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Brain-Based Learning Program

for Pre-school
Lizamarie Campoamor-Olegario
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Brain-Based
Learning Theory
Based on the structure and function of
the human brain
Learning will occur as long as the
brain is not prohibited from fulfilling
its normal processes
Source: Caine, G., Caine, R.N., McClintic, C., Klimek, K. (2005). 12
brain/mind learning principles in action. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Corwin Press.
Brain-based Education:
An Overview
A comprehensive approach to instruction using
current research from neuroscience.
Emphasizes how the brain learns naturally
Based on what we currently know about the
actual structure and function of the human brain
at varying developmental stages.
Educational techniques that are brain friendly
No attention = No engagement
= No Learning
What are the factors which influence attention?
Time
Choice
Need
Novelty (weird and wacky, humour)
Cognitive dissonance (puzzles, problems)
Expectations (students being required to
teach, share, perform)
Intensity of the stimuli
Meaning
Twelve Basic Principles
Related to Learning
1. Brain is a parallel processor
2. Learning engages the entire physiology
3. Learning is developmental
4. Each brain is unique
5. Every brain perceives and creates parts
and wholes simultaneously
6. Learning always involves conscious and
unconscious processes

Twelve Basic Principles
Related to Learning
7. The search for meaning is innate
8. Emotions are critical to learning
9. Learning is enhanced by challenge and
inhibited by threat
10. The search for meaning occurs through
patterning
11. We can organize memory in different ways
12. The brain is a social brain
1. The Brain is a Parallel
Processor
Both hemispheres work together
Many functions occur simultaneously
Edelman(1994): when more neurons in
the brain were firing at the same time,
learning, meaning, and retention were
greater for the learner.
Stimulating Environment
Color promotes memory and motivation
Yellow, light orange, beige - calming
Colorful Student work around the room
promotes student ownership
Colored transparencies
Colored handouts
Colorful posters
Colored Markers (whiteboards)
Highlight notes
Classroom Color
ACTIVE TESTING and CONCRETE EXPERIENCE
AREAS: high-contrast, warm colors such as orange,
red, and yellow
The use of orange, red and yellow in the classroom
has been shown to be stimulating to students' minds
and to activate brain activity.
Source: Konzier, M.G. (2012). Research-based classrrom colors.
Retrieved from www.ehow.com/info_8530569_research-based-
classroom-colors.html#ixzz29RrlMbyQ


Classroom Color
ABSTRACT HYPOTHESIS and REFLECTIVE
OBSERVATION AREAS: Cool colors, which are less
distracting and stress-reducing, such as blue and green
Mint green and various shades of blue have a soothing
effect on students and calm them down. They also help
them concentrate on their lessons and become more
relaxed and focused. These colors also soothe students
with behavioral and emotional issues.
Konzier, M.G. (2012). Research-based classrrom colors. Retrieved
from www.ehow.com/info_8530569_research-based-classroom-
colors.html#ixzz29RrlMbyQ

Classroom Color
CREATIVITY ROOMS (Art and Music Rooms) and
READING ROOMS: Shades of pale or light green
Shades of pale or light green brings out creativity in
students.
Rooms painted in shades of green are conducive to
reading and are good choices for libraries and areas
where students are reading and relaxing.
Source: Konzier, M.G. (2012). Research-based classrrom colors.
Retrieved from www.ehow.com/info_8530569_research-based-
classroom-colors.html#ixzz29RrlMbyQ

Classroom Atmosphere
Lots of strong natural lighting for an alert brain
Flourescent lights avoided because they make kids hyper
Right temperature in the classroom
Heat decreases accuracy, dexterity, and speed of the brain
Sources: Knott, S. (2012). Kindergarten hints: A guide to
kindergarten. Retrieved from
http://kindergartenhints.weebly.com/brain-based-
classrooms.html
Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind (2nd ed.).
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development.

Classroom Atmosphere
Enough fresh air in the classroom
Stale air starves the brain; Oxygen is critical for brain
function.
Opening windows to replace stale air and placing plants in
classrooms to increase oxygen levels
Dracaena, ficus, and chrysanthemums produce relatively
large amounts of oxygen (Jensen, 1998).
Sources: Knott, S. (2012). Kindergarten hints: A guide to kindergarten.
Retrieved from http://kindergartenhints.weebly.com/brain-based-
classrooms.html
Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Classroom Atmosphere
Couches, rugs, pillows on the floor, plants, and
other items that make the children feel like they
are at home.
Children are more likely to learn more if they
feel safe and comfortable in the learning
environment.
Source: Knott, S. (2012). Kindergarten hints: A guide to
kindergarten. Retrieved from
http://kindergartenhints.weebly.com/brain-based-
classrooms.html

Classroom Atmosphere
Classical music played at a very low level.
The music helps calm them and keep them on
task.
Music that plays with 60 beats per minute is
really good for calming because it is the same
tempo as the students heart beats.
Source: Knott, S. (2012). Kindergarten hints: A guide to kindergarten.
Retrieved from http://kindergartenhints.weebly.com/brain-based-
classrooms.html


