditsia triacanthos

Plant Terminology (http://www.centenary.edu/arboretum2/main/plants/dictionary.html#dentate) 11

 Acuminate-tapering gradually to a long thin point  Acute-applied to tips and bases of structures ending in a point less than right angle  Alternate-One leaf, bud, or branch per node  Apex-Tip; end opposite point of attachment  Apiculate-Ending with a short sharp abrupt point  Appressed-Lying flat against  Aril-Fleshy or pulpy covering or appendage from the base of a seed  Arillate-Having an aril or arils  Auriculate-Eared  Awl-shaped-Having a linear shape and tapering to a fine point; narrowly triangular  Axil-The space between any two adjoining organs, such as stem and leaf  Axillary-In an axil  Berry-Any fruit with fleshy walls and with few to many seeds encased in soft tissue  Bixexual-Having both sexes present and functional in the same individual Blade-Flattened and expanded part of a leaf, or parts of a compound laf  Brackish-Somewhat salty  Bract-A reduced leaf, particularly at base of flower or flower stalk  Branchlet-A small or secondary branch  Bristle-A stiff hairlike structure  Bundle scar-A scar within a leaf scar where the vein system broke when the leaf dropped  Bur-A rough, prickly, or spiny flower or fruit(or cluster of either) and any associated parts  Callus-A localized hardened or thickened protuberance of prominence  Calyx-Collective term for all the sepals of a flower, whether separate or united; the outer series of flower parts and of the perianth  Capsule-A dry fruit with two or more rows of seeds  Carpel-A simple pistil or a unit of a compound pistil  Catkin-Inflorescence consisting of numerous bracts and unisexual apetalous flowers densely arranged on drooping or erect spikes  Cilliate-Fringed with hairs  Claw-The narrowed parallel-sided base of a sepal or petal in some kinds of flowers  Coastal Plain-Dry-land portion of the Atlantic Plain as opposed to teh Continental Shelf, the underwater portion  Compound Leaf- one divided into 2 or more blades (leaflets)  Cone-A mass of ovule-bearing or pollen-bearing bracts or scales that are arranged spirally on a cylindrical or globose axis  Conic-Cone-shaped  Conifer-Plants without flowers, the ovules naked  Continuous pith- pith is uninterrupted by air pockets or chambers  Cordate-Heart-shaped in outline; descriptive of an ovate organ  Coriaceous-Having a stiff leathery texture  Corolla-Collective term for all the petals of a flower, whether separate or united; the inner series of the perianth  corymb-A flat- or round-topped flower cluster in which the outer pedicels are longer than the inner ones, the outer flowers opening before the center ones  Crenate-Having margins scalloped with shallow rounded teeth  Deciduous-Not evergreen; foliage dying and usually falling after growing season  Decurrent-Extending down and attached to the stem, forming a ridge or wing  Dehiscent-Opening by natural splitting, as an anther discharging pollen or a fruit its seeds 12

 Dentate-Toothed, having sharp spreading coarse teeth that are perpendicular to the margin  Denticulate-Finely dentate  Diaphragm-A corss partition; a membrane that separates, as in pith  Drupe-Fleshy indehiscent fruit having a single seed encased in a hard stony covering  Dune-Pile or ridge of loose sand deposited by wind action  Eared-Having an earlike process or appendage, usually at the base of an organ; frequently applied to leaves and petals  Ellipsoid-Said of a 3-dimensional body whose plane sections are all either ellipses or circles  Elliptic-Oblong with the ends equally rounded or nearly so  Entire-Smooth, without teeth or indentations; applied to margins, edges  Evergreen-Plants with live leaves persisting through one or more winter seasons  Falcate-Crescent-shaped  Fimbriate-Margin divided into narrow or filiform segments oftern of irregular sizes; fringed  Follicle-A dry one-celled fruit with a single placenta and splitting along the opposite edge  Fruit-A matured pistil together with any other structue that may adhere to it; the seed-bearing organ of a flowering plant and any attached structure  Glabrous- without hairs, bristles or stalked glands  Gland-A depression, protuberance, or appendage on the surface of an organ, which seretes a usually sticky fluid; any structure resembling such a gland  Glaucous-A surface with a fine white substance (bloom) that will rub of, as on some grapes and blueberries  Globose-Globe-shaped; spherical  Glutinous-Sticky, gummy, having quality of glue  Hammock-A raised fertile area in the midst of a wetland and characterized by hardwood vegetation and deep humus soil  Indehiscent-Not opening naturally or after maturity  Inflorescence-Any complete flower cluster including branches and bracts  Irregular- not growing in pairs (see opposite)  Keel-A central ridge on the back of plant parts such as sepals, petals, or bud scales  Knee-A woody knob arising from the root and extending above ground or water level  Lanceolate-Much longer than wide, widest below the middle, tapering toward apex, or both apex and base; resembling a lance head  Leaf scar-Mark left on a twig where a leaf has broken off  Leaflet-A single segment (blade) of a compound leaf  Lenticel-Small corky spot or line on the bark of a twig, branch, and/or trunk of a woody plant  Linear-Narrow and elongated with sides parallel or nearly so  Lobe-Segment of a leaf between indentations that do not extend to the midrib or base of the leaf  Midrib-Central or main vein of a leaf or leaflike part  Needle-A narrow usually stiff laef, as in pines, firs, and hemlocks  Node-The narrow region on a stem where a leaf or leaves are or were attached  Nut-An indehiscent one-seeded fruit having a hard outer wall  Nutlet-A small nut loosely distinguished by its size  Oblong-Elongate in form with sides parallel or nearly so, the ends more or less blunted and not tapering  Obtuse-A blunt point, the angle of the point being greater than 90 degrees  Opposite- growing in pairs, one on each side of the axis and 180 degrees from each other  Orbicular-Circular in outline  Ovary-The part of the pistil containing the ovules, which develop into seeds; matures into a fruit  Ovate-A 2-dimensional structure having the outline of an egg with the wider half below the middle  Ovoid-A 3-dimensional structure having the shape of an egg with the broader half below the middle  Ovule-The egg-containing sturcture that, after fertilization, develops into a seed  Palmate- radiately arranged, ribbed, or lobed, as fingers of a hand 13

