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Course code:
EDU 702
Research Methodology
Research Proposal
(Law Students Level of Speaking Anxiety and Level of
Confidence in English Language)
Date of submission:
June 2014
Prepared by:
Zulaikha binti Khairuddin (2013717197)
Prepared for:
Prof. Madya Dr. Nor Aziah Alias


1.1 Background of the study
In learning the English language, there are four components that need to be learnt.
However, the most challenging component among these four is speaking. This scenario usually
happens in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and including Malaysia
(Griffith, 2007). English is an international language due to the globalisation era. English can be
also considered as the lingua franca of todays world (Graddol, 1999). English is very
important because if you cannot communicate in English, you will be left behind.
Other than that, English is very important because it helps students for their future
especially with regards to employment. One of the basic traits that employers want from the
fresh graduates is that they should be able speak and communicate in English. In The Star and
News Straits Times dated between June to December 2006, there was an analysis on the
recruitment of employees (Ranjit Singh Malhi, 2008) which found that the most basic skills that
are needed by the fresh graduates are oral and written communication skills, interpersonal skills,
ability to work in a team, problem solving and decision making skills, leadership and computer
In this research, the focus would be in Malaysia. There are many changes which have
happened in the Malaysia education system. According to Stephen (2013), there were years
where the medium of instruction was changing from English to Bahasa Malaysia. The
consequence from this change was the deterioration in English language among the students.
However, in 2003, Ministry of Education introduced one measure in increasing the competency
in English among the students. It was the teaching Science and Mathematics in English. It was a
good measure because it would prepare the students for their tertiary level study. However, it
was aborted in 2009 (Nor Hahimah, 2009).
The problem of language anxiety among the students can be related and supported by
Krashens (1982) affective filter hypothesis that includes the variables of motivation, self-
confidence and anxiety. Krashen (1982) mentioned that if the affective elements in the students
are not resolved, it will lead to mental block. This means all the input that comes to the students

will be blocked. In other words, there might be problems for the students to acquire their second
language. This language anxiety among the students in Malaysia will make them become
inactive and passive in class.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
In every university, it is compulsory for every student to take universitys courses and
one of them is English subject for proficiency. According to Ramiza Darmi and Albion (2013),
language anxiety among students in learning English language gets worse because the students
discover that they are required to take English subjects in university. Higher Education students
usually have problems in communicating or speaking in the English language. If this problem is
not solved, it will lead to the low achievement in speaking assessment. The students are also
worried that they will be evaluated adversely (Liu & Huang, 2011).
Based on the research by Khairi Izwan Abdullah and Nurul Lina Abdul Rahman (2010),
even after 11 years of learning the English language at school, the students still have problems in
using the language and they also have problems to speak in the English language. It can make the
students become stressful and it will lead to speaking anxiety. This will be an obstacle to the
students because they are required to do oral presentations in the English language classes. The
problem occurs and gets more serious because the students are afraid to talk in English as they
are afraid of making mistakes and they think that their friends will laugh at them. They are
scared if the lecturers address the mistakes that they did and the whole class will stare at them.
This will lead to personal embarrassment to individual learners (Ramiza Darmi & Albion, 2013).
Other than that, the students tend to feel that their friends are more proficient and superior than
them (Liu & Huang, 2011). The other factors that make the students face the language anxiety
are personal factor, school factor, social factor and cultural factor. These factors influence the
students use of the English language linguistically and psychologically (Noor Hashimah, 2007;
Rosemala, 2008).
There are so many researches that had been done on speaking anxiety among school
students and university students. Based on Khairi Izwan Abdullah and Nurul Lina Abdul