Classroom Atmosphere
Water bottles and snacks on the tables.
Brains are mostly made up of water and as we learn are brains
get very heated.
It is very important for students to drink water through out the
day so that they can replace the water lost during learning.
Dehydration causes higher salt levels in the blood which in
turn raises blood pressure and stress.
Dehydration also causes a loss in attentiveness and lethargy.
Note: cordials, soft drinks, fruit juices, tea and coffee do not
have the same benefit to the brain as water because they
contain diuretic agents, removing larger amoungs of water
from the bloodstream
Source: Knott, S. (2012). Kindergarten hints: A guide to kindergarten.
Retrieved from http://kindergartenhints.weebly.com/brain-based-
classrooms.html

Classroom Atmosphere
Water bottles and snacks on the table
Small snacks to munch throughout the day keep
blood sugar from dropping during the day.
Sources: Knott, S. (2012). Kindergarten hints: A guide to
kindergarten. Retrieved from
http://kindergartenhints.weebly.com/brain-based-
classrooms.html
Prince, A (2005). Using the Principles of Brain-Based Learning in
the Classroom: How to help a child learn . Retrieved from
www.superduperinc.com

Classroom Atmosphere
Positive atmosphere
The brain performs better in a positive emotional
state.
Students must feel physically and emotionally safe
before their brains are ready to learn.
A relaxed, nonthreatening environment that
removes students fear of failure is considered best
for brain-based learning.
Source: Adapted from The Language of Learning: A Guide to Education
Terms, by J.L. McBrien & R.S. Brandt, (1997). Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Incorporate Music
Alters brain chemistry
Energizes
Calms
Increase effectiveness for task completion
Use as a timer
Use during transitions
Increase suspense or tension
Welcome to class
During independent work
Scent of the Environment
Scent makes learning effective
Lavender-chamomile reduces stress,
for harmony, calmness, and
compassion
Lemon, jasmine, and cypress induces
positive moods, to stimulate, clarify,
and focus concentration
Basil, peppermint, pine, eucalyptus,
and clove are invigorating and
refreshing
Apple induces more relaxed brain
waves.
Howard, P.J. (1999). The owners manual for
the brain: Everyday applications from Mind-
Brain Research. Bard Press

Cinnamon to warm and create an
environment perceived as fair
Coriander to enliven, motivate, and
encourage
Geranium for balance, healing, and
comfort
Grapefruit for cheerfulness
Jasmine to welcome and create
euphoria
Worwood, V. (1996). The Fragrant Mind:
Aromatherapy for Personality, Mind, Mood,
and Emotion

Scent of the Environment
Narcissus to empower,
vision, and be creative
Orange for a warmth,
happiness, and energy
Peppermint to clarify,
stimulate, and refresh
Pine to foster patience,
acceptance, and trust
Rosemary for vigor,
strength, and restoration
Sandalwood to enlighten
and connect


Thyme to empower and
invigorate
Vanilla to relax
Howard, P.J. (1999). The owners
manual for the brain: Everyday
applications from Mind-Brain
Research. Bard Press
Worwood, V. (1996). The Fragrant
Mind: Aromatherapy for Personality,
Mind, Mood, and Emotion
Atmosphere
Every month, the receiving area of the school will be
redesigned parallel to the theme tackled in class.
This will provide novelty to the students to stir
curiosity. Even displays in the classrooms will be
changed monthly
When a child is in a familiar and safe situation, as in
most of our classrooms, his or her brain will seek
novelty.
McCarthy, A. (2010). Brain based learning. Retrieved from
http:..rowanclass09.blogspot.com/2010/04/brain-based-
learning.html
2. Learning Engages
the Entire Physiology
Food, water, and nutrition are
critical components of thinking.
We are holistic learners - the
body and mind interact
the peptides in the blood are chains
of amino acids that become the
primary source of information
transfer.
2
Physical Movement
Strengthens learning
Improves memory retrieval
Enhances learners confidence
Movement increases blood flow and oxygenates
the brain
Active learning
Go outside
Move around
Stretch
Role Playing
Brain-Body
Frequent physical breaks are a
requirement for every type of learning
Situation.

Through movement we reduce stress,
improve short-term memory, become
more creative.
Brain-Body

Movement is not a luxury,
it is a necessity.

Nutrition
Good food choices

Specific information about nutrition

Water available at all times

Proper Nutrition Program

Proper Nutrition Progam
The students and their parents will be oriented regarding
proper nutrition for the brain
Students will be encouraged to eat earth foods (fruits and
vegetables), fish, nuts, and cereals
Eating of junk foods and sweets will be discouraged
Teacher will serve as role-models
The foods in the canteen will follow the programs principles
Proper Nutrition Program
Nibbling Diet (Jenkins, etal., 1989)
Nibblers were shown to have better cognitive functioning,
fewer discipline problems, lower cortisol levels, better glucose
tolerance and maintained better insulin levels.
Some South Australian primary schools have reported
significant drops in behaviour problems and increased
learning performance since making nibbling food available at
various times throughout the day.
Sources: Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for
brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Vuksan V, Brighenti F, Cunnane SC, Rao AV, Jenkins
AL, Buckley G, Patten R, Singer W, et al. Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic
advantages of increased meal frequency. N Engl J Med. 1989 Oct 5;321(14):929
934.


