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edited bv
o. B. E.
D. Lrm. (Lond.),
HoN. D. Lrrr. (Vidyodaya
Univ. of Ceylon),
HoN. D. Prrr,. (Moscow),
D. (I-ond.),
Membre d'honneur de lEtole Frangaise d,Extrhme Orient,
Ambassador of Ceylon in the US,SR.,
Pali and Buddhist civilizotion and DeaS of
r.aculty of
Oriental Studies, University of Ceylon
Aoki, Bunkyo
in 1997
The Department
of Buddhist
Mi ni strv of Buddhasasana
Copi ed and Pri nted at the State Pri nti ng Corporati on'
conapilation, Encyclofiaedia
of Buddhism in the English language was one of
the several unclertakilgs
of ttre iunt<d Bauddh* Murrdul"t"
CYoufcil of Ceylon)
set up
!y -ttt;
of Ceylon in t9'5'5 in'connection with the oelebration
ot ljudrlha Jayanti, the 2500th Annive.p-.i
of the Buddhist Era as traditionally accepted
in countries of South
Asia where the Thbravida (often also called Hinay6ni; fo"fr of
ny$aniy prevails.
The Mand.alaya appointed a Sub-Committee for the task of com-
the Enclclopaedia.,
This Cbmmitlee appointed me its Chairman antl Ertitor-in-
Chief of the Encyclople{ia.
in lg56^the Governm""i of-C"yl"" .*urtua a
Cultural Affairs, the administration of the E";t;l"paedia
transfened \
to that Ministry while I continued
to be Chairman of
Editorial Board and
The editorial ofree wa,s at
frrst set up in Colombo but soon afterw,ards was mo'red to
Peracleniya (near-KTgy)
is ndw accommodated in tire IJniversity Park ihrough
gf the Vice-Chancellor
of the University of Ceylon. The tiansfer to
d:liyp rrot only keepg us in a-congenial academic environment but has uiro gi*'"r, us the
ad$e{ advantage of being able to- use the excellent University Librar;, whTch is parti-
cularly favourable fcr ouf purpose. The Librarian and, his stah have li""r, *o*t trilpfut
t o us.
There have been several changes
the personnel of our limited editorial staff, chiefly
as a result of its membe^rs
left us tti
tlr.e teaching staff of the two llniversitie-s
rec-entlv established in Ceylou.
vacancies so created har-e been fllled and, it is hoped
to have the staff further strengthenecl in tlie near future.
After the inception of the work,
first couple of years were spent in tle essential
but exactiry dglf of.indexing, compiling subject-Iists, &c. Most of ihis work has already
b-een completed but it is a continuing and almost never-encling task, especially in view o'f
the numerous publications
deaiing ivith Buddhism rv-hich u""" U"itrg iir.""*itrgly issued
il. manJ' parts of the rvorld, thus contributing to our knowledge 6f Bu.Idhi#
al l the ti me.
Buddhism eovers a
expanse, both of tinre ancl space. llhe Encyciopaedia aims
at giving a- comprehensive account of the origins of this iVorld-Religion ana bf the deve-
that have,taken place during a periid of more than 2b centuries. To cleal with
Ruddhism is to deal u'ith a rvhole eivilizaiiotr, in fact, a whole series of civilizations which
have influenced the lir-es
m-;'riads of human beings, in many land.s. A satisfactory
treatment of the subject should, thus, include infbrmation on thl doctrines of Buddhism
the story of ttrreir spread and expansion, accounts of the numerous
Buddhist Schools and Sects and of ttreir-origins and stibsequent ramifications, d,escriptions
of Buddhist rites and ceremonies as found in manv countriis, the history of the fine arts-
painting and sr:tilpture, music, dance anrl d.rama-under the influence of Bud.dhism in
various countries, details of Buddhist shrines and places of pilgrimage and of the vast
litcratures connected with Budcihism v'hich developed in many-languages, botir ancient
anrl modern, in o3igilal works as weil as in translations, and biographiei of persons who,
in the course of Butldhist history, piayed important rirles in their orvn countries and made
to the development of Buddhjst culture. Even so, the list of topics would
not be exhausted.
We have made it our aim that the EncycLopaedia should contain information both on
the Mahfr,yd,na and the Theravada and that such information be so presented as to make
it useful not only to the scholar and the expert but to the general reader as well.
i i i
It is also our endeavour
to bring together
io a-single-publi:ation
aspects or-ii"aauir-
at"present be obtained
b5r consulting
sources Bome, at reast, or *ni.n are not available
except in rare or inaooepsible
The original
plan was tc pqblis! a series of volumes,
eacb qlder
a difreront
title, e'g'
the Buddba,
the Dhamma,
tbe S"nght,
a;O thu Fine Arts' But 1his was
up after
rt was
that such a scheme would not be
in tbe p.resent ti"f"
uT+. *9gd involve a great' deal of
editoriar treatment
resulting i"
aurly iri publicatlon-.
have, therefore,
adopted the alphabeti.ri
meiirod oi t
insta'nce, in East'ings'
of Retigipn--d,nd,
;lnch hae,
-*t-y weye.'
&s our model'
This method, too, ir;- il; aim."ftio
as wiil 6e seen in dealing
with a eublect'
liko a,rt or architecture,
where tnu"i"io"-utio"
*iU n*"" t9 be presented separately
countries. The more t"titi*.toty-nefhod
coPse' be to as a
singre topic .oa
shall, bowever, endea'o*r
to overcome euch ehortcomi"g,
of croes'referenees
and by the
provision of a very comprebensive
quostion of tbo sPagt
bu allotted to various eubjects in g,eneral and to each item
in particular ha*-be"o hifr.olt toa;td;.
1'he principle'ultimatety
adopted has been to
leave tbe matter very largely to th; d,iscretion
or tn6 contributori
being raid on the requirement
th;; ;;it"r infoimaiiot
rhoord be omitted
and that all
should bo given as conciselg g-8
Tho avoidance
of repetition
overlapping nrs feen ,[ua" tn"
of ln"-"aitors
but it has to bb recognised
that a certain
ii ,rp"iifr\i
*a i"olepprg
is unavoidable.
As at preeent
planned, the Encyciopaeaia
*ftt .o-ptise abou-t fg,riOO"pages
ay! willinclude
both in coto*r #h"lfiil.t
to^ c6mplete
the fuet edition within
ten years.
Every effort ie beilg made to eelect an acknowledged
to write on a particular
topic, eepociagy i" tfi case of the mo"o inpot-b"il-topics,
if available'
preference to a non-Buddbist,
wheie matters
of doctrine are involvetl
or d,otaile of d,ifferent Schoot, urra-aid"r.ot
tl" caee
of tho more specialized
subjects, contributorr
wiu sign th;i" t*t articres ro in"t theirs
will be the responsibility
for the viewe erpressed.
it is nece'sery
to iofo* the reader
that a difrertnt
point of view or a different interpreLtion
exists, suitable
taken to indicate
ihat fact. In somo instances, -or" tn*o oo" t"titit
*iU t" publisbed
oD the seme topic
from sepa,rate .Jt ifio"r, *nr" in others -or"-ihun
will co-operate
in rhe production of a singt"
E;ty- ttt"-fii"^llli^btiog
to mako tho
given as compbte ald aB comprebensive
&s possrbte'
As will be eeen from what hae already brrn said the Encyclopaedie
is'a work of inter-
national collaboration,
an4 it has been o* g*Jf;fi
i" t^u ablo to secure for tbie
colossal undertaking
the active
maDy lands' We
havo atso been able to enlist * ft;;"*y
of ihe moet eminent
schola'r' in
the fierd of Buddhist
and alried ,toai".-
the f,"it"t
of the
work soveral
resional committees havo been sot up,
4u lu"g99t;;;h*"
sriih its headquarters
in tne toVO Univeisity:il
has aa
its chairm* thf;;;'in"illl'i"'it['riilii'.
Dr' Shosdn Mivamoto
and Dr. Susumu
*nit frI"*to"
tbe Rev. Riri \]a^kayama
are reeponsible
*otl' of organising
and compilation
of Japan'ese
articles toii bfttitn'__iUe
has also
agreed to d,epute a Japanese
for full-time-
t"tE i" tlo
offico in
Coylon to act
ti"itoi and .l"o-n"[ io tt
revision of the translations'
In Ghina, under the aegis of the
PeopleJ Republic,
& very
of h's boen set up in
Tbe cb;t"-L;
or [lis'committee
is hofessor
Dr. Chao Pu-chu, Vice-President of the Buddhist Association of China.
also function in Burma, Thailand, Gernany, X'r&nce, ftaly and the Netherlands. Some of
tho mombere of these committees and of the Board of Eono_"ary Editors have *treaay
vieited our offce in Ceylon a,nd have mad.e useful suggestions for organieing aad erpedii
ing- the
rt is hoped to have 6ome of them woiFing in our offiie from"time to'ti-",
at least for short period-s.
In May, 1957, a specimen fascicule. of
the Encyclopaedia_ was published containing
few articles representing a cross-section cf the kina
information the Encyclopaedia
noPej to
and the rnethod.whieh it ie proposed
to follow. The purpbie
specimen fascicule was to obtain criticisms and suggegtions fo_r our guidanci iri tne prepa.
ration of the main_work. The_specilnen faeoicule lar mo"" than afrply proved its ;seful-
nese and we are deepl.y
to those who sent ue their criticiimrs'and srrggestions.
Criticisms and suggestions wilI be welcome at every stage of our work. fn order to
expedite publication, the Encyclopaedia is bein-g issued in fascicules of about 100
pages each
it is hoped that we shall bo ablo to release these fascicules in quick succesgion.
I should like to take tbis opportunity of thanking most sincerely all those who have
helped in their various
poseible. Ii would be too big a
task to give their na,mes in deta,il, but I should like to reiord
here my special appreciation
o{.the personal interest ta}en}y the Government hinter of Cnylon utta nir sta* in getting
this publication througb the Govem^ment hess.
f also
pleasure in acknowledging with deep gratitude the financial assistanco
g**o by UNESCO under the auspicei of the Intenutional Council of Philosophy
Embassy of Ceylon,
lSth April, 1961.
IT i s wi th great
sorrow that we record the sudden death of one of our col l eagues
of the Editorial Staff{tT the Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Mrs. Lakshrni Ranjani
She was born i n 1929 and had her earl y educati on at Sri Sumangal a Gi rl s'
School, Panadura and Visakha Vidyalaya, Colombo. She
the University
of Ceylon in 1947 and graduated in 1950.
After her marri age to Mr. Raj a K. W. Goonesekere, at present a Seni or
Lecturer in Law at the University of Ceylon, she went abroad, and shortly
afterwards, in March, 1957, she
the staff of the Encvclopaedia of
Buddhism as an Assistant Editor.
Her death on the l 6th May, 1965, at the earl y age of 36, has depri ve d us of a
most devoted and conscientious worker. Her contributions to the Encyclo-
paedi a, over the i ni ti ats L, R. G., have al ready won much prai se. Further
fascicles will continue to publish articles written by her because at the time of her
death she had completed rnore than 800 articles.
Her quiet efficiency and her sincere friendship will be long remembered by her
l 6t h May, I 965.
v l l
of translitoration
used in the case of Pali and Sanskrit torms is that now
by scholars and, t"$""qtph;;,
rn tho il;;t chineso and, Japenose
and words,'wade's
system has beon"foflo;"d.
whilSi;; words are conbrned,
a system
by E. II. Prince Dhani
Nivat n*r b*n i*g"-ry r,a"pt
rn csrtain
c88os tho toxtual
(Pali, Sanskrit,
Tibotan, &e.) has boen rstained
to a
{bjous Flgu:n
fopigri to Buddhism.
sanghs for the
9oilg" 9f
utwnir i". pri"-t,
monk or almEman
for actiori; bodhisattva
&c. And such term will
be used in ths languago
of the sourlo e*ployud,'w;qir.t".
tti"rneqra (sanskrit),
&c' But a comp"e[o*]".u
of ;;"r;$];iJo*u,
will snsrie iu*t rhe reador who is
not fa-
tu.-r tr g,"a;qrio-
an English term to the moro preciso
,* sati; void, see
rn Ceylon the dates of events up- t9 tle l6th century
have been taken from
List in the
ir c"ytoi,-itrtory
of cegl,on,
vol. r,
rnstoad of A. D. the abbreviation
A. c. has been usod throughout.
i x
Tho Venerables:
Fhra Ariyanandamuni
Frof. Dr. Polw-afte
MahA, N6,yaka Thora, Aggo lIahd,
Phra Nirantarafldnamun
i (? hailarui)
hof. Dr. Dehigaspe Pafl-fldsf,,ra,
N..;,aka There (Ceyton)
ShirobJakw (Chinaj
Roson fgfta,shina (Japnn)
U Thitthila,
Mahi Thera, Agga Mah6
NEyaka Thera (Ceylon)
U Visuddha,
Mah6 Thora,
Phya Anuman Rajadhon
Prof. P. V. Bapat
Prof. Dr. -E'. D. K. Bosch
Dr. Chao Pu-chu
Dr. E. Conz6
Prof. Damdin-siiren
Paul Demi6villo
Naiina,ksha Dutt
Prof. Jean I'illiozat
Prof. E. X'rauwallner
Dr. Richard A. Gard
Prof. Dr. H. von Glasonepp
Lama Anagirika
Prof. Ilobnut
Miss I. B. Eorner
Mr. Christmas Humphroys
Dr. B. C. Law
hof. l'. D. Inesing
Dr. U Lu Pe Win
Dr. Sboeon Miyamoto
hof. Dr" I{einz Mode
Dr. Makoto Nagai
Prof. S. Paranavitana
hof. Nihar Ranjan Ray
hof. Rahula Sankrityayana
Prof. Tau Yun-shan
hof. Giu^soppe Tucci
Prof. Dr. Enrst
Prof. Sried,rich
Prof. O. If. de A. Wijeaokera
Akanuma I
Akanuma 2 ..
ASCl fem.
Bt s.
BI .
Ariguttara Nikdya, PTS.
Aiguttaranik6ya Atth akathi
Abhandlungon dor A-kademie der
Wigaenschafton in Gtittingen
Abhidharmako6a, ed. R. Sankrit.
Abhidharmako6abhd,eya, BB. XX
Abhidhenneko6akd,rikd,, ed. L. de
la Vallde Pouesin, Parig
Abhidharrna,ko6avydkhyd, ed. U.
Wogihara, Tokyo
AbhidhammatthassfiBaha, JPTS.
I 884
Abhidharrnasamucc&ya,, VBS.f2
Abhidhammdvat6ra, BM. I
Annual Bibliography bf Indian
Annels of the Bhandarkar Orion-
tal Researeh Institute
Abhisamaydlam kdrapraj fr &p6ra-
mitbupade6a66.stra, BB. XXIII
Abhieamayd,lam kdrd,lokapraj fr 6-
plramitd,vyikhy6,, ed. U. Wogi-
hara, Tokyo
Adhyardhasatikdp raj fi dpdr*mit ir,
ed. H. Leumann, Srrassburg
Akanume, C. : Indo-Bukkyo Koyu-
moishi-Jiton (Dictionery of Bud-
dhist Indien Proper Names),
A.kanume, C. : Kem-pa Shibu
Agon Gosh6roku (Tho Com-
p_araiive Cetalogue of Chineee
Agamas and Pali Nikd,yas),
Abhandlungen f0r dis Kunde des
Morgonlandes, horausg. von der
Doutschen llloreodendischon
Asia Maior
Annalos du Museo Guimet
Anigataver.nsa, JPTS. t 886
Anesaki, M. : The Four Buddhist
Agamas in Chinose, 1908
Archiv Orient6ln{ : Jour:ral of the
Czechoslovek Oriental Institute
Apad6na, PTS.
Apaddna Atthakethd (Visud-
dhajanavilisini), PTS.
Artibus Asis€'
Arthavini6caya, ed. A. Forrari,
Aluvihara Series
Archaeological Survey of Ceylon,
Annual Report
Archaeol ogi cal Survey of Ceyl on,
Inscri pti on
Arehtr.eol ogi cal Survey of Ceyl on,
IIcYPsi .
Archa.eol ogi eal Surr-e1' uf fncl i a,
Annua. l Repor t ,
Arqbaeol crri cal Survey of Indi a,
Mernoi r
As!,esfl,irasrikaprajiiapEramit6, ed.
It" Mi tra, Cal cutta
AtAnatiktr,sritra (Bruchstiieke
Ajanagik,rsritra), Kl. Turf. V
Avadi nakal pal atd,, BI. f 888-1896
Avaddnadataka, BST. l 9
Bul l eti n de I' Acad6mi o des
Sciences de Il,ussie
Bibliotheca Budrlhica
Bodhi tsattvabhri mi , od. U. Wogi -
hara, Tokyo
Bodhicarydvatfi,ra, ed. L. do la
Val l ee Pouesi n, Cul cutto, I914
Bodhicaryivat6rapaf,jika" ed. L.
de l aVal l 6o Poussi n, 19011
Buddhist Dictionary, by }Iydrlo-
ti l oka
(rovi sed edi ti on l gs{i ),
Col ombo
Beul , S.
' The
Burl dhi st Tri pi l aka,
I 876
Bulletin rlo l'6colo Frongaise
d'Extr6me Orient
Bendall, O"
. Catalogtre of Buddhist
Sanskrit }lanuscripts, Cam-
Bhadrakalpdvadd,rra, ed. S. d'
Oldonburg, 1884
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Gram-
m&r and Dictionary, od. F.
Edgerton, Yale
Bhavasar.nkrdntisdtra (a,nd com-
mentary), ecl. N. Aiyaswami
Sastri, Aci_var
Bibliothoca Indica
Bibliographie Bouddhique
Bolletino doll' Instituo fndiano
per il trIedio od Estremo Oriente
Buddhadatta's Manuals, PTS.
Bulletin do la ll[aison Franco-
stiicke des Bhiksuniprdtirnoksa),
Kl. Turf. III
Bibliotheca Orientalis Ilungarfca
xi l l
Catu 6.
De S.
De Z.
x i v
B odhisattvapritimok-.s*afi tra,
rliQ. 7
Buddhistic Studies, ed. B. C.
Law, Cslcutta
Bulletis of the School of Oriental
eud Afrieen Studies
Bomtray Sarrekrit Sories
Buddhist Ssnekrii I'erte
ed- E. H. Johns'
ton. Calcutfa
ed. J. GraY,
Ruddheverpsa, PTS.
( Madhuretthav
A. : Ontaloguo Sornvns'ire
dee Manuserits S*nskrite et
Catutrdataka, ed. V, tshattech-
&ryya, Calcutta
The Coyion l{istorical Jour:nal
Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum
The Ceylon Journal of Historical
and Social Studies
Ceylou Journal of Scionce
Section G
Chakeesdhd,tuvarpsa, JPTS. I 885
Cordier, P. : Cetalogue du Fond
Ti b6tai n, 1009-fgf5
Cariy6.pifaka, PTS"
Cariyfr.pigaka AflhakathB (Pnra-
matthadiparri), PTS.
A Cliiical PEli Dictionary
Cittavi6uddhiprakarar.ra, VBS. 8
Dighe Nikdya, PTS.
Dlghaarkdya Atthakath& (Sumof,
galevildsini), PTS.
D6fh6va4sa, PSS. 7
Deeablrrimikag6thE, EB, V
Da.{*bhrlmi6vara, od. R. Kondo,
Dictionary of Chinese Buddhiet
Toltt e
do Silva, lV. A.: Catalogue of
Palm leaf Manueoritrts. MCM.
A, No. 4
de Zoyea, Louis: A Cataloguo of
Psli, Siahaleso and Bans&dt
Manuscripts in the Temple
Librarise-of Ceylon, Colomb6
DhEtukath6 (with commenta,r5r),
Dharmottarapredipe, ed. D.
Malva''is, Petne
f)hammapada, PTS.
I)hammapeda Agihakath6, PT$'
Dhannapradipikd(va), od. Dhar-
makirti Sri Dharmara'ma
edition l95l), Coylon
Dhammesaigar.ri, PTS.
Dhsmmsssngani A!|hakath6 (At'
thasilini), FTS.
Dha,masamuscaya' ed. Lin Li-
Kouarrg, Paris
Dharmasar.ngraha, Fdd. F. Mar
Miiller and II.
DirryEvad6na, Edd. E. B. Cowell
a.nd R.. A. Noil, Cancbridge
Dictiona,ry of Pali Proper Names
Dipavamse, od, I{. Oldenberg,
Dukapaffh6na, FTS.
The East€rn Buddhist
Epigrapiiia Indica
Encyclopaedio of Religion a.nd
Ethics, ed. J. Hasting.r
East and West
Epigraphie Zoylanica
Ga.rr{.lstotragitb6, BB. XV
Gilgit Maouscripts, ed. Nalinakeha
Dutt and others
Gaokwad'e Orientsl Seriee
ed. B. Bhat-
tacharyya, Ba'rode
Gaardhavaqes, JPTS. 1886
Ga,r"rCavyuhesfitre, Edd. D.-T. Su'
suki and II. Iduumi (2nd edn.
1949), Kyoto
I{att havanagallavihEravarp se,
Ilob0girin, Dictionnaire EncY-
clopddique du Bouddhisme
(witb sub-
commontary), GOS. tl3
I{argard Journal of Agietic
Harva.rd Oriental Soriee
Ilastavilaprakaraqra, JRAS. I9 I I
Indian Antiquary
Indiso Art end Letters
Indogaku Bukkyogeku I(enky6
(Joumal of Indian aud
Buddhist Studies)
Indian Culture
The Indian l{istoricel
Itivutteka, PTB.
Itivuttake Attha,ksthE (Pa,ra-
matthedipanl), PTS.
I(l. Turf.
Jlleka (with co-'nontary), ed.
V. Fausbdll, London, lSgo
Journal of the American Orientel
Journal Aeiatique
Journsl of tho Asiatic Society
of Bongel
Jourrral of tho Benaree Eindu
Journal of the Bihar and Orissa
Reeearch Society
Joumal of the Bombay Brench
of the Royal Aeiatic Society
Journal of the Burma Resourch
Joumal of the Buddhist Text
Journel of the Ceylon Branch
of the Royal Agiatic Society
Journal of the Department of
Lettera, University of Celcutte
Journal of the Glreator India
Journal of In.lian Eietory
Jinacarita, JPTS. 1904-1906
Ji-ek6lamali (in Sinhalese ohe-
reoters), ed. A. P. Buddhadatte
Jin6,la,rpkdra, od. J. Grey, London
Jdtokern6li, EOS. I
Jounral of Oriental ll,eeea,rch
Journal of tho Pali Text Society
Journel of the Royal Asietio
Society of Grnoet Britein and
Journel of the Siam Society
Koith, A. B. : Cataloguo of
Sanskrit Ma,nuecripts in the
Bodleian Librery, Oxford
Iihuddakepeths, PTS.
I(huddakepEfhe Alfhekathd
I), PTS.
Khuddasikkh6,,III[S. I 883
Khotanoso Terts, od. E. W.
Beiley, Cambridge
dsr Kalpan6,meqrditik6), Ill.
Turf. II
Illeinere Sanqknit-Texto (Ktinig-
liche PreusEisohe Turfa.n-Ei-
Karu4ep"Tdarlka, Edd. S. C. Dae
and S. C. Sastri, Celcutte
Kddyepeperivarte, ed. E. StB6l-
Karatalaratna, ed. N. Aiya-
swomi Sastri, Adya,r
: Mah6ker.
mevibha,nga (La grande
fication dos Actosl of Kalma-
vibharigopade6a (Discussion
lo Mahdkarmevibhanga),
€d. S.
L6vi, Parig
Kankh4vi6**i, PTS.
Keth6vetthu, PTS.
kathE, JPTS" l88g
vyriha, ed. S. Samasrami,
Lalitavietsre, BST. I
Laikivetdrasfitra, ed. B. Nanjio,
Ligeti, Louis : Catelog3re du
Kanjur Mongol, BOII. nI
Loko6vare6etaka, JAe. Iglg
Majjhime Nikdye, PTS.
Majjhimanilrd.ya Althakath6
(Papaficosfidani), PTS.
Minor Buddhist Toxts, SOR. I)1
Memoir of the Colombo Museum
Mddhyamakavgti, BB. I1'
Mddhyamakbvatdra, BB. IX
Mogheefitra, JRAS. 1880
Ilah6bodhivarpsa, PTS.
Mahameyfrrl, ed. by Oldonburg
in Zapiski Vostochnago Otd:
olenija fmp. Ruesk. Arohsol.
Obschestva, XI (1899)
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Mahdsamd,jasfitro (Bmchsitieke
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So"r"'e du Grand
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IfahdvarpsefikE (Varpeetthoppe.
MahE,varpsa Affha-
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Extended MahEvamsa, AS. III
Mahdvastu, ed. E. Senart, Parie
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Maitreyavy6kara4a, ed. S. L6vi,
Melangee Linossier, Paris
Nanjio, B. : Catalogue of tho
Chinese Traneletion of the
Buddhist Tripifaka, Oxford
Mahdniddees, PTS.
Cullaniddesa, PTS.
Niddesovanfran 6 ( S addhemmapai
jotikn:MahEniddem Attha-
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NiddesaveBr,ra,nA (Saddhammepaj
jotikfl :
Cullaniddess Attha-
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Nettippaka,rana, PTS.
Nettippokaraea A!!hakath6,
Now India,n Antiquary
Nagoye Daigaku Bungalm-bu
Kenkyfi Ronshfi (Bulletin of the
Faculty of Letters, NagoYa
Namaripapariccheda, JPTS. I9 I 3-
r 9t 4
Ndmo,rf,pasa,mdsa, JPTS. 19lL
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Ny6yaprave6a (with commontarY
GOS. 38
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Daizoky6 Kanjur Kando Mo'
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Prabuddha Bh6rets.
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Pali English Dictionary, PTS.
Pe{akopadoss, PTS.
ed. F.
Max }Itiller, Oxford
Pajja,madhu, JPTS. 1887
, Publications du Muede Guimet
, Paficappeka,ra4a Atlhskath6
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xxxvlll, xL
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Praminavirttikar.n (with comasn-
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R. Sa,nkdtyayane, Alla,habod
Patissmbhidirnagga, PTS.
Palisambhid6,maggr Atthakathd
(Saddhammappak6sini), PTS.
Pa,njab Sanskrit Series
PEli Tipifakaqp Concordanco, PTS.
Pali Text Society edition
Puggalapaflfietti, PTS.
Puggalapefifiatti Atlhakath6,
JPTS. 1013-r914
Pafi cavim6atie6trasrikdpraj fi 6
piramitB, ed. N. Dutt'
Petavstthu, PTS.
Petavatthu Alfhokathd (Pa,ra.
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Ratnagotrev ibhA,gamah dy d.nott o-
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Johneton, Patna
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Jrjrgonsen, f,ondon
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Vinayapifaka, ed. I{. Ol<ienberg,
Vinaya Atfhakath6. (Samante-
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Vinaya doe Sarvdstiv6din, JAs.
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Firat let,kr ot' the Devau6cari aiobaber
i r J, ant f . t ra ocrt pt used 5y nut i dni st s
i n I ndi a and ?i bet i n t he Bt h cent ury
A. C. {Csoma Keri rsi ).
Further developmonts
which wsr6
ea.rried to
far-awa;' lande
by Buddhiet neigsionariee
lB"d ihoii
origrn in India, where ev€n to this day thoir equiva-
leats are found with hardly any dihorence ilr- tn"
T6ntric echools of Hinduism, which ffouriehsd
partic.u.larly- in Bengal and south India.
ha€ givon mueh room to the devolop-
ment of,srrch typea of specuiation.
AccorCing.t-c tlie trIani bKah:hbum
(fot. 3l b.)
tho sacred syllable symbolises the noumenal eource,
and around this symbol is evolvod
the idea of croative sourod in the theory of vibretioh.
Well.known and far spread. as this coicupt iB in tho
mystic East, it was- not unkaown in'tho
either. P;'thagoras,
who hiursoU lyas a.n initiate
ot easteni wisdom, and who was the fuunder
of one
of the rnoet influentiai
schoois of mystic ptrilosophv
rr^ the--\ileet,, spoke
of the trarmonf
of tfiu-"pl"-*L
a,ccordrug to wtrich each coiestiat body ani each
and overy^atom,
a particulai
accormt of its
movomeut,, rhyihm and vibration.
AII i;hese eounds fomed a uiiversel trarmony
whicb each olemont,._whilo
having it* o*"-fr*Jtioi
gad charactor, contributod
to the ilnity of the *1.i.
This idea of creativo eound, *", ooti.,"ua in tiru
doctrine of i;he Logos (the Word), partly
"U"""UoJ by
which theretv hirked it"uff
with the phrlg.qophy
of tho Gnoetics"and the trad.i-
tlcirs oi iho -t,iasD,-evou though the link wae not
matitained by the later
In the beginrdnc
Word, and the Word wa,s with G""d, anE
the \&ord wae God . And the Word *as
made flesh ancl dwelt &mong :ue,, (John,
I, l, ff.).
Tho word. however sacred., b.iog a ropotition
of a mere eou.nd and an expreeeiori
of a
produco the deeir€d effese, ;t"* ;;;;:
perfgcf knowler-lge,
p* attituds of
{urd coruplote responsivoness
on the part of
Ferdon,ugmg-."he monbo. Its power i s truty
sa,crateental, i.e., bostowing iatornal- graee thrcugt
4n,oucw&rd sigpa on tho initiatod, t-ho spirituafiy
cultured cne. Such worde, althougb eei'f-evideal
yet.. can bo, comprehJnaea
only Uy
.wree _(pae;cattam
aed;.hbbc- vifrfrStui). Thia is
adrrirted by all ecbootg of Eudilhism, not
"*"t"aireg tho Therav6<ia, wlio do not differentiete otherwd
betv'oen erotoric and esoteric teachi:age of tle
Ifuddha, who is sald not to have the cloiod fist of
Eome teechere
who retain certain toachirnge for
select pupils oniy.
The sound-let,ter
.4 signified, therpfore, the void,
cr€atlve extgtenco
and tho permanent,r i.o., noD_
and beifg, all of which a,r€
cleBcrrptrve terms of the e,etual and real nature of
everything, i mperrnanence itsel f being permanent.
L Tcbho, 1796, vi i .
IRn sound represented by the first. letter of manv
alohabets, Sansli:rit, Rr_rilf&n, Greek, as rqeli us of
most modern languages of East and West, hae
sen'ed u,s a rnystic q,'mbol for the ultimato beginning
or creation, es weli as for the Absolute, I ad
Alpha arrd Omega.
It is the first of ali sounds aud, hence, tire beein-
ning of rr,ll knowledge whicrh used to be co*mirri_
cated ouly by woid of motith" It is the f.rgt sound
of tho sacrod syi l abl e AIIM (OM),
whi ch i s sai d to
be the essence of all the Ve<ias. ft ie from thie that
Indian rcyetrcism has deveiopod a cult, attributins
to thi s i ni ti el s?gl d a pri vi l egeci posi ti or.
function. This iradjtion was taken up ti.1, n"aCfris-,
it spreati throughout
east ieia.
It ie i;he most eiomentary eorurd, produced
by tho
mere opening of tho mour"h, and- forms in most
languagee an essentiai part
of the funde_
mentaj svl l abl es:
ka, ga, ta, dd, pa, ba, me, &c.
These syllables are- not built up fiom p,are conso-
nants plus a vowel (k
a), but form a, concreto
unit in which the vowel is inherent in tire letterl
symbol- The pure corrsona.nte. k, g, &e., vzould ihon
be ablrtr.actrons (ks tninus a), makurg the eor.ind
Tho vowel eound is, tf,erefor-e, arr
eseential coustitueut,
and the vowei
A is th;
cf such essenc6.
A is irr Sarrskrit and
ae it is in
9"TU, .a
n e gu,trit6 par t i c ie, i.ui p htt; ana
wL.:ro by
re svmbolrFed
orip-:inal non_antity of exietenc-e
an-atta) and i te ,,on.porri ,anent
(a-n-itgo, a-nicaa.). In tbrs deniil of permanence
it trecomes n eyurboi of perznanerrcd
itsef, io"
" Whether a Tath-agata arise'B
.,"t, ,U
";*p;";;; thi ugs,.are i mpormanent,' .
Thus, tho tof.t""
svmbolrs€s, at the same tiro-e. the origination of the
of thiugs, as weil as tlie negation cf
the fourrciation thercof. This tlpparent contindiction
is in faet an idontity,.for
it ,s in the negetion of ttre
obsoluto nature of ihings that their o"i!io"tio"
""J cessa,tion is postulated.
Thue, tho lotter A is considered to be rhe
perfect letter, which
even.thoug_h_ in its combination with other l.itu"6,
e.g.,_i n AUM (q.v"), the evol uti on, conti nuati on
of thia worlci
oI'events is symbolised.
{-' i ri rrese as wel l as Ti betan a,uthors har' e made
frequenL trse of thi s syrnbol . In exoteri c texts the
l ettLr A stands for negati on, for the uncreated
Fol rrce
(d.dyanutpdda), for tho I' egi nni ng (adi ), for
i rnperruarreree (ani tya). A trodl ti -qar;tva (* I3uddha-
tn.-be), l :y l i steni ng to thi s st)und as u, rr,,$ul [ of forrrrer
meri tori ous i r,eti ons. comprehends thc uncreated
Bource of al l essencerJ.2 Essertccs, i rowever, are not
thought of as eternal (as i n Greek phi l osopl i y)' but
as imperrnanerrb
and thus tho same syml>ol can
si gni fy negati on and essence, for the Yoi d i s ti re
essgnae af A1l .
as tho sound A as basic vowel is found rvith
puro consonants forming the root s;'llables of
oriei-rtal scripts, without which sound no langu'age
would be
polsible, and for which re&son it is callod
the " *othu. of all sounds ",3 so it symbolises the
origin of, all essences' to knov' *'hich is the irighest
wi sdom.
Esnociallv the Td,ntric masters of China and
Japa^n, beeiruline with tlie Indian Subhakarasinha
(Zi mnrui )i vho bi ought the most i mportant T6ntri c
text, tho
ftom India
to China in tho beginning of the eighth cen-t'ury,
have laid great stress on this learning. ll'he letter
rd stands Tor the spirit of awakening'
-By rye?18
of mental application in the contemplation of this
symbol one identifies oneself with the substance
of thu bod.y-essence of Vairoc&na.{ According to t}'te
evstem of -{moghavajra,,tho
letter A represonts tho
clntral Buclrlha, Vairocana, corresponding to the
earth element, because the Vajras&tt'v&' immanent
in all beings as tho creative spirit, is the substantial
nature wliich produces the Buddh&s' in the s&me
w&v os the egrth is the basis which sustains ir'nd
ma'inttitt" the subetance proper to all beilgs. In
the body it represents the spleen, tho seatofanger;
astronofoicailf tho Dog-star, and seasonally the
Dog-days" It is coloured
Probably tho f;rst evidencs of the my9ii93!
imr:ortance accord.ed to the throe-Ietter syllable
eiU is found in the Aitareya (u. 32),
where the celostial spirere is der:lared to be resolved
i n the threo l etters L-U-M, wi ri ch are deri ved f:om
the three \';'aiiptis : Bhrih, Bhuvah and $var,
from the
tbe Yajurueda and t'lrc Etlmaueda.
from the glods Agni, Viyu and Adliyn,
the earth,- the atmosphere and the zrir. This
set, of speculations
is largely doveloped in the
Although the syllabie *'as primarily characteristic
of the Frahman, the force of its oopularity
ehown by the fact that it becamo an integrai part of
of Avalokite3vara in }tahaydna
tsuddhism.6 Its linal deveiopment is found in l6th
century Tdntric Buddhism in Orissa' ihe sacrect
(pra'r1,aaa) being derived lrom the Void
tiinya), bringittg it close to the principlo of no.n-
entiiy,- and ihe- original negative meaning of its
nrst l ettet' A.
ti . G. A. ves Znvsr.
ABABA i s the n&mo of a subdi vi si on i n one system
of hel l s (Ni raya) i n Buddhi st' cosmol ogy.
It occurs
in a, recurretrt passage
in the SarSlyutta and
Afrguttara liikayas and t,he M^ahdvagga- of tho
Sut l a- ni pat a
( S. f , 150
A. . V, I 73 ;
, 9n. i i i ' l 0) .
In this p&ssa':'(r the Budclh& s&ys' in answer to a
question, lhat
term of iifir in the Ababrt Niraya
ii tbur hundred timos that of tire Atrirucla lrTiraya
(q.r' .). The comrn$nt' ri ri ee
(e' g., Sn-4. i i . 477) state-
i hat' i t i s not a. Bepareto Ni raya brrt a peri ocl of
sufferi ng i n Avi t' i (q.v' ).
Ttre etvrrrol ogv tl f the term i s uncertai n- The
Suttu-nipirt,a co-rirmentary snvs that some- (ftecf)
rt' presents the sounds of l amen-
tati on of i ts i nmates os al so do ahuha
' and
al a$a'
Its origin was thorefore onomatopoetic'
The samtl
however, adds that some sav it is ono
of t he
o' ccl d
hel l s ".
Ths term aboha in the sense Qf a higtr numeral
is rnet with in tine Abhi'dltunaltpadi'pika {475),
i t meane a kot' i to the power of' el even, i ' e' , ten to t' he
Dower of eiuvett millions, this usege probably
Leinc derived from the fact that the *'ord had boen
.rssoiiutecl with a high figure n-ith referenco to tho
term of lit'e in At'aba Niral;a. See also COSMOLOGY'
K.OKALrl tA.
B. J.
APA, frivolo us talk (sanlb h'inn a'
ntald,na\, Accorcling
to F. Edgerton this term has
Leerr' used onl y ondo (Mhuu,' I,
15) i nstead of
the bettor known sambhinnapra,ld'pa
(BHS1' Thero
it occrrrs &s one of the ten aku$ala'korrn'apatha,
refraining from which a bodhisattva is firmly set on
tho roadl o enl i ghtenmont.