Rahman (2010), the students level of anxiety in speaking in English is on moderate level. Other
than that, students have difficulties in speaking in English language because they were anxious
when they were evaluated by teachers (Siti Haryati, 2007). This study can actually benefit the
lecturers too. This is due to the fact that in Naveed Ahmad (2011), the result showed that more
than half of students mentioned that they have inadequate skills in asking questions, giving
presentation and also speaking during group or pair work.
In legal education, they use legal English and it is usually used by the lawyers and legal
professionals such as barristers, judges and jurors. As English language becomes an international
language, all non-native speakers who wants to be a lawyer needs to be specialised in legal
English. This situation leads to the introduction of a course which is English for Specific
Purposes (ESP) (Codruta, 2012). Usually, when we talk about Law students, we assume that they
are good in speaking skill especially in English. However, according to Ahmad (2006), law
students in Pakistan still do not have enough skills in English language.
Therefore, the researcher would like to investigate the level of speaking anxiety among
the Law students in Malaysia. This is because their jobs prospect requires them to speak in
public. Thus the researcher wants to know whether law students meet the requirement of their
jobs prospect especially in delivering their speeches.

1.3 Research Objectives
This research wants to:
1. Identify Law students level of speaking anxiety
2. Identify Law students level of confidence when speaking
3. Determine if there is any significant difference in Law students level of speaking anxiety
based on their demographic details.
4. Determine if there is any significant difference in Law students level of confidence when
speaking based on their demographic details.
5. Examine the relationship between Law students level of speaking anxiety and Law
students level of confidence when speaking.

1.4 Research Questions
The research questions are:
1. What is the Law students level of speaking anxiety?
2. What is the law students level of confidence when speaking?
3. Is there any significant difference in Law students level of speaking anxiety based on
their demographic details?
4. Is there any significant difference in Law students level of confidence when speaking
based on their demographic details?
5. Is there any significant relationship between Law students level of speaking anxiety and
Law students level of confidence when speaking?

1.5 Operational Definition
1.5.1 Speaking Anxiety
Speaking anxiety in this research means the nervousness to talk in front of the
public and the fear to make mistakes.
1.5.2 Confidence Level
Confidence level in this research means the readiness of students to speak in
English language.
1.5.3 Law Students
Law students in this research refer to students who are undertaking the Law
programme for their Bachelor Degrees in two public universities (IPTAs) which are
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) and Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM),
Shah Alam and in two private universities (IPTSs) which are Taylors University and
Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam.


1.6 Significance of the Study
The researcher hopes that the findings of this study would create awareness of parents,
lecturers, the university and the students themselves that practising and being good as well as
better in speaking in a second or target language is actually very crucial in todays globalization
era. Other than that, the implication of this study will tell the students whether they need to
improve themselves and be more confident to talk in the second or target language in front of
people. The significance of this study is also to know that making presentations might give
students the opportunity to improve themselves in speaking in a second or target language.
This research is important to be held because it is very crucial for the university to find
out the students level of speaking anxiety and they may be able to come up with the solutions to
encounter the problems. Speaking skills are very important for students future. This is because it
will help them to get a better job after they have graduated. This study can help student to
identify their level of speaking anxiety. It will hopefully help them to be better in the future in
order to lower down their speaking anxiety. Furthermore, they still have time to improve it by
seeking help and guidance from their lecturers. For example, they can arrange many programs or
activities that can improve their level of confidence in speaking in English language in front of
people. They can also polish their confidence level by having more practices in the classes. This
study is crucial for the students to know the skills that they need to improve because they might
need to present something important for their careers or for their future employers.
Besides, the university administration and lecturers can sit down together and help each
other in creating programs that can help students to lower their level of speaking anxiety and at
the same time to boost their confidence level. This effort is to help the students to be well
prepared to survive and be independent in the real world. Parents can also encourage their
children to communicate in English among other siblings and parents can also share their
experiences in working life. Hence, these are a few significant reasons in conducting this