Proper Nutrition Program
Nibbling Diet
Too much time in between eating can cause loss of
concentration and decrease alertness.
Benton, in Carper (2000) draws on research that suggests
we eat about 6 smaller meals per day as opposed to 3 larger
ones. Our bodies were designed to eat little and often.
Yet too much nibbling can cause dental decal and the
wrong type of nibbling can cause glucose surges.
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for
brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Carper, Jean (2000.) Your Miracle Brain. Harper Collins

Nibbling Snack
Proper Nutrition Progam
Proper nutrition helps protect the brain against toxins, improves
mental alertness and assists in the formation of memory
Free radicals have toxic effect on the brains myelin, which is
implicated in memory formation
To counter the effects, the brain needs anti-oxidants, which
neutralize the free radicals.
prunes, raisins, blueberries, blackberries, garlic, kale,
strawberries, spinach (raw is best), broccoli, avocado,
raspberries, red wine, dark chocolate, tomato products,
especially tomato sauce and tomato pastes.
Source: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for brain
care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Proper Nutrition Progam
Tyrosine: used by the brain to manufacture dopamine
and noradrenaline these two excitatory
neurotransmitters are central to alertness, positive
moods, attention span and awareness.
fish, eggs, poultry, lamb, beef, veal, pork, kangaroo, cheese,
yoghurt, almonds, cashews, brazil nuts, walnuts, pecan,
macadamia, pistachio, dried peas and dried beans, soya,
peanuts, lentils, lima, chick and kidney beans.
An oversupply has no beneficial effect on the brain.
Source: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation
for brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thoug
ht.pdf

Tyrosine-rich Foods
Proper Nutrition Progam
Tryptophan is used by the brain to manufacture
serotonin a neurotransmitter that is central to
calmness, sleep induction, regulation of mood and
message transmission within the brain.
apples, dried apricots, baked-beans, oatmeal, carrots,
cherries, some chocolate bars, skim milk, fettucine,
oranges (including juice) spaghetti, lentils, peanuts,
soybeans and low-fat yoghurt.
Source: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for
brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.p
df

Tryptophan-rich foods
Proper Nutrition Progam
Saturated fats tend to cause detrimental effects on memory
and learning, and the effects appear to be cumulative.
meat, whole milk, butter and cheese; trans fatty acids such as
those often found in hot chips, margarines and fast fried foods,
and overloads of Omega-6 vegetable oils, such as those often
found in corn, safflower and sunflower oils.
High levels of Omega-6 oils may lead to spectacular
degeneration and ultimately, the destruction of neurons
(Carper, 2000).
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for
brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Carper, Jean (2000.) Your Miracle Brain. Harper Collins
NO TO Saturated Fats
Proper Nutrition Progam
Omega-3 fats
help to curtail the damaging effects of Omega-6 oils and at the
same time inject vitality into the brain.
can help defeat free radicals, reduce immune responses that
cause brain inflammation, positively change the firing patterns
of neurons, and, support the neurotransmitters in the brain
make contact with receptor sites on neighbouring dendrites.
Omega-3 found in fish oils helps regulate serotonin, a
neurotransmitter known to regulate positive moods.
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for
brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Carper, Jean (2000.) Your Miracle Brain. Harper Collins
YES TO Omega 3
Proper Nutrition Progam
Depressive, impulsive and violent persons often have low serotonin levels.
Acids found in Omega-3 are DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA
(eicosapentaenoic acid).
DHA may be a powerful antidepressant, may reduce feelings of hostility and
aggression, may speed up brain waves leading to faster thinking and may
even protect you from developing Alzheimers disease (Carper, 2000).
Best sources include, mackerel, herring, sardines, tuna, anchovy and salmon.
Lower-fat fish such as whiting, cod, snapper and flounder contain little
Omega-3.
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for brain care. Retrieved
from http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Carper, Jean (2000.) Your Miracle Brain. Harper Collins
DHA-rich Foods
Proper Nutrition Progam
Especially important to cognition are vitamins A, B, C, E and folic acid
(Jensen 1998).
Researchers Riggs and colleagues (1996) found that individuals with the
highest levels of B-12, B-6 and folic acid in their blood performed
significantly better on memory and spatial copying tests when compared
to subjects with lower levels of these vitamins.
B-vitamins are found abundantly in shellfish, chicken, fish and whole-
wheat products.
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for brain
care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Jensen, Eric (1998). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA ASCD
Foods Rich in Vitamin B
Proper Nutrition Progam
Folic acid is found in liver, mushrooms, fortified cereals and leafy
green vegetables.
Researchers Chaing, et al (1998) found that the hippocampus (a
section of the brain linked to memory formation and retrieval) has
particular cell receptors for vitamin A and is known to activate brain-
neuron activity.
Dietary levels of vitamin A (or its precursor beta-carotene) can be
found in liver, egg yolks, milk, cheese, carrots, spinach, broccoli, red
and green peppers, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, apricots, peaches, rock-
melons and mangoes.
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for brain care.
Retrieved from http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Chaing et al (1998.) An essential role for retinoid receptors in long-term potentiation
and depression. Neuron Dec; 21 (6)
Proper Nutrition Progam
Researcher Prasad (1991) reports that there is a large body of
evidence showing that iron deficiency states are associated
with reduced cognitive function, maladaptive behaviour and
motor development.
Vitamin C, taken with iron, seems to greatly enhance the
bodys capacity to uptake iron into the bloodstream.
Sources of iron include dark green vegetables, liver, red meat,
poultry, fish, eggs, grains and rice.
Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for brain care.
Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Prasad, A. and Prassad, C (1991). Iron Deficiency: Non-Hematological
Manefestations. In Progress. Food and Nutritional Science. 15.4 (1991) 255-83