It is interesting io not'e that in Pnli, which- prefers
the term sarrrlfihappaldpa,
abaddha is declared
to be well known as
(.samudd,aattharahitam aba'd'dham iti' kit'titaqn :
126) and tho co-rnpo^und
iUoAan" iino i* usod in the sense of
mouthod' or
mukkharo d'ummulchd-
sec' 735)' See also
(s.v. SIIIA) v' i thout
marks especiaily staked out by- ihe Sanghrr,
ag.eed upon in- goneral. e.g.' & hillside" a, rorlr, &
rio-ro. for the
p-urpose of one sinqie ceremon]'
of recital-of
Vinaya ruies ( Virr" I, 106)'
a ehri ne i n Ceyl on
(now i n
ruins), so named' in an inscriptio-n
of the third
ru"t".y. Earlier it had been known by the Sinhalese
name Vei gam Veher a ( q. v. ) '
The term abandonment
pah'dna) does
contain anything
ijisualiy impliod in the concept of renuncr'
viz., abn-egation,
self'denial, austorit-y and
is rather a rejection, a letting
tho opposite of hangrng. on to
Tstaiianol." Thus the term nissaggiya is used
for an unauthorised
2 i bi d. 2i 9, l xxvi
293, x. ri .
3 i bi d. 1796, xi i .
{ i bi { 1. 1796. x.
5 Bukky&dti i i i rl l ,' pp. 27' 29, Buddh,9qi Y,' Kv0to' 19t{.
0, c. . i i l r r at i ct <e,
i haS. 1915,
pp' 397' { 0r '
L Vi n. l . 196, 25' 1, &c.
b-v u nrorrk, rvl ri ch ougl rt t , , -r be a, bandoned. Suci r
ubancl onment i s i l n i l ct of puri ri cat i on. I i ke b. rt hi ng,
rrot bascd on rnet hocl i crr, l ar: cl ui si t i on : i t i s bt i set i
on t he i rnci ersl andi i i s of t hu, t l l -hi ch has t o be
r el i nqur shed. Ar r d st . r Hu. Jr l hughosu, quot i ng t he
I ' at i sat nbh, ' i durt t aqga, descrrbes vj . rt t re as t he abt r, n-
dorri ng
\ puhut r, u)
of ki l l i ng, of st eai i l rg, sexual
rni sconduct , f ai se speech, mal i ci ous l l ' orcl s, harsh
I angt rage, f ri vokrr. rs t ai k. of covot ousnoss, of i l l -i vi l l
arrd of \ r' rong l ' i ews2. And agai n, . rbant l oni ng i s
r: <-runt crl rrs vi rt t re. bhrough rel i rrqui sl i i ng
( t r ckkl mr t nt r o) i n t ho ci r sc of l ust , t hr ough uon- r l l - wi l l
(ubuupudt t ) i n t hr, crrso of i rat e, t hrough Li re
percept i orr of i i gl rt (dl oku-. srt . , i r, i t r-r) i n t he case of
l rhysi cai
anrl rne' rrt , al sl t regi si rness (t hi rwnt i , . l t l ho),
t ' i rrouql r ai [ r-rnt i ou (uui l ; l ; l LeSt ul i n l ] ro crso of
agi Lt r, t i orr. (uddhat : ct ), t , hror-rgh det ermi nut ron of
rrrent al st at es (dl nt t t . t t t auu"*at t hri nu) i p t ho case of
perpl e. xi t y (ui ci ki ccl t ul , t hrough i nsi ght (f i dry, a1 i n t ho
caso of i gnornrrce (oui j j o), a, nd t i rrough gl adness of
l reart (pri rrruj j a\ i n t l rr: cuse of cl i scont e: nt (arat i )2.
I i ven t ho abundonrnent of u, l owor st at o of ment al
i r bsor pt i or r ( j l una\ f o, r t ho i r i gl r er st abe i s t i r e vi r buo
of' a,ba,rrrloning.
Tho Pof i , rant bhi ddmuggo
cl escri bes i n t erms of
*banrl oni n{; 47 st ages i n t he norrnal progress f rom
i gnora, nce t o t i , nrl t ant shi p, t hrcl ugh t l i o abundoni ng
i -rf cvi l acLi orrs, of hi ndra, nces t o cont ernpi &t i on, ot '
graduaI a. t t ai nment s i n concen. t rat i on, of su. cct -. ssi ve
sbages of i rrsi gi i u. and of st eps on t he pat t r t o sai nt -
ht i od. Al l hot , gh t hese 47 st ages are i nduced, eucl r
i n burn i -l y abaudoni ng t he precedi ng one, t herc i s
one st age whi ch requi res f urt her at f ont i on horer
under the hetr,ding of conternplation of aband.onment
( pati,rr t s a ag g d,nuptas s und) .
I n t l re successi vo st ages of i nsi gt rt
l ui pussunt i ,
q. r ' . ) by l no&ns of u' hi ct r bot h knowi edge and vi si on
are purrfiecl in respect of what is the path a.nci what
is rroc (rnaggd.mugga f,arutdat sena
uisuddli a
there are
ei ghbeen pri nci pal ones (/ n(rha ui passancZ). I rr t ho
sevent h o1' t hese i t i s ment i oned. : " he who devei ops
con' uempl at i on of abandoi rmenL, gi ves up cravi ng "
upassartam blxr,uento d,danaryu poja-
hat i , r). t r-or, bv t he cont empl at i orr of st . andonrrrent
tlie formati<.rns (,sankhdru) of bodv, minti antl
vol i t i on are not , grasped ri ny more
i t i s t l rei r
npprehensiorr as perrtranent which is relinquished
. [ ' t ut her, i b i s t hi s cont empl at i on of t he i l i ssol ubi l i t y
of t he f ormat i ons (kha; ue. nupa. ssuna)' w-hi ch l eads t o
t ho a. bandoni ng of t he pcrcept i on or a. ssurnl "rt i on of
r. rri i t y i n cont i nui Ly (gh, art u, ssaf i , i i a6), orr. e of t he mai n
st urnbi i ng bl ocks on t i ro road t o i nsi ght and
et r l i gi r t eni ner r t .
Thi s cont empl a, l ron of abaudonmorrt i s cal l ed t he
abandonrnent of giving vp
{pariccaga-,pa,tin' issa.gga,)
urrd aiso trband.onment of enterins int,o
dunu-put i ni , ssaggui
f or, by r". t ' U*-. ; t r. Ji . , g t ho
opposi t es, i t abundons karma f ormat i ous (khan-
ChrT.bltisanlclrira) a,ncl mental defilements (kileso,
q. v. ) , a, nt l by' seei nr r t he si r or t comi ngs i n wi r at ever i s
cront i i t i rrrrecl (surt , khat a. -dosa-cl assuno), i t gi ves &rI
i ncl i nat i on t owards t l ro uncondi t i oned Ni bbi na.
I t i s al so count ed. as a sbrengt h of i nsi ght (pat i nb-
saggdnu, pasxt nct ci passundbal unt
becauso, owi ng
t o t ho c<. rnt ernpl at i on of abandonment , i nsi ght does
not waver i n t he f u, oe of graspi ng. I t i s one of t he
cont empl at i ons whi ch shoui d occupy t ho mi nd and
t horeby del i ver and l i berat e i t , whi l st t ho mcdi t at or
i s ongaged i n t he oxerci se of rui ndf ul nes' s i n broat h-
(pnlzrr, issaggtt nupossi p4ssus
' t i
si kkl nt i ) .
Though not i rt t ho sarne orderl y cl assi f i cat i ot of
vari ous t ypes of cont ernpl at i on a, s hsve been set
r-rrrt in lriter compiltrtions and, comrnerttaries, tho
l i vi nq i n <. : orrt ernpl ut i on whi ch rcgarcl s al l condi t , i ons
t rnd t eel i ngs di spassi onat el y and as sornet hi ng t o be
rerro urloed ( p ut itti s s ug g ortupas si, ui har anto) is an idea t
hel d up by t i re Buddha qui t o f requent l y. I t i s hi s
&nswer t o }I t l ha Moggal l ana' s rl uest i on :
, ,
I I ow
doos a rnonk becor-no froe by tho destruction of
cravi ng 7 " (t anha t ari khuyu ui rt t t t t t o
l 0).
Tho morrk
who obi des vi ewi ng rl l serrses, sense-obj e. ct o, t hei r
cout act s and rcrsul barrt f eel i rrgs, cra, vi ngs, ref l ect i onrr,
et c. , as obj ecbs of ubandorunent , he i s wort hy cl f
citl' erings - and be,:ornes for others tl field
of rneri t , unsurpassed i n t hi s rvorl cl "
I b i s one of
t he modol s of cont ompl aui ve t h<-rught , when t he
oxr: rci se of rni ndf i rl noss on i nhal at i on arrd oxhrrl at i on
(At ui punasal i ) i s rnent , i onecl
On t he ot , her hand, i t wi l l not bo possi bl o f or e
rnonk to dwell in. t:onternplation on abandonment
(oblr,ubbo pa(iraissuggrirtn1tosli tsihari.tu.7n
he i rrr, s t l ro el even qual i t i es whi ch enabl e a cowherd
t o l et rd hi s herci ancl mako i t prosperoug: ho must
know of any obj ect t hai i t i s composed of t he f our
great elernents and derived therefrom
ho must
knory that both tho fool and tho wiso man are
di st i ngui shed by t hei r deeds; ho must abandon al l
serrsuous thinking before it devolops into deeds, as
the r:owherd must rernove the eggs of the flies
must v-&t ch hi s senses, as t he cowherd dresses t ho
u"ourrds of hi s herd
ho shoul d i ro abl e t o expound
t ho t l , hamrna i n debai l t o ot hers; f requent t he
comprrny of other monks of greator knowledge, as
che herdsmar\ tdkes his flock to tho ford
; and take
del i ght i n t he procl arnat i on of t be
, J. haut nl Ll ;
slrould know the Noble Eightfold Path, and be
skilled in resting his mind in the pa,sbures of mrnd-
fubnegs trnd meditation
he should observe rnoder&-
t i on i n accept i ng gi f t s f rom hi s support ors, &s a
good cowherd does rrot mi l k hi s cows dry
and he
shoul d pay due respect l o hi s seni ors, t he l euders
of t he congr er e. t i on ancl t he 1l ' r ck.
But the pa,ramount importance of this contom-
pl at i on of abandonment i s shown by i t s i ncl usi on i n
t hs advi se gi ven by t ho Buddha as t o how a monk
.ghould meet tris end, his appointed tirno (kd,lam
agomeyya), rvi t h mi ndf ul ness (sol o) and sol f -
composure (sont paj ano
Lt )
; any f eel i ng, whet hor
pi easant , pai nf ul or neui r&I , shoul d bo approachod
2 l' itnt,. i, p. ltJ.
3 J' s. I ,
, 17.
I Vf um. xx, D. ; { r ) .
5 l ' i t mA, cp. Nananr. . ' t i , Pal h oJ Puri f i cat i on, p. 706, n. 3.
6 I ' i sm. xx,
I r .
5+{ ) .
7 Ps . I , l 9+.
I l ' i r m. xxi i i , p. 605.
9 i bi d. vi i i ,
t i .
2. 1{)
/ . . V, p. rl 2.
1' J i . . I V, p. 5S
-11. I , p" 25r.
r l i . I Y, p. 1. 1t i .
I ' t A . Y , p . 1 1 2 .
13 / , V, p. 359.
r4 S. I Y, p. 211, Gel al i l a SuUa.
with understanding thst euch feeling has ansen rn
dependenee on hie body which itself is impermanent,
eompounded and originatod in dependenco
certirn eonditions ;
henee euch feeling too cannot
be pernanent. Contemplation of thie impermanonce
ahould make tho monk dwell on the traneionce
(twyo) theroof, with disintorest (uirdgaj, tient cn
(nirod,ha\ and ebandonmsnt (poPinie'
a ag g dnup as si uihar ati).
Tho prototype of this formule oecurs in $'hat is
probably tlre- iarliest reforence, t'he Andpd-na*atd
(M.III, 83) on tho cultivation of mindfuinese
in broathing and the development thoroof, in
order to make i.t very fmitful and profitable
Its importonce is also ovidont from the lrequent
rapotition of the formula in which it has becomo
stireotyped. Throughout the AnApano Sar.nyutta
thie contomplation of abandonmont eppears &s
the culminating thought with eonecious &w&reness
of tho ontire process of broathirtg
pas$, assa^sissdmEti ei,kkha'ti, patinissaggdnupassi
passasiscdm|,ti tikkhori). Thus it eonduces t,o the
abar'doning of the fettere (samyojana'pahdna), t'o
the looeoning of evil tenden cies (anusaoTamuggL,ita),
to thorough-knowledge of the way otfi (add'hd'rw"
parlrtfid\ and to the utter clestruction of mental
i ntoxi cati ort (6sauakkhaya).
H. G. A. v. Z.
ABAYATUni -ugXn-Sf, a namo for Abtraya-
giri Th'ipa, &n snsient shrine ir, Ceylon. See
ABBHi HATA SUTTA, a ehort sutta i n verse
form sf four lines, occurring in the SaryEutta
Nikiyo (I, p. 40). The name is derived from the
opening questicn:
Through what is thie world
affiicted ? ", and tho answer thereto in the third
The world is nffiicted by death " (maccu,'
n&bbhdluab lolco), inCicating the chief affiiction of
all existonco. Thon follow other affiictions : it is
eucompassod by docropitudo, affectod by
(poisoned) dart of craving, saturated alwayu n'ith
With s elight variation theso verses recirr in the
Thcra4dthd (222) lzherethoy are utt'ered by Siriman$a
who became an arahan+, durirrg the rocitat,ion of
the rules of diacipline
AEBHAXA, rohabili'r,ation of a bhikkhu on comple'
tion of e protrationary period, oubsoquent to an
o$ence, e.v. DISCfFIIN-& (!'irmyal.
menticrred as an eratrant, who in ono ot'hie previous
Iives Cr:ring ihe diepeneation of Buddhtr Ko4dafrfia
had preilaid some-ointment end made thereoi an
.hia {Ap.
I, 236). Tho result of thig
meitorious ac',ion w&s his rebirth ae Cirappa
f,fceen aeone
c,velos) ago, when ho bocsmo a
ABBAAHTARA, o linoar messura whioh ie defined
as consisti;cg of 28 hotthu (cubits), each of which
15 l r ' . I TT, p. 83, eut t s 118.
i 6 - . ' . V, r , pp. 3l i - 341.
1? -s. 1-. x, tuttas 17-20.
from the olbow ae far a,s the tip of tho
nail " of the ernail
ffnger (Vin.A. 654). l'he total
length would bo in the noighbourhood of 38 feet'
The a.bblnntora is referrod to (o.g., in Vin. TII.
201), where a t-rhikkhu is not allowed to loa"'e his
robos in an unprotocted, open placo in the
and bo eeparatod from thom by a dietanse of
moro than-one obblwrltLrra, In dcling no, his robes
are liabie to tbrfeiture (nisaaggfuia) and tho monk
has committed &n offence to be expiated. (For
comparati ve study, eee MEA" SUIf,ES.)
Ihe literal meaning of ttie word being
the inside " labtoi-anta,ra),
t}i,o term ie
used in the general eanse of intorval, both in respoct
of ti rne and of space.
ABBHANTARA Ji TAKA. Once whcn tho Buddha
s'as in Jetavana he ovorhsard ihe monks relating
how Sd,riputta trad comforted Bimbidevi, formerly
Yasodhard, by obtairring sweetene'l
juice for har. lYhen she was indisposed one
day,-she had remarked to her son, l i 6hul a, ho"w
she formerly usod to got over this foelin_g
juice, and added:
But riow that we live on alms, how could rvo
procuro this ? ". Later in tho day SS,riputt* noticsd
Rdhrria looking sad and loarnt from him ttre reason.
On the next <ia1' Sd.riilut'ta wont' to Sivatthi to
tho palace of the king of Kosaia" At tfat mcrqont &
ga"dorre" brought, a- baskot ot' fully ripe- swoet
mengoes, which the king peelod with hie ov"r
hsnds, squeezed for the
adcied somo
Bugsr and'ofi'e,rsd to $&riputta. S6riputta tcnk
juice. to Bimb6devl and when sho drank it her
pain subsided. From ttrat day the king eupplied
juice regulariy to Bimbddevi.
Tira Buddha rsmarked that this wes not ths
first timo stio had beerr comfortod by S6riputta
with mangoes. He then related the atory of how
Sakka in a spiteful mood, disturbod by tle virtue
of a gtoup of asce+,ics living in a park noar B6r4?*ei,
made all the roa,ngoes in the park disapPoiir, &8
though they had boon eatsn by the aecoticc. Then
Sakks, etiioulated in the quoen a dosira for a
midmoei mango "
(abbhantwa'amhal, whioh,
altirough she did not know what it lues' was Eure
to resrilt in her p;rving
l:irt'h to I male child' As no
m&ngoee wero to be fcund in tho park, t-he king
made hie pooplo givo the esootics a t'horo'.rgh
beating snd drivo
oui, of tho park. Thrie
SekkeL wieh rt&s ftrlfitled' But still tho quaea dr,i
not roceivo her
ncridracst ltoaago "'
A brdtrruan gsve iome fancifui expl*neticn
whi,:h lre had hear'i from imraemoriai i;radition
acccrCing to which
mango€e "
g;rew in the Gctden Cave in'ihe llimelay-as, whete
ii,r human beiog corrld
*s it, was in th9
Tho troe was ftrliy enciroled wi&h eol'en
iron nets and guarded by tl:oue*nds of goblins.
Bui the king had e strong snd clover parrot who
after meny advontures o'ntained ono fruit from a
her*rit, in tho l{imaiayas to whom king Yessavaqra
used to secd four m&ngoos doily" Tire parrot flew
back and gave the marrgo to tho qu€on of Bir5,nesi
who eatisfied her craving, but all the eame did not
get e eon,
No further reference ie mado to Sakka and his
ruee. But the caet of the storv ig identified as
followe : Ildhula's mother was the queen of BArirr,rasi
at that time
Anande wes the clever parrot ;
$Eriputta was the hermit in the Himalayas ;
the Buddha wa.s then the leador of the oscoticg
l i vi ng i n the park at Bdr6nasi (J. No. 281).
_ni nth
of fi ftesn types
of boundari oe (s. v.' SIUA) and encl osuros- for
ecclesiastical aets, as onumer&ted by Buddhaghosa
( i ' i n A. l l 36) .
ABBHANTARA VACGA, ths fourth di vi si on of
ths third book
of the Jdtaka,t{ha,kathd
cornpri si ng ten Jdtaka stori es (Nos. 281"290). It
has dorived its name from tho first of these ten,
cal l ed tho Abbhantara Jdtaka
storv of the
Mi ddl e Mango).
ABBHASA i s the common namo of thi rty-fi vo
kings who lived eleven world cyclea a,go, sornotimea
also called Ambarar.nsa, All of them rvere links in
tho chain of existenco which cukninated in this
Buddha ago ab Sd,vatthi in the br6hrnan's son,
named Nita, who, seeing the care-freo life of tho
Buddhi st monks, became s mernbEr of the Sangha
himself. Spending his time in idle talk, eai,ing and
aleeping, he paid little or no attention to his monastic
dutiee, till ho wa^s adslonished bv the Buddha
himself. Concentrating his miud
ho doveloped
insight, and attained arahantship not long thereafter.
I I i s ver ses ar o r ecor ded ( Thag. 8+) ,
ABBHA SUTTA occurs i a Val dha,-Samyutta
(S. III, 256). The Buddha wl i en questi oned as to
why sornetimes thunder clor.rds appesr, explains
t,hat thero are devas called Abbhavalahaka
Thunder cloudg &ppeB.r when, in accordance rsitir
their wish,
desirrr to revel in tlie dolight of
their bodies (sakdya rotiyd, rarneyydmdli : literally,
revel in their own compa,ny, their own bodies or in
embodied deiight, Kindred, Soyittgs, III, p. 201.
Another interpretation is
wish to give joy to
their bodies
OPP-I/. I, L25).
In the eommentary Buddhaghosa adds that
this would refer to a roally great thunder cloud
that, iasts for seven weeks darkoning the entiro
place, concoaling tho sun and i,he moon ", or to
thoss rain clcuds appearing out of seB,son
(, s/ . rr, 351).
ABBHAVAI I HRXA, e gr oup of cel esr i al bei ngs
bel ongi ng to tho Val Ehakak6yi ka (cl oud-errrbodi ed)
class of gods, according to a statement atirributed
to the lluddha in the Samyutta, Nikdyo (III, 254).
While discussing the four groups of gods which
belong to this class, the
mentions the
Abbhavaldhaka group third in order. They are
dietinct from the other cloud gods by their assoeia-
tion with thunder or eumulus cloud. Seo also
abhyauakd.i a) meane
open. arr, a,n. open spaeo ". Tho word ig ofien used,
purely rn tirrs sense. with no religious implications,
o.g,._, Terw kh,o pana santqyerLo, iycwmu
gal l dno cai kar,ruti (^{t that ti mo
i i at i -
moggalld,na was waiking
the open : XI,I,
or Tena khalu samnyend.yugrn'jiwnclc
cahkrante cankrantuate (At thet
trme Ananda
u'alking in the open spa,ce outsicle
t he monasr , er y : Aui . I , t 28) .
But i t acqui red a spec,' al si gni fi canco
when i t
wa.c used in the farnoug and
me_t€,pho r,_ s a mb a dho g har u : a s o r aj a p a t ho qUU
no *,es i
pabbaj j u ( D. I , 631r l f .
f , 179, &c. ) . Her e, t ho homo_
iees life is said to be as free ancl
* it
" open space in contrast to the housohold life, fuli
of cares and like a dus+"y road.
Tiris oxpre*rioo
put into the mouth of the person on the'threshold
of renuri.ciat,ion.
The Sanskrit parallel is also found : aambdd,ho
puywr ay
- {
hau uso_ r aj as amaa as o ab h,y aualcq,iam
prauraj yd. (.t\[h,uu. l II, 50
al so l I, l l 7).
commentaries elucidate this metaphor
gi ve reasons l br tho compuri son of the' Ii fe
of a
recl use, wi sp{l cr.}. .L' hi s espl artrrti on
i n i den.
tical words is cr:ntained in soveral conunentaries.
The l i fo of a rnonk i s i i ke the open ai r i n that i t i s
not attached to anybhi ng. Even i f a recl uee
to l i ve i n a gabl ed house, a
j el veUerl
pal rr,ce
or a di vi ne
ma,nsi on wi i h dooi s
r{i ndows-cl osed,
hs woui d
noi be distracted or hrndered by them. Again,
opposed to the encurnbrances of the l i fe of i house-
holder, tho ascetic life is a,s free as tho open air
hecause of the abuadance of opport,unity
0o do
g<r od( D, 4. I , 180; MA. I I , 204, . &; . 1.
_Li ko i he oper i
air it is also clear Irom ail obstruction.
Evei if
bwo bhikhhus wer.e to bo seatecl in a cell
made oi
the four kinds of precious t,hings, to them these
would me&n nothing, Lhero would be no hiadranco
because of them.
Of greater religious signifi.cance is whon
figures even in tho oarlie*qt Ruddhist literature
ono of the places suitable for meditation.
bhi kkhu i u pursui t, of nredi tati on goes i n searcl r
of a secluded lodging (uirittam
t he,
r:aentioned &re arufi,Fta7n,
rukl;ham&ktm, pa,bbatu'r7t, icandararyt, giriguham',
." *sd,na1h, ua n ap utt It arp, ahb irc lcds am, pald,lapu
fi.i a m
(a forcst, the fcot of a tree, a mount,l i ,.
"i op6,
wilderness, a rnountain ca,ve, & cernetcry,
a iorest,
\ 1u1t , _t ho
ogeq_sp?9e, a heap of st r aw: D. I , 7I ;
- i ul . I , l 8l
, 1. I I , 210, &c. ) .
Even apart from thi s context
dbbhekdsa i s
recomrnc:nrled along i*-ith other places,
the foot
cf a, tree, as &n a,ppropriats haulr for a bhikkhu.
Instances are found in both Pali and San.skrit
l i t er at ur e ( , 5- . . 1 . l , ) 8; i - unk, I , 308) .
The variant form ajlhol;r7so (from s.d,lti
whi ch has tho satno meani ng i s al so rnet, rvi t,h,
i n the l ocati .ve ctl j l "ookase (5' . I, 212; Yi n.I, Ib) and
someti mes i n other case endi nge (a;i l hokasa:
Vi n.
III, 2U0 ;
IV. 210
; uj j hakasa : Ll i n. II, l 4ti
aj j ho-
kdsagot o: S. 1I , : l i ) 0) .
The Abbholcasa Sutta gives the re&sons for
bec<.rrning an abblrclcdsika-" Ono is an open-air
l odger
j uet beeause hi s u' ants €l re l i ttl e,
conl entment, to mark
(hi s own faul bs),
eecl usi on. . . "
( / "
I I I , 220) .
But, l i vi ng i n the open ai r al one does not mal i e
one & recluso. Ho should possess the other factors
of a bhi kkhu, too (M. I, 282)'
Tho culnrination is reached when the term is
ueed i n conneeti on wi th the t' enth of tho thi rteen
dhutongas (austere practices) known as the
The benefi ts of l i vi ng i n the open ai r are cnu-
merated in the !'isudrlh,imagga i " the impedi-
ment of dwellings is severed
stiffness and torJror
&re expelled
his conduct deserves the praise
deer the bhikkhus live unattached and
homel ess
(^S. I, 199)
he i s dotached; he i s (free
to go in) any direction ;
he livos in conformitv with
(tho pri nci pi es of) fewndss of wi shes, &nd eo on.' l
( Vi em. ' p. 6l ) .
Tho practico of living in the open air was not
confined to Buddhism. Along \pith sorne of the
other austore practices followed by bhikkhus'
open air dwelling w&s also practised by non-
Buddhist aseetics. which is inferred from the stock
paeea.go containing popular non-Buddhist ascetic
pr act i ees ( D. I , 166 f ) .
Lexsl l ur R. GooNnsEr(ERE.
ABBHOKi SA SUTTA occurs as the fi fth sutta
in tlro Arafifia Vagga of tho Book of Fives (paficako
nipd,ta) of the Ahguttara. Nikd,ya (III, v, sutta 185).
The ten suttas of this Vagga are all ident'ical in
their description of five t5ryes of people who havo
adopted one or other of the thirteen agcetic
practices (d,hutanga q.v.). They differ in their
selection of an individual ascetic practice, such as
living in the open air (abbhokd,sa), in the sutta
under reviow. The five types are guided to such
practices through folly and blindness (m.andarfi,
momd,hattd), through evil dosirea (pdpiccho icchi.-
gtokoto), in foolishnass and perplexity (ummddd
c'i,ttaklchepd,), by the thought that such a life is
praised by the Buddha and his disciples (uar.rnitam
buddhehi buddhasdua,kehi'1, or
beeause one has
but few wants, is easily contented, inclined to
solf-purification, to b secluded life and bocause one
thinks that thie is the best (appicchatam-
e anlulthim-s all ekham-p auiu ekanx-idnm atthit am) .
This last type is said to be the highest and the trest.
ABBEOKASIKA*GA, ono of the thi rteen asceti c
practiees (dhutahgal.It consists of dwelling in the
open air, refusing not only the protection of a roof
but even that offered at the foot of a treo. The
strict obsorvaneo of this rule wouid not allow one
to live negr & houge, or a rock or a tree, but a tent
made out of robos would be permissible. Lesser
degreeq of observance of this rule admit a certain
of relaxation, such as a hut made of
branches, cloth stiffenod with paste, or &n over-
hangug rock, as long as no drip-lodge has boen
cut . t her ei n ( l ' i er n. i i ,
60- 63) .
The spiritual benefits of sueh austerity are
obvi ous : the monk i s free l rom t,he i mpedi ment of
a dwel l i ng
he i s {ree t' o go i n any di recti on he
; concentra.ti on wi l l be easi er
' under
starry sky
he wi l l be l ess i rrcl i rred towards l azi ness
the j oys of detachment and secl usi on are hi s.
!' or thi s and other asceti c practi ces, see ASCETI-
CI S} I , DHUT. \ N( i A.
ABBHUTADHAMMA, myst er i ous or super nor r nal
phenomena, ti re reci tal of whi ch seerns to have
formed one of the ni ne di vi si ons of tho Brrci dhi st
sacred texts
\nauai tga-satthtt-sd,sana,
q.\' .) wherr
classified according to their ftrrm or style.
The maj ori ty of these di vi si ons i s easi l y recog-
nisable in the standard n&mes of trooks of the
Tip,itaka, as known to rrs. As regards the a,bbhuto-
d,hammn, vio &re told by the comrnents,tor (DhsA.
p. 33, Introductory Di scourse) : " &Il suttantas
connected with wonderful and marvellous things
spoken, should be understood as
the wonderful things manifested at the t'ime o1'
the concepti on or bi rth of a Buddha-to-be, at the
timo of his enlightenment and of the Buddha's
first sermon, the rnarvellous experiences of people
hearing the preaching of the Buddha, or at the
sight of_a universal rnona,rch, or at meeting and
hearing Ananda should also be reckoned as belonging
to the Abbhutadhammd. See ANGA.
ABBHUTA SUTTA. Thi s di scouree (,S. IV, xl i i i
3l : 20) and manv others, besi des, &re & repoti ti on
of the Asahkhatq, Sutta (f 2: I). Tho subj ect they
all discuss is tho Absolute. As their titles show it has
been named variously, with tho result that thero
is a multiplicity of discourses differing in name but
identical in form and content. The only point of
differoncs between tho Asankhato Sutta and this
discourso is that the words
'Absoluto '
and' way of attaining tho Absolute
magga), which ar.o contained in tho former, &re
hero substitut€d by the' words
(abbhuta), and
of attaining tho Wondrous'
ABBOT. Although there ie no oquivalent title in
ancierrt Buddhism, and the Buddha himself rofused
to appoint a leader of the Order of monks (D. II,
p. I00), yet Buddhist monastic inetitutions havo
developed a kind of hierarchy, not unlike the one
founrl in Christian monasteries. I{ence the word
Abbot is nowadavs freoly used in lVestern coturtrios,
and also in the Far East whero the influenco of the
lVest has been felt, more keeniy than in countries
like India and Ceylon, to denote tho spiritual
leader of a group ofrnonks. The head of a group of
Buddhist monasteries in Ceylon is usually referred
t,o as Nd.uaka (leader), and the chief of & sect
(Nikeya) is called t}:.e Mahfi-Ndyoka (cirief leader).
The spiritual head of the Shinsht Sect in Japan is
calied .F/ossrr, moaning Lord of the Dharnma, while
tho superior in charge of a single eetablishment is
referred to as Katwhi (chief) in
Jddoghu and other eects. Soc also SANGIIA.
ABBUDA, name of a king who lived very long ago
and who in a subsequont life became known as
Niggunlhipupphiya thera. He is mentioned in
the Therd,Ttadd,rw (No. 327 u. 24
Ap,l , p. 263).
ABBUDA NIRAYA, one of the subdivisions in the
system of hells found in Buddhist cosmology. The
na,mo occurs in a passage common to tho Saqnyutta
(I, I5O) and Ahguttara Ni,kdUw (Y, I73) and the
Sutta,-nipd,ta (iii, l0), having, hut for slight vari-
ations in detail, the same stylo, subject-mattor and
contoxtual reforenco, namelv tho death arrd rebirth
of the l(ok6lika bhikkhu.
The passage claims to present e statoment of the
Buddha regarding the length of life in Abbuda
Niraya and the other hells in this group. Abbuda
being the one in which duration of life is the lowost,
the Buddha, in a,nswer to an earthlv questionor,
draws a comparison in earthly terms:
" Suppose
there woro a load of twenty khdrisL aa we reekon
them here in Kosala, of s€samurn eeed. And Buppoeo
at the end of every century & m&n wero to take out
one seed a time. Soorrer would that same load bo
used up than a'term in the Abbuda Purgatory."
(,S. i, 160
trsl. Kindred, Sayings, I, 190). Abbuda
is then employed as the unit for ealculating the
duration of life in the next hell mentioned, i.e.,
Nirabbuda, where life ie twenty times as long as in
The Sutta-nipdto cornrnentarial obe€rvation (ii,
477) Ababa Niraya (q.v.) is not a particular
heil but a period of time spent in Avici, applios also
to Abbuda, as it doos to tho othor Nirayas in this
system. T}lLe Udnna commentary (140) mentione it
as a cold }rell (sEtarwraka),
The word abbu.ila (Skt. arbudo) is umd in tho
sonso of excreacence, as in the Saqnyutta Ni,kd,ya
(f, 206), alao motaphorieally to me&n
'Btain '
' ecandal '
l Vi n.III,
18) and to ei gni fy a very hi gh
numeral (Abhid,It^d,nappad,ip'ikd, 475), viz., l0
millions, raised to tho eichth
. See further
B. J.
ABEGG, Prolessor Emll, of Zririch llniversity,
author of Der Preta,kulpa des GaruQa-Pur,1na,
(Berlin, l92l), Der Mesdasgla,ube in lrd.ien urd,
Iran (Berlin, 1928), Die Indiensammlung der
Uniuersitcit Ziirich (Ziirich, 1935), Die Berner TaJeln,
zur Krishnu-Legend,e (Berne, 1935), Kriahnas Geburt
und, das lrtd,i^sche WeihrwchttJest (Zi.irich, 1938),
I ndische Psychologie (Ziirich, I 945).
He is quoted by IU. Winternitz in A Historg oJ
Irulion Li,ter&ture (If, pp. 273 and 289), with referenco
to tho future life of Maitreya, and translatioris in
German from tho Sanskrit Maitreyavyd,kara4,a
and Maitreyatamiti; and with further reforence
to the, relating the advent of the
future Buddha Maitreya, combined with the
legend of king Prar.rdda (D[e Messiaaglaube
Ind,ienund, Iran, pp. 132 ff. and 153 ff. respectively).
In his Ind,ische Psychologie Abegg devotes
e,everal pa,g€s to Buddhi sm (ch. V, pp. 107-l 2l ).
He takes the doctrino of dependent
(pratEtyasamutpa.da,) as the psychological
basie in
the arising
?f -ft"*-""
and comparos
the twolvo links thereof with the four mintal
factors of aedand, EIUJF, sa,rTwkdra a,nd vijfidrw.
Theeo are shown correetly as impormanent (anitya)
and subject to constant change.
abiding substanco, the concept of a soul'is denied
(anirma-udd,o). The_ heresy of indivicluality-bolief
is compg,re9 with the Ah.arpkdra of Sail<hyi, philo-
sophy. A doubt ari.sing from the doctrine of-soul.
lessness in respect of moral reeponsibility idovorcome
by the teaching of korrna.
Frequont resort, is made to the Milindapafi,lta
post-canonical_work, which, however, is greatly
esteemed in Theravdda, Buddhiem.
are drawn with ihe
philosophy, especially
in respect of the function of memory in dr6ame.
Thus Buddhism ie preeonted as a psychology
s purpose of religious salvation, olifinatin-g from
a-metaphysics ahe"g.y found in the Upenishads.
has oxpounded in Dr:r Messiaigl.a,ube in
Ind,ien und Iran aut Grurd, d,er
(Borlin and Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter and Co.,
1928) the Hindu notiorrs concerning
Kalki, the
Buddhiet conceprion of Maitreya and the Zoroae-
trian doctrinoe concorning the return of the foundor
rei i gi on (JRAS. 1932, pp. 44? ff.). Tho
Buddhiet doctrine is treated
i4O*202), and his
main sonrces for thig eection are tho PaIi iakkaaotti-
(-D. fII,58-79), rhe Ardga,nua\naa,
L}eo Ditsyd,uadirw, and a number of Maitreya t6xte
oxisting in Tibetan and Chiness vorsi6ne, all
previously brought together and oxamined
Leumann in connection with his edition of thL
Saka-Khotsf,Li Maitreya-surniti. Abegg finds little
ovidence of interchango of ideas am;;g tho threo
religions. Ouly in somo traits of the Buddhist
Maitreya, his emanations of light and hie super-
natural. pow-er of vision, ie.he willing to recognGo a
borrowing from Zoroastrianism; [e thi:lki that
in central Asia t)ro }tahayana Bucldhism may
have beeen affoctod not only by the Parsi roligion
but by Ma,nichaeism, Gnosticism and Nestoiia,n
t I . c. A. v. Z.
ABERRATIOI (o;ipatti). Ihis technical teffn is
found in various moanings and contexts, but could
roughiy be classified under two headings, &g
doviation from morality (sita) and deviation from
As a failure of morality (d.cdra-uipatti) it ie
f r equent l y ment i oned i n t ho Vi n. ( I , I 7l ; I I , 28;
IV, 7
etc.). Such & l apse i n good conduct,
hor,vever, may also form :.r,rr object of thought, and.
it is well for a monk to review from timo to time
his own fu,ulte " (s(ulltu kdlena kdlam attauiTtotti,nt
paccauekkl r.i to hoti :,{,.IY, 160). The fautt of ai rother
(paraxiptotta) too can becorne useful food for thought,
as long as this does not become faultfinding. For,
faultfinding is one of the Beven items which are
conei dered aberrati ons
oi Ti atti yo: A. IV, 26),
1 *{,ccording to the Sar&Uulla commentary twenrty khdrit
equal a cartload of lila-geeds of the Magadha kind. Ths
Koosla me&Bure wes four times ttre Magadha measluo.
the other six itoms being : fsilure to keep cont'act'
wrth the monka,neglect to lisben to iho true dhamma'
no training for higher I'irtuo, little trust in elders.
eeeking foi worth outside the Order and serving
first o;tgide the Ordor. The oppositea are profitable
attainment a (aamPatti'l .
As & deviation from understanding
oipotti) it becorues sylron1nnous^ r*'ith heresy
tdO;. notfr aberratioirs will go frequontly together,
for a deviation trom right viows wiII usually lead
to a lnora! Iapso
and vico vorsa (xlaaipottiy.a
utd,eti, atho dcara'ditthiyo: Vin. V, 159). As a pair
of oberrations
(silaurpatti c{t diplhiaipottd coi-
they aro oppoeed. by
pair of ettainment of
viriuo and. right understanding (aElaNtmpod'd ca
ca : L. I, ii. euttas II and I2).
fn a group of three, we find the aborrations as
failrrres 1n acti,rn
(lcammonto'uiptotti) which &re
identical with tho doviations from morality {.arla'
ui,patti\ or the transgressiolg
the-,moral codo,
*irich comprise tho taking of life, stealing, sensuous
lying, slander, harsh languago arrd
idle taik
fu,ilures in living
by obtain-
ine a livelihoorl i:n & wrong way
and tho aberrations
of-pu"tre"se views (dipphi,'tri'palla), which include the
views that t,hero is no use in making offerings,
tirat noither good nor evil rleeds produco any
result, that there is no worid either here or beyond,
that no reciuse or brahrnan has abtaineri porfection
or realisation
through hie own iniuition. etc.