 Palmately Compound- leaves with 3 or more leaflets arising from a common point  Panicle-An irregularly compound raceme  Papillose-Bearing small nipplelike projections  Pedicel-The stalk of a single flower  Peduncle-The main flower stalk of the inflorescence supporting either a cluster of flowers or the only flower of a single-flowered inflorescence  Peltate-Having the stalk of a leaf attached to the lower surface of the blade somewhere withing the margin rather than on the margin  Pendulous-Drooping or hanging loosely  Perfect flowers- flowers having both stamens and pistils  Perianth-The calyx and corolla collectively, or the calyx alone if the corolla is absent  Persistent-Remaining attached past expected time for dropping  Petal-One of the parts of the corolla, the inner set of the perianth; may be separate or united to another petal  Petiole-The attaching stalk of a leaf; sometimes absent  Pinnate-Having lobes or blades of a leaf arranged along the sides of a common axis, as the pinnae of a feather  Pistil-The female ovule-bearing organ of a flower, composed of stigma(s) and ovary, usually with a style or styles between; consists of a single carpel or of two or more fused carpels  Pit-Sometimes used for stone  Pith- soft spongelike tissue at center of woody stems  Placenta-The ovule-bearing surface in the ovary and seed-bearing surface in the fruit  Pod-Any dry dehiscent fruit  Pollen-Male sporelike structures produced by anthers in flowers and by male cones of pines and their relatives  Pome-A fleshy fruit, as in Apple or Pear, having several seed chambers formed from the ovary wall, part of which is parchmentlike or bony in texture; the fleshy portion formed largely from the hypanthium  Prickle-A small sharp spinelike projection that is part of the bark or epidermis as in Hercules-club  Punctate-Spotted with colored or translucent dots or depressions, usually due to glands  Raceme-An inflorescence in which stalked flowers are arranged singly along a common elongated axis  Rachis-The main axis of a spike; or of a pinnately compound leaf, excluding the petiole  Reflexed-Abruptly turned or bent toward the base  Resin-Sticky plant exudate insoluble in water  Retrorse-Directed backward and downward  Revolute-Rolled under at the margin  Rosin-Hard substance remaining after evaporating turpentine from pine resin  Samara- winged, indehiscent fruit with one seed in elms and two seeds in maples  Scabrous-Rough or harsh to the touch due to minute stiff hairs or other projections  Scale-Applied to many kinds of small thin flat appressed usually dry leaves or bracts, often vestigial  Scurfy-Surface with small scalelike or branlike particles  Seed-A ripened ovule containing an embryo capable of producing a new plant  Sepal-One of the parts of a calyx or outer set of flower parts; may be separate or united to another petal  Serrate- having sharp, sawlike teeth pointed upward or forward  Sessile-Without any kind of stalk  Sheath-Atubular structure surrounding an organ or part, such as the basal bart of a leaf; the circle of scales around the base of pine needles  Shrub-A woody plant under tree size, frequently with several branches at or near the base  Sinus-The cleft or recess between two lobes of an expanded organ  Spatulate-Like a spatula; somewhat widened toward a rounded end  Spike-A type of inflorescence in which stalkless flowers are attached along the sides of an elongated 14

common axis  Spine-A sharp-pointed modified leaf or part of a leaf  Stamen-The pollen-producing organ of a flower, usually consisting of anther and filament  Stellate-Star-shaped  Stigma-The pollen-receptive part of a pistil  Stipe-Stalk of a pistil  Stipitate-Having or borne on a stipe  Stipules-A pair of structures, usually small, on the base of the petiole or on the stem near the petiole or on both  Stone-A seed with a bony covering  Style-That portion of the pistil between stigma and ovary  Superposed-Attached above another part  Terete-Circular in cross-section  Thorn-A hard sharp-pointed stem  Tomentose-Densely covered with soft fine matted woolly relatively short hairs  Tree-Plant with a perennial trunk a minimum of 4m in height and a diameter at least 7.5cm at breast height  Truncate-An apex or base nearly or quite straight across  Turbinate-Top-shaped; a solid having a tapering base and a broad rounded apex  Two-ranked-The attachment of alternate or opposite leaves on a stem in two opposite vertical rows, thus the places of attachment lying in one plane  Umbel-A type of inflorescence in which flower stalks of approximately equal length arise from the same level on the stem like ribs of an umbrella  Villous-Densely covered with soft fine unmatted relatively long hairs  Whorl-Three or more structures in a circle, not spiralled; e.g. three or more leaves at a node.

Notes:

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