Iron-Rich Foods
Proper Nutrition Progam
Sources of vitamin C include orange juice, broccoli, citrus
fruits, tomatoes, potatoes and melons.
Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils, liver, eggs, green
vegetables, fruit and whole-grain cereals
. It is a good anti-oxidant source to fight free radicals.

Sources: Joseph, J. (n.d). Food for thought: The critical foundation for
brain care. Retrieved from
http://www.focuseducation.com.au/Webzine/Food_for_Thought.pdf
Prasad, A. and Prassad, C (1991). Iron Deficiency: Non-Hematological
Manefestations. In Progress. Food and Nutritional Science. 15.4 (1991)
255-83
Vitamin E Rich Food
Sleep Program
Students and parents will be oriented about the
benefits of proper sleeping
Sleep areas will be provided for short naps in
between classes of students

Sleep Program
The brain needs deep physiological rest to perform
at its best.
The REM period (the dream state) is the most critical.
Being deprived of sleep impairs learning and thinking.
Students living with the following are at a much
higher risk for having sleep deprivation:
Abusive or highly stressed families
Areas of high crime or poverty
Those impacted by trauma
Prigge, D.J. (2002). Promote brain-based teaching and learning.
Intervention in School and Clinic (37) 237. Retrieved from
http://www.sagepub.com/kwilliamsstudy/articles/Prigge.pdf


Sleep Program
Inadequate sleep can affect how students learn and
their ability to concentrate, retain information, and
turn short-term memory into long term memory
They may not do well on extended performance
testing requiring stamina, creativity, and high-level
problem solving.

Prigge, D.J. (2002). Promote brain-based teaching and learning.
Intervention in School and Clinic (37) 237. Retrieved from
http://www.sagepub.com/kwilliamsstudy/articles/Prigge.pdf



Sleep allows the brain time tounlearn
By eliminating unnecessary information (usually
during sleep time), the brain becomes more efficient.
Sleep gives the brain time to rearrange circuits,
clean out unimportant mental debris, and process
emotional events. (Freeman 1995)
Prigge, D.J. (2002). Promote brain-based teaching and learning. Intervention in
School and Clinic (37) 237. Retrieved from
http://www.sagepub.com/kwilliamsstudy/articles/Prigge.pdf
Sleep Program
3. Learning is
Developmental
Depending upon the topic some
students can think abstractly,
while others have a limited
background and are still
thinking on a concrete level.
Building the necessary neural
connections by exposure,
repetition, and practice is
important to the student.
Remedial vs. Developmental
Developmental Perspective
Focuses on how the learner learns
Assumes students are at a variety
of levels simultaneously

Considers the cognitive and
affective dynamics of learning

Includes outside services
designed to meet the cognitive
and affective needs of students
Focuses on the development of a
variety of learning strategies

Helps students master their
educational/life goals and
objectives
Remedial Perspective
Focuses on the skills that need to
be learned
Assumes that students lack certain
skills, and are at one particular
level
Considers only the cognitive
dynamic of learning
Includes outside services designed
to meet only the cognitive needs of
students
Focuses on learning strategies
related to the specific skills that
need to be learned
Helps students master specific
academic skills
4. Each Brain is Unique
We are products of genetics and experience
The brain works better when facts and
skills are embedded in real experiences

4
Uniqueness

Variety and Choice

Prior knowledge and experiences

Learning styles and strengths

5. Each Brain Perceives and Creates
Parts and Wholes Simultaneously
Some think more easily inductively while
others find deductive thinking more
comfortable - use both
Shank (1990): Telling stories is one of the
most influential techniques because you give
the information, ground the meaning in
structure, provide for emotion, and make the
content meaningful. Our brain loves
storytelling.
6. Learning Involves Conscious
and Unconscious Processes
The brain and body learn physically,
mentally, and affectively
Body language as well as actual language
communicate