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
In this study, the researcher will use the survey as the method in order to answer the research
questions and to prove the objectives of the research. The research questions are derived from
research objectives. They are to identify Law students level of speaking anxiety, to identify law
students level of confidence when speaking, to determine if there is any significant difference in
Law students level of speaking anxiety based on their demographic details, to determine if there
is any significant difference in Law students level of confidence when speaking based on their
demographic details and to examine the relationship between Law students level of speaking
anxiety and Law students level of confidence when speaking.
Thus, the limitations of the present study, namely the sample, procedure and field of the
study have to be acknowledged. The scope of the study is limited to the respondents of the
survey. The sample will be chosen from the population of Law students from two IPTAs and two
IPTS. They will be chosen randomly from Faculty of Law from each university respectively.
Therefore, the findings of this study could not be generalized to all students in other universities
in Malaysia generally and Law students specifically. It might not have external validity as
students from other universities might respond differently to the survey as other factors might
influence the findings of such a study. These factors could be the students locality, either urban
or rural, the location of universities, parental involvement, economic status and the social
The last limitation of this study is the fact that this study will only concern Law students
level of speaking anxiety, Law students level of confidence when speaking, the difference in
Law students level of speaking anxiety based on their demographic details, the difference in
Law students level of confidence when speaking based on their demographic details and the
relationship between Law students level of speaking anxiety and Law students level of
confidence when speaking.
However, it is hoped that this study will be able to enlighten those with the same area of
the study, namely Law students level of speaking anxiety and Law students level of confidence
when speaking.

1.8 Conclusion
In this Chapter 1, the researcher will explain the background of the study, statements of
the problem, objectives of the research, questions of the research, operational definitions, and
significance of the study as well as scope and limitations of the study.


2.1 Introduction
According to Zhiping and Shamala (2013), intelligences, language aptitudes and learning
styles are the main components in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The most
popular theory in SLA is affective filter hypothesis by Krashen (1985). There are three variables
in affective filter hypothesis which are motivation, confidence and anxiety (Zhiping & Shamala,
2013). In Richards and Rodgers (2001), they stated that Krashen (1985) said that the lower the
affective filter, the students could comprehend better.
The students are considered to experience affective filter when they would not speak in
the second or foreign language, no confidence in target language culture and the environment of
using textbook will also affect the students motivation (Yule, 1997). Hence, according to Filza
Waseem and Tahira Jibeen (2013), there are many researchers who stated that learners who have
high motivation and self confidence, have a good self-image as well as low level of anxiety are
more likely to succeed in SLA.

2.2 English as a Second Language (ESL)
English as a Second Language is very important in this era. This is because the language
is used widely in different fields. English is used widely in science and many professions such as
international business and diplomacy (Zhiping & Shamala, 2013; Tse, 2011). Other than that, it
is also the official language for many professional organisations internationally. In universities,
English is also used as a medium of instructions and also for class assessment. According to
Hairuzila Idrus, Rohani Salleh and Lim Abdullah (2011), English is the most important language
in this world because of the globalisation era. Other than that, it is also called as global language
or lingua franca because it can serve two people from two different cultures, countries and
languages to communicate with each other. That is the reason why university students are
encouraged to master the English language. Hence, it will hopefully help students to find a
secure job especially with multinational companies.

Students are required to master the English language for academic purposes both in
spoken and written. In this 21st century, English language is becoming very significant in higher
education. There are 600 million people who are using the English language as an international
language. With this kind of environment where English is used internationally, it has become the
globalisation agent for the people around the world as part of the international business and
cultural society (Lee, 2002).

2.3 Language Anxiety
According to Gardner and MacIntyre (1993), language anxiety is the nervousness that is
faced by the students when they have to use the second or foreign language and they are not
proficient in that particular language. Horwitz et al. (1986) mentioned that self-perceptions,
beliefs, feelings and behaviour will affect the language learning process in the classroom. In
language anxiety research, there are two opinions. The first opinion is language anxiety will lead
the students to be tensed, apprehensive, nervous and worried, (Arnold & Brown, 1999; Gardener
& MacIntyre, 1993; Oxford, 1999) while the other opinion is language anxiety will be the factor
in enhancing students performance in learning second or foreign language (Chastain, 1975;
Scott, 1986; Steinberg, 1982). Freud (1924) mentioned that anxiety means undesirable feeling
felt by a person.
Language anxiety is a common situation for students to face in learning second language
or foreign language. According to Ardi Marwan (2007), in learning second or foreign language,
the anxiety level will increase and most of students who are learning second or foreign language
are experiencing the same thing (Worde, 1998). This is happening because students do not have
enough skills or not very proficient in that particular second or foreign language. According to
Liu and Jackson (2008), there is a relationship between language anxiety and language
proficiency. That is why the students who have low level of proficiency will be more nervous
compared to those who are at least at the basic level of the language. Zhang (2011) stated that it
is challenging for students to speak in second or foreign language which will result them to be