2?0). In an earl i er sutta we fi nd m.-' nti oned a
group of throe aberratione, in which, however,
f,he failnre in obtaining a right Iivelihootl
potti) is exchanged for mental aberration (citta'
vipu,ttil or a !!-tnrped mind, which is explained as
& mind fuli of covetougness and malovolenco
(abhijjhalu hoti uyd'panna,citto lt'oti : A. l, 268).
opposites aro reckoned &s successes or
attainmonte (sunt'padd) in the absence of these
H. G. A. v. Z.
ABHA. I. Meanl ng of the word. Atha (trgtat) has
oquivalonts in Sanekrit, e.g., pro.bhd
srld ralmi (radiance). It is tho light emanating
from the body of Buddhas and bodhisattvas and
is translatod into Chinose as kwang-ming ()EBE),
sometimes simply kwang
both of which mean
brightnoss or light. This meaning, found in the
Sulthfraoll,ultttlw, (Naujio, 27), is deecribed as
foriowe :
Tho miglity light of Amitabha Buddha is
the mcst deeerving of respect in the worlci " I
chap. l of the Soldharm'aTtutt'dareku Stitra (Nanjio,
134) :
The Tathdgata omanai:os light from his
&1rw-kelor which ehines on tho 18,000 Buddha
LandE in tho osstern world. "
II. Ktnrls of Alne. Thoro are two kinds of ligirt.
One i e ch' a,ng-kwang
ffi r' 6
or ni ' tydbhd' , por-
manent light), and the other is sh6n-t'ung-kwang
(W?$)E or obhijil.d,bha, transeondenial iighi).
I Strend of bair turned clock-wise and
ihe ey' e-brows. ThiE is mentionod ae ihe lagt of the thirty-two
orJor marke of a great being (mahnpuruia). It is trauslsted
Ch'ang-kucang (nitydbhn), also eallod
kwzurg (H)E or lcaud,kd,rd,bhfi. round light),
is tight which emanatos continuously. It
ie explained in chap. 3 of the Budd,had,hydna-
samddhisdgara Sfi,tra (Nanjio, 430) as follows :
This light is ealled qound
light. It fllmounds the
nock of tho Buddha. It sproads to a fathom on
all sidos. "
In the socond chaptor of
the Sritra of ths Highest
Reliance " (Nanjio, 259, Wu.shang-i-ching
it is B&id, " Owing to his Karma, tho Tath6,gata's
body is of golden huo, and his light shines out
to a distanee of l0 feet. " In chap. 8 of the Mahq,-
prajfrdfirarrtitopadeia (Nanjio, 1169) it is said that
Buddhas and bodhisattvas havo lights which
sproad to a length of ten feet all round their bodies.
Wren bodhieattv&B are born thev all have this
light. It, is one of the 32 major marks of a great
being, named Chang-kwaag-hsiang (tryetg
of ton-foot light
Theso aro all oxplanations concoraing tho quality
of the light of the
(Abhe). Bufthese-mark,c
e&n be Been only in rospoct of the Buddhs's
N'i,rrndna-kdua. As regards tho Iight in respect, of his
Sarnbhoga-kdya, its quantitv eannot be measured.
This iB aleo confirrned in chap. I of ths Wung-shdng-
Iun-cltu ('f+€'668*). Chap. 3 of Hstr,ctn-ts6-chuan-
hung-chud,h,x-ch&o (#ffi$dj.Rft9})
states thet the
84,000 reya of Amitabha's light &r€ not &n
abhijfiibhn, but a nityablu.i becauso these rays aro
l,he result of his original vow.
(2) Shen-tung-ktoan47
called hsien-c'hi-kw&ng (4€-X) or fattg-
kwang (ffiJA,
metrning arisrng light and
sprearling light rospectively. Chap. 7 of tho
Mataprajfrnpd,ramiti-:idstra (Nanjio, 1169) saye :
Somotimos tho Buddhag spreed tho light in ordor
to manifest their irnnsconclental powor (abhijfi.a)-
What is
sometirnes' ? It rrre&ns when the Buddha
was born, when ho won enlighienment, wlten ho
proached for tho first timo, wheu ma,ny gods and
esints assembled 1,o hear him and when ho confutod.
tho heretics ".
It is ssid that this light emanates not cniy from
ths Buddhas a.nd bodhisattvas but also from
minor gods. But the quantity and the berrefit of
the light vary.
Chap. 7 of the Mahdprajfinpdramitd-ddstra
s&ys, " Tho transcondental light is of throe kinds,
i.o., lower, middlo and upper. The light emanatod
through magic nnd
sorcery is ihe
lower one
Tho light, of many gods and serponts (ndges\ is
middl.o ono
Tho light gained throrrgh the
morit of practico is the
upper one
A:ed further,
m&ny gods can omanate the light, but
is limited. Tho erut and moon cen ehine on this
world only. The light of the Buddhas pervades
the 3,000 greater worlds and spreads down to the
lower world. The light of the gods makes mortals
rojoice, while that of the Buddhas csn lead overy-
ono to emancipation ".
III. Transtormation of the light. The light of
the Buddira sometimes transfonas itsolf and can
into Chinese as pai-hao-hsiane (E*lE) or ths
mark of the
bri l l i ant whi t e hei r' .
lead men to emnncipation. The firet ehaptor of
tho P o fr canim i at i
s d, I m,tr i k a
pr ej fi .r.-r
r amd ti ( N a n j i o,
2) says ; " A thousand &re ern{rn&ted from
the tongue of the Bu<l di ra. Each
guci r
l i gl rt trana-
fbrrr-rs itserlf into a tirouss.rtci les,r'eg of rho troa$uro-
flower, whoss ligtrt is
e&ch !o&f is se&ted
a Brrd<lh*, wlro preaches t,ho tol,rchirrg L,f the srx
paranitas, t.h-r-rs r"lwakeuirrg in ovorv ono the faith
enlightenrnsnt ". tsu&Jhubhdsi.tanti,td-
yurbu&7ha-dh,uuno t\u,tra (Narrj i o, 198), says :
j ewel
(ntuni ) h&s ,\4,0U0 ra.,' s of l i ght. Each i i ght
rnakes 84,000 vari eti os of gol d al cl c&eh vari ety of
gr-riC transforms itsolf, marrifesfinq a multitude of
blrings, sr.rch &s s, st&rrd of rliu,tnonri-
a not, of
peari s, or s, cl orrrl of fl cr.verg "" .\g menti oi rod abovo,
it manifests itsr:lf in rnany dirocrions, anC ssrveg
the cause of thl Br:tj dho. hr
' uho
ti rqf chaptor of
ths Sukhriuutiuyzlho we aro tolcl : " If u sbntieut
being coroes rr.iihrn t.his
light, all rietliement will
i nstantaneousl v di sapnear and hi s wi l i and body
bocome soff and cr-rrr-ifr:rtablo. In his mincl wliole-
some thoughts u'ill ur:ise. If sentient heings como
wilhin this light in one of the hells, tirore suffering
will cease so that they wiil be abie to rest, ancl
becorne emancipated a,t tho ond rf t,heir pericd in
hel i ".
Manv examp)es of ti re ser' .-i co and benefi ts of
ubl"a ara found in othcr sltras.
I\r. Ki nds ol l i ght based ou thu Buddha' s body'
aud ml nd. i n tho i rri ,ngcen.l ent,al l i gi rt, accordi ng
to the anglo at which tho iiglrt omn.nates, there $re
savertll iiincis of ribfui. Tlie iieht that ernanatee
from the
t,ody of the Buddha is called
light of tlre rvhoio bod5' (chii-shen-kwang
8!f lt\.
The iight from one aspect of'r,ho Buci,lha (fituidruio,J
i s cai Led the l i sht of the one cl i aracr,or {sui -i -
The iight frcrn the
urna-kosa i s ca.l i ed the l i ght of i nrd,-kesa
(pai -hao-kwang
or i rrr,o.kwans
i tY;
sometirltes niei-c:hierr.kwang
l i ght of tl i e born). Ti re. l i qht frc,m the pores of
the ski n i s cai i ed the l i ght ti f tl i e pcros (mao,
41L-kl -
Tl i c ro;:l i i l i ght, from
the herr,rl i s url i ed the Irqht r.rf the i l oad (' r' ou.
kw' aug
1' ho i i ght,
-bei ri l d
the i ?rrri .l l i ,r i s
cai l ed the i i ght of tho back (hou-kwang
' r,h/
Light tliat oruanatog from tirr: trody of th.e
Bri tl cl has and boci hi sattvas i s gei rreral l v cal i e<l
l ho l i gl i t, i i f tl re bc,ri ' ; (si r*' n-krvang
?_i ' i )
tho l i cht ti f ti ro ri pa (s6-krva,ng
sometrrnes t,he extei nni l rght, (wai -kwang ,t+fl .
Conv*:rseiy, tho insig!.t of' wisciorn is r;aliod the
l rght of wrs.i orn i chi i r-hui -l i !!-&nq
trHj i
chi h-kwanq
or the i nter;ral i i ght (nui -
This is explalned in rriany sfrttas. Thus, cirap. 4?
cf the llaiutpr*jinpdramitd,-ialslra sfl,./s,
are l wo ki rrds of i i ght. One i s tho i i ghf of tho body
Aj i l ,' rhe
other i s the l i ght of wi sdonr
( chi h- hui - kr vang
f , l
f )
i n chap. l ) of Ii a-i sang' s (i *tfr) comrnentary
on tho
(!el i fi atttl i -j
l 1a ,5 i tra
(11ui -vi ,n-chi ns-t' an-
hsi i an-chi
i t i s' oxrrl ai nerl nri j ro i n
detai l i l rus : "
.I' here
i Lro ts' t; krnds of hght, ona
r s i t r o l i ght of t ho bor l ' r ' ( sl i en- kr vang
9j : )
t be
ot her
"l r o
i i ght of w' i sdom ( ch: i r - kwang gX) ,
whictr in each ca*qe divides further int-o two" Throuslt
ttre latier, s'hich is tho liglit of wisdom. i,hore
shi nes forrb the dharma, i .e.,
' Iruth,
both sacretl ,
anri soculrr,r. On ther other liand, when tho former,
i ,e., the l i ght of the bci y. i ssues forth H"rrcl f&l l s
nporr sonti ont beurgs tl i ey ber:omo emanci patod aecordi ng tu hi s i rrdrvi dual capaci t,v.
Si mi l ar!;' . the i i ght of tl i e body i s al so 6f t#o
ki nds. Ori o i e the
etcrna,t l i ght (pran-kweng
)' arhi ch i s eternal and round. The other i s
the spreading light (fang-kwang
astonishes m&n. "
Tl rs second chapter of the A-mi -t' o-chi rtg-
t' ttng
(fpltfiFti#ffiHmi, comrnontary
the Suhh.auati,uyil.ha, snys : "'l'irore aro two ilinas
of liglrt. trirst the. inner light (nei-kwang
whi ch shi nes wi tni n, as wi sdom. Secondl y, oul er
l i gi rt (rvai -kwa,ng
whi ch i l l umi nates tho
bod11, so that i h i s al so cai l ed sl ,eu-k$-&ng (hj t\ or
t hc i i ght of t l i o oody.
Sorn;.:times, tho iight of rvisdom is callod
the iigtrr cif the mnd (citn, hsin-kwa,ng
&s agarnst tho iight of the rttpa. In Kwai,,-
ni rn-.i u,-rruen (ffi ,ffi *f
or tho doetri no on
sm-rti ), i t i s expl *rned s,s fi :l l ows :
,.' Ihe
l i ght of
tho bodt' sl i i nes al l o.,' er tho wori d.
' Itre
l i sht-of the
mi td of Arni tLi bha l Judi i i ra shi nee onl y ori sonti ent
i -roi ;rgs
v;l i o pray to Arni l i bl ra Bud,l i i a ". fn fhe
ri rn' -l chauter of [' l sti an-i s6-chu,att-i t,tt,rt1\-rhi t,th-z-
therc is the further extrla.
nati on : " It i s named rhe l i ghi of tho mi nd, becj use
this [sht om&n&tos {rorn rho mind of the l]uddha.
Ib i s al s,: cal i ed ti :e l i ght of wi sdom ".
Chap. l 1 of the{tmi (Nanj i o,
1l T0)
atateg :
Thero ars three kinds <lf iighi, n&rnsly,
i,he hghr
shueos ihrough darknoss, tha ligfrt
of trrrtli, anci the ligiit of tho body. Thors are throe
kinds il regard to the li.ght v'hich shines forth
through riarkr-^ess. One is the liglrt, of
t he stars and the nrooll. lhe ser:orirl is the iight of
day, i.e., tho sun. Tire third is cornrnon light, auch
:i,s fire.
light of truth is another ns,me for
vrisdom iry whictr orro observes the worid. The
ligirb of tho bociy rue&ns t ho natural liglit which
smanates frort. tho body of senriont beings ""
V. Other ki nds of l i ght. In ths fi rst chapter of
tho i j r:thduai tt.nj i l .ha (Nanj i o, 27), thors &re m€n-
tic'ired I2 namc.s of the .\bha c'f .\mitabha Buddha.
Further blre 30th uiraptor of tho Ratrutkfi{ct (or
S utn er.ti
dir i kd
Nanj io, !3
enr: merates
4i kindsof light as regards Sfik-r'arnuni. In
a,-mi -t' o-fo-cl t' i (PF{i ffi ff.{#{E), i ho stotnr for
^lrnitabha Budrltia, rnerlrion rs rnacle of a numbor
of lights, as follo'.vs : tho wheel of lighi
l *
Xffi ),
tho i i ght of ci awn (kn' ang-i r.:i ""
XHi ,
sensorrl y percopti bl o l i ght
i l <wang-ch' u
cl otrrl cf i i ght
gl i tter of
j rght
(krrang-i so
radi ance t,i ' i i gi rt (kwang-chao
*.T). l ..rwor
of l i eht (kn' tr,ng-l i ycJj \,
rnsrei ful
l i gi r' "
(t-<' ti -k' ,i -ang
|f:tl ,
s.vrnpatheti c l i ght (fei -
kv.' i rrr;
L.j t,i ,
rl i vuro l i qhr (shen-kwang
f,S)ei ,
fi erce i i gl rt i u' ei -l l r-s.ns
-fi X),
great l i ght (t,a-
kr vang
l i f t .
goi , l en
Lght ( chi n- kwans
S) E) ,
uni hi nkat i l e l i si r t ( pu- k6- ssu- i - k- wa, ng ?l i t r J, B#) e) ,
and ni an\ . r noi e l . r esi des.
In the earl i er books r>f the c&non not, so rna,ny
ki nci s of dbi y,I &re menti oned. The Anguttaro
I{ikd.11a, fbr exarnple, onrrrnerates only foar d,bhd.
i I , p. 119, No. l 4l ) : t he l i ght of t he moon, of t he
eun. of fire and of wisdom, of which tho Iight of
* r edom i s t he best .
Snovrf Kexaora.
Rt nlr ocRrplrr : 1l ahapraj irdpArunli,t A
Sdslra (Nan jio,
I 1 69)
c!ap. 34 ; Yil-ch'ieh-lun-Iiuh-tttrtail
(ififinffiEt* or the short
summary on tlre Yaqde.drahhtLmi) chap. 5
shu-pi-hel.a,o-chi (filEffitfi*F|lEil or the commenttty on ihe
chap. 7 ; Oji
(E&*fr by Genshi n
EB 985 A.C.) i
chu-chi (ft,Sffit'eA or the comment&ry of Yasubandhu's
Sukhrtuafiwuha-upad.eia) chap. 3
Euogudshinlui rokuvdthd
(itl5,EE^g$ or comrnertary ou Shinran's (ffiI 1173-
L2$2) Eadgvdshi,nshd or the manual of the Shinsh0 seet)
Kdmu6mudsd innen \)bffi#ffiEffi) t Daiko.fushdcht t*)btPHt);
Tsan-a-mi-t'o-fo-chuan (;ftFI#[€d|* stotre for Amitdbha
ABHABBA SUTTA ( l ) . Lr ke many ot her
discourses, this is a double sutta dealing rvitlr its
eubject in two wa,ys, the negative and the positive
aspect. Much repetition is thereby introduced.
The eutta occurs in the Ahgutta'ra, N,i,kd,ya, in the
Book of Tens (.r1.V, 146). Wi thout any i ntroducti on
as to place or occasion, the Buddha tells his rnonks
that even the Buddha arrd his teaching are subject
to dependent origination. For,
if there \Fore not
found in'this world tho phenomena of birth, decay
and death, thore would have been no occasion for
a Tathd,gata, a supremely enlightened Buddha, to
arise, or to proclairn his teaching of truth and
discipline (ilhamtna-u,inrt'la)
" .
Ilowever, it should not be thought that one is
rrot capable (abhabba) of outgrowing thoee
conditions. But without abandoning certain st,B,tes
ono woulci not be able to overcomebirth, decay and
death. And these states &re norv collected in groups
of three, each group depending for its continuat,ion
or cessation on the continuation or cossetion of
the preceding group. Thus the logical sequenco in
groups is as follows : shameless (u,hirika), reckleee
(arwttappa) and rregligent (pam,atta); disregard
(anad,ariyo,), stubbornn€ss (d,oaacassatd,) and asso-
ciation with evil (pd,pumittatd)
disbelief (a,ssad-
dhiya), stinginess (auadafifruta)
and indolenco
flurry (utldhacca), lack of self-control
(asolnuara) and immorality (d,ussi,lyu); distasto
for soeing people of noble character (ariydnam
adassq,nakamyatd), dislike for listening to noble
teaching (ariyadhammaln asotukamyatd) and &
faultfinding disposition (updrambhacittata)
Iack of intelligenco (a"eom-
pajafirta) a,nd menta,l derangement (cetaso uiklchepa)
lack of thorough attention (ayonisomana,e'i,kd,ra),
following the wrong path (kumm&ggoseuano) and
sluggishness of mind (cetaso l6natta); the wrong
view of individuality (sakkoyadi,!!hi,), perplexity
(ticikiccha) and attachment to ritualism (si,Iabhato-
lust (raga), hate (doscr.) and delusion
l noha) ,
Tiren the sutta reverses the process, showing
that by abandoning lust, hate and delusion one
u. capabie (bhabbo) of attaining to the destruction
of bi rth (j dti ), <l ecay (j ara) and death (marana),
repeating the same order in I'ull.
The conrmentarv says nothing by way of expla-
nat r on.
H. G. A. v. Z.
ABHABBA SUTTA (2) enurngratee ten condi ti ons
which prevent ono liom the realisation of arahnnt-
ship : lust (rdgo), hate (dosa), delusion
(kodho), enmity (upand,ha,), hypocrisy (makkha), spite
(pulasa), onvy (iseo), stinginees (ntaccho,rfu1a) a,nd
pride (marw). But tlre abandoning of these evil
qualities makos the realisation of arahantship
possi bl e.
This sutta occurs in tho flpasaka Vagoa of the
Daaaka Ni pd,to (/. V, I00).
word as euch doos not
occur in the texts of tho Tipipa&a but is confi.ned
to tho commont&riesr where it denotes a number
of trnprofitable states cr conditions of e:ristence
into which a bodhieattrt aspiring for complete
enlightenment ehall not fall, by reasorl of the
resourcefulnegs of his ilitial aepiration (samid-
Thus, o bodhisatta shall not be born (l) blind,
(2) deaf, (3) mentally deficiont, (4) dumb, (6) cripplod
(pi[hasappE), (6) amongBt uncivilieed tribos
(milakkhesu), (7) in the womb of a slave wom&n,
(8) as & permanent follower of a herosy, (9) liable
to a change of eex
lingaln pari,aattatfl, (f0)
e perpotra,tor of any of the five hoinour crimes
that result in retribution no Eooner than the offender
dies (drwntariyo.kammind), (fl) a leper (fttr{tfri),
(12) an anirna,| smeller tha,n a quail or larger
than an elephant (aallakato panchima,ttabhdao,. . .
hatthin ad,hikattc'hd,uo), (13) 66sngst the potas
of the class called the Ilungry and Thirsty
(khuppipasi,kd,) or of Consurning Thirst (nijjhama-
taq,hikd,), (14) &mong the I(5,iaka,fija^ka Asur&sn
(15) in the purgatory ealled Avici, (fO) in the holls
called Lokantarika, (I?) as Mdra (the suzerain
of the sensual realrns), (18) in tho non-perceptual
world (asafrfinbhaua) of trhs r€a,lrns of form (rfipa.
bh.aua), (I9) in the pure abodos (eud.dhiaacabhaaa,),
(20) in tho for:nlesg roalms (arilpablnaa), (2L) or
in another world system.
But the cornmentaries, whoro this list ie given
in full, bavo reckoned tho number of theso states
&s eightoon (allhfrra"sa) without stating exactly
how this has been computed.
The apparent anomaly of eighteen becoming
twenty-ono could, however, bo explained if the
firet four of the items comprising this list &re
considered collectiveiy. Such a conclusion ia sup-
ported also by the authority of the Abhid,h,ommat.
fiasartgaha and its cornmenta,ryr the Abhidlnmmat-
tlwr:ibhd,uani,ldkd,. The forrnor refers to tho case
of persons born blind and euch llko' (jaccand,hi-
d,Enaqtl whose rebirth consciousness must necessarily
be an ahetuka
kt rs ala
o i p dka
cittat. Tho comrnentary
explains the phrase jaccand,hdddnary
as possibly
60; ata.
i nr : l ucl i ng not onl y t hose bor r i l l l i nt l , but t l r ose
who aro detrf, dumb, gtrrul otrs ari tl rl rad i i ' orrr
t.ri rt' l r, as we:i l os orrrrur.' l rs, herma,pl rrocl i tt' s ani i
s,-sexrJ&l pcl r$grl $3. On the basi s ol ti ri s t:sp1a.-
rreti on the Ii rst foul i tems ol ' thc l i st r:ri ul tl
' ,' r' rv'
$' el l bt: grol l pe(l togel ,her urrd countecl rs one,
so thut nl ,;ng u' i ti r the others thi s woukl make a
total of ei gl rtecn.
l\farry of theso " rurprofit*ble st&tes " also
featuro in the tYiddn.qkqtha of t]ne Jdtaku comnren-
tarv rrs immunities enjoyed b)' rl resorrrceful
bodhi satta
IJut al though these aro severtrl l v
ref'erred to, nowhera is the word c,bft.nbbu,tthslw
uscd to denoto any or al i of them ruhetl rer parti -
cul arl y or col i ecti vei v.
A comparison of the list contairred in a versified
form in the .l/iddrwkatha u'ith th&t' mcntioned
eariier clearly indicates that they *'ere inspirecl
by different traditions. I'he Ii'iddnakatlrti list
contains fewer items the otlie'r. Ilvelr with
regard to the terminology of such items &s &re
found commorl to bot'h, thero is no identit,y. This,
howevel , mu,y be expl ai rred as bei rrg due to the
e-xi genci es of metri cal fonn. IJut, tl rere aro other
rliscrepancies vuhich ioad to the conclusion that
Lhs Nidthm,katha, list represent,s an earlier tradition.
!'or inr:tance, rr-here&s the -Nidrirtukqtlt@ list inspired
by t,l re Jataka tradi ti onrcfersonl y to "ti ny bei ngs"
a,s a, c'ut<;gory into which a bodbisatta shail not
fall, the ot'herr list mentions the category of hugo
creotures ri,s well, and even furnishes ue with
examples <lf the rninimum nnd ruaximuru sizes
possi bl e.
I'urther, the very word abhabballhanu wlrich
r,v-&s absent in the Nidunclkathd is specifically
mentioned in the comrnentnries, having become
wide enough in corrtent to inr:lude eighteen
unprofitablo states from u'hich a full fledged
bodhisatta is immune.
The Pali expression itself was finally superseded
by tlre Sanskrit a.bha.-ylasthd,na by the time that
tlrc J d,tu.ka eollection, with its introduction, w-&s
fuliy render'ed in Sinhalese. The list conti.rined in
the Sinhalese version approximates very closely
to that of the Pali commentaries.
Iu tracing the development of this terrn's contenl,
it ie interesting to note that alttrough as a, cornpound
word abh,abballhdna nowhere occurs in the T'iTtitalca,
i ts di sj oi ned parti ci pi al forrn i s to be mot u' i th
in tlre Sutta Pigakcb where it occurs predicativoly
tr,l<rng with the word lchEnd.saaq. which in turn is
fbllowed by the substantive
" Yo
so auuso bhikkhu arahar,n khlnasauo
ablrabbo naua
a,jjlxicaritum." According
to t,his context', an arahant, or khindsaoa as lrt is
sornetirnes called, is said to be moraily- incapable
(abhabbo) of ni ne i nstances of vi ol ati on (nauul hand,ni ).
Ihe ni ne i nstances menti oned i n the text compri se
(l ) depri vi ng u senti ent bei ng of l i f' e, (2) theft, (3)
sexual i ndul gence, (4) del i b€,rate l yi ng, (5) enj oy-
ment of del i ghtful thi ngs (kame) that are enj oyed
rrs * l l rvnri ,rrr. a,nd c:oncl uct, prompt,ed through (6)
t i esi r c
l t i i andu\ ,
( 7) hat r ed ( d, r . . a) , ( t r ) del usi on ( i noha)
1p1l (i )) Ioar tbi ,a!ttr).
$omoti mes onl v the fi rst fi ve
of ti reso nre gi ven, rrr i r.]ri ch case t,i rev are treat,ecl
7Lari t..t tl ta t ti ti [.6
' l l h' :
rrbove' i nstances
rrre nc cl oub.u as i ni portnnt,
for arr artr.harrt as the ubl ,uLbcl l hi nani ari i br a
borl hi sttt,a. In au ul ti mtrte scni ;e l i otl i consti tuto a
set of'
.thi ngs
:rroral l v i mpossi bl e wi i i ch
rtri l y
i r.r:cordi rrg tr.r the category of' nersons to uhonr theso
rel ate.
' Ji hus,
rvhat w&s i -' ri gi nri l l y i rr the S,uttct
Pi!aka-* rirl ext)ressic-rn r-lenoting t'ertitin immunities
errj ol ,ecl l rv an rrrahant, l .recamo i rr tl re commen-
tari es a st1' l i sed cornpouncl word tl enoti ng si uri l ar
i r r r r nr r r r i t i es t o whi ch a bodhi sat t a was i at t er i v
enti tl ecl . And nl l but one of' these i mui uni ti es
wero excl usj r,gl 5' enj oyed_try L-rocl hi sattas, thc onl y
cxcel )fi orr l ;r' i rrg that, of never cornrni tti Dg
of tl re fi .r,e hei nous cri mes (ani tnturi ga-kal nnaj .
' I' hi s
i s a-qual i tl ' cnj oyed al so by a per-ron of ri gl i t
that !s, one rvirr-r has atttrincrl the first fiuit
of eul i gl i tenrri ent.
II. S.
(l oon,ry.
AngA DEVA, a. cl ass of cl ei ri ee rnenti oned i n
tl i e l Iu.i j hi t,tu \i kdyu. Ln tho SarLkhdruppatti ,
Suttar the Ruddha i s shown to oxpo rnd
fai th
(suddh,a), r,'irttre (szkt), knowledge gained from
r:tlrors (suta), e serise of charity (cd,ga) and wisdorn
r:,s conditions which decide the naturo of
tire rebirth of individuals, the particular type of
life to rvhich one is born being determined accoiding
to i,he parLicuiar u'ish of the individual
theso five qualities of heart, and mind berng present
in him, cultivates and develops them while concen-
irating on the goal of his desire. Al individual
possessing the five. qualities,
hearing that any
parti cnl rrr group o1' gods has l ong l i fe, beauty and
abouirriing r*'ell-being, nurtures the wish io be
bon- into that group, and his u'ish is fuifilled. In
a scrier c''f such groups, in this list given in ascend ing
order, the Abh& devd are i ncl uded as one
sui:h class.
It i s not ci ear l vhether ti ri s sutta i ndi errtes thab
ti re atl ri butes of l ong l i f' e, &c., are facti l or merel y
i l l usrons of the i rrdi vi dual , baser-i on hearsay, j ust
as the M'il,lapariyd,ya. ,)utta of the sarne Nikdya
maintains th.r,t the idea of ceriilin gods as entities,
is rnere illusion, based on irradoqua,te
standi ngz. But, i t i s pl ai n frosr l ,he context thnt
j oys of l i fe arnong these gods are rnade to
pal e i n. cornpsri son v' i th the pi rssi onl ess oxi stence
of arohantshi p.
I' hi s i s achi eved Lr;' a rernarkabl y' i nteresti ng
manrrcr of approach. Ilacir grcup of i.reings, &rnong
w|om the individur-r,l ,-lspires to be born, is mentioned
i n ascendi ng ol der, l regi murg n i th the c&ste groups,
&c., anci passi ng througi r devtr,s and
brai rmas of veri ous ki rrds, urti l the gods of the
real m
of Nei ther-percepti on-nor-non-percepti on
3 Abhs.
(together with rts cotnmcntary Abhidhammatttta-
aibhduaniliko, edited bl' \-tiligama PalilAnauda thera,
1898) p. J27.
4 J. l p. 45, where onl y 16 i t ems are l i st ed.
t D. I I l ,
p. 133
- d, l \ ' , 1r p.
370- 371.
S l . I V,
p. 37- 0.
7 s. v. aBSI THANA.
1 M. l l l , e9 f .
2 ^ V . I , 5 f .
-\'41,1*6 ifuiuisaftffi,yaiana) ato roached" Ald of
of ti ' :ese groups i t, i s repeated that the i nrj i vi -
l :ai aspires io brrth a,rnong chesr on coming to
near that they possess vurioue attractive ettriburee.
f nen al rnost wi th somo j ubi l ati ono tho euthor of
: he sutt8, declares "
, posseesing t'hese
sarne five qualities, tho individual forns the vrieh
that, by i l ra exti ncti on of the Canhore, he rnay
irere and now develop anrl dweil in the l)elivenrnco
of heart and rni nd wi t,hout CanLere
g' hi ci r
has diseerned and realised of anC b'r himseif.
And bv the extinction of tho Carrkere lio pcins
goal , Thi s i ndi vi Cual , Si re, i s rebom nov' here,
pa^sses na-w-hi thei to rebi rth !"3
Tho emphasis is brought about by tlre€.
ment of tho gods i n nscenci i ng order. Iho purposo_
of the srrl t,u, i s ob.ri ouel y to deraonstrate that ti re
Iife rvitlrout for rebirth, the life wr'uhu''ut
Cankers (dsaua) of tho ht,art, i .s the hi gi rest, and
that this life mii,y tre attarned hore airtj n'rw,
r.rnlike tho life in thess varioue divine rcalrere
rvhieh rnen attain only affer death.
The Abha deva aro place<l high up irr the scale
of gods i n thi s sr.rtte, i ndi cati ng probabl y the pl acto
they bore in Lhe popuia.r mind. Ihe-v are rec:koned
higher than tlie Ctr,turmshlrrajrka gods.a rrrid ihe
Vedi c
' Ihi rty-Throe.6
and evrr:l tl re brai i rrra.
are ment,ionerl irnrnediately a,fter thc Iiralrrud
of t llundred lhousand Woriils
Braltnfi)6 rvho ie the highest ot e hierarchy oi'
Brahma amanged eccorcirng to the number r:f
w'<lrlds over whrch they wield po-nrer. It. is sirorvn
that indivi'.luals aspired to compB,nionship r,r'ith
t,hese Brahrrr6,, hearing of the nurnbttr of r+'orld...r
over which they- held sn'ay ernd of the radil,nc.;
they shed over al l creaturee. The Abht deva,
literally meaning the
shrning gods
&re rerrlrnj.scent
of tho descriptions of t,he
deities a"s shrnlng
This attribute c,f ii.,minosity sedrrrrl io be empha-
si eed i n the sub-grou1;s i nto whi ch the Abha aev;
aro di vi ded. The Pari tti bha, the gods of mi nr' ;:
l ustre, and uhe Apparnanabha, the goci s of i nfLni te
h.rstre, it rs clear iir-t,his-sutts,,7 trelotrg r,o tho Abi,*,
class. Whether tire Al-',lra.rss"ra titlva" wiro are
mentioned next, erB a,Isrt mcirnt, 1,o i:r: irrke'n uas
beionging to tlie sarus class or aie a, differer t. trlass
altogetirer is rrot quito ciear. Tiielr n&roe, rueuning
tho radisnt gods, or the seif-iuminoug gods,
suggeste that they may have been eo meant ro l-'e.
i'he next r:las$, the Subh[,, too, ]ra.s t,wo nBrries, foi-lorv-
ittg its own, viz., Paritta"sr-rl-rhi nnd .{pparnrLr.ia-
eubtra which are sub-grcups of the sa:rre gerus,
but it rs agai:e not, clear whether the Subhak44ri
mentioned i'nrnediateiv after titem were a third
other sources which mention tho AUfra
devd or &ny of the sub-groups are not moro
Ihs Anuruddlvt Euttg of the same
-Nikaya, whictr does not in tliis context mention
3 transl&tion according tn Chalsr{irs
Furiher l}ialx4uee,
L L , 2 L + .
4 : U. l I I , 101.
5 i bi d.
6 i bi d. 102.
7 r bi d.
, : M. I I I , 147.
the .lbhri rievri b}' na!o€, liowever, has ihe two
sui ; -grcups, i he Part i t t di i hi , end t he Appami -
l . rabhd, i rs6, duen nut , i ncl ude t he AUhas*arh-' Jevi .
I nst eri d i t , adci s t wo o[ l t ers, app&! €Dt l y aa aub-
groups, nannol y t he Sart ki i i rt hdbhe and t he Pari -
suduhiibho, lho gods of tarniehed luminoaity anci
t ho g+de of purr. ' l rrmi l osi rw, reepect i vel y. E
Nor ore t ho ot hor rub-groups rnont i oned t oget her
*' ith
' ,he
Abhassara dovd in rr.riv r.if the many other
referericetse to ftte lat,ter in tlie i{iirivae, where tho
Abhe^csa.ri aro iiii;c' .rescrl in some detail and givon
sorne i mport nrrce. An i nnt ance i nt , erest i ng f t , r
oorirp&rison rs fhD :1!ila7:6ri11,fya. (ret' ered t<r
ear i i er ) .
I i appears, hon' ever, l i r*i t , t ragrt i c; nai i 5'
t hi >
AUnqos"io riti' d, r+ere consldered tr F*tr-F,-roilp oi'
ths Abht, c,lrtss, A- leier work, tlit'
sengah.ot *' hi,' ir lrt,iernpl,s tr sytielotltisabron of
<: anorri cal t t rought , f i ori r a
l i hi i osophi cai
perspect i vo,
piaces thern in thtr eriortnd
jhit,ntt, piane ulong witir
t he I ' ari i l abi i i i and t ha Apparni nahhf i , ,
j ust *o
i t pl acei i t he l i ' -rbl i aki . nni wi t h l he Pari l t a-subhl
arr<i tlrt AJ:parnJr.raeublri in the li|rrcl jlourw plane,
t i rouqi i hcru, Lo. ), no mont i ci n i s rrrado of t he goneri c
nrl nres, Abi ri or Subhi i ,
llos.evor unresolved the prcblerns of claesiil
r: at i on nray be, i l , i s obvi oue t hat ' t hs Ahh&
Bon, rrr
and irs differerrt, Bpecior of gcds wero etrongly
associ at et l wi t h t he i dea of i umi noei oy. Thi s i s
oven nrcre broughb out, in the rlnti-
rudtilw, ,Sull,a
drendy rnention-ocl, u' here this
attribute is rnade a srrbjeet for a discussron
di xsi rui l ar t o i i ro precl cuJrrri i on of F, . ; uropean
echol rrst i cs s' i t h t ho qrreet , i oa cf t l l o number of
angel s wi i o coul d st ' and rt n t he pourt of a needl e.
I he probl erl rs : . n our srrt t n &re such quesLi ons +r ;
rvhotler tho PrrriftibhE, Appernrln6bh5,, San"
kilfitthebhd and Paris' L:ddh6bha, when asaornbiod
togother, uranifestl}' differ- in hue bui, riot, in
briliiancy ;
""shel;her the AUha devd *ro rrli c,i
thern of iesser briilianc}r or eli of thern of boundless
bri l l i ancy, &r: . 1' ho{brmer probi om i s remi rri scont of
the esverr etaf,ee cf stuvival (aatiouififfiinolghiti) ut
tltel lligha anci Jng' utrqro .Nilcdyu.e
in which beings
rlro diviticri on the basis of differonce and uniformity
in I,rr.1rJ.; imd rnind. And the a,nswer i; interesting,
by reason tg *
ap+" oxarrrplo ot- the briilianco
, rf
ci i i arrrp* cornprr, red wi t h t he bri l i i anca of t he
At,na goda. iVlre} s,ssonrbled togethor those gocls
differ in hue but not iu briiUancy,
just, as oil lampu
brougirt tr.rgetlrer differ in hue brut, not in brilliancy.
they differ
' iroth
iri hue arrcl in
bnl l i anc; r-, I i ker oi l i arcps brought out of t he pl ace
whert: tlie-r)' were t]sdorrxblod together
Tho lat,ier problern, tho leeser brilliancy of
gods (Paritl,6bh6) end the boundiese brilliancy of
i bhers (AppamdnabhA), rs eet bl ed, however, on
t he aut hori t y of An"rruddha (t o whom t hi s eut t a
i s a, Bcri bed) by t hei r st at e of robi rt h, due t o t hs
<iifference of their karrunaro.
10 liee al:.: M A. II, 902 ;
YbhA. 620,
1l , { bf u. 2r .
12 i bi d. 141f .
13 i bi d. 147- 148.
1{ , . I I . 6t l ; . d, . l V, 4r.