How you treat students and how
you permit them to treat each
other makes a difference in their
learning and desire to learn.
How the physical environment is
organized makes a difference.
Learning =
Conscious + Unconscious

The Learning Pyramid = Levels of Conscious
Processing
Silence/Reflection/Meditation = Unconscious
Processing

Fact: Meditation/Reflection
substantially increases brain activity
and reduces stress levels (cortisol) in the
body.
Fact: NASA Astronauts were instructed
to daydream 20 minutes twice a day.
Research showed that it increased their
ability to create new solutions and
anticipate unexpected situations by
more than 40%!

Fact: After doing PET scans of more
than 500 common activities, meditation
was found to produce the MOST active
brain waves!


7. The Search for
Meaning Is Innate
Each person seeks to make sense out of
what he/she sees or hears
Capitalize on this quality!
Present ideas, experiences that may NOT
follow what one expects:
Speculate Question
Experiment Hypothesize
Meaning
Holistic, integrated, thematic, relevant
learning
Large blocks of time for work
Time for processing and reflection
Making Meaning
Students need opportunities to
Talk
Reflect
Apply
What they are learning.
Experiences that
Strengthen Connections
Are frequent, regular, and predictable
Occur in the context of a warm, supportive
relationship
Are associated with positive emotion (fun,
excitement, humor, comfort)
Involve several senses
Are responsive to the childs interests or
initiative

8. Emotions Are
Critical to Learning

A common form of communication within our
brain is the electrical-chemical-electrical process
between neurons.
Emotions trigger the chemicals active in the axon-
synapse-dendrite reaction. This permits or inhibits
communication between the cells.
90% of the communication is carried out by
peptides (which are strings of amino acids that
travel the blood stream and permit information
transfer. Peptides are the glue that connect the
body and the brain.
Learning is affected by emotions.
Emotions
Emotions have their own pathways or
superhighways in our body.
They affect brain chemicals
which influence
Learning and memory




Emotions
emotions are the gatekeepers to the
intellectemotional hooks are
necessary for long-term learning;
negative emotions can become blocks
to learning.

Robin Fogarty
Brain-Compatible
Classrooms

Emotions
Drives attention drives learning

Fun is part of learning

Play is crucial to learning

Positive language

Use Humor
Reduces stress
Boosts immune system
Enhances alertness and memory
Funny stories
Jokes
Cartoon in class or test
Joke around in small groups

9. Learning is Enhanced by
Challenge and Inhibited by Threat
The brains priority is always survival - at
the expense of higher order thinking
Stress should be kept to a manageable level
Provide opportunities to grow and to
make changes
Have high, but reasonable expectations
Problem Solving
The brain grows by trying to solve problems
Need to find the edge of what students can do
Real-world problem solving promotes creative
and meaningful judgment
Open ended questions
Higher level thinking questions/projects
What if.?
Can you figure this out?
Brain teasers
Graphing
Labs/Experiments

10. The Search for Meaning
Comes Through Patterning
Tie learning to prior knowledge
Use Know - Want to know - Learned cycle
Bain (What the Best College Teachers Do)
suggests working from big questions to
be answered.
Link to Previous
Knowledge
Start with what they know and move
forward to what they need to know
Supply background information if
necessary
Motivating to students
Helps students be more successful
Check to see what students already know
Expand on what they understand
KWL

11. Brain Organizes
Memory In Different Ways
Retrieval often depends upon how the
information was stored.
Relevancy is one key to both storage and
retrieval
Connect to what students know, what they are
interested in
Provide and get examples
Student talk!!!
Of varying types

Memory
When objects and events are registered by
several senses, they can be stored in several
interrelated memory networks.
Conversation helps us link ideas/thoughts to
our own related memories. Students need
time for this to happen!!
Storytelling - Conversations
Debates - Role playing
Simulations - Songs
Games - Films
Techniques to Help
Memory
Define the gist - OVERVIEW
Sequence events
Plot out pictorially the information
Tell the information to others in own
words - TALK
Peer teaching/tutoring
Amplify by giving examples
Use multiple parts of the brain (emotional,
factual, physical)
Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic, Talk
Combine
Use color effectively
Yellow and orange as attention-getters



12. The Brain is a
Social Brain
The brain develops better in concert with
others
When students have to talk to others about
information, they retain the information longer
and more efficiently!