silent in the class. However, according to Brown (2008), students who are considered to have
good proficiency level are also facing the same problem where they are also nervous when they
have to speak in second or foreign language. The factors that make students feel anxious
whenever they have to speak are low self-esteem, feeling of shame and inferiority. Other than
that, students tend to expect their performance to be perfect that will lead to dissatisfaction
(Gregersen & Horwitz, 2002). According to Zhiping and Shamala paramasivam (2013), students
who experience foreign and second language anxiety will be affected in terms of their
performance and achievement.
Young (1991) mentioned that there are six factors that lead to language anxiety and it
involves the students, the teachers and the instructional practice. The six factors are (a) personal
and interpersonal anxiety, (b) learners belief about language learning, (c) instructors belief
about language teaching, (d) instructor learner interactions, (e) classroom procedures and (f)
language testing. According to Horwitz (1987), the factors that should be focused on are the
learners because they are the main character in the research and the objective in every research is
to change the learners perceptions and behaviour (Truitt, 1995). In cognitive and educational
psychology, the beliefs of learners who experienced the anxiety are very important (Cheng,
2001) Other than that, the other factors are communication apprehension, negative evaluation
and general feeling of anxiety (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989; Papamiheil, 2002; Casado, 2004).
According to Muhammad Javad Riasati (2011), the professionals in language teaching said that
existence of anxiety can give negative impact to the students performance.
Whenever speaking in second or foreign language is involved, the students will feel
anxious and this will make the students not able to express their ideas (Chan & Wu, 2004).
Language anxiety is one of the reasons why students cannot perform well in speaking skills (Lim
& Mardziah Budin, 2014). The students will not enjoy learning second or foreign language due
to the existence of the anxiety (Worde, 1998; Gregersen, 2005) and it may lead to the low
achievement in their performance (Muhammad Javad Riasati, 2011). In Kim (1998), the study
found that the students felt more anxious in oral communication class compared to the traditional
class. In the classroom situation, teachers should take note on students level of anxiety because
teachers are the ones who can help the students to be better in a particular language. This
acknowledgement will also lead to better performance (Muhammad Javad Riasati, 2011). In

order to reduce a little bit of anxiety level in learning second or foreign language, the teachers
should try to decrease the level of difficulty for each task. MacIntyre (1995) stated that when the
degree of difficulty is easy, the level of language anxiety can be facilitated. Fang-peng and Dong
(2010) suggested a few ways in order to make students produce the language and they are:
teachers have to ask the students to listen to the English language and think in the English
language, to imitate the recordings, to correct their pronunciation and teachers have to force
students to speak in English in order to enhance students motivation.

2.3 Speaking Anxiety
According to Lanerfeldt (1992), she described speaking anxiety as the impact towards an
individual where the individual could not speak and present what she or he should. Moreover,
speaking anxiety is one of social anxieties (Samuelsson, 2011). Cognitive-behaviourist approach
defines speaking anxiety as the difficulty to speak in front of people such as preparing speech,
giving oral presentations and answering questions. Public speaking anxiety can be considered as
stage fright. It happens when the individuals are experiencing arousal, negative self-talk and
behavioural reactions when they are presenting (Daly, McCroskey, Ayres, Hopf, & Ayres, 1997).
Based on Daly, Vangelisti, & Webers (1995) research, students who have high level of public
speaking anxiety will not perform well during their oral presentation and it will affect their
performance and students will be disappointed (Menzel & Carrell, 1994). According to Bodie
(2010), students competencies in speaking skills are very important and crucial in or out of the
classroom because they have to use the skills when they enter colleges and working field.
Woodrow (2006) stated that students who are facing with second language speaking anxiety, the
environment will weaken and influence them to adapt to the target environment and to achieve
their goals in second language acquisition (SLA). The environment where the students feel
anxious in learning second language especially in speaking is common. However, teachers seem
not to notice this problem where the students are reluctant to speak and participate in the task due
to the lack of motivation and having negative thoughts (Gregersen, 2003). According to Tse
(2011), public speaking anxiety is also a common condition faced by college students
specifically and public generally. Students who feel anxious to speak will avoid producing the