15 M. I I I , r 47.
r6 i bi d. 149-150.
fn the Anuruddha Sufta the AUire gods aro
deecribod in the following torrns :
" No thoucht have thev whether i hei r l ot todav
wi l i conti nuJ al ways, wi thout chango en,l evei -
rl&|r whbresoever they firri themselves
they are gl ad to be,
j uet
as fl i es borne al ong i n a
pmgo cr basket have no tliought v'Lrether their
Iot today wi l l cont,i nue al ,*,avs-, vri thout ehange
and eveilastingiy, nal, whoreso€ver they li;d
themsel ves, they are gl ad t,o be."
This eutta is accribed not to the Buddira but to
Anuruddha whoso n&me it, bears. He is apparently
t,he same as the Anunrddha who i s bel i eved to
hal'e r€co,unted the Abhiclhamm:r cii:courses of
the Buddha. If he i s, thon i t i s ei gni fi cant th*t
rtnrrruddha here decl eres tLat ho
l rad hi s
knowledge of the At'na dev6 from
havi ng l i ved ond conversed wi th t,henr, for t,he
Abhi dhamtna i s trati i ti onal l y bei i eved r.J have
been discourses of the Buddha given to t,he gods.
In fact, Anuruddha declares, when Abhiva Kar:cina
raiees the question why he has not used the con-
" Thug have I heard " &s 6n introctrrction
to hi s decl arati ons. that, i t i s beeause he b*ses
hi msel f on hi s own exoeri
bon oo"o JeveweRnHANA.
WISSCHENSCHAFTEN (Di ssortati ons of the
Acadomy of Sci ence) of the Uni versi ty of Gri rti ngen
in Germany. These havo been published in two
separate soctions, one desling with lnathematics
ancl physies and the cther with philology and
hietory. The subjects rloalt with in the latLer
eection compriee monographs o'r the London
Archives and tho Papacy, the \Yar-gc.rC of l{au-aii,
Commentary on tho Koran, &c.
Of Buddhist interest is Waldschmidt's treatise
on " Die Uoberlieferune \/on Letrensonde des
(Trad.ition eonierning the Death of the
Buddha) .
J. KuNxnr , en.
MORGEHLAT{DES (Di eseri ati ons
for the under,
standi ng of the East). publ i shed by the l )eutscho
Morgenlandisehe Gesellechaft in Leipzig, Germany,
f r om 1857- 19i 0 and i n 1917. Publ i cat i on was
resumed i n 192O-1944, and agai n i n 1948. The
eStire series ie devoted to vari6us aspects of tho
Orient, such a,s Old Persian words, China durinq
the llongolions, tho Formation of words in Georgia,
Arabian Perfumes.
Of Buddhist intereet is the monogreph of Lijders
on " Bharhut und di e Buddhi sti sche Li teratur ".
J. K. r xxnr . r : n.
Tathd.gata given in a list of Tath6gatas who were
propi ti ated (arapi ta) by the Sakya gi rl , Gop6,
i n her previ ous bi rths (CoyA.
422, 3).
17 Transl at i on accordi ng t o Chal mers, op. ci t . ,
pt .
11. 911
r8 M. I I I , 152.
Agxene{ APU$KARI $I , ' Or nur qeni ,
pool ' ,
t he
ns,me gi ven to a poncl or l otus pool , whi trl l was rrr.Jsi
qroba,bl v
ei tua,t(:d i n the i nner courtyard of ki ng
' tr\ u OOnOdAna' s pa taCC.
The Lal i taui sturq* etatcs ti rat, when Chandake,.
bri ngi ng wi th i ri m the i rorse Kaafhaka anrl the
orna,monts (worn
by the bodhi sattr-s at the ti me
of hi s departuro from ttre pal ace i n searei r
enl i ghtenment), enrered t.he i rurer apartrnents,
Bhadri ka the Sakyan, .l l ah6ni rman snd Ani ruddha
attempted for rt long to t,ake theee ornaments.
" sj.nce these ornamen-ts had the stoutness
of Great Ndr6ya4ra, and the vigor oI'Half-Ndrr1yana,
t,he SEkyas coul d not l i i u theru "
(8.l 1Lq. S4gl s.r,.
Now, it, occurrecl to }vfahf,liraj-d,pati
Garrl,ami thui the very sight of these ornamonts
woul d be a,
of sorrow to her. Sho, therefore,
cast them
a ponC
&s observec_l in t]:e
abo_ve work,
everr unto this verv da.;- lirrov'n
as Abhararl apt,skari ni .
T. R.
AgHn$nI, n&me of a worl d. eystem i nfl uenced bv
the toachirrg of a lluddira (buddhu-kpetra)
rnerei.v a potential field for s Buddha, but not
necesearily containing one. Tire n&mo occurs alsrr
as Ser mant abhai r i ( Gt , yt 1. 259. i ! ) .
AngeSSnRA, a spaci es of bei ngs doscri bed i n the
Pali canonical literature as donizens of a workl
eal l ed Abhassarel oka. ft i s not certai n whottrer
they were ori gi rral l y, or onl v l ater, recogni sr:d &s
deities (deud), but t.hev eppes,i tr.'r ]tave boen con-
si dered ae i nhabi ti ng a worl d, perhaps epat,i al l y but
certai nl y spi ri tual l y, abovo t,he Rrahnral oka.
Throughout thCI suttas thev ero referred to as
i ravi ng l umi nosi tv &s ,r, ri ai n characteri sti c.
recurrent desc' ri pti on of t,henr i s that the.v dw-el l ,
made of mind (manornayd,), foeding on joy (pTti-
bhakklra), radiating light from themselvos (aauam-
p a,bh.d), tre,vereing thc air (a nt al ik kh,ae ar d), cr ontin tr
i ng i rr gl on' (subhut(ha,yi no).1
Ihe etymol ogy of the word "
Abhassara " i s rrol
settled. Tentatir.'ely, w€ may at:cept t,he suggestion
that i t i s a combi nati on of abh6
shi ne,
be bri ght), thus m6a,ni ng the radi ant onee. I' ho
traditiorr explairrs Abhassara as standing for the
gods from whose bodi es rays of l i ght are omi tted
l i ke l rgl rtrri ng
hence the suggesti on 6
* bhd
*'iiich lias also l>eer: made.z
traditional do-c-
cri pti on bri ngs them i nto contrast wi th thc Subi ra-
ki nrri who are usual l y menti oned i rnmedi atel y
a{tor them in the a^scendins seales of deities found
i n the Ni k6-' -a l i sts, for the Subhaki nni . are doscri beci
as tho gods of steady l i ght. Thrrs, on the com-
mentari al i nfornrati on, the di sti ncti ve attri bute
of the Abl rassa,ra i s Ll ne raCi oti on of l i ght.
The Abhassari appear to have hel d an i mportant
pl ace i n the earl r,,' Budcl i ri st mi nd. and fi gure
l requentl y i n t,he Pal i Ni ki r-as. In the Dl gha anrl
Maj j hi nw )i i kd.yas thel ' appear i n ttre context of an
ori gi n story' whi ch aeems to have a st,rong Buddhi st
twi st gi ven to i t, apparentl y for the purposo of
229.11.19. This
pBcBsEe offers mau-v difl&culties in trans-
lation : also cp. Annalzs ilu Musde Quimct, YI, p. 200.
l e. c. . D. I , r 7
I I I . 28, 86.
2 Compcrdium of Philosaphu,138, rt. 4
l l
t + AnHRssgna
r, : i ' r. l t i ni t i t e I Jrral rrrant t -' rl ]
r, : l ai urs {or t }i e suprr}rYl t r, cv
ci Bral t mt l as creat or'
' I ' hi s
ori gi rr st ory i s gi von
i rr t hc Rruhrnai al a, Pri t i ko, t nd Aggari t i a St t t t as' 3
t he l a^st nt t rned cont ai ni ng t r rni nor vari t t i on,
t l r e exami nat i t l n of whi ci r i s i l f i ml r or i nnco i n
det ermi ni rrc t ho not i on rvi ri ch t i re l l rri l ri hi st s l r*t l
reqardi ng t heso bei ngs.
Al i t hree srri t as agree t l rat ' t he -i ' bhassi i ra
' , ri orl d
is the one in rvhich be;ings r.,te bt.,rn r,r' hctr t' lte rvorlcl
syst em t l egi ns t o p*ss rr, wny i n i . t s cc' urse t t i ' t : r-ol ' -rt ' i or.
(ai uat t a) and i rrvoi rrt i r, n (sont r: of l rr). t su' . ' rl rc
Aggar-t' fi,a tlutta cftffars irr its dosr:ription of tlte role it
pl qy" when t ho rvor| l svst ern bogi ns t o. ro"evot ve
' ni t . l "
t l , i * i nvol ut i on. l l l i i s srrt t a nl l mes t i ro ALri l as-
sa, rri as bei ngs of t he rvorl ci i -rom whi cl l , when t ho
re-evoi ut i t t rr bogi ns, cert i i i n l l t -: i rl gs, rl ' , ' i 11*
l rec: at t se
t i r ei r nr er i t i s er l " r t r st r ' cl t t r t ' r c. r l r c r r ' l ) ( ) r I l r t s bci ngs
on t l ri s ei r, rt l r.
' l | nq
I l . ahrn, t j rTl cr.
t rl l ' l l )i ; 1i l ' ' t l S' rt / l rt ' s
r cl at i t t pl t ' ho st l r no st ot l st . i . t t e t l t ; t t i t l " ' l r l g t l . r ' i r r S
t i i r ongh t l i ' l t : - t l l ar r st i r ' r t t of l l l er r L i n t h' - ' l bl r l ' ssar i t
r vor l t i . i s r el t or r t i r r t . l r t : l l r al r mn r vor i t i . . \ t ' t l or cl i nq
t o t heso l t - r , t t er st r t t t l . q. i t i s l l l l c' i ng $' l r r r l r t r ' s
* : xl t at l ' i t e<t
l r r s r ner i t i : r t l r e f l r i i l ' nl r l u' or l t l
1l r ' t t ci
r t oL 1i 11' Al l i i i i s'
' rrorl rl )
rvho i s reborn n; i 1 [ 1ei ' l g 611 t ' rl rt ' h
i f he cl evr: l ops i nsi ght i nt o hi s past ' , hc l l ri si l l t erl >rxrt s
hi s exnet i enne ond cornes t o hol cl f i t l se vi err' s t r' s t o
t he begi nni ng of t hr ngs.
But t hi s set : mi t i g
( r i s{ ' r ept r , r r c} ' i s t t r t r i or st i r r l dal ) l e
i n t erms ci f t t ro cl i f f erent pl rrp()ses
of t i re t l rroe st rt t rr' s,
and t he di f f t rrent cont ext s i n rl ' hi t ' l l t i re ori gi n st or' 1'
i s rel at ed. Tl re: l ggaf i , i t , a. St t t t rt ai . t el l -I pt s 16 11' t sl -t )
t l ro cl ai ms of t , l re brd, hmt rl s f , -t r cast e st l i )ren] i l c\ "
l . or
t hem-oel r-es t hrorrgi r t t t ei r havi ng
sl )i l . t l l g {' rol n^t i i e
mout hof Brahmi r, . Tho sut t : r, at t ri bi rt es
t )ri s "
l ' al so
not i on " t o t he i gnor &nee of t i t t ' r ' r ' oj r r t i ont t r ) '
hi st or yof t l t e eor t h &n( l ot ' s oci et v
. i t t t r l
el r ; t r r i i l t cr i s es
c&st e as a, man-rnat l o i n-qt i t ut i orr t rl cet rl r' l c t t r
psvchoi opl i cal f i rct ors i n t he t ' r ol ut t ont t ' rJr
l )roce! ; s'
i i e Brahnt a. i al o, , Srrcf a empi ovs t -ne cri gi n ' st i l rl - 1' 6
demonst rat e t he
i l sychogen5'
of t ho vi eru' of t : ert ai n
ecrnt ernpor&neot l s pi ri l osbl ' t l i ers
t hat t i re rvorl d n' nt l
t he soul are part ' i v et erhal anri . pr' ' rt l ; ' not ' Tho
not i on of t he i t erni t l Brahrrri rvhi ch i s depi ct ccl : r' s
underl yi ng t hi s vi erv, &s ol l t ) ground on v' hi ch t t rrt i
t heory i s 6ui l t , i s here t he t argt --t of ut t aek' I n f a' ct '
Br ahi r d, accor di ng t o t hi s- sr r Lt i l , . i s" a l r ei ng, v- ho. i r as
cl i ed i n t he Abhass-ara w-ori d t , hrorrgh t l i e exl t i l i t : : t l ort
of hi s l i f e-t erm or hi s meri t and i s l "el )orrl
rn t l rt -
Bral i ma rn' orl d. I I i s eoncept i on
of hi rnsel f
s^s e' t erri al
cre&t cr, &c. , i s based mei el v
ori a hast ' ; ;
ernpi ri cai
concl t rsi on, arri veci at s' i t horrt ' rt -' cognrt t on
ol &l l rl t e
rol evant dat a, cwi ng t o t ho l i mi t at i ons
of hi s or"' n
inteilectual hcrizons.
' Ihe
ssme "
faistt notion " is
believed ancl perpetratod by o|ht-r lirahmas'
co-i r: habi t ant s, - who were bom t o hi s companv
st l bsequen' l l y' . ancl rvho cannot vi sual i se
t i re'
pr"ssi -
bi l i t v' of Srahmn hi msel f havi ng
reborn f rorn
o.roilr". rvorlcl, as he truil' had heen' from the
just like themiolvos. Ilolticrs
of tho
Brahmanical view of the eternity of Bra' hmi-.and
his world aro human t,hinkers on the s&rrre ltnes'
rvho are unsble to conceive of, the process
to s' irieh
the Brahmas themselvss are sufject, unable
vi srral i se t he
pre"' i t -, us brrt i r of t hese' Bcal t t nas
rn t he
Abhassara, worl ci , rrnabl o t o see t hab t l i ey t hem-
sel ves were at ori e t i mo on arl equal {oot i ng wi t l t
l i r al r ui i , i i t r t i r er r '
1l t ' ' - r ' ' ' i t l t s
l r i l t l r r l t t i r e Al ; i r r i ssn. r l
r , , ' or l , l l r i t i l ; t t . - c i r r t i r o - ! i r * l r r na r vor l i l , unabl o t o
r , , r i , r i Ll ct : t t Lr . ' r r
( ) t r r r
pr ' c- exi st r . nt ' * l bevoncl t hat
r r r t i r a l Jr : r ' r " l r i r r l l r vt , r l r i t o s' hi cl r t hev f cl l f r or n
. i i r i r , r s s n r l . I l
j s . i i r e
t o t l r i r r l i . i l r g s o , l i n r i i . ' , 1 &s
t i r r i ! - i ' r l i ' i r r t l r r . t r c' r r l ) i r 1' i t v t ( ) r ( ' ( ' ( ) l l ei : t l l t ' t ' oncl t l r ci r
l ri ri l r i rl i rx; rl i i rt el l '
; i racr-' cl i rt g,
t hrl l t i i o. )' t rorne t ' t l t he
concl i i si ou t l i rrt Rrai rni i i t , nt l hi s Bnrl rn] & worl d
i r. re t : t or-nnl : rnd t ht l f . t I rcy t i i t ' ms' ol r' . ' s ni e
' -t l l herneral .
rd\\rtlv frorn tho flra' hrrlrr, world.
' [ ' ho
i t r ; , - , r i ' t ' t e nt )
t i i l i r bl ' : r i t cr npt s t o exl r l r t i r r
t Jr n, hmt r ni cal r : l r l i r r r s t r t t hc one- t i t ne cr r r npr r , ni onshi p
oF rrni on oi t rt t rnan bei ngs v' i t h Rrahrnl l and t ho
concopt i on of t ho l 3ral i l nl , rvorl cl as et ornal nnri
rvort hy of aspi rat i on, i L r; c)ncept i orr rrhi cl t prt l babl l ' -
t r r ececl cd
t he l t t er not i or t s oi Fr al r r na. Tl r ct
, Ll rl , ut ", aan
rvorl cl i s hi --re obvi orrsl r' ] rrougl i t , i n t r' r
t l omort gt rat t t
t l rot , t i rere f l , ro ot l t er rvorl <i s- rl t rd
l ri ght r
rvt i rl ds t l ran Brahmi i ' s'
Ll oncer ner i as t he' Pat i ka i j uf j r l i s wr t i r met ' t t ng
t i re eri t i ci srn of Srrnakkha*, t a t h*t , t ho Bt rd. l ha has
ri ot pcrl brmod nri rnc: l es or decl nr^rl - t he ori grn of
t hi ngs, t he Rr r ddi t i l i s shovr n her e [ o asser t l hn' l
l i e i i n. r i n t bct cl one i ; t . t l h. Tl i e But l <l ht ci t es u' n
rnst o, nro
{ ' rvl t on
hc decl areri t he <' rri grt r of f l rrngs,
t hat , i s, r r l i c' n r t l pl f i r r g t o t l r { )
( ' l } r l I ns ot ' cer t r r r n
rrrcl t rs(' s *rn. l brl -l l rmans who t l t t r: l t rrl t l . l : i t i rei r: t radi '
l rr-, r, ; l l doct ri ri e t hat t ho vrr: r' l d \ r' &s t i t Lr i . rant l i t rork
of a s' -t1' ;rt,mo crc' ator.
' lheir
r-,1' igin -qtor\' ,
.' ir' llich
et t ri but er{ i i re s-orl d t o t ht l f i at of -Fl rahmi , i s nt )u'
rof l ecrt et l
i n -Errd, l hi st i i ght . l f he creat i on st ory
i s psyt ' i rt , l cgi ; ri i
j rr
ori gi rr. Ti rat rt as t Jre ori gi n
st or v" t hat , l r e, t , i r e } Jr t t l dha. hat i t o t e' l l ,
' l . i r "
l ' r r t i s,
us ri rei , i nt ai necl
i n t he l Jraht t raj ul u Sr, t t a rrl so, t hat '
t l r i ngs ar e i n pr ( ) cer t s. Jl r t r i r ma i s l l l r r i r t ' l
i suhj ect
t o r oi : i r t l t , t o eha. nge; he i s f r r i i i bi e, hus m' s<: ot t eep-
t rcrn. s
(nuorl i srt t t t ct r, rt , *i l ccrro), st l st t r, i t t ecl i rr l -i i s posi t i on
by mer i t i l nt i i i r r bl o t o f l l l l on i t s exi l l r t i st r ' i n' t t r at i s'
sut rj ect 1, o t he ke, rnr, r, ! n. l l ' .
' [ ' be
ALri t a"*ai rt ' wori cl
i s : i r, r, t ul ano
rt f
(rxi sl t : rt t ' e i n rvhi <' h l re l i nd t reerr
bor n be, i ' cr o i r i s bi r t i r i n 1. i t t r l l r ghmt l r vor l d, at r out
t l ' ^o t i me o{ l i r e i nvoi l r t i or r of t hs i vor l t i sYst em'
I t i s al so t ho
g' or i r - i r n t ' i r i cl t t l i ' l se r vl i o hei t i t l r t r
r rt:-* Cif llrtrhrrra
(:rOitri,Or liatl iiccp i.torlt t rttr
i r i r t i i s
; l l : evi ous
t u 111t . ' i r | 11i 111r t r l exi st encc, but
u' ho l r. r, r-i ng i br3ot t , . -r1 l | 1rl , t L: i rt h. unabl e t o re-
, r-, i l e<; t t hat previ ot i s exi st enr: e--, and oni y rernernbe' r-
i r' ; l t hn I l ral i ma
wori d, et errl ai i so t ne Brahrna worl d
ori u t ret t l l rahmd us pri ; nordi t ri '
' f
l r r r s. cor nPt r r i - ons o[ t ho or i gi n st or y
. i n
t he
t i i ree sri t t as roveal no ground {br consi t l cri ng t hrl
' \
as irrtonded' to be some kind cf first men'
a. r' ierv
rl' irieir rrra.q suggesl, oaral)eis where t' ho;*
, l o l , ot c<i st ' I t l i t ' -s nog' - been si rou' rl t hat t he
Ausai i aa
rsui f a numes t ne Abh&ssard as t ho i nhabi '
t , rnt s
ol t he v' orl d f rom whi ch bei ngs at o rebor. rt
ur i . t t o
r e- ev<; i ut i or l
o{ ' t ho eur t h u' hi eh i i as al r eady
hacl an i nvoh"t t , rorl .
I n ref erri ng l o i l i em' i t ' t ri es t rr
i r, rcc. t i ru ori gi n of t he i dea of cast o and t o demon-
"i "rt "
i t s l ai i i t y b1' assert i ng emphe' t i cal l y t hat '
ori gi nal l y,
bei ngs wero merel y- consi derecl
as bei ng
""i -[ rr"i
t l i i s i , t t i t ude was i l ' o more nat ural and
the difference of caste and race
bei ng
due t o eorl upt i on
t hat I at er set ' i n'
4 D. l l t , 2u.
The Brahmajala and Potilca '-Sutlas ele onga,ged in
domonstrating how the brEtrma,ne and rsclus€g camo
to hold
views aa they did. Theso euttas cio not'
by any me&ns, to depict these bre,hmans
and roch'sos &s first mon. The Abhassara ie meroly
tho world which they havo forgotten though they
had oristed there. It is only the Brahma world
thet they rocail in thoir intuitions of the past,
tfre AUfrirssera is not necessarily the world of iheir
firgt existence. The position is, ae it were, that the
philoaopher king in I'lato'e Eeyablic recognised
only the lowor concepte in the hierarchy of Platonic
Forns, while he hac!, in fact, aseociatsd and recorded
in his memory o!1, the tr'orms. The br6bsran
philosophere morely recoilected the lower concepte
in tho hiorarchy but denied tho exlctence of the
highor, because they could not rscollect, thom.
The Brahmi world was the lower concept, the
Abha"ssira ttre higher.
Thus thero appea,rs to be no logical contradiction
in tho seoming discropancy of the origin Btory,
if the Buddhists trave in the sams breatlr asserted
that, in ttrs orre_ caae, beings of tho earth *'ero
reborn frorrr tho Abhassara wrlrld and., in the other,
that tiro beings who claimed themselves io be
Brahrnas wore reborn frorrr thers, or that tho
Brahrna-adoring brihmans and recluees c&roe
from thore, though Chr<.rugh & devious routo.
The contradiction n'ould exist onlv when tho
Abhassere aro interpretod. to be so;1o Buddhist
representativoe of first men,
At any rate, in ail sutl,as ths world is
merely in a stato of involution and ovoluticn.
Tho births and robirthe in the Abhqssara and, obhor
worlde are only phasos irr that conetant process.
Nor doee tho negativo evidence, that thero is no
higher world than the Abhsssara mentiored in theso
sutt&s, suf,fice to demonetrare that the Buddhists
held the Abhaeeera world to be the original or
lasting world.
There ie some evidence that the origin story oftho
euttas isnot purely of Buddhist concopt" Elements
of the Brahmanicel creeds aro strongly visible in it.5
Frrther, the Buddha himeelf is showu to reveal
that certain br6hmans admiited to having heard
the story before.
Tho casual nxanuler <;f the
staterlerrt of the br&hmans,
" Even so have wo
heard., even as the revorend Gotama has told us ",
adds strongth to this argumont. Tho Aggarifi,o
Sutta too points in the same direction when tho
Buddha declares brdhman caste pretentions io be
duo to ignoranco of the ancient loro,
and therr
proceeds to tell the origin story wo are herc
considering. The recurrent verse, whictr forms the
backboneofthe Aggait.fia Sutta, is attributod by tho
Iluddha to Brahmd Sanankumdra, and there is
strong possibilit.y that the verse had been part of
ancient lore.
Thus, whether in chis srorv there
was anytinB moro original tlran the Buddhiit twitrt
given to it is uncertain, anci it cannof be said
i See .tsRAIIM.L.
6 ' . I I I , 31.
I M. r , 2- 1.
r0 ibid. 289.
l l see SATTI VASA, vr$SI I -{TTHI ' ! I .
whother tho Abhassard thernsolvee woro found
nrentionod by name in tho earlior origin storf,,
whether they r*'ere merrtioned as gods io whom tho
Buddhiets gave a n&mo, or whether they wore^
invented by the Buddhists to ass€rt' the oxietsnco of
worids cther than Brahmd's. If they belonged to tho
ea.rlior story, there is tho poasibiliiy that in this
version ihoy wero reckonod a kind. of firet, bgings
and that thib accounte for some of the characteristies
they bear and the rolo they play.
Whatever this moy t'e, that the Buddhists
thomselves did not hold thom in such a position
is supported by tho evidorico of the Ll!il'iapariyiiya
Sutta, which gives a list
of concepts that aro
usually mis+,aken to be entities by the uninitiate.
This list includes, among othors, Cd,turmahdr6,jika
dov6,, Praj6pati an4 Brahm6, who aro weil
recognised-to havo b-een gode of the contempor*-
n6oue theology. Abhassard, are aiso given
ernong these eoncepts. But, after thom are placed
two names, Subhakinga and Vehapphal&, n&mes
referred to as thoso cf gode in othor contoxts.lo
Theso ere followod by eeveral other nsmea which
aro derignated in soms contexts
as states of
survival,- in othors as states of cognition, and in
yot others, like the Anunt,Jd'lnlt and Sa*,khdruppatii,
Suttat,l! as gods (dexi,)- Tliis evidenco indicates
that tho Buddhiets believed thero were other and
higher world.e than the Abhassara, and aecepted it
sa a matter of fact thai, ttro Abhassara wae meroly
one worid in a vagter cosrnos.
are also founti in several othor suttas
which rnention gods above the Abhass&re,. Tho
Brahtnan'imant'aTtika Sutta
giv+s ihe samo list as
the Mfilopariyd,ya
up to Ab]riblrrl and inclusivo of it.
ft na.rnos, like its coutttorpart, the Subhakiq$E
as the gods immodiately above the Abhasssrs,.
Tln Sdleyyoka Sutta,
the Sarikhdruppatti Sutttt
and the Anururldha Sutta, howover, mention two
other cla"sses, the Ps,rittasubhi and tho Appam6',"a-
subhA, immediately sur:ceeding the AbhasCarb and
boforo mentioning the Subhahitrdh,,
just' as they
add two more bofore mentioning the Abhassord,,
naroely the Parittdbha and the Appamd,r.rd,bh6.
These difforences in tho lists and the addition of
n&rnes fbr gods in sorno of them suggest
possibiiity of a stratification in the cosrnological
of ihe Buddhists, tho procoss being a^ssumed
to bo a progr€ssivo elaboration. Tho
.ltikaya reference to gods
-?boyg -tho
Abhassare' is
fcund in the Sarigiti SuttaLT which clearly exempli-
ties the elaboration of the sirnplor ideas of
Abhass&ra found in the other earlier referonces,
by the insertion of lhe Abhassara
amonq the pl anes of cogni t' i ort, the di vi si on i nto tho
i hdna states cf whi ch the Abhassara i e ono, i ;ho
flavour of the sutt& a,s e whoio
tiiit is charaiteristic
of tho lator Btrddhist thought,
the Abhidhamma
literary style in the- pro'
The addition of new namos as clessos
12 v. I I I . i { { .
i 3 i bi d. 99.
i ' l e. g. , , 4. I I I , z( - ) 2; I \ ' , { { ) ; \ - , 60'
r 5 M. I , 326.
16 i bi d. 285.
17 D. I I I , 253.
3. S. P. C. 97040
Anslssene l 6
of gods in the Sankltiruppafti end other suttas
t'urther eupports this n-rggeation.
Thus, not over-rul i ng the possi bi l i ty, rather,
even concedine it, it, muet be ehown t,hat in the
Sutta, which eeeks to illustrato
ui the particular the general theory regarding the
of the ereator concept, traced iri tne
Pdtrika and Agga.iii.a Suttets, it is
asserted that there are other
to the Rrahm6, v'orld, and that thev a,re.
Srrbhaki nr.ra and Vehapphal a.
Baka llrahmd, of this sutta is tolcl' firmly and
defi ni tel y-by
the Buddha. that i t i s hi s i sn"orane"
of the other three wori ds that i s tho ori si n ancl
cause of hi s eoncei t and hi s mi nconeepti on.s as to
hie etornit5r.
In this sutta the Buddha's concorn
rs to convinee the Brahmd, of the fa,et, of the other
Besitles, the, absence of mention of a world or
above Abhassara in the Drgha, except in tho
already eliminated
Sahgiti Sutia,
evidence for tho concjusion that they wero oriqinaliv
treateci as a kind of first being anri that ths- other
were addo8 later for pnipu*u* of elaboration.
This is revealed
bv the BrihrianinLantanika
In one placo
the author is eontent, to merrtion
three classes, but in the other he d.iscusses several
more classos. But, both &re mentionerl in the
eontext. Ifere the arrthor has probably
the material at his disposal to suit the
of hi s sutto and i ts conrext. Thi s may
exp)ain the absence of mention of other worlds
bestdes Abhassara in tho Digha Nikaua sut,tas.
This is not to deny tho possibility
of elabora,tion
1l:Sg l."ku",
placo- in tbe Buddlist
"o*molog..,r. -Ellaboration
hag already boen admitteci of iire,
uiutta, a,na mev oven be admitteci
of the
n&mos, Parit_tdbha and App*mar,rAbha.
)iikuyo, references'do *u,y
"t* oe crted to support this vie.w.. The elaboration
rnto aeven or nine states of which the AbhassorE
aro one, with their aseignment to tho third place
tfe socond
p_lane of tho Rripaloka,'is
which finds ibs fullest svst-ematisation
in the later Abhid,harnma,ttha^gangaha (r. gt.
, -Thu
fants alread-v mentioned show that the
were not considered a kind of first rnen
or primordial
beings, ancl their v,orld as tho first ra€turg
Another noteworthy pcint is that they a,re
referred io
the DEgha N;iiiu"-^i
and not &s deities (d,eud,).
aftor their rebirth on earth they are not reforred
to as hrrman bei ngs but merel y as
.,bei nss' ,.
dev6, " is atiached to iiu-.
howover, in the Majjhi,ma and other Nikey;;.;i
It ie. an interesting
faci that the Aggafrfi,a
Sidto is
conerst€nt . rn rts :uee of eottd. for these beinse
throughout its context, €ven after it is quite-ci#i
referred ro in tho later evituti.;;;
are hurnan beings.
statements &re made regarding the
Abha^csar6 i n t he Pal i srrt t as. They are eai d-t o be
ever j oyf ul .
f oedi rrg on j oy,
l ong-l i vod, boaut i f ul ,
gods of l ove arrci pi t y. ! -r<l m t i me t o t i me t hoy
rrt t er shout s of
j o-v. -
srrvi nq,
, .
ah ! what bl i ss"!
\ aho
sukl t arz) ". whi c: h i s t he best of sounds.
Rrrt , t , o t hem, t or: , borne cht rnge and revergo
t hei r bl i ss rs . qhorr-l i r-erl . ancl t t i ev f al l f rom t hat
st at e. They are uni f c, r. m i n bocl l ' and di verse i n
i nt el l i gence.
The Jdt akcs s&\ ' t }rat bodhi sat t as
are boi n t hers i n i i mos of chaos i n t , he worl cl . The
t o wt ri ch t hev are srr, i cl t , o bel ong (at l east
i n_! he
l at er sut , bas) . i . e. , t ho Abl i i , ( goct s
of l i ght ) ,
i s l i ke n swarm oi - f l i es corri ed abr_i ut i n a basket i or a.
pi ngo, knowi ng not t he t r unsi encr . o[ t hei r i ove.
see al so Asttl oevA. i eF{AsvAi tA, AGGAfrfrA
B,rrrrr L'LA Jerre UtASOIIANA.
AggA SUTTA, a sufta i n the Book of Fours of the
Anguttara Ni kaya (II, 39) where the Buddha
speaks of tbur radiances or splenrloure, rra,mely,
the radianees of tho rnoon, t,he sun, and
wiedom; of thoso the radiance of the iast is
said to bo the highost. This sutta is an examplo
of many eutt&s whero thr-r gnostic poeition of
Buddhi em i s cl earl v asserted.
AnnASV4na. Sanskrit Abltilsuara correspondg
to Pali Ahhassara, and is translatsd, into Tfbetan
" fod-gs&l
" or tho
". trn Chinese
it is transcribed in variorre u'at's thus : a-po-hui-
F-W{$EH ),
Fqlffi .Lb ),
l ri q
(IEFE16), a-p' o-ch' uei -l o-ch6 (FFJHEi l ffi .
It is translated variounly into Chineeo-ss tight.
ekandha (
immeasurable wster
water not to be measured
extremely pure light (chi-
l<wg,ng-ghinC EXS),
extremo light (chi-kwang
light pure (lcwang-ching
excollent light (pien-sh6ng-kwang
lisht (hs&ng-yii
[ght glitter
v&rrolrs translations aro basod on
the two differont irrtorpretations of the word.
One divides i,bhEsvara into dbhi,, light, and
eil,ua,ra, eound. The other analvses it &g
dbhfrs, light and ?rarcr, suprome.
AbhAsvara is a name of an ethoreal world (ntpa-
d.hd,tu), This ie the thirii or laet stage of the second
dgg"qg of meditation (dait:tya;Lhydrw). Sentient beings
who iivo in this mystical world, i.e., thoso vrho heve
developed theee meditative powerc up to this stege
havs no language of sound. but they cornmunicate
with each othor tirrough light omanating from their
meditating miuds. Only good sontient beings can
bo reborn in this world, where they will bo possesood
of the Bupremo colour of gold, bo tsll of etpture
Seo lfirfel'a Die Kosmnarapthie d,cr
p. 332), and will eujoy & life-span of
ye&rs (eight mahakalpal, Their food
is joy.
They live in great comfort and obtain
eumcient light on account of their inheront capacity.
I 8 ] }{. I , 329.
i 9 i bl d.
2cr e. 8. , I I I , 202; I V, 40; V, 60.
' . )
M. I , 2 8 9 ; A, l I , L Z7 : S. I , 1 1 4 .
22 A. 1I I , 202.
23 / . . V, 60.
24 D. I I r, 253.
Further, they can fly by their tranecendontal power
firo origin.of this world is explainod ae follows ;
At ths Ueginning of this world, many B-rahma'
had no residonte, wheroforo a reeident of
ihia world
(dblfrataral went down and lived in
thoaa Brehma palacos after his life in dbhdsuara
wss ovor. He is Saharnpati, the Brahmardja'
Aftnrwards hie descendants w€nt down to the
hrrman world end thus constituted the population.
Concerning the roal reletion of this myetical world
with the meditative etago of the yogin, Stcherbatsky
us a well condensed account based on tho
(Sse his The Corwepttion
of Buddhiat' Niradno, pp. ll-f Z).
fmagination has truilt up abovo the heavons
of tho carnal gode a sorios of mystic-worlds.
correepond exectly to tho degroos- of tranco which
aro gradually roechod' or suppos€d to bo roachod,
by the myetic . .
J'Whereas our material frame eonsiste of
olomonts of 18 kinde, four of them are in aboyanee
in the worlds of ethereal bodies. Tho'dataof
smell and taste and tho corresponding two sets of
sengations do not oxist. ft is because theso boings
do not, want any hard food, no food wtrich ie taken
nioeemeal. chowed and swallowed. Their nutrition ie
ipiritual. Her"e imagination evidontly ie founded
upon the fact that the mystic,Ylerr deoply-ongaged
in moditation, forgets all aborrt his moals. Therefore
olfactory and gustatory sonse-data loso their
raison d'6tro" They aro by the mystic powor of
goga extitct eltogether. But the phyeical orpfans,
ihe nos€ and the- tongue, roma,in, because absence
would make the bodv rrglv. All bodiea are beautiful,
nono ig mutilated.
Th-eir faeultios of sight and
audition ars illimited, they poseess dittyo-cukgtth
and diwa-*rotra'm, Their tactile sensations aro the
s&mo as the charactoristic
agreeablo foeling of
bodily e&se ancl lightnesa (Ttrosrabdhil which
producos lovitation in the mystic.
irrs ttrerefore oxtremely swift snd dexterous. Rut
the facultiea of smelling arrd taste &nB abeent
altogether, becaueo therir food is imrnaterial. They
hovd no nood for clothes, they aro born with a light
ethereel covering that lasts all their very long
life through. Neither do they want any dwellings.
Every new-born finds a houso provided for him
by Earma, i.e., by nature. The phenomenon of
sdx is splritualised. The bodios are without the
mombers of physical procreation' This does not
mako thom mutilated. Grose eexual passion does
not exiat at all. But, total indifferenco doos noither
foolings are delicate. The trirth of a new
boing is quito free from all pain and filth. TTte
doog not eomo out of the matrix
of a femalo, it is apparitional (tpa'pdduka). Those
who happen to bo ne&rest to the plaee of his birth
ar6 hiJ
No government, of eourso, is
needod in such & community,' beeauso there are
no crimes, no gro88 passions. Totrll a,bsence of
passion would mean tot'al absones of volitions, and
ihie, a""o*ding to the lndian coneeption, rrorrld
stop lifo altogether, it would be l{irvd,na.-But all
feelings havo-a mild form. Ttro foeling of hatred
(pratiqlnl is totally absent. Other foelings aro veiled
(niwto-atnldkTta), "
In osot€ric lJuddhism, Abhd,ntaro seemn to
be a pereonification of euch sn idos a,s mentioned
above. And as such he is portrayed with his two
followore at
nortb of the Outer-Vajra eoction
of the Garbha.dhdtu-merldala. Hie portraite goner-
aIIy rosomblo tboeo of the bodhissttvas. Nsver.
tholeae, he in distinguiehed from the othsre by the
fact thet bs ie ropresontod as holding' a lotus
flower in hie right hand, errd as resting his left
hand, with tho palm foldod inco a 6st at tho weist.
See also AeFIASsene.