Make use of small
groups, discussions,
teams, pairings, and
question and answer
situations.
Use collaboration
Brain is inherently social
Explaining to others makes information the
students
Feel support of peers
Small group decision making skills
Promotes social interactions
Breakout spaces
Small groups
Cooperative learning
Group and individual accountability

Kolbs Learning Cycle

Kolb, D. A. (2000). Experiential learning theory: Previous research and
newdirections in R. J. Sternberg and L. F. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on
cognitive, learning, and thinking styles. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Curriculum:
Authentic Learning
Authentic learning situations increase the brains
ability to make connections and retain new
information.
To help build executive function in students,
opportunities to apply learning especially through
authentic, personally meaningful activities will be
provided
Willis, J. (2011). Three brain-based teaching strategies to build
executive function in students. Retrieved from
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/brain-based-teaching-strategies-
judy-willis

Curriculum:
Authentic Learning
Authentic, student-centered activities, projects, and discussions
will give students the opportunity to do the following:
Make predictions
Solve a variety of types of problems
Pursue inquiries
Analyze what information they need
Consider how to acquire any skills or knowledge they lack to
reach desirable goals
Willis, J. (2011). Three brain-based teaching strategies to build executive function in
students. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/brain-based-teaching-
strategies-judy-willis

Curriculum: Bilingualism
Bilingualism
Sharpens the mind
Delays onset of Alzheimers disease symptoms
Develops greater attention focus, distraction resistance,
decision-making judgment, and responsiveness to feedback
Enhances ability to attend to important information and ignore
the less important
Improves memory
Dreifus, C. (2011). The bilingual advantage
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/science/31conversation.html?_r
=4&
Willia, J. (2012). Neuroscience and the bilingual brain. Retrieved from
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/neuroscience-bilingual-brain-judy-
willis-md

Curriculum: Bilingualism
If you have two languages and you use them regularly, the
way the brains networks work is that every time you
speak, both languages pop up and the executive control
system has to sort through everything and attend to whats
relevant in the moment. Therefore the bilinguals use that
system more, and its that regular use that makes that
system more efficient.
Dreifus, C. (2011). The bilingual advantage
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/science/31conversation.html?_r
=4&
Willia, J. (2012). Neuroscience and the bilingual brain. Retrieved from
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/neuroscience-bilingual-brain-judy-
willis-md



Curriculum: Experiential
Repeated use strengthens brain connections.
If connections are not used, they are pruned
away.
The brain grows itself for whatever
environment it experiences.
Most of this experience-based growth occurs in the
cortex (the executive brain).

Curriculum: Experiential
Experiences that strengthen connections:
Are frequent, regular, and predictable
Occur in the context of a warm, supportive
relationship
Are associated with positive emotion (fun,
excitement, humor, comfort)
Involve several senses
Are responsive to the childs interests or initiative

Curriculum: Constructivist
Neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience have
provided theoretical basis for constructivist
approaches/models such as Experiential Learning,
Cooperative Learning, and Problem-Based Learning
(Caine & Caine, 2002; De Boer, 2001; Kolb, 1984;
Sparapani, 1998).
Gulpinar, M.A. (2005). The Principles of Brain-Based Learning
and Constructivist Models in Education. Educational Sciences:
Theory & Practice 5 (2) , pp. 299-306.
http://kimberlysheppard.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/The+Princ
iples+of+Brain+Based+Learning+and+Constructivist+Models+in
+Education.pdf

Curriculum:
Optimum Teaching
Fundamental elements of optimum teaching are described
as follow:
Relaxed Alertness
creating the optimal emotional and social climate
(challenging, but non-threatening, and confirmative
environment with complex social interactions) for learning.
Gulpinar, M.A. (2005). The Principles of Brain-Based Learning and
Constructivist Models in Education. Educational Sciences: Theory &
Practice 5 (2) , pp. 299-306.
http://kimberlysheppard.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/The+Principles+o
f+Brain+Based+Learning+and+Constructivist+Models+in+Education.pd
f

Curriculum:
Optimum Teaching
Fundamental elements of optimum teaching are described as
follow:
Orchestrated Immersion in Complex Experience
creating optimal opportunities for learning by providing
learners rich, complex, and realistic experiences;
giving learners time and opportunity to make sense of their
experiences by reflecting, finding, and constructing
meaningful connections in how things relate and,
during the whole process, by presenting efficient tutorial.
Gulpinar, M.A. (2005). The Principles of Brain-Based Learning and Constructivist
Models in Education. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 5 (2) , pp. 299-306.
http://kimberlysheppard.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/The+Principles+of+Brain+
Based+Learning+and+Constructivist+Models+in+Education.pdf
Curriculum:
Optimum Teaching
Fundamental elements of optimum teaching are described
as follow:
Active Processing of Experience
Creating optimal ways to consolidate learning, i.e.,
continuous active processing of ongoing changes and
experiences to construct, elaborate and conso changes
and experiences to construct, elaborate and consolidate
mental models/ patternings
Gulpinar, M.A. (2005). The Principles of Brain-Based Learning and
Constructivist Models in Education. Educational Sciences: Theory &
Practice 5 (2) , pp. 299-306.
http://kimberlysheppard.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/The+Principles+o
f+Brain+Based+Learning+and+Constructivist+Models+in+Education.pd
f