language and they will become more intense and distressed when they cannot avoid participating.
The students will try to imagine the real situations beforehand when they have oral presentation.
Although the students know that their anxiety level is very high but they cannot control their
anxiousness. There are some arguments where the scholars said that public speaking anxiety
affects students when they are learning English language at higher level (Alemi, Parisa, &
Pashmforoosh, 2011).
There is also research which indicated one factor that causes students public speaking
anxiety level to increase which is when they have to speak in front of public (Awan, Azher,
Anwar, & Naz, 2010). Awan et al. (2010) gave suggestions to teacher to design activities that
can help students in reducing their anxiety level. There are recent research where the researcher
suggested three techniques in reducing public speaking anxiety. The first one is systematic
desensitization. It involves relaxation, deep breathing, and visualization and this technique can
be done in groups or individually (Friedrich, Goss, Cunconan, & Lane, 1997). Second technique
is cognitive restructuring. The students have to make a list of their usual negative talk and
irrational beliefs. They also need to come out with coping statements for each irrational belief
and practice until it becomes a habit (Ayres, Hopf, & Peterson, 2000). Finally, the third
technique is skills training. It means students have to learn and practice the techniques in
improving their speaking behaviours (Kelly, 1997). Skills training can be improved by attending
courses and students learn and practice the public speaking skills (Morgan & Schmidt, 2012).
When students feel anxious, there are a few symptoms that can be seen such as palpitations,
sweating, gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhoea, muscle tension, and confusion (North & Rives,
2001). Other than that, according to Lanerfeldt (1992), the other symptoms that block a person to
speak and present well are irregular heartbeat, perspiration, stumbling and an inability to act.
According to Brown (1994), giving speech is one of the situations or acts where students public
speaking anxiety level increases.
According to Tobias (1979, 1980, 1986), anxiety is also affected by cognitive factors. It
can make the students have mental block. When students have mental block, they tend to
criticise their performance, be afraid of failures and worry over performance procedures. There
are many researchers who said that students face traumatic experience when they are in foreign
language class because they have to speak in that language which they are not very proficient in

(Beebe, 1983; Lucas, 1984; Horwitz et al., 1986; Liu, 1989; Phillips, 1992). Other researchers
also mentioned that lack of oral skills can be a factor which threatens students to speak in the
target language (Ely, 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989; Campbell, 1991; Price, 1991; Aida,
1994). Some students really want to learn to communicate and speak in English or foreign
language (Phillips, 1991), but their anxieties weakens them (Occhipinti, 2009). However,
according to Occhipinti (2009), there are also students who have negative attitudes towards
speaking in the second language. They exclude themselves from joining the conversations and
interactions activities. They avoid themselves to mingle with people from different cultures
because they do not share the same first language.
Based on MacIntyre and Gardners (1989) research, there are three types of language
anxiety which are communication apprehension, test-anxiety and fear of negative evaluation.
Communication apprehension may exist inside or outside the classroom, however, the types of
anxiety that are faced by students in the classroom are scared of being negatively evaluated and
worried to make mistakes because they imagine that their friends will laugh at them (Maclntyre
& Gardner, 1991). In Lius (2007) study, she reported that Chinese students were very anxious
when they have to speak and present in front of the class. Other than that, there was a study at
UiTM Johor by Wan et al., (2010) and they discovered that the students have very high level of
communication apprehension and they would prefer activity such as group discussion to reduce
their public speaking anxiety. Students who have faced failure when they give oral presentations,
the experience will be a reminder for them to not take the risk and this will result to the students
to be quiet. This is because they are scared of failing again in the next attempt. Speaking anxiety
really gives students a negative impact because it creates low self-esteem and students will not
try to express their knowledge or thoughts although the knowledge is very useful (Lanerfeldt,
1992). Lightbown and Spada (2003) said that speaking anxiety happens when the students are
faced with special situation that makes them feel distressed such as giving oral presentation to a
large group of people.