S. K.
Btnr,rooRlpuy : Cheng-a-han-ching
chap. xx
Chi -shi h-chi ug,
(Effl ?E), chap. vi i ; l ' a-l ou-r' nn-nhl ng
(t(i 8,ftm), chtp. i v; I' ao-hsi nt-n' an-j o-chi nc (tnfi ntffi ),
uhttrr. lil
nema-mahl vai pul ya-a[tra,
ehop. xxi ' l fBl rl l ' ' i bhi l s0-6i stro,
charr. cxxxvi ; Li-ehih-a-p'l-t'an-lun
chap. vl
Abhi dhrrmako$a-S4stra, chep. .\!; Sh0nq-s0-chi h-l n1
(ruffifiiit, chap. i; Ch0-nh0lun-ft.r" ns
pfrl (gtfiim9bn),
ci i ,rp. xr; Ssrt-a-han-m' l -.h' tr-chi ch
(Etref#fr' ,
ctrap. rr
Hsi l an-yi ng' yi n' i t$i t$#i l ' chap. i tt; Il ,l tl i v\"trnattl
chap. l v: Pi -te+ng-eh, i l [nIffi l
Shosrr.qu' l ' ud6-ki (f' ff,t2FEftl );
chair. x ; Taiz0kai-sh' hl shl
chap. ii . -fuz,r*ai-
maudal a-qenzu-$h(i
(Etl l .tl &*trSmi t rhnn vl i ' B.
tl fochi -
zuki,' Jodofuo-no kluetr-to-h,uttiLsLt
I &tt!
the Ri se and I)evel opment of Pure-l aDd l Jtl d{rl rrur).
the negati on of bhd,ua (q.v.) whi ch i s a
stato of becomi ng, a condi ti on of oxi etence, e.g.,
the condition qf monkhood
loneliness (ek|-bhd,ual. Ablfiua is thon the negation
or abeenee of such a condition, and is found only
in tho commontaries, which ehows tho fairly late
devolopmont of the term in post-canonical Iiteraturo,
through not being avaricious "
abhd,uatn: Puu, l 7).
(moani ng : " &ri gon from
non-specific roality, or non-existonce ") is the
n&me of a Btrtldha who lived many asahlcheyya,s
ogo. Chapter 8 of L}l'e Samd.dhirdio Sil'tra is dovoted
to the hirth and feats of Buddha Abhdvasamudgata.
It is related hore how the moment thie Buddha
wa,s bor:r he rose into the air to e hoight of seven
iala (palm) trees ond thon, taking seven strides
in the air uttored the foliowing words,
samud,gatd sarua.dharmd iti'
All thinge are born
of non-specific realitlr of non-oxistonco
hi s name.
ft is
that with tho pronouncemont of thie
truth the non-specific nature of throo thougand
world systems was roalisecl. Thie pronounceruent
made on earth w&s, i n succeggi on, procl ai med
and heard in ail tho worlds up to the world of
At the moment of hi s attai nment to Buddhehood,
every einglo leaf of every tree, every blacle of graes,
tlrickot, plant, forest treo emiitecl the rvord
' Abhi vaaamudgata' .
And, i n every worl d syste-m
where the pronouncement of thi s truth was made,
the ci octri no of
' non-speci fi c
roul i ty' of more
conscicusneas was discarned, recognisod and
It is also etated thaf during tho diapensation of
this Budclha thero lived a princo called Mah6'
karundcinti, who listened to tho diecourse on
,,,"t' -:ti ;,i at ri re feet of the Jl uri .l i rrr, Abhdvo"camud-
i r i l n.
( Jn
l i et r i r r g t l r i s di ssour se t ho pr i nco gave
up i ,-.. Iui ' l i tb and
,i onnc.d
tl i e yel l o# robe.- I{e
!' anrl uriderstood the importanc:o of sarnd.rlhi
:i ;l l i i rs si gni f,c:anee for the attai nrnent of Budcl ha-
]rooi i . Fi r-' rhen rnedi tated on i t, proa*:i red i t, and,
ui'ir.r the lapstr ,rf l<alpas during which he
\4-a.s ltever again borlr i:r an evil statn, he hirrrs,:lf
att a.ineri onli glr f orurron t.
LrrgY i rrc- Zovsa"
{l ),
namr: of a l brnrer }l url dha
occurri ng
in thtr IJufutbr,tchihu,.eil,t.ra. (q.r,-.)
of t,ho Malfiuu.stl,
{i i r,
ZLf). }{e w&s procl ai merl (u71d,!cd,rsi tJ
Lry the
Oghajn s,nd in turn predicteil the futuro
ap.pear.arrco^ of the Tathagata Svayamprabhe
( i i i , 237, _1- 2) .
ABHAYA (2), tho porscnal atterrdant, of Buddha
At t , i r aci assi ( ! ) ut : . 44; J. I , 39; Ap; t . 4J) .
sai d to havo beon an anci ent ki ng
of C+yi on i i r the ti me of Buddhs Kakusa,ml ha whei
the ia,ncl lvas known
the nauls of Ojacliprr.
Accounts of hi m, var.yi ng i tr. i l i e extont, of-detai l ,
are coritainecl in se'"-erai lvorks (Dpu.
l, xv, xv.i
hl hu. xv, 56 90
tYl hba. 126-LZ7
Vtn,A. I,
The story of king Ahha,va is toLl by $tnhinda
l o \i ng
l )evri i ramui yar,i ssa: ki ng abhaya rul ed i n
calied Oja.ilpa) frour tiis capit,al
ne,rned Abirnyapura situated to l,he oast of the
I{adarnba river (}falvatu
05ra). His people wert-.
e,fflicterl with & certrr,in diseastl, to
q' hi ch
i he Fj uddha Kakrrsandha vi si tetl the i sl and
with fony tl cusa,nd ciisciples ancl stood on the
I)ovakfrfa mountai n (whi ci r corrospondetl
to t]ro
Uei,iyapabbu.ta of the preserrt &ge on whieir tr{ahinda
stooci ). I3y tho porvor of the Buddhs the di
disappeareci from ihe island. Abhaya welcomed- them,
gave food and also offored the Mahdmegha grove
(then calied l,Iahatitthskn) to i3uddha Kakusaidha.
Ihe king planted in tire grove the branch of Kaku-
se.ndha's Boclhi-treo broughl, from Inciia
khuni Rucd,narrdA. (Tho bhikkhugi's
ni*o is
Il,ucdrrand6, accor:ding to the Dpu. and Mku.,
but the ]{hbv. lnas R,fr,jananda and, variantly,
Gaj ananda).
Buddha Kakugandha returned to India leaving
his clrinkilg vessel &s a,n object of homage for th6
poople of L)eylon.
L. R, G.
ABHAYA (4i, arr arahant whoeo verse is inclucled
i n t.l re Theruguthd (u. 98). Thi s has two i i nes i n
.Jomni on.\t' i th
the fi rst stanza i n S. IV, TB. Accorci _
rng to the eornrnenti try (f, p. 2i J) he was born i n
a brd,i:raen faraily in Sdvatthi and havurg hoard the
Buddi ' a
Dreach, he entered the Sari eh&. brr"u whi l e
be::u.i e for al ms i n i i ro vi i l ago, he sa;v a wel l -dressed
F:Ei arr al d was di sturbed i n mi nd. Il e entered the
=' ,rasr€n' and suppressi l rg hi s dosi ro wi th the
i r.cugi .: l hal he had acted i mproperi y ho dove-
and became an araha,i t.
Ln the same &ccoltnt it is said thai in the time
cf Burldira Surne<iha .lio w&s born a clonsrlan
and of{ored the lJuddtra some sofala flowers a;
a resulL of whicir he s,&g born sm.oug the rievas
ri l l hi s f;nal bi rth i u thi s wori d.
has iCentified
Abliaya with
vsrses aro ibund iu tho AqradrAti
(i , p..174).. The acr;ount of Vagrrrysaki ya' e
pu.t, i i i "
rrontained in tha
fp.'*+ai iu
simiiar to that of Ai;huya ccniri,ined i,-r lie Thera_
but with groater
ri,_rtail. He leit
bhe housohold lifo anil iivod in
* ,r.,
At that tilne Buddht Sumodha ontered
that forost in se*rch of solitudo. It was then ilrat
rnade a garlarrd of saldl,o
Ao**". ,r..J
offored it to ihe. lJuddlie.
According to tho Apud,dni
hs was aiso born as a cakka";attilamed
eixteorr timos, one thousand,
nine hundrod
L. R. G.
ABiIAYA (5), a ihere note,l. for rhs quaiity. of
upag(h.ita-sadi (reariy artention).
In the ciis"rrisi,rn
of s.athantbojjhanga
containecl in eoveral
"orre*"r- t&rl.Js, where one of the tbtrr faotors toading
io it is
gi v orr as upali hitas ati prug g alas eaq,nota, ( association of
tth ready attonrion).
Abhaya thora togother
wru) t- r.ssadatta thera s,re menl,iorrod
a,g examples
and worthy of associ&ti;.i (t;:
i i . I : T8Q
" hI A. I ,
290; SA. I r r , l g5
AA. I I , s+;
I ' bh4. 275) .
Thore have been soveral thorus by the nomo of
Alhayq and ir is difficulr to say wiiich of them is
ref'erre<i to hsre. In tho Muh-dparinibbdrw
uar.tquna in the Digha CommentGy (II,
SA0) *tur"
tho word. upalphiia-sati
"o*rcrr-oriua "ft;
ite motuing^
of L.hikkhus noted.
this q,r*tily'"""
fli="_i ,
^ ,I-Ial.Eg*timba
tl,naTa,r{a, A bhay&tthera
and Tipilaka
Culdbhu,_vat, _
Lnera,. Une mrght bo ternpted to identify the Abliava
there undor discussion
with one of- these thrts
(DPFN . I, 129), but a striking fact ig that tissed&t.
ta thera together
whorn Abhaya thero is
mentioneil is not includeJi"-tni"
L. F,. G.
ABHAYA (6), a monk of Ceyion- who was roputed
t,o hav.o bcen very irandsomo and, fclr that reaeon, tho
townslolli began t,o comphre his iooks witir rhoso
a minister'B son, Tlio litter'g relal,ives
decked tho
ycung man and brought him to the Mah6. Thupe
so that.Che,"
might seo che tu,o top;other end mako
by thernsolvss.
The' mother of the
thora. deterrni:red
to bs no whit, behind, eent h;r
son a, fine robe requesting him to shave his fru"A,
put on
special robo and come to the thlpa
a.long with the other bhikkhus. Thus they
tho courty-ard. Tho thera is said to have ref.erred
to the other somewhat cynically
in concoction
with an incidenr in u,hich fhey irad figumd i" ;
previo-us existence.
In that, thsihera nu?-
of a certain
wlrereaa tbe other had only rornoved
the swoepirigs.
Abhaya thora is rep<.rrted to have conberrrptuousl,v
esked him whother he, who had removed the
aweepings, wo,s now coming forward es & cor\Petitor !
( Vi nA. I i I , p. 1336 f . ) .
D. T. I } .
ABHAYA (7), a speci al i st ther$ i n Abtri dhammti
who wos & resident, of the Valikapiflhivihd.ra
(probabl y i n Ceyl on). Ho was known as Abhi dham-
mika Abhaya. At tlio beginning of the rainy sea^son
he reciteC t'he X4.ohd'suil.fiata, rS'uifa along with
o large numbsr of other ritonks. Living ilpart from
each othor during the rainy soason' they trttained
aratrantsi ri p before i ,he end of the season (MA.IV,
p. i 57) .
(8), a thera of Pagan, Burma. I{e *' as
the a.utlror of the Mohdlika which is the con-rrnentary
on Sqd.datthabh.edac?.n.tu of Saddhamma.siri. He is
also credited with having v'ritterr Sarnbh.urtd.ha'
ci ntdl Eka, a comrnentary on Safi ghara,kkhi ta' s
Sonfthandhctcintd. I{e is eaid to have live<i about
tho for,rtteenth century, but rnay have flouristtcd
earl i er.
(9), ki ng of Kal i i rga. In thc ccti rse oI'
a <tiscrrseion orr the attributos of ths Buddhas,
Illahd l(6tydyana, addressing n ahi, Kfr$ya'J:a,
docl ares that, for tl i e benofi t of' men, the Buddhus
grani apparitions
see Mhau.., Jones,
I, I4U n. 2, for tho rneani ng of the word). Among
tlre accounts he cites in supporl, of this dcciaration
is the story of Abhaya, lcing of Kaliriga in ther timo
of t he Buddha ( Mhuu" I , 178- i 80) .
He professod that gocd and bad acls alike bear
no fruit. Nor is there a worid beyond, or rcward
for charity anywhere. There is none to be found
rvho is rid of passion, hatred. and folly. Ilaving
come to this belief he assembled his people and
preached to thom his own vie*'s, rror dicl he after'
war ds abandon t r i s bel i ef s,
"I f ",
sai d her
"r ny
or+-n dead father would appeor of liis own accord
before rny eyes and speak io rne, then and only
then shoul d I bcl i eve i n thi s other worl d. "
Buddha, being aw&re of this, showed himseif
ill tho palace as Abhaya's father, and admonished
him to givo up his faise beliefb and evil ways,
whereupon Abhaya expressed remorse and askod
his father's forgiveness and guidarrce.
(Mhtu.. i rsl . I, i i ti and If, 9)' whi l e
observi ng i hat thi s Abi i aya, the ki ng of Kal i ngn,
i s otherwi se unknown, asks rl hei ther he eoul d be
icierrtifierl with Abha;ra, the cu,r&v&n leader
) .
T, P".
( 10) , a Li ccbavi w' hovi si t ed t he Buddha
ancl Ananda at Ki 16g6casd,l 6 at Mahdvana i n Vosi i i i
anr,l consul ted them on mattors of doctri ne. Abba.ya
$'&s a,,ly satisfied witit wltat rT'as
by them
i s expressl y ruenti oned i n the ca-qe oi
Ananda' s di scourse) ;
but tl tere i s no i rtdi cati <i n t,i rat
lie bocame a fbll<.rwor of the Buddba.
Onco he goes t,r-l Ananda accomi rtl ni ecl by the
Lrccl revi Pi ncl i t,akumnrai i n,. Abhaya tc' l l s Anantl a
of Ni gar.ri l i a N6ta1;utta' s cl ai ri rs to al l pervodi trg
knowl eci ge anci hi s preochi ri g of ascet,i c pru.cti eo
and i nacti on for the broaki l g down of ksrnma
whi ch he procl ai rnecl
-woul ri
l eaci to cessati on of
Eor r o$' . Abi i ava asks Anut r da f or bl i o l Sr r ddi r a' s
cpi ni on, v' her' !upon Anar,,Ja preaci i os tl i e three-
tbi d way of puri fi cat,i on advoc,ai o<i I' or ti rt bj l i kki i tr
f or t he r eal i sat i on of Ni bbana i A. t r ,
?20 f . ) .
On anot her oeeasi on
( 1
. I I , 200 f ' ) , Abhaya
i s tho si i ent i j stener i o fhe l l udcl ha' s expcsi ti c' n
addrossed tr-r hi .s comi ti i i i i on i S6l ha regardi ng the
usel essness of sel f-roori ,i fi ,:ati ori for
attai l rmtl rtt
of sal vati ol .
l \bhaya l i as l -' een wrongl y i do:rti fi eC wi th Abhaya'
r i j akunr i i l a ( Gr adual Sayi , ngs, I . 200, r r . 2; I I ,
2l l , i r . 2i Ki ndr ed Say i ngs , V, 107, n- i ) . ' f i r e
thi: sorr of king Iiimbisii,ra of llX.rgadha
and Padurndvati thc corrrtesa,n of U.i j erri untl *' as
therrrfore rrot a Li cci ravi .
An attempt has al so bei en Inado to corl nect
Al i haya wi th t,he royai farni i y cf ther i ,i cch&vi s
(SIJ//' XLV, p" xv) but there i s rl r foundtrt' i on for
thi s. In i i re i l xts Ai ,-hri ,)' e i s rc' ferrtl tl L.; l vi srt-ri ,v Es
Abhoya bho Li cci r avi ' .
L, I i . G"
(l l ), a c&r&1' &i 1 l oa,der' He was one of
those wi ro l eft Tusi ta l teaven at tho s&rri e ti mu trstho
bodhi sattv u (.Mhuu. II, 2, i -17
i .
IIo was born i n
R[j agraha and became a' woal t]i y ]rorteehol c{sr, l l ' el i -
di sci pl i netl anC exerti ng a good i n{i uotrce on hi s
question has ltoen rai-*od (Jonr-rs,
Mhau. trsl .) as to whether Abhava, tl re caravan
l oader, coul d bs tho samo 8,s Abhaya, the' ki ng of
Kal i nga (No. 9 abor.' e). Howover. the fact that ths
formei hails from R6jagraha w-hile the latter rules
rn Kaliirga. as well as tho distinctive epithet of the
ono aa sdrthoudho. and rif the othor as rd'ia, doeg not
ai l ow i t. On the other hand, i t i s i ntoresti ng to note
that Abhayari j akumdra, who cl ai ms to he a wel l -
known charioteer
(rothi.ka) conversarrt wiih ovory
dstai l of ther parts of a chari ot (M. I, 396),
el so a
contomporary of the Buddha. A <i efi ni te concl usi on
regarding their identity is not possible'
( 12) , namo of a monk r vho had once been
the chi ef of tho asceti cs resi dont i n a rnona' l tory i n
Ceyl on cal l ed the Pnfl cap:r,ri vonatnrhl a. l l i s t)an)o
occur s i n connect i on wi t h a secr et r ui ssi on of l . : i r r g
Ki t t i si r i r negha
( about
t he l 2t h cont ur y) , v"ho i s
sard tc have sent hi rn al ong r,l ' i ti r anoi i rr:r apparentl y
i nfl uent' i al i tryman to fetch l ri s nepi ' rev" Pnraki <nrri tr,'
bahu, f , r om hi s oxpi oi t s i n t i r e t e, r r i t or v c, f hi s f , l es
( t r L7u. J x v i i . 6i , 8l - t ; .
( 13) , nar ne of ' one of t ho t w<r r r unr r er i es
br r i l t b1' kr ng i l ahasena ur Ccvi cl t ( LI hu. xxr vi i , 4; l :
Ml r u^4. i t .
( i 8i i .
See ARI i . i YUPA. ' i SAY' \ .
I-or orhei s rvho are sornofi rnes roforred i o as
Abhaya, see
thoi r ful l rti l nos, o.g.,
I I HAI - A, CULABHAYA, Dt r ( l Hr \ Bl { ANAI { A
4BI { AYA,
ABHAYA (l ), a goddess, referred. to i n the
M,alw,uutu (ii, 20). According to this reforonco,
the bodhieettva Gautame is, immediately after his
birt,h, taken from Lumbini to tlre slrrine of this
goddess on tho orders of hie father, eo thot tho
infant m&y
bow his hoad at her foet'. But the
bodhisattva. entering her shrins reluctantly, puts
his feet forwa.rd when he is brought to her pieaonce
her. Tho goddess Abheyd,, admitting
thet it is not fit l,hat tho bodhisattva should,worship
her, and tirat if hn made obeisance to anyone,
hig or her head would split in sev€rlr hersslf rnakee
obeis&nce to hinr
A:BIIAIA (2), an arahant theri during the lifetime
of tho Buddha Sikhi, earlier tho chief
of t}rat,
Buddha'e fatlror, Aruna. She showed Lor d.evotion
towards the l0nlightened
One. Undor tho dispen-
eation of the Iluddha
Gotama she wae a playrtate
of Padumivati who later gave Uirttr to a- child
by Bimbisd,ra,
the king of llfagadha. The boy,
named Abhaya, bocame a monk and attained
The two friorrds, Padrmavati
mother) and Abhay6, listeneil to a die-
course of the arahant and decided to renounce the
worldly life, living thereaiter together at Rajagaha.
lt] Iru"
contemplation on the impure (asubha.dweana)
Abhaya becarrre afraid when sho saw the initiui
condition of a swollen corpse (wld,humutakud,ibhaua)
bofore hor. IJut the lruddha calrrred her rninti with
ths verses (35, 3ti) recorded in the Theri,gri,tltd (ttlso
found in the T'heri Apaduno,8, ascribed. io Uppala-
dnyi kE), whereby she roal i scd tho
.,bri ti l eneea
F.gdy, _whoreto
the worldling's happiness
rE Dound,
&rrd attaineci arahantship.
I { . G. A. v. Z.
ABHAYACALA, ono of tho names for the famoug
eetabliehmont in north Anuradhapura, Ceylon,
better known ae Abirayagiri.
ABIIAYA-DANA. In Sanskrit this word literallv
gift of feerlosenoss'. It is translatei
into Tibstan &s
mi-lrjigs-ebyin ", or to givo
non-fear. In Chinose, various translations of
this term cen be found, thus :
ehih-wu-wei "
(,fi ffi R or to gi vo fearl essness),
' ,wu-woi -sh5"
(ftR1$ or to offer foarlessnoss),
wer-enih " (mflm to give fearlossness). It is a
kind of giving
It means to take away ono's
foar nnd to give a aense of eecurity.
Ch*p. rxv o_f l}re SaMhnrrnapundord&a (Nanjio,
i34) saye:
Ary6valokite6vara Bodhis&ttva can
afford to givo fearlessneee to overy poreon suffering
from varioua paine, So he ie called tho Giver of
Feariessnoss (Abhayarpdade) ".
Furtbeq in tlio 39th fosc. of Yoganar abhilmi,
(Nanj i o, l l 70) wo fi nd tho fol l owi ng statement:
To rosolve tho fear of lion, tigor, wolf end domon
is callod It ie also intended to diepel
the fear of king, wator and fire ".
Those pssEages attempt to explain the power of
Buddha,s and bodhisattvae which dispels evory
kind of fear and sufforing of mankind.
But this word becamo popuiar later in esotoric
Buddhigm, a,s a cignificant symbolical posture
(mu.dra) of the hand, implying obhaya-dd,na. In
Chap. rx of Mahd,ua,irocana-sa.rro (Nanjio, No. 630),
thie mudrd is statod to be that of De-hehin-g6ogs-pa
rin-dbyane-can and is described as followe :
the right hand and fiys fingers up, turning the
palrn outaide. Thie is the eign of non-fear. (See
Pl. L) Ono who makes this mudrd ie called I
fear gi ver' (mi -hj i gs-phyag-rgya)." f-tei ng (083-
724 4.C., commented on it ss follows (in hia ?a-
^ E ffifift
or the commontary on
t'lrs Ma,ha,uq,irocu,tu-a[itra, fa,Bc. B) :
This posture
whon assumod makea one appear as if bockoning
with the hand and is eknoet identical with the
S6,kya mudr& of the Yogd,cira syetem. One who
rnakes this mudr6 is able to banish all kindg of
impuritioe and to dispel all foara." In tho samo
fasc. occure tho etatoment,
this mudrd symbolises
tho five charaeteristice of tho ottainmonts of
Buddhas arrd bodhisattvaa, namely, faith (Jrddl6),
diligence (uirya), mindt'ulriess (amrti), concentration
(dhydna) and wisdom
I'his mudri ie also associated with Bhaisajyaguru
Tathdgata, Amoghapds6valokitefvara Bodhisattva,
Ekadasamukhdvalokito6varo Bodhieattva, Cu.ndi
Avalokite6vara Bodhis&ttve and othora. Furthor,
one of the forty hande of Sahasrobhujdvalokito6vara
Bodhieattva makes thie mudr6 and ite mantra
reads thus :
Orp vajra Erraye hflrp phaf ".
In the Ch' i p.n.' kusanq-q^n.-l cuan-ts^,.-l sai -ptt,-sa-
mi-mi-fa-chirls (f
)tERH H E#ffifrSfiIfMor
Srltre of SahasrabrruJa,valokrLodv&rtr Bodhieattva)
tho mudrd of Abhayaddndvalokite{vara Bodhisattva
is described a,s follows:
Thogo who wish to
be devoid of fear must practiso the w&y of
fearlessnoss . Strotch tho right hand
and five fingers up and turn the palrn outside.
Raise the left hand up to the chest atretching
the five fingers and turning tho palm outsido."
According to orre tradition this mudrd is said to
have originatod from the gesturo made by tho
Buddha when he was confrontod bv tho dmnken
olephant Ndldgiri who was lot looso on tho highway
at the instigation of Dovadatte.
It is now nocesssry to ehow that Abhaya-ddna
was given concrete oxprossion by somo kings of
tho Theravdda countrios, in their own wavs. We
havo instances from fhe inecriptions of
(3rd cont. B.C.) such as tho Fifth and the Socond
Pi l l ar-Edi cte
Vol . f, pp. 127, l 2t). Tho
former inscription is alrnost whollv dovotod to
ths samo itloa which, today, *u know &g
1 There Lc a parallel passsge
in the same work (Mhnu.t,22Z),
iD coDDection with the bodhlsattva Dipaukara, but the
godders concerned le not meutioued by name. The
reading ts doubtful. $enart (Lc Mahd,uastu, 8oci6t6
Asietique, p. 549, n.4) euggests ihe godders referred to
i s t he same. Jones (Mht u. I , p. L77, SBB. t rel . ).
horever, rejects this suggestion, An iniereeting parallel
u found iq the instance where bhe BrahmA who appeara
to Gotama Buddha (M. I,168. ff; D. II, 157, to persuade
him to preach the Dhamma ie giveu the precisiou
of a
n&me, viz., Sahampati, while tho Brahmi who appean to
Buddha Vipassl (r. II, 36, 40, &c.) is only referred to ag
' one
of the Great Brahmig' or
' that
' .
The authors
probably wish Co make the distinction between the persons
meeting Gotamr Buddha and the pergons
meeting previous
Provontion of Cruolty to Animale". It doos not
oltogether prohibit the slaughter of anitnals, it iB
true, end only takos a roalistic viow of tho subjeot.
But in effeot thers is no quoetion that it is a potitivo
csso of Abhaya-ddns. So slso ie it evident from tho
contonte of tbs same omperor'e bilingual inscription
(Greok-Aramaic) recontly found in Afghanistan
(8W., Now Seri os, IX, l , 3).
The Malfiaa7nl& mentions that some kinge of
Coylon naa forUiddon the alaughter of aniioals,
sometimee wholly and et othor times in oertoin
circumgtencee. Amaldagdmaqri Abhaya (Ist cont.
A.C.) end Kassapa V (f0th cont. A.C.) may bo
citod as oxamplee
u. 6; lxii, u. l5). In lator
timee wo havo inscriptional rocords, liks thoso of
Nissanka Malla of ths lzth cent., who gave
safety of life to animals euch as fishos in tanks,
birds and forsst enimale. It is to bo notod that
hore, unliko in tho i''ncriptione of Aeoka, the
actual word usod iB
sbheya d6na " (o,g., EZ,
I I , pp. l l 0, 166) .
ft ie undoubtedly this tradition which is being
perpetuated in Ceylon to this day. Regulations
issuod by the Department of Wild Life mako it
illegal to deetroy animals in areae doclared
" Sanc-
tuarios ". Among theeo aro the Iiuined Cities of
.A.nurddhapura and Polonnaruva, with their intimato
Buddhist aseociations, as well es the greator tanks
whors there is a profusion of wilci life, espeeially
birds. There are also regulations to the samo effect
sometimos passod by local bodies, o.g., Mrurici-
palities and Urban Councils. As far as Ceylon ie
concerned, tho regulations, whilo drawn up in
the interests of the country'e fauna, have taken
cognizance of the traditional practico, in a land
whero tho followors of ahime6 predominato.
SnOvO Karaoxe.
ABHAYADEVA, a former Buddha, menti oned i n
e list of former Buddhas rrndor whom $ekyamuni
whi i e a bodhi sattva i n the ni nth bhumi (q.v.),
acqui r ed mer i b
( I l I huu. I ,
140. l 3) .
&c . ) .
History ol ths Vihira : Thie was & well known
monastery of anciont Ceylon, founded by king
Va!!ag6,mar.ri Abhaya about 89 8.C., and 217 years
l0 months l0 days after I\[ahdvih6,ra, to which it
became the first groat rival. Ths Mohdaalnsc traqes
its origin to the following incrdent : the king was
fleeiug before Tamil invaders arr.d on his way
northward from Anuridhapura. the capital., he was
passing Titthdrd,ma, a shrine of the niganpiras. Giri,
the ni ganl ha who l i ved there. taurrted the royal
fugitive with words to the effoct that the llig
Biack Sirrhalese w&s rurrning s,w&y (paldyuti
ri tahdkdl asi hal o)I. The ki ng fel l , humi l i ated a,nd
r-oweci to avenge the i nsul t somo da,y. When he
regai ned the throne he l i ad ti re ni ga41,ha' s drdma
| )Ihu. xxxiii, 43, 44. The Pali mahdhdiro used here has. 2 Mh' 9. xx-xv, 119 f.
been i ut erpf et ed as an epi [ het of Yama. (S. Pruanavi t aua : 3 i bi d. urvi , 7.
Thr Ad of Adam' e Pea* , p. 63f . )
pulled down and in its place sot up a vihdra with
lwolve colls. To it ho gavo tho componite name of
himself and of tho niga41he. IIis now foundation
ho gifted to the learuod Maha Thsra Mah&tiese of
Kupilrkala, vihara, who had befriended hin in
This grant of a vihara personally to a bhikkhu ie
the fir€t
innlgnss of its kind recorded from Ceylon.
The grantee belonged to the Mahdvihdra and, in
spito of the irurovation, tLrere is no reason to suppoeo
that the now forinda0ion wes not a songtituent, of tho
Not long after thie and in the eamo roign occurred
the incident concorning Mahdtiesa which doubtleee
put Abhayugiri in opposition to Mahdvihara. As
time passed Abhayagiri came to form ite own
faction and a stago was roached when its residonte
c&mo rro more to Mahd,vihdra.
(For the particular points of viow of 0he
Abhayagirivdsine and their placo in the history of
tho ancient Sanghn of Ceylon, eeo tho next articlo.
Iloforonce is made here only to such of the works
a€ wore offectod in the vilrdra itself under royal
patronage, taking in the great thripa which
is its most prorninent feature today).
I{.i ng Gaj abi rhuka-gd,rnani (l 14-136 A. C.) who
errlarged tbe thupa also had tlie G6rna4iuissa
resorvorr constructed for cultivoting iand which
was to rnqintain the vihd,ra'. King l{-anipfha Tinea
(167-f 86) had a epl endi d structure bui l t for Mah6-
n6ga thera of tshutarama. It was givon tho name
Iiatana Pdsddas
tho name was that of a t.ype, for
wo find in the city and elsewhere others similarly
A memora,ble addition wos mado by Mahdsena
(275-301) who, i u the oarl y stage of hi s rei gn, had
been hoetile to Mahdvih6,ra. Lhis was ttro m.oho-
kd,lasilu-pa(inid, (great stone image of tho Buddha).
Hie brotlror and predecessor is said to have found
it in I'h0parama where it had been placotl by
thtit is to say, in the yearg
when Buddhi sm was i ntroduced. Thi s ki rrg had i t
removed to his own foundation of Pacina-tieea-
pabbata and l\fahdsona had it trarxferred to
which had long been a constituent
of Mahavihdra, was given over to the chargo of
Abhayagiri which also now owned Pubbdrdma
In tire later reigns we read of the planting of a
Bodhi tree, extensiorrs to the vihara, the grant of a
village of wetrvers for mainterl&oce, the construction
of a bathing tank and of the lJdthaggabodiri house.
The Tooth and the Bowl rel i cs *.ere-i rr tho keepi ug of
Abhayagi ri . l ' a-hsi en has grven a descri pti on of a
ceromcrrr;' hel d here i n vetrerati on of the Tooth
rel i c (see arti ci e on Buddhi sm rrr Ceyi on). We thus
see tl i at tl i e vi hi i ra v' as parti cul arl y associ ated wi th
the rel i c (Tootl r) r+' hi ch r,r' es the personal possessi on
of the ki ng ;
thus Abl rrr,yagi ri woul d have been
i rel d i n specral regard i ti t,he country.
. Tl ' l
posi ti on of Abhayagi ri monks wes such that
i i . i ed to thei r sponsori ng-new i cl c&s from abroad
whl ch were rrot vi swecl wi th favour by ti re orthodox.
Ti rel ' even persuaded
other vi hi rras i o accort thei r
i deas.
Prc,babl y ono resul t of tho constant royal
towards the institution was evident
i n a certai n l axi ty of di sci pl i ne arrrons the rosi dents.
W-o are toi d that l n th6 ?th centurv i hev woro
truculent, unrestrained ancl unrJisciplirred. i(ettcrs
to such e ps€s that ono of
their nulr,ber,
Bodhi, cornplainecl to king Sil6megtrava{r{re-witlr
to the cornplainant hirnself.
Among the sovoral additions and establishrnents
to Abhayagiri irr modiaeval times was Kappura_
and aiso- tiro Tiputtiruila
mona^stery. lt
was the former which orvned Cetiyapabbata- and
lit-vohera (Inner
Mona,sierv) in the tirne of
I{assapa V (914-gg3){.
The l ni ter w&s an oncroach-
mcrnt on property
claimed b;, Mahfr,vihdra which,
natural l y,_protested.
But tha ki ng i gnored the
protests. The remai ns of ono of the twJ Kappuro-
pariveqras (Greater
and Lessor) have since^'been
in an archaoological
excavat,ion6. (See
P]. IL Kapdr6mri l a,
ono cf the mai n establ i shments
of Abhayagiri, played on- irnporiant part in roligious
uratters from the seventh tcl tho olevenih centiries.
^ 1"
il!"""ltpg grc'lup of Pe"rnsukrilikos,
a rag-robed
lrotcrnit.y which rva,s rellresented
in ths Mahd*vihEra.
t,oo, s'ere also c<;ustituenis
of the Abhayagiri.
In the ninth cerrtuiy they separateci from the iatter
and forn:ed a distinctive-gpoup.
Abhayagi ri fl ouri shed execedi ngl v i n the i l th
centur5i. Ifere resided the heod cf tle Dtrummarucis
who greatl y befri endod ki ng Vi j ayobdl ru I, then
orrgeged i n campai gni ng
agai nst i he Choi as who
rtad beon rn occupati on of the couri try for hai f n
contury. After driving the enemy **,iy, ttie king
bu.i l t for Abhayagi ri t6e Uttaramrl l a-par' i l ru.,,
"i ect ol ' reward.
In the noxt century the powerfu-l
( 1153- 1186)
summoned a counci l at t he capi t a, l
with the idea of urrifying
the Sangha. An epigraphicsl recor<l of the r,,.,it o"i
tl i rs counci l i s found engraved on the ei do of the
rock now knovrn as Cial Vihara, and arrcioniiv ae
Uttar&rdma or the monarrtery in the north. bne
i mportan.r.consequence
wos i he di sappeerei nee of
Abhay' agi ri as a separato sect.
Wit,h the absndonrnerrt
of An.,rrS,rJliaprrrzr (about,
the l Sth.century)
Abha;' agi ri
,,' i rtual l j .
cessed to
sxrst &s B, i rrstori cal enti ty. Il ut two of thei r pri nci pal
coi i eges conti nued
unti l ti re l 6tb tl e,nturv. urrder
thejr r.lriglrr.i
nan'res of {,Iturolnruia
er r d } l ahanet . e
TbIph :
t.irur;,s," c'f Abhayagiri Vihira will here
i u ccnsr,l ered
as ti rat si t,uated i ri the north of
,i :i urudhapura
ancl know;:r, i oo, b-v the ci i recti onai
er i t 1^pL of Ur t ar u i r { aht r . eet i ya. ( Seo
pi .
I . ) I t i s not .
-.; e.- r i ai iv mr_'nt i orred ci r-rri iig Vapfagamaf, i,s fould-
ing of the monastic ostablishmont and, in foct, is
rrrerltioned by name for the first timo in the scoount
gl -i ts enl argement by Gaj abahuka-gEmani (as i n
(i o), Accordi ng to the eai i i e" Di pati arnsa (xxi i , l B)
t-hi :
l i rl g
caused e gre&r, thupa to bo' bui i r i n tl i e
is montioned very
rntrequenti y
thoreafter. But thi s i e no roa,scn not
it with tha foundor of the vihira. For,
are recorded as having been constructcd
ti om the very i ntroducti on of Buddhi nrn to Ceyl on,
\Yhen first built tho thrlpa was smaller then as wo
now see it" sirice tho la.test enlaraenrent. in the
twclfth century. Gaj.rb6}rtrka-garna.ii in the courso
of his enlargement of the thipa added fovr ad,imukhas
trt the thupa gates. Whdt ths dd,imu,frhas woro
ia not precisely known. It is canjectured thet thoy
were the archil,ecturat
embellishment called ayaka
in an inscripticn
of king .UIalu-tree
wl ri ch, ogai n, was probabl v the nyako of somer of
tho iuscriptions al, AmarEvai,i. Variantly, they may
have been tho fentures nor^. known amol,git, th-e
Sirrlrrrleso as aah,alksda, that is to eay, tho oft'-sets or
"frontisp-iecos " morrtionod in Ceylon archaeological
writings.? These erections here ars eacii 4b ft. 6 in.
i ong ancl about l ti ft. hi gh.
and its environs wero prectically
covered by forest growth till the lu,st, quarter of th-e
l9i;h century aftor which tho junglo^was
but no restoration was effected. it slro.ivs the goneral
constructi onal pri nci pl es of Ceyl on thi rpa^q,
i s
butl t on a courtyarcl 587 ft. aqu&i e, rai serl 6 ft. above
ti ro adj oi ni ng ground. A
processi onal
path (Si rr-
halese : ucili maluoo, sandedcourtyard)
ft. broad
runs round tho base. Above the squaro courtyard
rises the hemispherical dome of bri<i<rl'ork
tlrroo usual rings or ledges (Sinhaleso : p€sd ualolu)
at tho base. These are 16 ft. high, t,he lowest being
6i ft. high and 355 ft. in diameter. Ttre base
rnouldinq of stone is pertly ornarrrented with a
desi gn of l otus petal s. The dome hns a di ometer of
310 ft. at the top of tho basal l edges; i ts centre i s
4 ft. above the paved courtyard in which the building
stands. At the apex of tho domo i s the square
enclosuro (Sinhaiese : hata.rcis ko{uua, Sanskrit :
harmi ka). It, i s 33 ft. i ri gh and ?5 ft. square. On each
of its fcur fnees ig found the post-and-rail design in
sunk relief. Ttro desigrr is intorrupted by {r. ropreser}-
tation of the <iisc of
sun in the rniddlo: its
diarneter is 6 ft. ti in. 1'he railirrc consists of 12
pilesters each 2 tt,. 3 irr. witle, and
flat rails each
15 in. w'ida. The height frorrr the platform to the
top of tho squaro orrciosure is 18? ft. 6 in. The
eylindricrr,i drum of brickrvork (Sinhalese: deuatd
kottt'oo) sprir:gs from the middle of the squa,r€ €n-
cl osure arrd i s 30 i t. i rr i i ani cter and 15 ft. hi sh. Its
fecer is divicied by pilestei-s intu oight compart-ments,
in each of which is a shallow iricho. TLro Lrroken
apire rises on the top of thig drum vertically up to
5 {t. after which it graduarly tapers.