Curriculum: Interest-based
The curriculum will be based on the interests of the
students. At the beginning of each term, students
will be asked what their interests are so that the
teacher will see to it that students interests will be
included in the curriculum.
Teachers must design learning around student
interests and make learning contextual.
Brain-based Learning. Retrieved from
http://www.funderstanding.com/educators/brain-
based-learning/
Curriculum: Theme-based
Theme-based curriculum
Provides and integrated approach to teaching and learning
Helps young learners achieve higher levels of learning
Brain research and the psychology of learning support
the idea that learning is an integrated process, a process
focused on constructing meaning, and a process largely
dependent on the ability to communicate.
Hurley, S.R. & Blake, S. (2008). Animals and occupations: why theme-
based curricula work.
http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.asp
x?ArticleID=112

Curriculum: Developing
Higher Thinking Skills
In developing higher order thinking skills, teachers will explore
the extent to which:
their questions can focus specifically on stimulating childrens
thinking they can create time tabled opportunities for
thinking times which signal to the children that a non-
ordinary (and possibly counterfactual) kind of thinking is
being encouraged
more opportunities can be created in the classroom for
structured dialogue
children can be invited to construct opinions and arguments
Taggart, G., Ridley, K., Rudd, P. & Benefield, P. (2005). Thinking skills in the early
years: a literature review. UK: National Foundation for Eucational Research.

Curriculum: Developing
Higher Thinking Skills
In developing higher order thinking skills, teachers
will explore the extent to which:
story-time can become an opportunity to develop
childrens thinking
traditional sorting and sequencing tasks can be an
opportunity for children to verbalize their thinking
Taggart, G., Ridley, K., Rudd, P. & Benefield, P. (2005). Thinking skills in
the early years: a literature review. UK: National Foundation for
Eucational Research.


Curriculum: Developing
Higher Thinking Skills
In developing higher order thinking skills, teachers will
explore the extent to which:
play equipment can present children with possibilities
for developing their imagination
children can be given opportunities for solitary as well as
social play
children can be asked to evaluate their work critically
Taggart, G., Ridley, K., Rudd, P. & Benefield, P. (2005). Thinking skills in
the early years: a literature review. UK: National Foundation for
Eucational Research.

Curriculum: Developing
Higher Thinking Skills
In developing higher order thinking skills, teachers
will explore the extent to which:
additional adults in the classroom can be used to
develop childrens thinking
creative activities can encourage creative possibility
thinking, as well as cre- ative skills.
Taggart, G., Ridley, K., Rudd, P. & Benefield, P. (2005).
Thinking skills in the early years: a literature review. UK:
National Foundation for Eucational Research.

Curriculum
Teaching strategies that enhance brain-based learning
include:
Manipulatives
Active Learning
Field Trips
Guest Speakers
Real-Life Projects
that allow students to use many learning styles and
multiple intelligences.

Curriculum: Play-based
Play-based
Children best learn through play.
Play shapes the structural design of the brain.
provides active exploration that assists in building and
strengthening brain pathways
creates a brain that has increased flexibility and improved
potential for learning later in life (Lester & Russell, 2008, p.
9).
Allows them to explore, identify, negotiate, take risks and
create meaning.
Barblett, L. (2010). Why play-based learning? Every Child (16) 3.
Retrieved from
http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/nqsplp/wp-
content/uploads/2012/05/Why_play_based_learning.pdf

Curriculum: Play-based
Play-based
Children who engage in quality play experiences are
more likely to have well-developed memory skills,
language development, and are able to regulate their
behaviour, leading to enhanced school adjustment
and academic learning (Bodrova & Leong, 2005).
Children can build relationships, learn to resolve
conflicts, negotiate and regulate their behaviours.
Barblett, L. (2010). Why play-based learning? Every Child (16) 3.
Retrieved from
http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/nqsplp/wp-
content/uploads/2012/05/Why_play_based_learning.pdf

Curriculum: Play-based
In play, children usually have increased feelings of success
and optimism as they act as their own agents and make
their own choices.
Playing is a known stress release; it is often linked to child
wellbeing.
The dispositions for learning, such as curiosity, openness,
optimism, resilience, concentration, and creativity (SACSA,
2009), are developed in play. Playing is linked to the
development of resilience and the beginnings of empathy
as children begin to understand other points of view
Barblett, L. (2010). Why play-based learning? Every Child (16) 3.
Retrieved from
http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/nqsplp/wp-
content/uploads/2012/05/Why_play_based_learning.pdf
Curriculum: Technology
While use of technology will be part of the curriculum, it
will be emphasized among the children that they should
limit use of technology (tv and computer) for only two
hours a day.
technology provides opportunities to use such important
science of learning principles as pre-existing knowledge,
active learning, mental models, transfer, and learning for
understanding.
Curtis, D. (2003). Brain-based research prompts innovative teaching
techniques in the classroom: Educators explore nontraditional methods
of teaching and receive positive results. Retrieved from
http://www.edutopia.org/brain-based-research-powerful-learning