2.4 Confidence Level
Self-esteem and self-confidence are the important variables for a person to be good in
second language acquisition (Hyesook & Lee, 2005). Level of self-confidence is very important
for students to be able to speak in English or any second language. According to Templin (1995),
those students in Japan have studied the English language for about six year or more. However,
they still could not speak in English. They become silent when they were asked to speak or even
when they have the opportunity to speak. Japanese students lack of confidence because their
level of self-confidence is very low. Other than that, the other factor that makes Japanese
students reluctant to speak is because their classroom environment only focuses on written
grammar, direct translation, and rote memorization. They have less focus on oral communicative
competence (Aiga, 1990). Empowering students confidence level is very important because it
will affect their language learning (Templin, 1995).
Students self-confidence is one of the factors that is highly correlated with students
anxiety level. This is because if the students have high level of confidence, they can manage their
anxiety level even when they feel slightly nervous. According to Krashen and Terrell (1983),
based on Krashens affective filter hypothesis, there are a few factors that contribute to students
level of confidence and they are students states self-image, motivations, and emotional state.
Self-confidence can influence the students negatively because they might feel that they are not
proficient and have limited vocabulary in the target language. Students who have different levels
of confidence will react in different ways when they are asked to attempt a task because different
people have different potentials (Hyesook & Lee, 2005). According to Templin (1995), based on
his study, students needed to have goals that they wanted to achieve whenever they entered the
class. At least they can achieve half of the goals that they had set up.
According to MacIntyre, Dornyei, Clement and Noels (1998), they mentioned that in
order for students to be willing to speak in a second or foreign language is to have enough self-
confidence to try to speak. According to Hyesook and Lee (2005), different people will attempt a
task differently as it depends on their self-confidence and self-esteem. This is because different
people develop their self-confidence and self-esteem based on their different experiences. There

is one method that can help students to reduce their anxiety level and increase their confidence
and motivation level and the method is by using drama in the classroom (Shand, 2008).

2.5 Law Students
According to Model Rules of Professional Conduct (1998), every lawyer must serve the
community with full responsibility especially to those who cannot afford to have a lawyer and
pay them. There are rumours that say law school will be closed because there are so many
students who are not returning for their second year. However, the traditional law schools are
still standing until now (Stevens, 1973)
The programs offered at Law school must have reflection of the reality of their work field
(Executive Board, 2012). Nowadays, with the environment and situation of law firms, the
lawyers generally and law students specifically must be very efficient in terms of time
management, communication, peer collaboration and cost recovery. These are the reasons why
the law students need to have good speaking and communication skills as they have to deal with
many people especially after they have graduated and it is also important for their practice. The
lawyers must also have many other soft skills such as problem solving and critical thinking so
that they can be successful in the future. According to Johnson (2009), all first year students at
Georgia State University College of Law are required to take legal research course and a
research, writing, and advocacy course (RWA). That is why learning English language is
important because they will use it for the whole semester and also throughout the years of their


3.1 Introduction
In this study, the Law students will know their level of anxiety and confidence when they
speak in front of public generally and friends specifically. Other than that, this study will inform
the lecturers of the subject: English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in knowing their students
ability in speaking skills. It will also help the lecturers to help the students to improve further.
Besides, this study will also help the universities in becoming more aware of the problem.
Thus, this study will answer these five research questions which are, what is the Law
students level of speaking anxiety?, what is the law students level of confidence when
speaking?, is there any significant difference in Law students level of speaking anxiety based on
their demographic details?, is there any significant difference in Law students level of
confidence when speaking based on their demographic details? and is there any significant
relationship between Law students level of speaking anxiety and Law students level of
confidence when speaking?.
The first part of this chapter describes the research design which will be adopted for this
study and its reasons. The following part will explain the sample and sample selection. The next
part of this chapter illustrates the instrument and method of data collection procedure. Finally,
the data analysis procedure is described.