(Sinhalese : ktt ktirtilia) risos &2 ft. fj in. from tho
top of ihe drum, givirrg a total hoight, of 245 ft. to
tire thrlpa lrorp the raisod grourrd isvel i:o the
t L Z. I .
I - r . 5 2 . c 3 . E0 .
- . . . - r
r , . i . 1 t , : 1 .
' ,
-_.' ;i ! , (., ,
i i ,,.r. I,arar:ar.i t ana,
Mahi i ydryi tri i i tt Ccybtl ,
7 S. Paralravigana :
p. 58 f.
summit.s Bands of cut etono 6 in. thick hed been
ineerted at intervals of 2| ft. into the brick-work of
tho epiro. They are proeumod to have symbolicelly
s€rved # ehattaa (umbrelles),
as thoy
fulfil no construetional purpose' and give the
Bppoareneo of a eories of superposed ahattu of
gredually diminishing eize. On some of the courses
of bricke from tho collapso of the spiro, the numbere
of tho varioug cours,es in which thoy had been laid
were found merked in the Sinhaleso script of sbout
the eighth eontury. IGng Vohnrika Tissa (209-231)
ie recordod as havrng placod a ciwrta, on the thripa
fregmonts of stone shefts which hed probably
supportod +hfitas were found on tho
No ideu of the coet of'erecting
a colossai
thirpe.carr bo givon and thorefore it is very interest-
ing to loarn that, king Sena III (938-946) is recorded
as having contributod 40,000 leahipaqos for tho
paving of
Since the last contury t'hert has existod a ccnfusion
in the minds of many people as to the location of tho
thfrpas of Abheyagiri and Jetavana, which arn both
colossal a,nd not very far removed from each other.
Tho confusion is perpotuated by pcpuier usago ovon
today end much evidencs has boon adduood by
schoiars against the popr.rlar idontification of tho
oastern and tho northern thripas as those of Abhaya'
giri and Jetavana rospectively. More matorial has
come to light sinco this evidencs w&s first surnrnarized
and further confrrned in i9l3.rr
This discussion should be prefaced by stating that
the claims for the proper ident,ification &ro confinod
to the thfrpas on tho north and tho east reepectivoly.
Those, with tho Mahd Thrlpa abouf, which thers is
absoluto certainty, are tho only two colossal thrlpas
in tho city whoso dimensions tally with the heights
of 160 and I40 cubits given to thom end romainod
practically untouched
There is no forthright statomont in any early
chronicle a"s to tho direction of tho compa,ss in which
each of theso colossal thrlpas was originally sited.
Abhayagiri thripa has beon coneistent'iy reforrod to
ae boing tho north ono, both in Lristoricai writings
and in inseriptions; Jet*van& w&s built in Joti or
Nanda,na park which scholars have iocated opposite
the eout[ city gato of A-nurddhapura. In fact
the Mahiua\nss aceaunte of the ostablishment of
Abhayagiri Vihdra, taken in coujurrction with iho
founding of the city end the campaign cf Ya!!a.
gd,ma,r.ri, poini, to the site as the north. Ttre earliest
diroct montion of the north as tho location was
made by Fa-hsien s'tro noted that Ceiiya (Mihintai6)
duo east of the (Abhayagiri) Vih6,ra.rE The
tracoe of a northern road which lod oaet towards
Mil:int'a16, and was rnet b5r another (possibly fhe
rnain street) from the east gate of the eity, havo
been tbund in the archasologice,l recorde,r{ Thus the
etetement ie independently eonfirrned.
The signifi'rance cf the inscriptions farurd in tlie
north area will now bo discuesed in chronological
ordor.'In the buiding onco loosely ealled Elep[ant
Stablee there waa in aitu an inscriptidn of
Gajab6huke-gdmati. It callod tho thipf Ablw,ga-
tho groat Abhaya GAmafri
cetiya in tho north".l5
In front of ihe south v6halkaqle of tho thfipa
ihero was diseovered in tho pavenront an inscribed
slab cf Mefu-tisa (Kaniitha Tiesa), tirres decados
later, which refers to cortain works dono by the
king. Among those were the addition of four r*yi,l**
a:rd en o,sarw-hala (sitting-hall). fncidontally,
hlaltfrtaqnas hes a€cribed them to Gajabahuka-
The phraso Ulara-maha-ceta airpeare in
this Ayrton who oxamined, ths stono
took it to bs in its original position.r? Two inecribed
stone rolic ce*skets of the same poriod wers also
t-ound &mong the debris of the vdhalka{as and with
Bev€ra,l plain caskets. At least ono of those two,
that wibh the inscription of t,ho guoen, Mitabi, was
from tho northern v6,hr.lkotla
the oiher boro a
l ogend of the queen-mother Si ral a.rt (Seo Pl . II^)
There are, in addition, eightinscriptions
of obscure
individuals who lived aborrt the ?th century. They
were fcund on the steps of a ruined sirrine and
contain the name for Abhaya6iri, variantly givon as
Apalwyagara-ueha,ra, Apayagara and Apahagore,.tt
Granite tablets with Tantric mysl,ic formulao
wero found to the south-east, of the north
The script usod is Nd,gari of about tho
Tho find, while srrpporting the statement in tho
chronicles that the residonts of Abhayagiri wero
sympathotic towards hotorodo4 toachinga intro-
duced frorn time to tirne from India, strongly
suggests the discovery to be itself ono from thoir
ancient, vihdra.
The Slab Inscription (No, l) of Mahinde IV
(956-9?2) found ne&r a largo stone trough n&merl
Alihayagiri, Jotavana and ssveral othere.|r It has
to bo taken in conjtrnction with No. 2, in which
specific mentron is made of tun maha.-sala.-7tilima,
Bud,un (Threo Groat Stone Buddtra Images) and
Ilutl piri,bogi, mir.z,i,-payi (Buddhe's Gemset Bowl).f
Three imagos, in seated position, vhich answer to
tlro referenee, &re still found in the aroa. (Soo Pl. III.)
We have already acivorted to the fact that, the Bowl
was at, Abhayagiri. It E'as in Utl,aramrila-parivepa.
The inscription gives the regulations for tlie roei-
dents of Abhaya gi ri (.Abaya -turd.-mahe-sd).
12 t r I ho. l xxvi i i , 98.
LSLegge: I 02, 107.
14 CJSc. (G),
i I , 93 f .
1. 5
ASC] l et ro. I , p. 2.
16 EZ. I , p. 253 f f .
L7 ASCMem. I , p. 12.
of 1836, p. cxxvi)
CJSg. (G),
pp. 180, 201.
19 EZ. I V, p. 139 f .
2i) ASi-:An for I94G-45, p. 41.
2L EZ. I . p. 221 f .
22 ibid, p. 23a f.
I Mho. lxxviii, 98. In Gciger' s English translation tho
meeguremeits given in IIfu. Lc the th[,pas of
and Jetavana, lespectively, h+ye appar-ently beeo tr-ane-
posed. Those
in the
presbnt article are taken from
Anciztt Cevtoi (1I. Perkei) followlng 77* a7aftilat:tural
Remoinr o1 Anurad.haTturo (James G. Smither, 1894).
I Mhrs. xxxvi, 33 f.
l O A$CMem. V, p.
11 By E. lt. Ayrton ic ' 4SCMem. I (publd. 1924' ed. A. l\1.'
Ilocart), ctiiefly chap. iii. The first doubts were.expressed
by Itugh Nevill (O'iglon Lilprorlt llegistn, origina!-series
p.2{* and V, p.
iib6). IIe was suppor}"ed by E' Parker
in Ancient Ccyitm, p. 299 f.
-{ sl ab i nscri pti on of Kassapa V found near tho
sl one L' anol )\' cl os€ to the above refers to Abha.vagi ri
ar: ri K apr a r irrama (Abu hay giri
a e.herci Kapd,r d,-rn'ula,t
J al ' tni t y tctn
In I95rf an i nscri bed stono was found somewhat
further east, that i s, near the greaL twi n ponds i n the
nctth area, in the site which has been identified as
ono of the two Kap6rd pariver;as (Groater and
Lessor). l ' ho scri pt i s eouth Indi an Grantha but the
last two lines are in Sinhalese of about the eecond
hal f of the l Ot,h century, very si mi l ar to Mahi nda
IV' s tabl ets. The i nscri pti on preci sel y menti ons
words which have been translated
here in". Tho pillar was in eitu; the d,rdmo
and, thorefore, Abhayagiri, have been taken to be
in the area, ttrat is, the
Wo shall now touch on the eastorn aroa. Ilero. on
the other hand, two inscriptions have beon edited as
against tho sovoral above. Both these were found
at the si te of the wel l -known stone rai l i ne ci ose to
the groat thirpa on tho east. The oarlieibne s'as
found on & cross-bar of the rai l i ng and contai ns
words Abagi,ri-mahil:ihara. On palaeogra,ptrical
grounds it has been ascribed to the time of Mahdgena
who founded Jetavana. But in what connoction
Abhayagiri Mahdvihdra was montioned in taris
inscription has not been explained.t6 Tho other
inscription from the same site had been incised in
year of Maliinda IV (962) and suggests
Bomething moro helpful.
translation of the
extract relevant to our discussion goos ttrus :
Lodgings shall not bo given in this
Pavi l i on at the Gate' constructed by the devotec-s,
dosirous of heavenly bliss and final emancipation,
who reside at tho Ratnamdpirivena in tho great
royal monast€r.y of Dena est.abiished (of yore) for
the benefit of the great elder
who was moderate
i n hi s dosi res, w&s contont, ond wae knowrr by tl e
name of the great lord Saguli . . . ".!e
On the inscriptional evidence reets a strong case
for considoring that the popular usage is incorrect,
and that i t, i s the nori hern thri pa whi ch bel onged to
Abhayagiri and tire eastern one to Jetavana.
Othor points material to tho identification, rnado
by echolars against this popular view will now be
Tho groatost obstacle to tho view that tho groat
northorn ceti ya i s that of Abhayagi ri i s tho
gonerally current-.tranelation of the etabement in
tlre Dipauamso that bho vih6ra of Abhayagiri
was foundod betuseen the Cetiya and Sil6-th,rpa.,t
It is not known what cetiya w&s meant, nor
*' hat the Si l 6-thfi pa. An adj ustment was
suggested (by Parker), that i s, to take the ceti ya
rrs that of Abhayagiri and Sila-thrlpa &s Sile-
Sobbhaka' l daka. But tl rere &ro obj ecti ons. The
Dipd,-ar.nsa which mentions tho laior Gajabdhuka-
93 i bi d. p. 41 t ' . Ayrt on' e opi ni on was t hat t he l arge rl abs were
; robabl t '
j n
t hei r ori gi nai at ea (ASCMem. l ).
a + E Z . \ ' i 1 . ; . 1 € : f .
2' r EZ. I \ - . p. 2S, - t f .
26 EZ. I I I , p. 223 f . DenA i s t he Si nhal ese f or Jet avana.
! i r i x . t ' . 1 i
( 1 : ) .
2 : \ r i r . ! . 1 i i .
2. : r x r l ' , t . 1i . t .
gamapi es the trui l der of Abhayagi ri thupa now parti -
cul arl y connects hi m wi th an evont anteri or t;hi m,
that i s, of the ti me of Val tag6mani .3E Thus i t i s
' poesi bl e
to reconci l e the i denti fi cati on of the ceti ya
onl y by concedi ng that the chroni cl or reccrded, fttr
the time of Valtagama,pi, an everrt which ho knew
took place much later-an anaehronism.
is a
frrrther difficulty and that is Sii6sobbhakandaka
(assuming it to be Sild,-thnpa) has not been identified.
Lankarfi,ma has been suggosted as its modern name
but expert opinion has not been exprcssed on the
suggesti on.
The Mahd,uo\nla account does not present this
difficulty for it, says that Gajabrnh'uka-gamani
enl arged the thrl pa.zs Thi s i mpl i es that thC thupa
was al ready exi sti ng and, as far as the evi dence goes,
onl y Vaftagd.rnaTi coul d have been i te au[hor.
Thrlpas have been erected in the country from tho
very tirne of l\Iahinda two centurios oarlier and it is
qui to concei vabl e that such an i mportant foundati on
as the Abhayagi ri woul d have had i ts own thupa
from the commencement.
The translations roferrod to abovo (Dpu.),
though freel,v current and widely accepted, have
been questioned by certain scholars who are of tho
view that between is not the corroct English rendor-
ing of tho Pali word in this conlext, and tl^e;b neqr or
ttithi,n convoys tho proper sense (edd. P. Ndndnanda
Thera, L927
and trsl. of S. Paranavitana in articlo
i n the UCn. XVI, l -2, p. 60). Paranavi tana i s of tho
vi ew that tho core of the thupa (Si l 6ceti ya, i .e.,
thipa) was the work of Vatr1agd,mani.
Ho further thinks it probable that the spot was that
hel d by tradi ti on (Fu-trsi en) to have been con-
eecrated by tho Buddha leaving the imprc"sion of
his foot thoreon.
But the thripa of stone (sila cetiga) is mentioned
as tra_ving sxisted in tho city between Thfrp6r6ma
and Lohapdsdda, or opposite tho formei (Suu.
Stori os 53 and 82). Thi s referonqo i n ths anci ont Pal i
text is not to any thipa in the Abhayagiri aroa
which is too far afield from tho two woll-known
structuros named.
Tho eizo of the thupa of Abhayagiri has also a
bearing on our question, for at present it is distin-
guished by the same huge proportions as those of
olly two others in the city, Mahd Thflpa and
Jetavana Thrlpa. As Gajabd,huka-g6mani enlarged
the thirpa, it must have at first boen smallor. The
earliest specific mention of the height has been mado
by tr'a-hsien who hae given tho figure 40 ch6ng,
(Logge : 400 cubits
; IJeal : 4?0 ft. end, in trsl.
by Li Yung-hsi. 400 ft.!o). Now, tho Mahauamsa
has given the figure of 140 cubits when referring
to tho last restoration recordod by it, viz., by
ParA,kramabahu I. This part of tho chronicle wale
written by_ Dharmakirti in the lSth century..t We
havo a cubi t moasure engravedon a rockr' and so
30 Beal has evidently adopted the measuro of l4l in. for a
chdrtg, generally
taken for tariff purposes.
has categoncally atcted that the value of e Chtnes-e foot
vari ed. wi t h dynasi i eg and
gt at es (/ . 4Q.
XI , 202). Li
Yung-hai ' e t rsl . . was publ i shed i n 196?-by t f i e Ci ri nese
BuddhlqC Association, Peking.
SlThc Poli Literature_of Ceylon, p
142, and G. C.
Meudis'. The Eaily Eiatory of Caykm (Apdendix I),
ABHAYA ( Mudr E) , i n
f i gur e of I l uddha i n t i r e
l , ' or L- d6 ( Gol den Hr r , l l ) of
l l or . vh- j i t cmpl e, Nar a,
, I r r pt r , r i . ( [ l r onz. r scr l l pt , ur e,
dat et l car ca 6! f , - 93 , \ . C. ,
wor k <- r f Tor i - br . r ssl r i . Sec
S. V. r nr r , l yr r - r r i x. t . )
Copuiignt : Cealon Archaological Suroev.
ABHAYAGI RI ThEpa (Anurddhapur&' Ceyl on), as i t i s t oday'
. ; t ' i :
i i
ourte sg, t) t gtl r t tt ;;\ u i io tui I J I use u n t s.
ABHAYAGI RI : I nscr i bod l i r ncsLonc
l ol i c - c r , s l i ot ( 9nd cer r t . A. ( f . ) 1r <i nr
t l rt r rt l l t , al l ; arkt <t I t i ro t hr. -i 1-ri r. I )orror:
queen Sira,l:r,.
ABHAYAGI RI : Recer r t l v consor r , ecl r er na, i ns of one
bcl ongi nu t,o t,Le
l Ut ( t ' l ( ' s) i , l t
l t l t t t t
^1 111 i r nut ! - l ! r t sr . ' t t i t t t .
ABHAYAGI RI : i r r s t ' r ' i l r t : t l l t i r t c s l , . r r L r
r c l i < " - t i r s l i t ' t ( 1 n < i ( ' c r i l . . \ . t ' . ) I r o r r r
l l r t r i l t , t l k, t r . i <t i t t t l r c t l r i l pr i . I ) or r or :
r i : r ( ' o r r J l i t r i b i .
Uo1tyri glLt
: Ueylotr, .1rcfuwlo11it:nl Itr.rtxU.
, rf ' t . he t rvo
[ api rJ, -pi ri ver. ru, r;
(. , : i rca
Tt i t ucnt
vi l r r i r u.
i r i r i l gcs i r r t i r c
i r i s l l i l r t i ot r
, ot '
ABHAYAGI R[ : ^ \ n. r t l r t ' r ' oi t l r , r t l t t ' t r c sl ot t t t
I l t r dt l l r r r , i r n. r , gl es i r i t l r e r " i l r t i r r i i t r ( ' | i I . i l l t ' l I t i ol t r ' r l i t l
i l , 11 i ns r r i l i t , i ot r of l i i ng I l t r hi n<l r r I \ ' ( 7l l t t r t r t r [ . ) .
t l r . r ct t sl , o: t r r
t r i er l t i ol t i r ( l
| \ -
( 7 r l )
l l u t l t l i r t r
i n . ! l l
r ' t r n 1 . ) .
. l . l r r ,
i i 1$f , r _, f r l x,
Buddha i r nages i n t l r t t vi h, . - i r i t i i r cr t ,
an i nscr i pt i or r ol ' l i i r r g l l ai l i r i i l : ; . t \
L' up7ti l ht :
(te4l un
Arehtetl t4l i crtl ' \4rDeU.
I ' J- . " f l ' - n' .
St at ue br - Kr vai l i ei
l 2( ) 3 A. C. )
i n Dai goj i t t - r npl e, Kyot o,
F rorn RAnkcrt Suwa' s " M *- kyo-bi-
described, at tho l4th century Gadalade4iya, and
thig is 30 in. in The same would have held
good a century earlier when the account was written,
urrlesg it had boen iaken over from a still earlier
figyre. If tho cubit (Legge) should be as long, then
400 cubits would me€rsure up to I.000 ft., which is
quite incredible. Nor could *e readiiy s,coept 4?0 ft.
(Beal), as it would give the thfrpa
treighr which
has not even been hintod a,t by locai chroniclers or
tradition. Ilowever we ha,vo tho Dipouaqrso siate-
qent of a
thupa " by Gajabahuka-gam".T'i.
This chronrcle was written about the Barno conturv
as Fa-hsi en' s vi si t, and, i n vi ew of the suggesti on of
size, we can take it that the thrlpo was of some
magnitude. The actual figure, hoviever,, stands on
tho-.sole testimony of l'a-hsien. This is openi to
chalienge, unless his unit of measurement is taken
es very different frorn used in Ceylon, as
already indicated.
Tlre information so far available leads to the
strorrgest probability that the colcssal thupa in the
north is that of Abhayagiri. The identi_ficar,ion of
the e&stern thupa &s that of Jetavana Vihira
dopends at present far moro on'olimination than on
tho one or two points mentioned above.ra
Ono more important roferonco to Abhayagiritirupa
might be mentioned before closing this discussion.
Sqd.d,harmara,tndka,ra,yasa (completed rn 14I7s5)
has recordect the raising of theheight to 140 cubits by
one of the kings calleC Kassapa. IIe ie also said tb
havo enshrinod therein the d,harmad,hd,tu. Now
this d,harmadhd,tu, hu,s been suggested. as the book
na,mo.36 But if wo tako liassapa ds
uhe fifth of the rlarne, we havo this passage trans-
lated from the inscription:
By (celebrating) relic.
festivals he honour.ed ttre Buddha-gem. In fulfilment
of the resolution (appearing in
ehall I honour the Dhamma-gem' he caused tho
Abhidhamma discourses to be tlanscribed on plates
of gold (and thereu'ith) made a
offeriag.l'sz 1tr
is not unlikely that a portion had been off'ered to
Abhayagiri where he had scime work done. fn that
case it wus probabiy enslrrined in the thrlpa, and
and it would not be far-fetcheci to imagine an
enshrinernent of tho Abhidharnma plates a€
In spite of'the importance of Abhayagiri vihdra
in the history of the Saigha, if only as the powerlul
challenger of llah5,vih5,ra, the thupa itself is not
recorded as enshrining anv relic. It thus seems nor
in^trinsically an otrject of veneration b.v the sbandards
of other relic-enshrined thrfpas lit<e thoso of
Thup6.rdma, Mahi Thupa, Ilahiyanga+a, &c. Its
claim to recognition seems to lie in the fact of its
great dimensions-it rauks next to ,Tetavama thripa
which is probably the largest construction of ita
class in tho entire Buddhist world. When the
Mahiaam.scr w&s compiled the site had evidently
been sanctified in the eyos of the chronicler
Fe-heien's account suggests this. To the monk-
chronicler of tho orthodox Mahivihdra Abhaya-
giri vih6ra was not a hated homo of hoterodoxy-
(The name Abhayagiri VihEra waa uaed, at least
in 1870, for an irnege-house in the
Poloruraruwa, and ciranged into Thupdrama in 1886,
botl i wi thout anv authori ty. ASCAn for 1903,p. 32).
ABHAYAGIRIVASINS, Thi s n&me rs gi ven to tho
monl<s residing il or connected with the Abhaya-
girivihfra in .Amridhapura, Ceylon, with special
reference to tireir doatrinal and other differences
with the orthodox ruonks of tho MahavihA,ra, from
the first centruy t3.C. tilt i;he l2th centur5r.
According to the Sinhalese traditionr their herotical
tendencies can be traced to a certain monk MahO-
tissa who had been expelled from tho }lalravilrdra
accordirig to the Vinaya rules on account of lris
frequeutrng the families of laymeu. A pupil of his,
Bahals,rnrrssuiissa. had corne in anger to reeido in
tho AbtrayagiriviirAra, where he formed a separeto
faction. The apparent welcome grven t.o the a.ngored
bhikkhu sugg€sts that even prior to this incidont,
the relations between the two vih6ras were certainly
not intimate, if not, ectually atrained. A sonso of
individual aloofrress and superiority in Abhayagiri
may well have been cau.sed by tho epocial provi-
eione made for its rnmates by a unique expression
of the royal patronage of king Vaglagama+i Abbaya
referred to in the preceding articlo ABIIAYAGIRI.
In the reign of Voharika Tissa (209-301 A.C.)
this faction, which had earlier received a body oI'
Vajjiputta monks from
in India led
by their teacher Dharamaruci, is reported to have
adopted some views belonging to the Vetulya-vdda
(q.v.), tr,lthough there is notlung on record indica,t-
ing essential doctrinal difforencee between them
and tho Mahd,viharavdsins. In ttre eecond
century a variant reading of a Vinaya rule was
contested in regard to a transgrescion ofa bhikkhu4i,
named lllettiya, which was decided by a brdhmaa
scholar Dighakard,yana in favour of the Mah6-
vihara. But the subsequent adoptiorr by Abhayagiri
of Vetulya-virda under the name of Dharnmarucika,
and ttre increase of their influence were the causee of
an order for expulsion of sixty monks by king
Gofhdbhaya, also known &a Meghava,r.rnibhaya
(early 4th century). The monka rrere uot only
erpelled from the Sangha, but also banished from
tho countrys. Even this episode shows that tbere
was etill unity in doctrine, witbout which no dis-
ciplinary measures could have boon taken.
Still, the seed of dissension had been sown, and
the removal of the sixty monks does not seem to
have onti rel y eradi cated the strpposed evi l . For we
lind that notrvithstandirrg this purge some threo
hundred bhikkhus led by Ussili.'-dtissa thera left
the i nsti tuti on and
j oi ned Dakkhi nagi ri , i .e., the
vi hi ra south of, and attaehed to. the r\Iahavi hEre,
ul der the rovai protecti on of Gothabhaya.
The m<lnirs rviro \{'ere expelled and banished to
lnciia seem to have reorganised tlieir ranke and
34 Cb. 13.
35 C. E. Got l akumburz' . Si nhal ese Li l erut ure, p. 97,
36 trIahoydntsm in Ueylon, p. 46.
37 EZ. I , p. 52.
1 t rI ha. xxxi i i , 95.
2 i bi d. xxxvi , 112.
CJ.$c. (G),
II,-p. 109. Whether the engraving belongs to
t ne 14Ch cent ury, has rrot been expl ai ned.
33 It shonld be noted ttraC all ASCAR. and the connected
EZ. up to 1913 retain the uarnee $' hich echolars now consider
i ucorrect (ASCAR. f or 191G"l 1, p. 16 f t . nt . ).
gdned tbs tupport of a cortain $sighemitte who
rrqg versd in tho teachiege aonconeing the oxorcism
of apirite. Thie Cala bhiklrhu proved hirraelf
h the evil spirit guiding them on f,rcm bad to
Fors€. Comiag to Geylon he ongagad in srrccessful
d.ieputetian rith the leading thera of Thripar6,ma
vho hepgroi:red to be tbo king'a uncls. Sa.f,gharm,itta'e
eloquence eud logic uo improsnied the king thet be
appointad hirn s€ tutor to his twa rona, Jogthatisea
ead MahEs€na. I'he elder prince <iid not take wsll
to hie teu+her, but the yourrger' +no became tha
bhik&hu'a fayourite,
After the di:ath of king Goghabiraye, Jelfhatiesa
euceeeded big lirthor and reigned for ton yoare,
druing which tirnc ttre rnc,nk Sengha,mitte lived in
voluntary exile. But when after tiiat period the
th.rono foll vacent again, Saighamitta roturned
from tho furthur shcrot and mado r:,ii ths arrorrge-
monts for ths csns€cratiou of MahAsono, tho younger
brothor. Usirig his influeuce
on tilb young king,
he had ail royal support wiihdrawn froni tho
Mah6vihars qnd g&ve &s roBson that thoee monks
did rrot tesch tho conect discipli.:eo (vinayaJ. It
is notoworiby that no accusation
doctrine was professed. Soon it, bocarse irnFoeei,ble
for the monlrs i;o conturuo to livo in the MahEvihdra,
and afier it, h&d beerr desertod for
yea,jg, ifg
buii$ng matsrial was roneiivod to enrich the
Some tlrroo huarirsd and sixty
four colloges a,Ed gre&t tomples were uprootod aud
dostroyod, 6ayo s.n ancient chronicie; rlnd the
spoile gatberod from thon weat to enrich and
adorn tho home of herosy, the Abhoyagiri, which,
now in ornaments
rich in poseesaioas,
etood pro-eminent over ail as the greatest and
wealtbieet monastery in La,Dk6,"..
Somo palace intrigue, bowevor. by a minisi;or
nsmod Meghavannibhaya who turned raboln a.nd
by ono of the kirg's wives, earrsed the murdor of
tho monk $arrg:raniita aud of one of hie artheronts,
tho ruthlees minister. Sor"ra. l'hereafter, eovoral
byTt1g!-wors roconstructed within ihe promisos
cf the Mah6vih5,ra..
But again, when in tho yeera 4lg-414 Fe-heien
visited (hylon,
Abhayagirivihira wirb 600O reei-
ciout monks hed rogainod i[s supremacy over tho
MahivihEra with only 3000 monls. Arad during
the roign of Dhdtuseaa (48S4?3)
we find tbe Mah6l
vihEre iteelf ocoupied by Dhan-"ns,rucika bhikkhue,r
a doct whicb branchod off from tho Thersv5dins
ayr.llrs.tiro roign cf Vailegema+i Abheya, and
rrtrrch ie usually identified with. the Abheyagiri-
In tho tirns cf Sil&kd,la (618-631) e Vaipuiya
text) known u DtvmnnhhdW
was brought from India by e mor.che.n! of K6sI,
Pur+a._Tbis text was rea<lily accepted by
Abbayagiri and was honoured h tho
SsDekrit works,
eg tbe Dirgldgaznc and tho
Saap.yr*tigann, a'rd sJso the Sar.ny.u.lctaofuayo-
together wigh the Vim.ya-pilala
of [ho
Mahiedsaka achool, which woro romovod by Fs-
8lbl4 srvlt 2.
{ Xeldrreken : PdJi Lilaahrc of Cq1br, pp.
60 tr"
5 A|6..rrrl l l , Zi .
6 NiHyc,s*qrfu, ed- Wiclaeraastagh€, pp. 1l-18.
hsiea from Ceylon, aud partly tranelaCod, into
Chinegs by Ougabbadra, a bh;klrhu from cantrel
436}, aro euppose<i to hsve beon obtainod
from Abhayag:ri.
Ifing Sils,eeghava?Be in ths ?tb centrir5r wae
made &wars of conplaints egainst tbe noriks of
Abhayagiri and he ompowered ono of their own
11rrvn!r6i, n^Blrred Bodhi, to leed an enquiry. ThiE
monk, howevor, was kiiied, whereupon:
had ihe harrds of thoso reaponeible f,or the murdel
rrut off. Ilosent a further hundmd monke inio sxile.
Ilaving thue purifiod ths Sarigha, ho oudoavoured
to bring tho moaka cf tho Theravddo school ond
ths otirsre "togother for tho pur1>os€ of performiag
but the forrrror
ingly refuaod. The king loat his temper, abuaod
everybody, left the city in I rs,ge and diod suddonly
Herc, the
othor " monks roforred to are ths
Abhayagirivdsins.'Ihey woro not u.s,warLhy
as ths king had just cioa."^'ed tbo Order. The refussl
of the monks to co-operate, tbereforeo heve
been bas€d on dcctrinsl diffe$ncos, whicb wsre
stiU oxi.sting at
time, although th.ore were
no op€u elashes betwoen then. Succoeding kings!
such as
and Ddthopetiesa l[, befrieaded
both partiee with royal grents.
In the 9th contury s membor of the Vajraparvate
soct, iu India earne to reeide in Abhayagiri from
where he eproad hie teaching wbich i,s doscribed a.e
Bocrei teachings and popular with tho foolinb
aud ignorant". Some granito slebe with Tintrio
formulae (eeo foregoing article) aupport the etatc.
ment in tho ehroniclos that Abbeyegiri wa€ fCendly
ton ard^c he+.nrodox toacl'ings poriodically introducsit
from India. An inscriptioo dsting from tho llth
eentur;r! reifera to the Abhayeturdroa,has8 and ihe
groat literar;r worke of tho echolcrs dqr6lling tboro,
versod in tho scriptums, and ondowod witb the
virtues of tomlxraneo, contentnont eud religioua
The last ie hoard of then in the l2th ceatury,
when tho
echiem " eppoarod to be as ride as
ever. Ag montioned in the preceding orticle o Gon.
cilietion was attompt d by
Parikre'nabihu I.
In the boginning it proved to bo
aa exooedingly
dlfficult task".t Maoy bhilrlthue would beer aothing
of roconciliation; and even to ost&blish ha,rmony
a'Tnorrg the btritkhus of one scbool (!f,aheviben),
it became nocessarJr to oxcludo the undiociplinsd
elomonta from the Order aad ofrer tbom luorstive
wordly poeitions to provent thern from doiqg frrrtber
barm. Aftor tho purificai;ioa of the 8a$gha1 the
king set sbout bringfiry rmitf
different echools of the Mshevib6s&, Abhoyagiri
and Jetavena; divided by adheronco to tho Yetuilrr-
Not e singlo work has boea preervud as belonging
to tbe AbboyegirivesiDs. But tbo Chinee oanolr
containg & sirtb contur5r trrtr.lation of e werk
entitled Ci4-u-tao-lutq at tbe V&mMrgal,tuo
7 MLo. rllv, ?l lL
E EZ. I, pp. 225-0.
0 Uho.l gYi 4l a.
by Upatigya,, which, aceording to the eonsi-
dered opiniorr of P. V. Bap&t,
belougs to tho
school of thei Abhn;ragl i ri vasi ne. I' . C. Bagchi rr
*iso is <rf e.rpiniou lh4t ihe Virnutti,maggo of Upabissa
ropreaentr tho Abhayrugirivid* vereion and the
ttiautklhdmaggn of Euddltagho';* l,lre version of
tbe Mahiivihdra,
is no firndrunr:Irta,l difft rence
in doctrfure betw€rln thom stdliciunt lo w{lrrant
t'he etigrua of heresv.
ttre c1'r-:li-rarlarit'v o{ certain
doebriliri poiuts, sE well as thsiJ rllhrrnor of treat-
m6ntt would be srrfEeient to ltrrrn a basis of clivor-
g$rrcd whi cJl worrl d al i o*' fri r r:,r;-exi sl t:rrce wi thout
t,iu: mr.rrging of ono school rnto tlur oth$r, urrloss
uurupreller.l by rr.,yal dr.rcros. Boverirl ul r,het ,iissi-
rniirlnlies touch orr tlrr: moT,lxrd uf rnind r:orrtroi
in the process of rnedit*,lic.rn.
etrrrgp!1rd orrl y l l l i ol ;j C)r' l ,s cri concrJl rtr&1,rotl (kom..
ntul l l ti i naj , i errvi ng out tJu| oLrj ccts r-rt l i gi rt (dl ,oka1
&rrd of iiuritetl ,-il,ace
Ihe fnrrrr
or shapo of Li re r:orrccnf,*l Li on,,l ovl ce rnny be not,
only citcr.rlar, llrrt, evon qu$Llriitrqular 6p 11"in.ngular.
Ulrubisstr r.ioorrus.onds, brrt ISuddhagiros& \'eheruent-
ly oppoues, thr, dovoiopurg trf' bhe
r;f fho sublj.uro urcrit"al qbrahttru-
uihd,ra). Irr ciirr,r,ircter clas.gili.catiurr Lhe A,blrriya-
girivir"sins ii,cr:cpLeri nrrt only the $ix l;&sic cld,$se$
of l ust, l tafo, dc;l usi r-rn, conti rl orrr:e, wi sdonr rr,nd
irrvos Ligati o rr, brr.t also r'&xious c t:mbin u,t,iurrs tiruroof
making a tobol of four"bexlrr ula$sos.
It i s not urri y i n l ,l i e procoss of devel opment of
tho mi nd btrt, rrl so i rr tl re
l .rhi l osophi ca.I
anal ysi s
of rnotori i l l
l ri rcrrurut,rtrl
l l rrat, fl ro Ai i hayaqi ri va,si ua
differed froru what w*s considorod crt,hork-rxy.
I,'or they ilricled two firrther phenomona to tlrtl lisl
of !8, nnrnol y t.he y-rl rysi cel
l .rl reuornonorr
oI' ori gi na-
t'ron (jati-rt7,ptt) nitrl l,hat ol' inertirr
Thi s vi ow i s rt:j ccted Lry l 3uddhugl rus*
ou fho
grounds thrt bi rLL i s i ncl url ed i n i ntegl ati orr aad
r:ontirrrrity (u,pttcuyd-t;,t'ttltdi), and Lhat inartia
ie ton-exisLerrL
rtnd his ccrrnrn';rrt&tur l)ltraruroa-
yri,l* r:mprhrusists tlr$t bheso viows ure ireld try the
innlltesi of'A b h,l,'i'rr,giri roonasf€r;/ at Anur&id.h rrpura
ln thi,* comret:t,iuri it iH irrt,eresfiug to noti.' fli€ logicel
cuusi stoacy of the Abhayagi ri vi i si ns. Itro matori al
i narLi n (rrui ddi m-ri l pa) rvhi cl i i ., pi ' oducerJ by ti ro
werr,tJr€r (utuj al i s !o l rt: fourrd evi :.r i n tr.n rr,ral rant ;
u,rrtl lrerrr:o only montrr.l Irrngr:or' (thin,u) is nronl,rr;ned
rl s rr hi ndru,ncr: (tti ,uurana),' whel rr:ag the usual
Theravadrr enurneration of the 6vs hindrancos
speaks oi the cornbination. of sioth and torpor
Another view*, w.irilh accrrrci.in6 to tho comflren-
tator I]hanunapala is ihat u{ the adheronts of tho
school of Abhayagirt (Ablooyagiri,Ld.sike sqwl,hd-
gdho),La is tlirrt ascetic
(dhutahgan'd) canbe
also unprotitablo (alnt,*alo), &s thcy &re conoepts irr a name
On essentini points of doetrino, howevor, there
is perfect harrnony with Theravilda, e.8.,
&ccepta,rrco of ons single unconditioned
while clear-cut diff,srenoos wihtr tho Abhi'd'hor-
r0 f C. I , 3, pp. 458-9.
ll Siri,o Indian, II, p. 113,
12 Vi sn. xi v,
LS VismA.455 (Netramoll : The PNh of Puttftcalbn, p, 502,
u. 31) "
r4 i bl d. 87.
l5 Kvu, xviii, l.
4. S.P.C. 97040
mapi(aka ol the Sarvlstivddins, with tho rsdri
putrd,bhidharnt&.6da-lra arrd tlie Satyasiddhi-idagra
make i b svi dont tha! the Abi rayagi ri va-qi nn snnnefi
be treatod trs doctri nal hereti ce.
Albhough the .Abhar-egi-rivdsirs are froquontly
said t,o have embrg.ceLt r,he ]reresies of tire Yotul.
yaka, there is no evidence that, tbey went eo far
a,s to deny the actual personalit,y of the lSurldha,
wtrich is the heretical
(ktkatturuad.<lo) that the -tsuddha did not d*'ell in
thq hrrma,rr rvorld, but, that he created a material
to uppea,r in tl,is world,
r+'lrileb irr
hos,vern.16 Neither does
1;he fact thab soms disciples oi' a teacher callod
J)traruuraruci, trelouging to t,hr:
Sect irr
Iniliii,, wero recei.'ed at t,lre Abhayargili monasterylo
plovrr thab all tlie lieterodt-rx vier.ys of that school
u,'ere arlopted by the .Abhayagirir-d*sins.
theses of t,h*;se l)ixrmrnarucikas were taken over,
brrt essl,r:tiu,l doctl'inal points against the acceptect
J.'lieravaclu, c>t' unatl,d dirJ not fi^ncl I'avour with the
Abhaycigir"'ir"-d^-.rins. Tho rr,iu,tionship between ths
t,rv' o r' i vrrl Bectts Inrrv he sununed up a,$ ono between
tl rr- s,. rr,ivt.- .r\.1 ir,h[l' ih&rar.flsi,ns and t]tei libgral
A bi rri vrLgrri r' l t
-i r
"' I' l .i e
;\LrtrLr;' agui ri :orrks ser.:rt t,o l ravo l i ept up
const,anl, conL&ot tlrrir vtr,ri<-lus lluclci.hist secfs a,rrd
rr{jw mourrrrreuts ix lndia, t'rom ryhicir they ciurivod
rn.spiration and strenglli. Ihey woro iiberal in theiLr
viowso and aiwrrys lvclcomecl new ideile from abrosd
and tried to br, progressi'i.e.
sCudiud both
I'horar.irrll u,nr1 -ilIahd,yrrrr"r, and
wiclely diffused the
I'rip rlaira^s "'
Tho l)harn rrf,rt
rucikas of Abhayagiri
a,r'e sr-rlipos+:ri to havn acceptod tlro Vetulya.pifaka.