Technology Use
Technology is a tool that can provide another way for
children to learn and make sense of their world.
Computers can be used in developmentally appropriate
ways that are beneficial to children, or they can be
misused.
Computers, or cameras or any other forms of technology,
do not replace other tools but add to the array of tools
available to children
Van Scoter, J. (2001). Technology in Early Childhood Education: Finding
the Balance. NWRELs Technology in Education Center & Northwest
Educational Technology Consor. Retrieved from
http://www.netc.org/earlyconnections/byrequest.pdf

Principles Followed in
Software Selection
Is open ended and allows for active learning with students making decisions
Involves many senses and contains sound, music, or voice
Is controlled by the children, and allows them to explore without fear of making
mistakes
Responds to childrens exploration in ways that encourage further investigation
Reflects and builds on what children already know
Applies to real problems with real-life connections
Elicits excitement and so encourages language
Van Scoter, J. (2001). Technology in Early Childhood Education: Finding the Balance.
NWRELs Technology in Education Center & Northwest Educational Technology Consor.
Retrieved from http://www.netc.org/earlyconnections/byrequest.pdf

Activities
As much as possible, music and movement will be
incorporated in all activities
Also, teacher will see to it that manipulatives and
concrete objects are used in almost all activities. As
much as possible, all activities are hands-on.
Doodling will be encouraged. One wall of the room
will have paper on it so that children could freely
doodle, draw, or write anything on it.
Every day, there will be a welcome theme song so
that positive emotions will be evoked from the kids

Activities
When students make mistakes in any of the school
activity, it will be emphasized that mistakes are part
of learning process. Students will be allowed to
correct themselves.
Students will be encouraged to take risks, to
experiment, so that they would learn how to
discover things.
To tap student creativity and expression to the
fullest, artistic outputs will be given priority
Activities
Fun will always be incorporated to learning.
Teacher should keep in mind that his/ her own
enthusiasm to learning is transferred to the students
Some activities will be group work in order to
promote team-work. In these activities, the teacher
will serve as facilitator.
Field trips will be incorporated with lessons.
Students will explore the community with guidance
of the teacher.
Activities
Students will have projects where they will actively
investigate on different phenomena or where they
will create products
Enrichment activities will be provided for students.
While singing is taught inside the classroom,
students will be encouraged to take formal lessons
in learning to play an instrument of their choice.
Students will also be encouraged to take ballet or
gymnastics or wushu once or twice a week for
improvement of muscle control.
Activities
Pretend plays will be done to tap childrens
imagination
Outputs of students will be presented
Students will be taught how to label and express
emotions appropriately

Assessment
There will be different forms of assessment. Most
of them will utilize what the students enjoy doing.
Assessment will not be heavy on paper and pencil
tests.
Assessment will be designed to fit the students
learning styles and motivation.
Portfolios, performance, reflection, self-assessment
will be utilized

Assessment
Distinguishing marks of brain-based assessment:
Collaboration of students, teachers, and parents
Authentic assessment practices for even more traditional
settings
Reminders about what is valued within a variety of cultures
Conflict resolution opportunities for small-group assessment
Rubrics that define expectations and provide guidelines.
Weber, E. (1998). Marks of brain-based assessment: A checklist. National
Association of Secondary School Principals, NSSP Bulletin.


Authentic Assessment
Authentic assessment utilizes performance samples learning
activities that encourage students to use higher-order thinking
skills.
Five major types of performance samples:

1. Performance Assessment

Presenting to the class
Conducting a science experiment and analyzing the results
Working with a team to prepare a position in a debate
Teacher Vision (2012). Authentic Assesment Overview. Retrieved from
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-
management/educational-
testing/4911.html?detoured=1&for_printing=1



Authentic Assessment
2. Short Investigations
The teacher asks students to interpret, describe, explain,
predict a given stimulus
3. Open-Response Questions
The teacher presents a stimulus and asks students to
respond orally, through drawing, or a diagram
Teacher Vision (2012). Authentic Assesment Overview. Retrieved from
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-
management/educational-
testing/4911.html?detoured=1&for_printing=1


Authentic Assessment
4. Portfolios

A portfolio documents learning over time. This long-term
perspective accounts for student improvement and teaches
students the value of self-assessment, editing, and revision.
A student portfolio can include:
Artworks
Student outputs
Teacher Vision (2012). Authentic Assesment Overview. Retrieved from
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-
management/educational-
testing/4911.html?detoured=1&for_printing=1

Authentic Assessment
5. Self-Assessment

Students to evaluate their own participation, process, and products.
Students give written or oral responses to questions like:
What was the most difficult part of this project for you?
What do you think you should do next?
If you could do this task again, what would you do differently?
What did you learn from this project?
Teacher Vision (2012). Authentic Assesment Overview. Retrieved
from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-
management/educational-
testing/4911.html?detoured=1&for_printing=1