3.2 Research Design
The research approach of this study is quantitative research that aims to investigate and
establish relationships between variables and look for further explanations of the basis of such
relationships (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2008). According to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012),
quantitative research is a research that can separate between facts and feelings. It means that
facts can be discovered in this single reality world. Furthermore, this study will use correlational
design as its research design to obtain the data. From this research design, the researcher will
know the relationship between two or more variables (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2008). This design
does not require the researcher to manipulate the variables or have intervention as in

experimental design. By doing correlational research, the researcher can predict the results and
correlate the variables in the research. Other than that, the researcher will use statistical figure in
order to describe the relationship between two variables or more. A correlational research will
determine the relationship between the variables by using statistical test (Creswell, 2012). Thus,
in correlational method, the researcher will only need to administer the necessary instrument(s)
in order to collect the necessary data and to maximize what can be learnt from it. The reason to
adopt these approaches was because in this research, there will be no intervention or control
group required. This research only wants to identify Law students level of speaking anxiety, to
identify law students level of confidence when speaking, to determine if there is any significant
difference in Law students level of speaking anxiety based on their demographic details, to
determine if there is any significant difference in Law students level of confidence when
speaking based on their demographic details and to examine the relationship between Law
students level of speaking anxiety and Law students level of confidence when speaking.

The researcher chooses to use questionnaire or self-administered survey as the instrument.
According to Phellas, Bloch and Seale (2011), a questionnaire is easy to be used as an instrument
because it can be sent and returned by post or email, completed on the Web, or handed directly to
the respondent who completes it on the spot and hands it back. Self-administered survey or
questionnaire will be chosen as the data collection method as it is believed that this study will be
confined by time and cost limitation. Holmes, Hazadiah and Habibah (2005) suggested that a
survey is usually utilized as a time-saving method in gathering data in a naturalistic environment.
Other than that, by using this method, it will not consume a lot of time. According to Wallen and
Fraenkel (2009), completing questionnaires does not take a long time if compared to interviews
and observations and respondents can write what they really think which could be limited during
interviews. This is because by using questionnaire it will not cost so much money; it is
convenient to those who live far and it can also reduce the biasness in answering the
questionnaires (Phellas, Bloch & Seale, 2011).
Moreover, this method will be utilized because it will be the most efficient way to learn
about students level of anxiety and confidence. It enables the researcher to ask a wide range of
questions, often with forced choice responses, which are fairly easy to code and to analyze.

This method will also be employed because the researcher will try to obtain information directly
from the students about their level of anxiety and confidence.
It is also believed that this method is less intimidating which will offer the students with
more anonymity than a formal interview. In conclusion, the survey method seems to be the best
method for obtaining the kind of information the researcher will be seeking.

3.3 Research Population
The population for this study will be chosen among Law students from four universities:
two public universities and two private universities. The universities that will be chosen are
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) and Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam
as well as Taylors University and Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam. The
researcher will choose these four universities because these universities offer Degree of Law and
it is convenient for the researcher and the researcher has access to the universities. The Law
students that will be chosen are 30 students from each university. This will make the total of the
respondents is 120 students. These students are chosen because they are the reliable respondents
for this study.
This research will use simple random sampling as the sampling method. The researcher
uses simple random sampling because the participants will be equally chosen and get
independent chance of being selected. This method of sampling is the best way to be
implemented if the population is large and it is easier for the researcher to obtain a sample that
will be representing the whole population interested (Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012). In this
study, the researcher will use simple random sampling technique when selecting the sample for
this study. This is to ensure that every student who will be selected from each university has
equal chance of being selected for the study. Furthermore, the researcher believes that university
students are matured enough to answer the questions given to them as they are now young adults
(Kagan & Coles, 1972). When going into adulthood, young adults are able to think of abstract
things like interests, perspectives and attitudes better (Steinberg, 2005). They are also more
likely than children and adolescents to see things as relative, rather than absolute.