Vcturyus or arlherents of Vetulls,v*dil aro
r','ail knowu b.y rru,rno both in tho Sinlralese chronislee
arrd in tlr* c<.ruunentary tr: the KatJw'-*atthu.
aro e&id to llave believed that the Iluddha did uot
livr: on eor[h as a real p,ersonality, and that, tho
I)iram,rna $'&s u,ciLr&lly ptea,.;hecl by Arinnela" The
Vait,ulya ", howover, is unknown in Sang-
krrt le;ricons; bub fl.. Iiorn has tbund ihe word as
&n &lterliiite roatiirrg of
Vaipuiya " irr tbe etitrs
of that, niirne, tiro $fitrtr of Gretr.1, Dovelnpmont,
irt sorne l-(nEgur fragrnelts of the Sudd,iwnnap';m-
d.arEka. And lelce tfro Vetulwas (Vetullakas) may
not have contiLiLuted a separute sect, or scirool,
espeuiaiiy as thel' *r,re rrot numed &mong the oighte.en
scirooig; anrl tho designs,tion then merely starrds
a.s a kind of nicknane for
those of tho developed
doctrine ",18 or }Iah6yfr,na rn gerreral, in a way
nimila.r to tire sobriquct,
I{inayarra ", the Small
Vehiclo, dori-.rivolv given i:o t'he 1-trela,vEcia.
In the cornmeniary on tho Great Clrronicle of
Q6rylon wo 6rici a rnore plau.sible explanation of tho
separetion of the two]laulrities rvitirout either
of them beccrni ng l i ereti cal ul ti re doctrrne. Iho
corn-munif.,-t' of Abhal'agin eslaolished themselvos
in the .\bhayagui-vrharri
wa,s constructed
ki ' ,g l afl agamanr.
' fhey
a^qsumecl the namo of
Dhamroarucikas I l7 t-ears after tho escabiishmon{;
L6 . l {t kd. va-sai qroLa.
p, L0
17 W. Rahrila i Hi*torlt of Budnhi*m in CWlon, p.
Hsl l an-t sang, \ L, p. 217,
18 . Kern :
en Lledtdtzliwen dtr Koninklijkt Akc-
d.orcie ran lf elenecha7tpm an Letlcrbu*d,e,
1907, pp, J12-31S.
rl re Dh&mma i -u Coyl on, rej eet,i ng tLts Pori uoru
:=rti e,n of the \' rnnya wl i i cb, a,ccordi ng tc.r tho ortho-
c =,x vi en-. i i rrcl i ;ec.n reci teri b)' th* Ij It
rrri rsI rtcrt, ber forgottq:;r i rr t.l ri s cunnerc:ti on t"hat
t,l i e
(orLrnr.' Rt
u,tor i s hr:n' r' xi rl ui ni rrg Lhe i ri st,uri cal
frrcts f.rour t,h* vit:,.;yp6int of lhe }leirrivihara. f,.'he
narnc Il i rR,nrr.' rnnrri i Lecl f' rs al reedy Ofl en to di ffbrenti
rttter';-'re,ttttir-,1111, s;1e dCrivirlg t[e liur',: fr<.i'r t]re
su1-rl.rriserl lourrr.ler, another indicndiug tbe nr-r,ture
of ther $scedcrs : tl i cse who del i gl i t i n the I)harnrnn.,
or who c&use t,lre i)harnrna tr-r sirino.?o
r\s rogarcls ilieir non-accept&nce r-rf tho Pariud,ra,
the 6fth book of tno \;i na.ya, thi s too carr be i nt,er' -
proied in varicus w&-\, s. One is the intorpretation
of thtl lfahi,vilr*ira, given above. But, a rJiffcrerit,
view will be obbai-ned when it is nuted thu{" t}rer
Pqripd,;raIid.llw is
an abstract of the otlier parts
of the Vinaya, in I'act. & very rrruch later conrpilation
and probably the rvork of *r Ceyion tlitrra. In
some Bbanzas
aro founii at the erid of tlie
Pariotdra,pdtha, it iil stated io havo beetr compose,:l
' tl ,o
hi ghl y wi se, i earri ed and ski l fui Di pa,
aftor hehad inqrdrod hero arid l,hore into themothods
(ti terol l y, the way) l ol l on' ed by fornrer teachel s' ."
Moreovor, wo klorr
the c&norl of the northern
lchools distinguishes orily four and not five divieions
of the Vinaya, notv"ithstandirrg the nat ural tenclency
to increase ra,ther than retronch in the courgo ofthe
yoers. In thi s l i ght the refusal of the Abhayagi ri -
v6silrs to rncludo this work in ths Vina,ya-pipaka,
vrh.ereby it would receive the undeserved authority
of tho Buddha'e word, seems moro like &
cleahsing reform than a schism, based on differences
in interpretation and texts (attlwntura-paihan-
tara-kara7t,a-acLsena bhed,am,). But it would &ppe$r
that in the course of centuries tho origurai zeal
for reform lostr, itg keen edge ancl u'hen finally e
reunion r:f the Mah6.uihdra, Abhayagirivihd,ra and
Jotavannvihd,r"a was proposecl. by the groat Sinha-
lese king Par6kra,mabdhu l, he sueceedod, where so
rn&ioy othere before him had failed. After this the
schooi of bhe Abhayagi ri v6si ns ceased to eri st
in tho hietory of Bud<ihisiu,
It ie interesting t,o note a, somewhat similar,
although much loss pronounced, <lifferenco of atti-
tude rather
of doctrino betweerr two of ths
foremost Urieltal universities irr prosent day
Ceylon. Both derive their rnonastic ordi:eation
from the sa me sourco(Siarn-Thailand);
both subscribe to the fuilest extent to tho ortirodox
l l h-gravdda; both are eqrral l y recogni sod and patro-
niseci, oven by the govr-.rnrnent. And yet cno ompha-
sises rnoro tho ciassical Paii of tho tradrtional texts
a,nd commontaries a,nd appears to have becomo
somewhat consi;ricted rn its horue isliand of Ceylon ;
tho othor is visibly influenced by Sanskrit texts and
translations, tlioreby assuming a widor outlook, if
uot from,a cloctrinal a,spect, certainly so rn practical
dariy life^ Tho slight differerice betwoon theur iu tho
manner of vrearing the monastic robes and in the
l Q . Vhr: A. v. pp. 176"-6.
20 A. Rareau : Let Secls botuid.ltiques dupetit Vdhi.cuL,
H. Kern : Hitbiro du Bondd' hisme dans L' IM,e,II'
p" 367
(/.u9" xr).
31 T. \Y. Rhye Davids and E. Oldenberg : Introductiou to
Vi noya Tei l g, 7, p, rri v, . sBU. XI i I .
attitudo of one irl actively po.rticipating in certain
socuJar movenrents rnight bo taken as reflecting
those pointe of view. No etigma, howevor, can
be attached to ei ther.
II. G. A" r'AN Znvgr.
groat scholar of th'l universitv of Vikrama6ila (q.v.
It w'as from thic_ university ({bundod
by king
DharruapF.l_a in tho Eth cor;f.urJ' A.C.i that the largesi
number of l ndi an nri ssi ,.ruari ed went to Ti bet.
l'oliorving thtr Tibetan trodition,
Rai S. C. Das
Bahaciurl lrolds that Abhavdkarallrpta
was bonn
about the uliddio of the
centufi' of t]r" present
era. Phaniucirrlnath Bose,3 howover, thinks ihat he
flourished townrds the end of tlie l lth centurXi and
at tho beginning of tho l2th contur5r. It iir said
that he di eA i n LtZg e.C.
A native of Gauda, Abhay6karagupta
oducated i-n the lountry of Magadha which-was, At
that l,ime, under {he sway of king R6ma
After learning the five Vidyds, or
of the
9,ay : Sabdavidyi, Silpasthanavidyd, Cikitsavidyd,
I{etuvidy6, and Adhy6,tmavidyd, ho joined
order of monks and soon became famous as a great
scholar. I{ing Rarne PEia iu*,-ited him to perform
bhe religious ceremonies in his palaco.. As s monk
he workec{ hard; ho wroto 6dstras in tho fi,rct two
watchee of the doy, and erpiarned tho principleg of
of the Dharma in tlie thfud"
There is a story t,old in Tibetan booke about e
pEkini (Tibeta,n; rukhah
who, disguisod
as a girl, tried to tempt Abhayiikaragupta. IIo was,
however, roore than a match for her wiles. I[is
Btern morality pleaeed the
so much that she
blessed him thus:
You will obtain forekncwiedgo
during the interval betwoon your death and rebirth.
As a step towards ite acquirement you must wlito
many works on tho Dharma $dstra." She also
drew his attontion to tho practice of maki:eg Td,ntric
mapqlalas (Tibel,an : Dkyil
or ritualietio
circlos. Tibetans who believe in this story think that
this incidsnt inspired Abhayikara€fupt& to compose
several 66stric works and commentaries, such as the
(l) Thed-w&-korsum, (2) Commentariee on Khajor
(Mkha[-lrgro), (3) It[an-Nag, (4) Nema, aud tho
(5) Salr5re thod.-pai-nam-sh6-mi-jtgpa (Sa.ia-rgy'as
thod-p ali rnam
- l,r j igs
p a), besidos eriticisms
on the s'orks of othor'commentatorp.
Anothor story is toicl of how he' visitod tho city
of Carasir.nha, whero the oa4rqi3ile king was about
to make a hrrnd.recl hrrman ea.crifices to hjo gud. Tho
appea,r&nce of a hideous snake over his hoad,
created bv magic, terrified the oeTdala king so much
that he sot lds rrictims freo at' tho roquost of Abhayi-
karagupta. Ttrore ia yet anoNher a,ccount wtrich
1 " Lives of the Panchhen"Riupochhes or Tasl Lsmss
JASB. 1882, pp. 1&-18.
2 lrd,ion Teoclurs oJ Btrdrlhist Unloorsilits, pp.
81 f.
3 L'Itda Clasd4tn, II, sec. 2030.
4 Airi,ent ltdion Ed,uul,ion, R. K. Mookerit (1951)
i TlrauE.
tha'e Acuhi.chte das Budihi.rmus (A. Schiofuer) pp. 250 ff
relates how Abhayakaragupta
allayed the suffenngs
of the meny hunger"etrickon beggars in Su-hhflvati
by giving tliem food and drink from hie mendicanl,'e
wus miraculously
supplied frorl
Theee elories arc Eiellrrt to add glory to llrs
eaintly chars,stcr'
Tliough AbhayEr,karagupLa was the hersd of the
rnonke Eelonging to bhe,MahayA,na ech':Ql, Iro
r*spected also by the $r[,vakrrs. He remained at'
Vilirarnn6ild, for u loug tiine. In iris clay this univer'
undor tho protection of the son of king
$rtLft"^g"i of
Ittd.i* "
(perhaps tho oasiern
tlistricts of Magadha). On blre authority of ll-ibotarr
writeirs, it, is said, that there tooli place at this tillro
a J-'urr.sko war in which Abhaydkar&gup!?
an important part by invoking the aid of t'ho
(i.e., the spiritual- protectors o1' t'he
world) ind transfbrmiag tho offerirtgs with t'heir
holp inio eagles, who turned out the
Aftiors'ards, lG crred msny of'poisonous sn&'ko-bites
and arrosted nulrrorous banclits ancl rrrbhers by tlre
epell of his rrranl,ras' Th€J la,st of tho many w.'r1tJe1s
lie achieved u'as the bringing to lif'e of tr, child in
the great' cemet'ery
Lihe Dipankaru (Ati6a), Abhayakaragupta'
greai writ-er tr,s well u,s & tr&nslator t-rt' Briddliisi
iexts. Ho was proflcionb in
sevorai of his tlwn books in Sanskrit'g
Sorne of hi s wri t;i ngs appear i n the Ti betan catal ogue
under the name of eUnayakara,gupta,
and obhers
und.or thut, of Abhy[kara. ]Ie stlerns uiso to ]rave
been associatecl rvith the f'amous universrty of
N6landa, where he translated a few books' I'he
rn' Sl dpatti karme-Sdstra,
Ki l i si rryac akra v aSa
n6,m&, Gapacakrapijd,krama'niim&,
il"- Sintgiptevajrov6r6hieddhana,
were trans'
lated into Tibotan by him. It rs
that all theso bookg- belong
to the Rgy:d-ligrol or
group, thus confirming his reputattou as a
sreat, TEntri'c-scholar,
which is not surprieing since
Vikrama6ild. wae a, gre&t ceutre of Tanfra. Another
book, the Abhigcka'prakaran&t
wtl's composed
Sanskrit and. transla[eci int,o Tibetan b.y hitn' IJe
is reputod. to be ttre author of 26 moro books, whicir
,uu"d t"r.trslate,:l into Tibeton by v8'rious hancis'
Thev aro;-Sri -kal a' cakroddti ,na,
Sri ' cakra' sam'
.rr"dbhi"*ou1,' u, Sv adhistli6,nakramopade6a'n&rna,
s.ampulatan tra
nd'ma, Galaca'kraYid*-
ndma, Vajrayanapirttlrimafrjari-n6ma,
Itodhipaddhati-n't'rna, Sri-
Vaj ramahakalakarmo'
fr.ra'tarna, Vaj ram-airdkd'lakarrnavi
g6,biric ara-rrdm.a,
Vr-r1j ramah6,kdlq,karrnakd'"1'tlstam'
\raj ramahakalakarmavakstarn-
bl i anabhi ci i ra-ni ,ma, \' aj rarnahakal akarrnaci tta-
stambhandbhicd,ra-ndrna, VajramahakE,lakarma-
b irava$ oqa46b hi6dpa
r1ma, V aj rarnahdkalakarmE-
and the
j ari
-ndma .
sarvate ntrotpanlooa,pa,nx
su,mdnyobhdsya, aLl of wNch belong to the Tantra
Besi des these, two works of the nl do-$grel or
eutra group were writton by him : the Arydsla-edhas-
rik apraj fr apd,rtlmi tir,r'gttimarmakaumu di-n dma, an d
tho }lunimabi.lank6ra. Yet anothor book, the V*jra-
mahl,k6labhicS,rahorna-ndma, t'hich, accordilg
sorrr) wa,s written by Nagarjuna, is also credited.
to him. ft, is moro probablo that Abhayakaragupta
r:ollectod tcgettror the instructions of Nageljuna
and compiled this book.? The following works aro
also recorded in Cordier as having been composed
Ac5,rya Mahepapdi ta Abhayakaragupta: (l )
Bodhi sattr,' s"sal nvaragrahana-vi dhi (III,
33g), (Z)
Ji d,nadaki ni sEdhana (II,.i 00), (B) Kal acakrd,vatdra -
ni l ra (II, 2!), arrd (4) Sri -Mafl j uva,j rddi kram6,bhi -
sa,ma,yass,muccaya-ni spannayog6 val i -nd,ma(III,2B0).
Thus Abhayikaraput& rva,s woll known both in
trndia and T'ibot. In tho Tongyur ho is sornetimos
cal l ed Pandi ta, Mahapandi ta. Acarya, Si ddha and
Sthavi r,r. IIi s name i n Ti betan i s
gj i gsrued
gna,s sbas-p&
l.Ijigs-rned hb1'un-gnas
shabs (i .e., Abhal ' d,karaguptap[da), and hi r i n-
fluenco on Tibetan Buddlrism wa,s very groat. The
question whether ho visited Tibet rernains to be
doci ded. It sooms, howovor, proi rabl o that he di d,;
hs is worehippod ovon rr'ow as & srtint there.
T. R"rt,lrerrRANA.
(-LIPI), ono of the many scri pts undsr
tho cont,ro| (ni,ti,) of a boclhisattva, listed in tho
M,ahd,uastu in the section dealing with the seventh
Bodhi sattva-bhurni . Thi s scri pt was probabl y
usod by a peopl o of the n&me of Abhaya (Mhuu.
I , 135, 7:
' Bhay a) .
ABTIAYAIUATA, a thori who had boen a courtesan
(nugarasobhi ni ,), named Padumdvati i n Uj j eni .
Iting tsimbis6ra of l-iajagaha hearing about her
beauty wislied to see hor a.nd informed his chaplain
l puroi ti tal
about i t. By the pou' er of spel l i the
purohi ta cal l ed the yakkha Kurnbhi ra wi th whose
help the king's desire was fulfilled. Wb,en shs
i nforrned the ki ng that she ]ra,d concei ved a chi l d,
ho sent word to say that i f sho had a scn, he woul d
l i ko t o see hi m.
A son was born and narnerj Abhaya (ThtgA. 39)
whereupon Padumavati came to be known &B
Abhayamdti .
Abhaya i s generai l v referred to as
Abhayari j akumdra.l
But the comment&tor of the
' I ' her t gat ha
does not cal l hi m
r aj akum6. r a' ( Tht gA.
39- 41
) .
l Vhen the boy was seven years ol d, he was sent
to the ki ng who brougi rt i ri m up rvi rh the pri nces
of the court. Later. Abhava renounced the worl d
? Indfun leachers of llurldhist Uniuersitiet, op. cit. pp.
E8r00: and Sadht t t unt al d, I I I GOS. No. xl i ), Senoyt osb
I Jha0t ach8ry] ' 8, I j p.
xc-xci .
I I )PPN, I Jur Arurapi l i i s ment i oned as hi s mot ber i n t ho
Jlr-rla Sarvaslivrida Vinaya (GM. Iil, 2.
t' .
5 JA58. 1882, P.
6 L;Irutt Clas-si$ua II, Sec.2029,2039,2042.
nrbetsnoos ").
Io evory respect it wa'e like the royal
city of Pugp6vati which, too, had a pillar namod
Valay6, whicb was bright and beautiful and of
sovon coloure.
Ilero, in Abhayapu&, Supdtra tho Tathdgata
preacbed tho "
word of tho renowned calm'.'
r op" cit. p. 227, n. l),
ond procloined the Tathdgata Varupa.
T. R.
(2), tho capital city of
( No. 3) .
ABEAYARA.IAXUUARA, a popular appellation
' pri nco'
Abhaya, who, perhaps, w&s so knowl
in ordor to distinguistr
hirn from the other Abirayas
of his time.
Ilo was a son of king Bimbisdra. This is stated
in the Apa,ddna, in the verpes ascribed to Abhaya,
as well is in a few co'n'nehtaries (Ap. IT a. ZZ|
MA. l II, p. 108
I, 87-88). IIi s mothor,
according to one of theso corrrrnentaries, w&e Padu-
m6,vati tlr,e courtesan of Ujjem (ThEgA" rrxvi),
known as Abhayamdt6 (q. v.).
In the A'paddno, Abhaya recounts that having
fallon among evil f'rieudg he wae beguiled by the
religious teachor Niga+lha N6taputta. Ndtaputta
taught him a questiou which Abhaya promisod
to put to tho Buddha, and which they both thought
would considorablJ' omba,rrass him.l Tho impli-
cations sf fhis quostion and tho Buddha'e roply aro
in tbo Abhayord'iokumdra Sutt'ct (q.v,)
of tho Majjhdrna Nikd'ya (Sutta 58). Tho quostion
that Abhaya askod at his own residence, after
having invited the Buddbo there, was \f,hethor
the Tathdgata uses such language as may bo un-
ploasant to othors and disliked by them. The
Buddhn's a,nswer eo impressed Abhaya that ho
enquireid whsther the Buddha anticipated such
quostions and had &u6wers ready, or whether ho
a,nswered thom spoutaneously. Before taking his
leavo of tho Buddha, Abhaya expressed a wish
that ho be accepted as a lay disciple.
Appareutly, thore wero obher occasions whon he
met tiro Buddha. At ono such meeting at Gijjha-
kiga. whon he discussed tho view of Prfrana l{'assapa
that both non-knowledge as well as kuawlodgo
harl neil,her c&use uor re&son, the Buddha ropliod
that they bot,h conditiorred in that they
wore fho reuult, of tLe
hildrances " (nduarand,nil
and' f act or s of enl i ght enr nent ' ( boj j hangdnd)
rospoctivel5'. Abhaya rn'as convinced, and being
unable 1,o contain his admiratic,,n lbr ttre lluddha,,
ho declared that his fatigue both physical and
montal evinced during his ciimb to Gijjhaknla
had been ail allap ed and tho dharnma reeilised
by him (S., Bojjhanga Saqnyutta,
eutta 0).
of tho dhanr:na' is probably
BJzr.onymous with tho comprehensiou of the Four
Noblo Truths which n:a,rks the moment of the
attainrnenb of eotrlpatli. Tirat at least is tbe sense
1 Jocobi bas st&ted that this Abhaye hae been frequently
mentioned in the legeude and cauonica,i works of tho Jains-
(S.B.U. xr.Y.
Introduction xv. n. 1).
in whjch thie expression has been ofuen employed
in the texts. Bur, the queetion whether Atlhaya
ws*e here declerring hi.s attsinnrent, of aotdptatti,
snnnsf, bo adequately pureued in view of ths fact
that the corn'nentary makes no allueion to it
and also because of tv'o other cornrnont&riol tra-
ditions which contradict one another e,B lo tho
occaeion whon such a spiritual change took placo.
In the Theraqd,thtt cornrnent&r-\' (I, 58) he ie
said to havo attained aotd,patti when tlrre
chigalupLama r\uttar was preached, while according
to tlrc Dlnmmapada corn-montary (III, 166 f.)
this happened alter the Buddha had discor-used
to him in corurecLion with a nautch girl's death
that occurrod scarcely a weok after she had been
presented to Abhaya by his father f,hs
Tho king is saicl to have given her over to Abheya
in rocognition of lris servicss when he quelled a
frontier robeliion. Nothing, however, is said of hie
military skill oxcept that in the Abhoyard,jakutndro
$u,tta, ho himseif
to be & woil-known
charioteer skilleci in ths varioue parts of a ahariot
(M"I,396). The kurg i s al so sai d to have bestowed
on him his kingdom f,or soven days, duling which
tiure Abhaya enjoyed regal splendour within tho
confrnee of his house"
But, in epite of his having recoivod such a rare
honour, Abhaya nevei succesd.ed to the throne.
IIe probably had no such aspirations ae there was
already prince Ajatasattu, the iegitirnate son of
Birnbis6,ra, and occording to the co"'.nenta,rial
tradition, Abhaya was so deeply rnoved when his
father died, that he eventuaily decided to bscoms
e monk.
Before hie admission into the Ordsr, Abhaya
probably was the father of the celebrated physician
Jivaka. This, however, hae been denied in ths
Vinaya in an episode where Jivaka himself questions
Abhaya about his parontage. Abhaya, whilo clai'n-
ing to bo as ignorant as J'ivaka on that matt6r,
takes full credit for baving brought him up (I,
269). As against i,his statement of tho Vinaya,
Lhe Angdtara comrse:ntary rocords that Jivako'e
fathor was Abhaya and that his mothor was tbs
courtesan Sdl ava' l ,i (//. I, 399).
Tho Vinaya tradition seema to roflect a deliberats
al,tempt to safeguarcl the reputation of Abhaya
arrd lfinbisara. It not only depicts Abliaya as
innss6ntly ignorant of Jivaka's paternity, but, eays
further that having accidentally rtissoysred
as &n infaut discarded on a heap of rubbish and
ou t'he verge of being pecked by crows, he took piuy
on tho child and had ]rim removed to the inner
ci ty to be brought up by nursi ::g mothers (I, 269).
N<.rthi ng i s sai d of the chi l d' s paterai ty. Abbaya' s
conduct uray have been prornpted either by a senso
of social service, or a feeling of guiJt, that tho child
was his own. The Yrnaya tradition 6eems to imply
tho forruer
but the ltrtter consideration is the
more likely as Abiray'a himself since his sevonth
year had been brought up by Birnbisara for uo
othor reason than that ire \il&8 aJr illegitimate soa
2 Thls ts
probably e misprlnt fot
Tdl*chwCalpars Sufrn,
of the kutg (ThtgA, xxv' i , 39). l t i s agai rr si gni ti ca,rrt
ttrrrt thi s tti eo i s rrl enl i orl ed onl y i n a comrrl entary
wi ri eh bel orrg: to the eut,ttr trai l i ti <;rr. The Vi nay.l
doos noi Evcrl
ytrguoi y a,l l ude to i t-an i ndi cati orr
tht+t i b reeorded noLtri ng that wsd prej udi ci al to
the repubaLi on of the kurg.
In the *Abhayar,Tjakurnd,ra Sutta, too, Abiraya
i e cl onei y aeso*i i ate)d wi t,h * cl ri l d for rvhom he
eviderrrly irrr,d grr-'ttt, $ffection
ttrat child rnight
wsl l l r ave beer r . I i vaka, but unl br t unat ei y hi s
idcntity rnd
irave nowhere been rovealod
either i-u tho
or its conrrqeniirry.
Abhaya ie eaid to have won $,rahantship not long
*ftcr tri s eul ry i rrl o ti re Orcl er. I' i rat thi s rvas the
result of tris havrng listerred to the eloquent v'ords
of tho Buddha i s stated i n the one and oni v verse
ascribed to him in tho Theragutho (eka,nipata u.
26). Tl ro 1' heri ,gd,thd' , too (duka,ni pi to o. 33), has
incidontally recordod another of his vorses along
with ono other ascribe[l to his mother who, afber
her ootry into the Order of nuns, wlrs callod
Abhayamdtd. That verse w&s an adrnonit,ion to liis
mother that she should reflecl on the body frotn
head to foot as foul and rotten. That this advice
helped hor to win delivor&nce rs asknowledged by
his mother.
Abhaya' s
fust associ ati on u' i ti r a l l udcl ha i s
said to date from tlrri t'irne of Buddha Padumur,tara
(Ap. Itr",502 f.). Il e had then been a preacher of tho
dhamma and out of revc'rtnce for tho Buddha is
sai d t o l i ave al w-ays prefaced hi s sermons by roci ti ng
four l auda,tory stanzas i n honour of the Buddha.
As a result of tbo merit, sc.r accumulat,ed htr
escaped bei ng born i n anv of the woeful states o1'
exisience for one Lrundled tl.rousand tr,eons'
Theragattxi cornnlenta,ry also B,ssoci{ltes him with
Buddha Vipassi to whom, it is said, he srade au
offering of kelaka flowers
(1, 87)'
verses that
aliude 1o this incident also occur rn the A'pa.dana
rtrhere, however, they are ascribed to & thera
named Kel akapupphi ya
(II, 449 f' ). Ii r i s doubttul
whether Kelakapupptr.iya was another appeJlation
of Abhayarajakrrrnara.
As Maltr,iasekera suggests,
that probably was
jusb a t,itle of another t"hora,
whose real name was Abhaya
(No. 2 v\ DI' PN.).
Such titlos rvere corrunon in aucient timos and were
used, to signify a special virtue or qudity that was
characteri l bi c-of
the person, o.8., Abhaya Sartha'
vdha, Abhaya Di ghabhd.l aka, Abhaya Drrf{}raga-
magi , Abhaya Cora, &c., but for whi ch i t woul d
have been scarcely pcissible to distinguish one
Abhaya from another.
H. S. C"
SUTTA, & di scourso
of the tsuddha
preaehed to Abhayarajakumdra
when the.Buddi ra vi si ted Abhaya' s house i n com'
pliance with an i:evitati,on to accept alms thore
Xo. 58). The Buddha was i nvi l ed whi i e he
was residing'in Veiuvana at Rdjagaira but tire invi'
tation was ieally a pretension to courtesy, tho real
purpose boi ng to embarrass the Rucl dtra wi th c
questi on that was a di l ernrna,.
Abhaya l earnt the rl uesti on from
}Ii gal l ha
){6.taputta who i nduccd }ri rn to put i t to the Buddha
on tho grounds thaL Ai rhava' s farne s' oul d sproad
once it ig knr:wn that ho ha,d raiserl an argument
agai nst t ho r oci use Got t r un.
Ti re quesbi on wns rvLethr:r thc Tathi tgato l rgeg
such wr:rds as rna,y be unl tl easi .tttL atrtl di l tagreeabl o
t,o ot,ht:rs. Ancl t,he ni gantha surmi scd thtr,t, i f the
Buddha answered i :r tl ro afi i nnuti ve, i t. woul d show
hi m up as bei ng no di fferent ftom a worl dl i ng
(ynttl tuj j ana), but that i f l to answetotl i n tl i e nega' "i ve
l i e coul d be cai l cd a l i rrr l l t,causo i i i s use <l f such
l anguage hacl provoked anrl onraged I)evacl atta-
But no sooner was tho quosti on asked than
came the Buddha' s repl -v that i t coul d not be
&nswered di rectl y (ekanusena)\.
' Ihat
al one w&3
enough for Abhava to acknrl wi etl ge tho groatness
of tne Buddha over tho ni ganfhas. The Buddha
then proceedod to expl ai tr that, i rrespecti vo of
rvhet,her hi s words u' oui d ul ti rnatel y be pl ea' sant'
and agreeabi e to peopl e or not l ro woul d utter them
' when
he knew t hat i t w&s t ho pr oper t i mo
i kal ai i fi i l ' )
to do so, r.r,nd provi docl certai n necess&ry
condi ti ons rvere present, namel y, that he w&s
a,w&re that whu,t l re uttered w&tl & facb (bhutal nl ,
was real (tacch,am) and woul d eonduce to the
persorr' s wel fare (atth.asoml ti tary). If
ono of
theso concl i ti ons was absent he woul d not speak.
Thi s, sai d bhe Budtl h&, w&s duo to hi s sympat' hy
for bei ngs (sattesu artui t,atn1fi ,1
whi ch he l i kened
to AbhaS' a' s syrnpathy for a chi i d who happened
t o be t hen i n hi s &r ms.
So greratly was Ablrava irnpresse6t [y t]re ma,ihrcr
i n whj ch tho Buddha s,nswcred hi s questi on that
he asked hi rn wl rt-' ther he anti ci pated sr-rch questi one
and had even thought out s,nswers to them or
whether he &nswered them spontaneousl y.
' Ihs
Buddha ropl i ed that si nce tho dhammadhd,tu
been reaiisr:d by him, he answered t'hem sponte,neourl-
iy very much as Abhaye who was a skilled charioteer
iould havo spontaneously named the varioue
parts of a chariot h he were questioned about
The discourse ends rrit'li Alihaya's e'ntreaty
that he be accepted by tho Exal ted One a,s a l ay
di sci pl o (u1,usaka).
H. S. C.
ti ve contai ns an epi sode of the i j fe of Abhaya'
rdi akum6ra. Il e was doepi v gri ervecl over the death
of o nautci r gi rl who had beren presented to hi m
bv the ki rrg hi s father, a week earl i er. Abhaya
visitod the Buddha at Voluvs,n& to find comfort
( Dhgt A. No. 4) .
The Buddha fi rst consol ed hi m by stati ng that,
the amou-nt of tears that Abhaya liad likowise
ehEd duri ng a numbor of l i veg sagh t' i rne bhat ttri s
2 The courrneDtary explains this word as being synouynous
with omniscience-eobbafi,ilulo
fiinaaso etary adhirtu
conat r y . . ( M A. I I I , r f 3) .
L Na klo'd,ho rdidkwnttro ekarysendii. Thia meani, sayg the
- -
commentsrf, that the qriestiorr could nrrt be ansrvored
elioiutetv, for the Tathagats, may ol mat' not utter suclr
w-oias, aia tn ho doee utier, that would be merely
Ue-cauie [e sees a bene0t resulttng therefrorir' Otherwiso
tro could resrain eilent (.Dfl. III, i09).
v' ery vrom&n htl C d.i eel wrr,s, i ndeed, l r*tyonrl m(.l rrsure-
H*ving thus considorably lessoned lris g3ief, the
Etddha preaehed to l ri m about the i i nngers of
.affeetion, ite a st&nza in rvhich ire ceirnpared a
living being to a decoratecl royul chariot where
onJy fools eit eomplaeently
But discerning ones,
eaya the Buddha, fi rrcl no atbachment thorei n.
t{awi ng l i stened t,o the words of the Brrddha,
Abhoyar&j skumS.rn i s sai rl to hn i ' r-r st,t,ai ned
the firet fruit of enlightenmolot (sotd,puttiphala),
aceordi ng to other uccorrnts (soe ABtrLA,YAIi AJA-
I(UNIAI{A), hi s spi ri tual awakeni ng took pl ace
under d iffercnt circur-rrstances.
Fl owevor that rnay be, i t i s worth noti ng that
i n the present account the Buddha i s made to
address hi s words, compressed i n ther mr:taphor
of a royal chari ot, i n a, rnanner that woul cl be rnost
i ntei l i gi bl e to Abl rarzara,j akumrrra, who, u,ceordi ng
to a subta of the l l a,j j h,i ma )' l i kdyu, *' as l ri msoi f
an erxcellent charioteeq (-lbltayarajalcuntrl ra r\utt<t,
j l 4.
No. 58) .
H. S. C.
ABHAYARAJA PARI VENA, a f oundat i on i n
Ceyl on atta,ched to Vanaggaurtrpi sd,da, Vi hti ra,
bot h of whi eh wer e t he wor ks of ki ng Vi j avabi hu
I V ( 1271- 1273 A. C. ) . They r vor r r bui l t i n Si ndhu-
ravdna where tho ki ng arri ved from Ganga-
si ri pura (Garnpol a) on hi s retum frorn pi l gri mage
to Srrmantr.kuta. I.t i s l rnenti oned that the pari vena
was bui l t i n tho n&rn{l of hi s father ParakrarnabShu
l I. ft, was enrl owed wi t,h vi l i ases, fi el ds and vi r,ri ous
ot her r gi f t swhi ch, howev' : r ' , t r enot speci f i ed ( XI h, - ,
l x x x v i i i , 4S f . ) .
ABI I AYASAMANA SUTTA i si n r eal i t y t he AbhaSl a
Sutto of ,4. ff, I73.
' fho
confusi on htrs probabl y
ari sen from the text of J6,nussoni ' s words t,o the
Buddha :
" There i s no one subj ect to death, who
does not fe&r " (n' atthi
uo so ?neranctd.hrtml no samano
na bhdyati ). Tho ucl dS,rra, however, u' hi ch gi ves
i n verse form the ti ti es ofthe suttas i n each chapter,
descri bes the fi rst l i ve sutta.s as : \' odhu pdt' i -
bhogasu,tam abhatlasailtctnclsaceene : Lho
warri or (uodhaj Zua), Buro-tv (pcl ti ,bhoga). hearsav
fearl ess
l thl mrya),
recl use (sarnanct or
brd,hmaTt a- sacca\ .
( l ) .
I her o &r e snvor al sr r t t as
under thi s narne, but rrot, ai i deral *-i t,h the same
subj ect of fearl essness (.abhuaa).
l fhere i s, c.s., tho
Abhaya Suttawhi r:l t or:curs i n the Santyutta Ni kaua
i n the chaptor on tl ..e fti ctors of enl i gi rtenmerrt
(boi j hahgasdkaccam), i rr tti o Il oj j l -,anr1a
(V, 126). I-{ere ti re na,rne i s deri r-r' cl fi ' rr111 1j 1.- I-i cc}i at' i
pr i nce cal i ed : \ bhn- v- l r ( No. l 0) , l l r o i i sker d t l r e
Buddha about the teachi ng of Phrrrrra I(assapa that
deeds i rad no resul t,
Il ut the l Jut-l dha
repl i ed that both the l ack o{ knorvl edge u"nd under-
standing (afi,fiina-ado.ssuna), as rvell as rvisdom and
i nsi ght (fi ,a7toda.ssanl a), have tl i ei r roots
(hel zl )
condi ti ons of ari si ng
\pucca11a' 1.
l l hs {i rst fi nd
thei r roots i n l ust oi t ti re serl ses (l ;unardOa),
i l l -wi l l
l byapudct),
sl oth and torpor (thtrutrni rl dha),
3 The word used in the stauza for living being is lola (world).
But t ho cornrnent ary has expl ai ned t hi s ss meani ng
" one' s own exisience t,hat is cornprised of the aggregates
and t he l i ke t hat are reckoned i n t erms of worl d. " (i bi d).
oxcitement irrlcl wLrrry (wlclhaccokukkucut) end
t' i c i,k i c c ha
s'irich colloctively aro cellod
hi rrri rances (ntt' 711n7*1 , Tl re l atter, wi sdom atrd
i l si sl ' t. fl nd tl rei r roots &ncl condi ti ons of ari si ng i n
the cul ti vati r:n of rni rrdi ul ness (sal ' i ), i nvoeti goti on
of truth (d,harn nt auic u,
a), ene rr{\- (
i.rfit u),
j oy
tranqui l i i ty (,pe"ssaddhi ), coucen+rsti on
(samad,h,i,) a.nd oquanimity
whiclr &,ft)
col l ecti vel v cal l ed che seven factors of
":i rl i ghten-
morri (sanrboj;ihanga).
ABHAYA SUTTA ( 2) , deal i ng u' i t h t he subj ect of
tho ferr,rl ess(abhaya), occurs i rr tho Book of I-ours of
fhe Anguttara Nrkdya (II, i v, srrttu, 134).
Tire discourse is the result of a statornent made
by tbo brihman Janussor.ri who, although a follower
and great rrdrni rer of tho Bucl tl htr, was keen on
i i stoni ng oi so to other teachers l i l i e Subha Todoyya-
putta (J' 1. II, ,l ubha Sutta) ancl Pi l oti ka (1t4".' l ,
Cillahatthipad,opanm Su,tta) and courparing thesc
differerrt vic,rvs or investigating thoir claims.