3.4 Research Instrument
This research will be using a self-administered survey, so the data will be collected
through two sets of questionnaires. In these two self-administered survey, respondents must first
recognise the information in order for them to understand it. Then the respondents must
understand the layout of the questionnaires as well as the statements. Respondents need to
respond to the questions according to the categories in the questionnaire and they are given the
instructions beforehand (Jenkins & Dillman, 1995). The questionnaires that will be used are
adapted and adopted from Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz,
Horwitz and Cope (1986) and Self-Confidence Questionnaire by Hyesok Park and Adam Lee
In Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope
(1986), there will be 33 statements that will measure students anxiety level towards speaking in
English and it will be graded by using the Likert scale, (5) Strongly Agree, (4) Agree, (3) Neither
agree nor disagree, (2) Disagree and (1) Strongly Disagree. In addition, for Self-Confidence
Questionnaire by Hyesok Park and Adam Lee (2005), there will be 10 statements that will
measure students confidence level by also using the Likert scale, (5) Strongly Agree, (4) Agree,
(3) Neither agree nor disagree, (2) Disagree and (1) Strongly Disagree.

3.5 Methods of Data Collection
In order to collect the data for this study, the researcher will give the questionnaires to a
chosen representative from each university. The representatives will distribute the questionnaires
to the students of the four universities. The researcher will allow one to two weeks for the
representative to distribute and obtain the completed questions from the randomly chosen Law
students. Later, the researcher will go and collect the questionnaires from the chosen
representatives after two weeks.


3.6 Methods of Data Analysis
The data will be analysed and presented in the form of means, standard deviations,
independent sample t test, ANOVA and Post Hoc Tests in pie charts and tables by using SPSS



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Appendices (Questionnaire)
Set 1
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The
Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125132.
Statements Strongly
Disagree Neither
or Agree
Agree Strongly
I never feel quite sure of myself when I
am speaking in my foreign language

I don't worry about making mistakes in
language class.

I tremble when I know that I'm going to
be called on in language class.

It frightens me when I don't understand
what the teacher is saying in the foreign

It wouldn't bother me at all to take more
foreign language classes.

During language class, I find myself
thinking about things that have nothing
to do with the course.

I keep thinking that the other students are
better at languages than I am.

I am usually at ease during tests in my
language class.

I start to panic when I have to speak
without preparation in language class.


I worry about the consequences of failing
my foreign language class.

I don't understand why some people get
so upset over foreign language classes.

In language class, I can get so nervous I
forget things I know.

It embarrasses me to volunteer answers
in my language class.

I would not be nervous speaking the
foreign language with native speakers.

I get upset when I don't understand what
the teacher is correcting.

Even if I am well prepared for language
class, I feel anxious about it.

I often feel like not going to my language

I feel confident when I speak in foreign
language class.

I am afraid that my language teacher is
ready to correct every mistake I make.

I can feel my heart pounding when I'm
going to be called on in language class.

The more I study for a language test, the
more confused I get.

I don't feel pressure to prepare very well
for language class.

I always feel that the other students
speak the foreign language better than I


I feel very selfconscious about speaking
the foreign language in front of other

Language class moves so quickly I worry
about getting left behind.

I feel more tense and nervous in my
language class than in my other classes.

I get nervous and confused when I am
speaking in my language class.

When I'm on my way to language class, I
feel very sure and relaxed.

I get nervous when I don't understand
every word the language teacher says.

I feel overwhelmed by the number of
rules you have to learn to speak a foreign

I am afraid that the other students will
laugh at me when I speak the foreign

I would probably feel comfortable
around native speakers of the foreign

I get nervous when the language teacher
asks questions which I haven't prepared
in advance.


Set 2
Self-Confidence Questionnaire by Hyesok Park & Adam R. Lee (L@ Learners Anxiety, Self-
Confidence and Oral Performance)
Statement Strongly
Disagree Neither
or Agree
Agree Strongly
I can learn to speak English
I am a good English speaker now
I am a good student
I am an important member of my group.
I group needs me to come to class every

I do not feel shy speaking English to my

I do not feel shy speaking English to
foreign lecturer

I do not feel shy speaking English to
Malaysian lecturer.

I think that I will get a get an A or A+ in
this class.