Ji i gussol i expresse,.j the vi ow l hat any bei ng subj tl ct
to fea,rs the ti rousl rt of rj The l Juddha
in replv dot's rrot' cli.*rnir.s this sta,torn*,r5 riru toto buf,,
whi l o atkni tti ng ti rat sorne bei ngs subj oct to ci oal h
f' ear tho thought, t' hort,rof, sa1:s 1hr, tl roro nro ttl so
bei ngs, equal i v sui rj ect, tc dr:..rtl r, wl i o do not, {' e*rr
i r"nri treml -ri c nt, tl i e thousht of rl eath. Thi s vi ow i s
then fi rrti rer ci cvcl on,' d by tho Budrl i ta, whc, rl i vcs
four cl usses of bei nss rvi ro hru,r the thought of doath,
and four classos rvho do not, so fear.
First: of ail thore is tiie person rvho in respt-r<-'t of rhe
pleasures of the senses is not free lronr lr-rst,, frorn
dosiro, from rr,ffcction, frorn longing, fi-orn passion,
frorn r:ravi ng.
When a seri ous i l l ncss ci vortakes
hirn. he is grierved that ho will have to fbrogo tho
pl easures of tho scnses, and i s afi ' ai d of doa.' h. Then
there is tlie person rviro is not lrce frorn lust nnd
passi on as r+:garcl s hi s bodv (the .seat of sonsati on).
Il e to<.r wi l l l arnent i n the ca,se of a seri ous i l l ness
that ho wi i l l ose thi s i nstrrrment of enj oyrnent, and
ho too rvi l l be afrai d of death. Further, thore i s the
person rvho when affi.icted by a serious illness will
rt:fl eei , i hat he has not done any nobl o or whol esome
deed, t.i i at al l hi s deeds l i ave been evi l , cruel and
stai ned, i hat, after hi s deat,h l i e wi i l go to tl ro pl ace
l i e deserves
and he too wi l l be afrai d of death.
l ' i ntl l r' , there i s the man rrbo i s undeci ded as to
tl re worthi ness of tho BLrdrl i ra, hi s teachi ng anr"l ttre
Order, the useti ri ness of the trai ni ng, tl i e depen-
dency of thi ngs ori gi nati nt, one v' ho i s so fui l of
waveri ng that her i s unri ,bl o to attai n thr: goal bv
l ear ni ng t hr ough quest i oni ng ( , 4J. I I I , p. 16t ) , and
ca,nnot corno to a concl usi on as to the true rl i ramrna,
Iti a ser.ere i l i ness l re too wi l i be afrei d of deatl i , due
to hi -. rrncertai nt.v.
But then thers are f,rri r t,\' r)es of l rei ngs wl i o do
r r ot r r er r - i bl e i l r f ear at t l r e r l i dui ht of r l ei af h, even
i f t l r c' - r ' r ' . r e st r i cken br - a s- ' ' er e r i l ness.
' f hor e
i s t he
person u-ho i s free from i ust i n rospoct of tho
pl ei rsures of ti re senses, orre rrho i s frc.e from passi on
a^s reg.rr(l J hi s boi l r' , one rvho i ra,s performed nobl e
deeds and ski l f ul act i ons i n pr ot ect i on of t i r o weak,
and ono who cl oes nc,r cntertai r, any fhoughtg of
doubt but ha.s reaehed a convincirrg conclusion,
rrheretry he ha,q no fear of deatir although being
eubj ecl , thereto,
ABEAYA SUTTA (3) occnrtt irl the Boolr of
Fines (naaalca-ni7td,ta : A.IV, 455) rrhers it forms
err6 of a eerier of tworrty suttas, &hbmviatod
in the text, as all aro drawrr up aceorcling to an
iclentieal pfrern w'ith a, meire change of subject.
Tho foarless state (abltayam) is brorrght :r,bout by
entering and abiding irr the four states of mental
absorption (rtipa-jhd,naj, the four imrnaterial
spheres (arupa-jluina) and tho t'essation of por-
ception ar rd foe lin g
art fid,
a eclay itu,
nir o dha) through
tho completo destruction of the ments,I intoxicante
n AJrrA (Ti b.
g.*han-gyio mi-thub-po mi'-bjigs-pa
ebyin-pa, a Tantric work fcund in the
Tibetan Kangyur. This ws€tra,nglated into Tibotan,
rovise<i, and-odited by the fndian scholar Prajia-
v&rn]&, the groat Tibotan translator Yo-Ses-
Sde and othorJ (0jW. No. 297 &, 553-fragmont).
Tho Tohoku Caialogue of tho Sda-dge
reeords this work as Abhayaprad,.d,-nd,rna-apard'jito
(Nos. 708, 928). It is a collootion of ma,ntra,s,
conferrlng coura,go on a dovotoo.
ABHAYAVAPI. Pandukdbhaya, & pre-Buddhist
king of Coylon, constructed this roeorvoir in Anu-
rdrlhapura which he founded as tho capital city
(Mhu. x, 89). Tho reservoir used to go dry somo-
timos. Onco king Dev6,nampiya Ti.ssa, the flrst
potron of Buddhism in tho country, had ite driod
olay collectod in lumps. These woro raised into s
pi l ea,shi ghasanol ophantand on tl ro top ho rJepoei t-
sd the collar.bone relic of the Buddha, which had
boen socurod from India, until a worthy thripa
could bo erectod to house tho eacrod object (xvii,
35 f.). The Maricavalfi Vih6,ra of Dutfhag6maT,i
overlookod Abhayavapi, for a groat and boautiful
hail of tho vih6ra is doscribed as having beon
carried on piles into tho roservoir (xxvi, 20)" I{ing
Bhdtikdbhaya had tho water of the rosorvoir
pumped by machinse and sprayod from tho summit
on the flowers offerod by him at tho Mahi Thfrpa
(xxxiv, 45 f .r. The ehoet of wator was not of ox-
coptional size, tbo eurfaco &re& rrolv being about
255 acros. The greatest dopth, in oldon tirnoa, we€
aboul, twenty-two feot near the eluiee" Tho embank-
mont is a little over s, mile long. Abhayavd,pi has
boon iJontified with ths modorn Basavakkule,m
(Parkoi: : Anaicnt Ceylon, pp. 360 f"). 8oo ais:r
D. T. n,
ABEAYA VIEfrRA. ono of thonames for the famous
establishncent in .north Anur&dhapuran Coylon,
as Abheyagiri.
ABHAYEBALAKAPISANA. It was a apot whi ch
was incorporated in consocracing tho ain:E-boundary
of )Iahavihira marked out by king Dovdnarnpiye
Tiese soon eftor tho fomal ostabliehment of
BudCLi sn i e Ceyl on. The nams v' as deri ,ved from
tbe fact thet it w&B on the Abhayav6pi (.Mho,
-{ppenCi : B, l 3; Mhbv. pp. 136-6).
ABHAYUPASSAYA, ono of tho two nunneries
built bv king Mah6sspa in
Coylon, the same ee
ABI I AYA, No. l 3 ( Mhu. xxxvi i , 43; MhuA. I I ,
p. 685) "
ABHAYUTTARA. one of tho namse for the famoua
establishment in north LnurEdhapura, Coyion,
better known as Abhayagiri.
ABHAYUVARA. It re the na,mg of the oi shth
bhi4,a,ud.ra or portion for recitn0ion of tho
I(handhaku of the lVlah,o, Voggo of ths Vinayo-
pilaka. Tirie bh6nav6,ra deals largply with cases of
persons-yonng or ojd, roputed or notorious,
heal thy or di seased. and of whatever eoci al standi ng
successfully sought ontry into the oornmrrnity
of monhs meroly to onsure their own safety and
secr:rity. When this was known, the Buddha was
often requeeted to enjoin a rule which would each
tirno provont sucirr oxpl<litation of tho liborty to
seek admission
of monks
(Mahd,uagga, pp. 7l f.).
As a result thero wae gradually formed a code of
rules which delcarod it to bo &n offonco (dukka,ta
q.v.) for a monk to admit into the Order of monke
*tny of the fol l owi ng: namol y, (l )a porson eufferi ng
from one or other of the lbliowing diseases, namely,
leproay (lcu!lh,a\, boils
oczom& (kildsol,
consumption (e,oea) and opilepsy (aparmd,ro), (2)
a person in the king's service
(3) a
thief who wo&rs a,n omblem (d,hajabaddha), (41
a thief who has broken out of
jall (kdrabhed.ako
cora), (5) e thi ef procl ai rrred to bo
t<i l l sd
at si ght
coral, (6) a person punished by being
scourged (,hota), (7) tl porson punished by
branding (laklchaqtiluatai, (8) a dobtor (ift'dyikal,
(9) a slavo (doso), (10) a boy of less than fiftoen
yoarE (&napannarasaaossa)
rtnloss that boy has
the capacity to sca,r6 crows " (a mero indication
of the minirnum strongth). The code also contains
other rules not, rolatirrg to dwlcko(a offences proporly
eo callod as, for instanco, that a monk admitting
a porson into tho community should soek permission
from tho comrnunity to shave tho hair of tho head
close, or, that a monk orclaining e person undor
t,wenty yes,rs of age sh.oulcL be dealt with not only
according tro drtLkala rulss but also to pd'ci'tti'yo
rrrles. The penultimate rulo of this eoction disallowe
a nonk from having two novices to al,tend on him,
lchilo the last rulo deereee i,hat a monk posseesing
special qualificati.ons may live flve yoa,rs in depen'
dence (i.e., under a toachor'a guidance), whereas
an inoxporionced monk sh<iuld do eo all his lifo.
E. S. C.
o ccintraction of oblvibhe
dyaktna, meaning a ul,ago of mastery ovor tho
seilloe. Tbis power of having conquerod
bltooatil is frequently cietailod irr the canonical
toxte of ltre Di"{V,,a-, Maiihimo-, end Ahgtdtaro
Nikdyaa as eomprLsing the tollowing oight atations
or stlges (iiyatana), not to bo confueod with the
twelvJ spheies of perception of sonso orga"e. a,n'd
objocta for which tho eans terrr, dyotma (q.v.)
is usod.
\{hen {Lnvone, bei-ng con-seious of the materi&l
elualities of the body in hlc own p{rrson, sees forms
e=terior to hi:nseU'--be they lirnited, fair or foul-
err(l rrhsn he has rnaetered thern with the thought :
I klorv, I eeo, and when he, conscious theroof,
eut.-rrs intrr a state of ments,l absorption, that is
rhe fust stage of rnastory" (1. IV, 305
M. II, 13,
&r , . ) .
The eecond etaee differs frorn the first in that
ttre forms extorior to himsell are known and soen
ie f6
irnrneasurabio, frr,ir or foul.
Ttre third and fourth Btases of mastorv refer
equall;' to oxtorior forrns,
kno#n and
seen to be lirnitod or immea,surablo, but in theso
t-,ro stages one is un&waro of the mti,terial qualities
of the body i n one' s o$' n
l )erson,
consci ousnegg
being confined only to external forrus.
The four remaining steges of mastery over the
ienses are ident,ical in that one remains unconscious
of ti re meteri el qual i ti es.i n one' s own body; they
difrer in that tho oxternal objocts appear. in various
hues of bl ue, of yol l ow, of' rod, and of whi te. And
with thjs conscious thought ono errters into a state
of mental absorpti on.
Ti rese states of mental absorpti on (j huna, q.v.)
are thus cal l ed
' posi ti ons
of ma^stery' , becauso
the sphere (d,yatana) in rvhicli they arisrn is one of
overpoweri ng (abhi bhu) knowl edge. Though tl i ey
are similar in object t,o the vsrious dovices for
concentration (kasiTta), they &re dissimilar in
cirltnro (DlurA. l8i : samd,ne pi drarnmane bhdua-
ttiya aaamanattd,ya). Ijxcept for the first two
sta,ges, thero i s no perccpti on of nrateri al qual i t,i es
i n one' s own body, becr,,uso that, i s not the obj ect
of mastery. I{ere the external objects are t,o bo
ma^stered. And theso objoets aro known ancl seen
as ei tLi er l i mi ted, through i ni ti al appi i cati on of
mrrr<l (ui tukka), or i mmeasurabl e, through dol usi on
(ntol w,); the beauti fui i s sui t' od to a predorni nautl y
hateful ch&racter, and tl re ugl y to a, charactor
rrrl ecl by l ust (i bi d. 189
cp Vi sm. pp. tl 2 f.).
l'hus the earth devico (patltau|-kacina) for
pnrpose of attaining montal absorptiorr (jlnna) is
mentioned as the basis for the acquisition of the
first four stages of mastcry by the lirnited and
measureiess mebhods, while the four col<lrlr devices
aro givon as the bases for the acquisiticn of the
four stages of mastery b)' the mebhods of
fairness and ugiiness. all accordins to ono's
parti cul ar charaJtr:r (Vi srn. pp. 92 f.).
Tho stages of mastery then bocome basos for
transcendenco of both boredom and delight, foar
and dread, cold and heat, hunger and thirst,
contact with insocts and creoping things, abusivo
and hurtful language, pa,inful, miserable and ovon
deadly f'eelings-all thoso are but the beginning of
ten blessings (dnisamsa) wlrich rnay be anlicipabed
by him who cultivates rnindfuiness, and which
culminate in the extinction of the mental intoxi-
khaya) and the deliveranee of
heart and mind (ceiovimuttipaiLfid,uimutti
: M. III,
99) .
I I . G. A. v. Z.
ABHI BHO ( l ) , a bodhi sat t a, ment i oned i n t he (the Book of Prophecy) at the end
of tl rrr Metteyya Sutn (JPTS. I88ti , p. BT). He
is s&id to have obtained ihe a^ssurance (,uiuaralta'1
of hi s future enl i ghtenment from Got,ama, i tr*
Buddha, that he
be the sixth in the line of
succossion which begins witb }letteyya.
ABHIBEU (2), a monk, di sci pl e of Si khi Buddha.
T}aa.Ahguttara Nilcdyg (III, 80) morely calls hirn a
discip_lo (.s!aaka) but the Sa4"s,tt.,.,t Nikaya (VI,'2, 4)
and Buddlrq,u&r!1,.sa, (xxi, 20) s,s woll ag the common-
taries doseribo hirn as one of two chief d.isciploe
of tl rat Buddha
I, p. 4l
DA. II, p. e i Z
A' pA. p. 45) .
.r\ccording to the Sctr.ngutta Nikdva. Abhibhi
goos wit,h Sikhi Budclha to one of tho l3rahma
worids whero, at the Buddha's request, AbhibhE
preaches the dh&rnme to a whols host of Brahmds
who &ra surprisod that a dieciple should havo
preached to them in tho very presence of his
Master. At the request of the Buddha, Abhi bht
is said to have further agituted the lJrahmus with
mqny miracies whicii culmirented in making his
voi ce ri ng i n the thousand worl d dysterns. Accord-
ing to orre corruuontary he even mu,de himself
vi si bl e t o hi s hear er s ever ywher e ( DA. I I , p. 4l T) .
IIis words, contained in two g6th6s, oxhort
his listeners to yield their hearts to ttre lluddha'e
teaching and to be for ever diligent in order to
ond suffering.
samo versos occr.u in othor
contexts as well, where tlr.oy have beerr ascribed
sometimes to the Buddlia Gotama, and at other
tirnes to a thora narned. Abhibhuta (q.v.) and to
fn the narrative of the visit, Sikhi Buddha
addrosses .\bhibiih as brdhmana,, whiie in the
cornm.entury thereon he is callod rajaputto (BuuA.
p. 202). The apparent, inconsisteney is perhnps due
to tho fact tha,t brd,hmaga here means a saintl and
rljaputta indicates tho class or caste to which he
originally belonged. The commentariu,l tradition
aiso represents him as ono wlio had attained to the
porfoction. of_
(pafi.iuipd.ram'iy d matthokorp
pat t o : DA. I I , p. al ?) .
Tlro Apad,d,na (I, 84) says thar onco sovon
fragrant and coloullul flotvors were offerecl ttr
Abhibhu by a hermit who later became the thsra
H. S. C.
ABHIBHU (3). Thi s word somoti rnes usod meta-
phorically a;J s. compound
to ruean
vanquishing ", has been used in the Brahmajdla and
Pa(iko Suttaa of the Digha l{ikaya as ao epithet
ot' IJraiirna, in the ibmiiiar phrase obltibhil
arwbhi bl ,&to rvhi ch means
.' the
vanqui sher,
wl i o i ras not ]i i msel f been vanqui shed " (D. I,
l Ed
III, 29
; It. i 2!). Tl i e phrase i s agai n used by
ti i e Buddha i n the Pasadi .ka Sutta (D.III, I35) to
describe an essontial quality of the
I Cb. definition of lndhmarya aa bd,hilapdpdlnmrna at Ud.
p. 4 aud Bruhnaparsa4ga of Dhp.
2 A. Iy, 9 S, kod habh ihh Lto ; Sn. 99, tuoom mdrdbhibhil muni
S-n. 2L2, ladmz abhibhuyya
Sn. L22, sobbalokitbhi,bhufit
In riee -rlilapariydya Sutta of the Majjhi,ma
-\' ri ' er9a
;J,1 rrs corrr:rot,ati on i s not cl ear and may
4i l l r1!' to a bpeci €,i or stl rtrl oI' bei ng. l l ere, the
!i l ri ttrra, *i ti i e i rrdi cLr,ti ng ti re l i urnerous proc€s$j eg
lr'trr 11 tiro pursonr unulrtrraEe in tlie dharnma,
rn:;rukrrrri y rega.r' el s u,s ent,rt,res, i i sts l i qui d, i rcat,
ruot i Ll n, l rei ngs, ci er.,ri s, l ' rrj dpul i , l 3rahmrl , AUtras-
sere, Ei ubhuki r.i r.rd,, Veh*pphal a, Abhi bl rfi , dwel l ere
rD Ll rc pl a,net erf rnfi ni te eLher, of i nfuute consci ous.
nees ond Ho orr up to -Ni bbana. Irr ti re Brahtnani man-
tanzka r\utta, thel l Juddi rs, repeats the camo l i st,
eayi ng t hat know, i r r g each ot t , l i er n t o bo
. . not -
self ", aud to be rrol lc-pdurg Lo t,he highest, goal,
he i s above therD, rror sl l bj cct, to tbem (.r!/. I, 329
thi s sutta al so shows i Jaka l j rahme &st mi sconcei v-
rng hi rnsel f to be abhi bhu onabhi bhuto).
It i s possi bl o that tho referenco here i s to Abhi bhu
in tlie sense of overiord, Issara or Bnrhma. That,
ebhibhA has been used a,s an epithet of Brahnra
rrr, tLe eari i est Ni krtyas, l ends support to thi s vi ew,
but for the fact t,Eat Brahma has alrea,dv been
menti oned i n the same l i st.
The commentator on tho lllulaparigd,ya Sutta,
on the other hand, l avours the vi ew that the
r ef er ence i s t o a speci os of bei ng ( MA. I , 35) . TI e
a,ssorts tirat the Abhibhu belong t,o t,he sarne plane
as the Vehapphai i deva.
' I' hi s
i s supported by the
l'act that tlie Abhibhu trre menti.'ned imrnediately
after the Vehapphala in the ll,ulapariyuya and
Brahmonimonta1t'iha lists. f ire coulrrent&tor further
states that these beings belong t,o the Asafrfla.
sat t a, or
' unconsci ous'
st at e of bei ng, but i t ai so
refers to another traditiol. which held t,hat Abhibiirl
is the generic name for aii ruling IJrahmas, begln-
ni ng rvi th Sahassa Brahm6. Thi s tradi ti on, whi ch
the cornmentator decl aros to be erroneous, how-
ever, may link with the idea that Abhibirrl in the
Mdaptariya'ga corvrotes the }Jrahma as
tursurp&ssed " (abhi,bhu anabhibhutctl. tsut again,
the comment&tor' s asserti on that i he Abhi bhD
aro devds belonging to the ninth plane of boing or
cognition, and are unconscioue beings (osafi,fi,usatta)
bears comparison with the lists of etates of boings
i n ot her sut t as ( D. I I , 68
I I I , 253, 263; . 4. I V, 4l ) ,
ospecially that on the Satt6vasa in tbo Aiguttaro
Ndkaya (IV, 401).
No definite conclrrsion is, therefore, possible ou
the evi denco avai l abl e. One thi ng i s certai n, that
by the tirue of the comrnentaries Abhibhn came to
stand for a species of berngs, unhesitatingly desig-
nated as dovas bei ongi ng together wi tb the Vehap-
phald,, to tho o.safi,icasottc group of devas. See
B. J.
ABHIBHU SUTTA (l ). Thi .s i s the concl udi ng
discourse of the eighth chapter, called lhe Anando
Vagga, of the TrJca-nipdta of the Anguttara Ni,kayo
(I, i i i , p. 226). The sutta deri ves i ts name from
an opemng reference to Abhi bhn (No. 2),
one of rhe two chief disciples of the Budciha Sikhi
wbo lrr8s the eecond of tho seven traditional
Buddhas: Vipassi, Sikhi, \ressabhu, Kslusnndhs,
Konagamana, Kassapa and Gotnrna (D. II, No. 14),
dhe earl i er threo bel onghg to a previ ous di spen-
eation or world cycle. l'his Abhibhu wae supposed
to have sai d once, that even wi thout rai si ng hi s
r' oi ce above normal us&ge, he coul d rnake hi s worde
l i eard i n thousand l sal rrrs (S. I, 154).
In this
sutta the Buddha Gotama
oxpl ai ns ( A4. I I , 339) t o Ananda t hat , t hi s Abhi bhn
w&s ri rr-rere disciple (suuaka), u'ho had oniv limited
knov'ledge (padesartdqte
sd.'uako), but thet the
powers are immensurable (appameyyo).
thousancl reaims referred to a,re then deecribed
in all their radiance and extents
and yet they aro
oniv the system of the thousarrd lesger worlds
(suhacai culanikd, lokadhatu). A systern thousand
fol d thi s si zo i s cal l edrni ddl e-si zed (maj j hi mi kd),and
a thousand middlo-sized systems would constitut€
a great wnrld systorn. If tlie Buddha wished, ho
could rnake himself heard in these thousand million
reahrts, or e\ren beyond, by means of spreading tho
radiairce of his body (eartrobhd,sena plLa,tegyoi
AA. II, p. 342). When Ananda i n hi s el ati on
exclaimed that this indeed was great profit to him,
his companion Udd,yin asked hrrn more soberly,
" Ho\v can ti re power of your teacher be of any
profit to you ? " IJut, tire Buddha replied that if
Ananda woul d pass out of thi s l i fo now wi thout
having attained perfect freedom from desirs (auita-
raga), he would seven tirnes over be born as a ruler
among tho gods, duo to his faithful mind
But", the Buddha prophesied,
srill attain supreme dolivorance in this life itself ".
And that is indeed what happened immediately
beforo the First Council.
enumorati ng tho ei ght
spheres of mastory (abhibhayata,na, A.IV, 305). With
slight variations the forrqula€ &ro also found in the
Mahi Sakuludiyi, Sutta (IIL. II, 13) and in tho
twenti oi h chapter of ths Eka-ni pata (4.I,39) where
thoy are rankod emong I92 practicee of developmont
of mental concentration, which will not be ompty of
gain, even if they are pursued for so short a duration
as bire snapping of one's fingers. It is not the body
which is to be mastered, but tho materiel objects of
one's contomplation, wtrereby the required state of
mentai ecstasy is broughi about. These material
objects, external to one's self, are : limited (fair
or foul ), or boundl ess (l ovel y or ugl y)' ei ther
experiencod while being personally conscioug of tho
coiporeal process of experience, or experienced while
being un&w&re of the physical process. Thege
four categories sliglrtly differ in the Abhidhamma
exposition (Dhs. 204) where consciousness of any
pait of the c<.rrporeal process is excluded from all
spheres of mastery (aril,pusafi,fr,i is not
the irnrnaterial", but
not perceiving the material").
The commontary hereon emphasisee 2
& person
devoid of the perception of the preparotory
(of mental absorption) in iris own bodily fr&mo "
(ajjha,tta-rupe parikamma-safi,fri
: DltsA.
t88 tr").
The four other stagee of mastery rofor to tbo
colourod appearance of form seen exterior to one'a
self : blue, yellow, red and whits. Thero is no
personal &wareness of tho bodily function at the
' Ihe
spheres of mrr,sterv (abl Li ttha,l atana) eonsi st i n
r nast er i ng t l i e var i ous concent r at i or r devi ees ( kusi na1
therebl ' l eadi ng to attai nrnent, ot' concentrat i on
(appatui sarn<i dh' i ) and eo-mpl c' i o montBI ab,;orpti on
( j l Lr l r ut ) . u' hi ch { i r r al st ugi ' i s expr r : sst ' r l i n t i r e u' ol ci s
" I kr r ow. I sr - ' e, " i r i di , : *Lr r i g t l r r r l l r e
l l r s i r r i ser r
f r or n. and i . g nc; t st i l l r vi t . hi n, r he i r t t : i i r ) r r r ( : r 1r . "
\ appond : DhsA. l St t ) .
H. C+. l t . v . Z.
ABHI BHUTA, a r aj n of t $o ci t v of Vel t hi pur a.
Once, when t he Bur l dha wUs i n t l r i s ci t r ' , t , he r dj a
vi si t ed hi m, l i st ened t o hi m pr eachi r r g und on t ho
fol l cwi ng day servecl hi rn wi th al ms. After i ,l i e meal ,
t he Buddha made i r i nr r ej oi ce i n t he mr r i b of hi s
act &nd di scoursed to hi m on ma,nv a d*tai l . So
pleased wae Abhiblir-lta, at, wha.t he hearci that ho
renounced his kingdom arid, having entered tho
eommuni ty of monks, won al ahantshi p.
Three l'erses ascribed to hi:n tr,re contained in the
Theragd,thcl (uu. 255-257). Theso constitute &n
exhortation to his kinsrnen that they sirould
overcomo repeated birth which is full of sorrow by
diligence in regard to the cloctrino and discipline of
the Buddha. The commentery states that these were
uttered when his relations. ministers. followers and
subjects camo to hirn and lamentod that thev wero
without a leader as a rosult of his renunciation
QhagA. I I ,
p. 104) .
The last two verses are for:nd elsewhero also.
In tho Samyutta Nikd,ua (I, 156) ihese two extra
verses are uttored by Abhibhfi, a c]rief disciple of
the Buddha Sikhin, in his presence, whilo they wore
standing in the Brahma world in tho midsb of a
display of miraculous powers. The last verse by
iteelf is roecrdecl also as having beon said by
Gotama, tbe tsuddha. in the Mq,lxl Parinibbdna
Sutta,nta (D. II, p. l 2l ), whi l e tho second verso
i s quoted by N6gasen& &s spoken by the Buddha
(Miln. p. 245). .4 Sanskrit version occurs in the
Druy aaa.dd,r,a (p. 300).
Malalasekera thinks that Abhibhrjta is evidenilv
to bo i denti fi ed wi th Ci takani bbdpaka thera of thl
Apadd,na. who, &s hi s very epi thet denotes, had
exti ngui shed tho fl ames of the pyre on whi ch the
remaing c f Buddha Vessab hrf * e.6
I, 142). Ths Theragd.tha commentary i n i ts short
narrati ve on Abhi bhuta has, i n fact, ci ted tho
relevrint verse from the Apadd,raa where allusion
i s mado to the exti nsui shi ng of the fl ames. The
commentary adds that whi l o peopl e were stri vi ng
to col l eet rel i cs, Abhi bhuta a.l one exti n.gui shed
the fl ames of ti re pyre wi th scented water, and
that i n conseer-ronce of thi s meri tori ous act he
soj ourned among gods anci men, ti l l fi nal l y he was
born i n the fami l y of the rnj a of Vel fhi pura.
H. S. C.
ABHI BHUYA, or " Sur paesi ng, " ( r ' : r r . f or Abhi sf i r va
vt ) , nB, me of a f ut r . r e Buddha oi ' t hi s. , auspi ci ous
wor l d age" Puspi ka.
ABHI BH0YAYASA( S) . As pr ocl ai med by t he
Brrdr,l ha Si ,ky".n.r.,,. r,' , rhe
' frr-e
Bhafuavtr,rgi va
monks, Abhi bhul -avaSai s) L)r "
gurprrssi nq
tr' ame "
i s the na,me of <i rre of the thousand Br-rci ci has who
must ar i so i n t hi s
"auspi ci ous
wor l d ase" n&med
Puspi ka. IIe v' i l l be possessed of a rhdi anee of
ono yoj ana ( t r I huu. l l l , 330. l 4- t er t : Abhi bhr i vaf a) .
ABHI BHUYYA SUTTA, a sr r t t a of t he t hi r r l uaqea
of tti e X' Iatuqarnct \i uml l utta of tho t\amyutttt, Ni l cci qa
(IV, 246). Thc Budcl ha sn,\' s ttrat a, woman who
possessL' s tho Il v,: po$-ers (bal a) of hei l utv (ri l pa),
wernl th
l bho,ta,\,
rel ati vcs (i i ftti ), sons (ptLtta) and
vi r:t,ue (ci l tr ), gets the better of her husbanrl
(s cimik: a m a I lyi$h tl t1 t
a) .
ABHI CARA- KARMAN, a Sanskr i t wor l i by Ac[ r ya
Ca.ndragomi n (Gl i n-pa). It has como down to ue
onl y i n i ts Ti betan transl ati on, tho l [non-sbuod-
kyi las, and is found in the Rgyud-f-Igrel ('fantra)
sec.ti on of the Ti betan Tongl ' rrr.
' Ihe
transl ator' g
n&mo i s not r ocor ded ( Cor cl i er . f f
p. 362, No. 158) .
ABRI CARUXA, l hat r vhi ch per t ai ns
t o host i l e
or bl ack nragi e, { }l e
or practi co of
sr r cl i magi c bei ng cal l er i dbl t i ei r uka- l ca, r nt u. I t i s
frequerrtl v menti onerl i rr the )Iafi ,j ttdri ntul akal pa.
The bl ack rnagi ci an eni pl or,.' o spel l s l br a rnal evol ent
pur posc. Seo f ur t her ESOI I EI i I C RI TES.
' f hE
t i t l g
gi von t o t he t hi r d ( and l ast ) col l ect i on, or Pi t r aka,
of t ho Buddhi st ci i , noni c&l books ;
i t i s al so a n&ms
for the speci l i c method i n rrhi ch the Dhamrn&, or
doct r i no, i s set f or t i r i n t hose books, t he subj ect -
ma,tter thorcof an,:l thet l i te.rature connected
wi th i t.
I . I nt r oduct or y. Bot h hi st or i cai l v and l ogi cal l y,
the Abhi dh&mm& reprrj sent"s a devel oprnernt of the
Dhamma or t he doet r i ne of t no Buddha. I t enj oys
equal canoni cai i i ,ubhori t.r' wi th the I)l ramnra rr,nd
i ts text' s have been ct' rrnpi l eci i nto o scJl l rate Pi taka.
Tradi ti onal l v, tJre AbIti tl h,amrtr a, Pi taA' u i s mcrnti oned
after tht' r Vi ' noyct and Sul l a Pi toku. It, i s pri -rb.,bl e
t hat each of t l r o r sar l . v Bi r ckl hi st school s l r acl " i t s
own Abhi r i hamr na bext s i f not a whol er ^- \ bhi dl r ar nr na
Pi f , aka, br r t , onl v t wo of t hem have handod cl ou' n
thei r compl ete Atthi dl tarrttrtu. Pi taka. Of ti i ese
bho Abl t.rd,harma Pi taka of the Sarvdsti r' 6di ;rs i s
pr eser ved t o us onl y i n i t s Chi nese and l i bet an
t r ansl at i one. Ti r o Ther avAdi ns, who have ac' t i vel y
f l our i shed t o t he Dr esent dav i n Bout h- east Asi a.
ai one have beon' abl e t o pr eser ve t hei r Abh. i -
dhar nma Pi l t t ku i n i t s or i gi nal Pal i ver si on.
The Abl i i r l har nr na, whi ch expounds t he wor d
' "he
Budcl ha i n t er ms of an et hi cal r eal i sm, i s
a phi l osol - r h1' *' i t h an essent i al l y r el i gi ous basi s.
\ I ahrrl ' Ana. As t hese account s are l argel y compl ement ary, t he
great er port i on of each art i cl e has beenreprorl uced here, credi t
bei ng gi ven
t o each aut hor f or hi s cont ri but i on. Though not
qui t e
euceessf ul , an at t empt has been made t o avoi d undue
over l appi ng. - G, P. M.
The present article has been eornplled from three articles.
wri t t en separaLel y, by Dr. W. S. [ arunarat ne arrd ] {r. H. G. A.
ran Zt -1' si of Ceyl on and Dr. Kogen Mi zuno of J arran. Broadl v
speaki re, t he f ormer t wo gi ve an account of Ahhi dhammi
f rom t i rt poi nt of vi ew of Therav6da, t he l at t er f rom t hat of
Eepecially amorlg the TheravEde Buddhiets it ig
veneratsd ae the fineet flower of Buddhist philo-
sophy, e1d both nronkg and laymen sgsidriously
atudy_ and practise it throughoui south-east Asid,
rnora koenly in Burme than in any other country.
W. S. K,l BuxRnarxn.
Thero is roseon to think that each of the early
schsols of secterian Buddhisrc poes€seed at one
tirue whet corresponded to tho Tipipaka of tha
TheravEdi ns. In the BqCdhi st texcs whi ch now
exiet in ehirroeo translatlf,n, wtr find moet of the
tri pi e textg of the SurvS.eti vi da School . Accordi ng
to lleiian-tcang'e iti,nerery, he learnt the Abhi.
d.harme of tne- So"'mitiyi
in the
country, iu north-weat India, ancl thet, of tiro Mah6.
aanghika at Dhanekafaka, in eouthora Indio,
And when bo roturned to Cthina he took with hirn
ea,crod Buddhist texte of various schools from India.
They i ncl uded 14 books of tho Theravdda, l 5
booke bel ongi ng to tho l \fahdsanghi ka, 16 to tho
Sammi ti va, 22 booksto the }Iahi mS6,saka, l g books
of tho K6,6yapiya, 42 books belonging to the Dhar-
maguptaka, and 67 books of the Sarvdsti vi da. Of
ihese books, what he translated wero mainlv the
philosophical books r:f the Sarv6stivs,rla
ail tlro
others romained untranslated and tho original
i sxi s have been l ost. Agai n, accordi ng to' the i rrtro-
ductory remarks prefaced 1:o I-tsing's Travels
on the South Seas
(Taisho, 2125)
thsro wero in India at that trrne four schools (tho
Mah6sanghika, tho Sthaviravdda, the l\Iirlasar-
vdeti vdda and the Sanrmi ti ya) whi eh represented
tho oighteen sohools, and all four of thom had the
Tripitaka. Thoy congisted of eit,her 300,000 or
200,000 verges.
In thie caso, vrhat were called the Tripilaka of
various echools were the fundamental books. The
commentaries arrd ths manuals were, as a rulo,
oxcl uded. As for the phi l osophi cal books, tho
fuadamental philosophi
cal books (mfr,Ia
regardod ae sacred wer-e the Beven Abhidharnma
books of Pal i Buddhi sm a,nd tho corresponcl i ng
sovon books of the Sarvdstivida. Tho cbmmen--
tari es, &c., of l ater producti on
woro not
regarded as sacrod literatu-re. That was the proper
&rra,ngoment, and Pali Budrlhism followed it.
for tho scri ptures i n Chi neso transi ati on, however,
thero is no such discriminatory e,rrangement.
Thero wo find that the commentaries &n,l nianuals,
producod l ater than the fundamental booko, and
thei r sub-cornrnentari es
aro equal i y rai rked wi th
phi l osophi cal texts (Abhi dharrnq,-pi tuka).
ti mes, we fi nd l ater school s of )Iah6v6na
Buddhi sm, such as the Yogd,cdra Schooi , usi ng the
neme Abhidhamma for booke belonging to tho
school, without ooneidorat,ion of their oontents,
e.g., tho Mahd,ydna-abhidharme,.slitra, or the Maho-
y drw
ob d,hid,h artn a
a a mu c c ay a .
K6orar MrzuNo-
II. l ttreanl ng of the woral . Tho rerm
Abhi -
is a propoeitional compound formod orrt
$nd tho fast olearly
suggests that its origin and ornorgencs are sub.
ooquent to that of Dhamma. The term hos
obviousiy been coined to indicate a differenco
botweon what i t donotes and the Dhamma. Accord-
ittg to i,ho
commentator Buddhaghosa abhd
when prefixod to d,hamma. convoys tho sense of
suppl ementary Dhamma' Bnd
spoci al Dhamms' .1
This well accords with what wo know about the
naturo and charactor of the Abhi dhamma tsxta.
Tradi ti on i tsol f has recogni sed a di sti ncti ou i n
styi o botweon tho Dhamma and ths Abhi dhamma.r
' Ihus,
the suttas ombodyi ng tho Il hamma are esi d
to bo taught in the digcursivo styla (sappariydya.
desanfi ,l whi ch makes free use of ttre si mi l e, the
metaphor nncl. the anec:iot,e. This is contrastod
with the n<;n-discursive style (nippariyuya-desartd,l
of the Abhi dh&ruma wtri ch uses *r verv sel ect and
proci so, aud t Lorotbro thoroughl y i rnpersonal , tor-
minolog-y which is decidedlv tochnical in meaning
anrl furrcti on.
' Il ro
Bame di sti neti on i s cl earl y
impliotl in tho separate montion of the two rnodos,
Suttanta-pariydya end Abhirlhatnma-parigd,yd.t
l l uddhaghosa tel l s us
how tradi ti on rocogni sed the
distinctivo character of oach Pi?akc.
Lc the di scourse on i nj uncti ons (a7ta-desand)
subta i s the popul ar di scourse
i uohora-d,esond),
whi i e the Abhi dh&mm& i s tho di scourso on ui ti mate
truths (p ar amattha
d,ea and) .' Iho t erm Abhi d hamma,
used both as a neutor
and a8 tr rnascul i no.i i e
alro*dy attostod in t,he Vina5ra
and in tho Niktiyas
and rouch more froquentiy in the post-canonical
works"E In its oarlier us&ge, it refers largely to the
subj ocrt-matter of tho spoci al doctri no and
ti mes possrbl y to tho di sti nct tecl rui ques empl oyed
by the l atber.l o fn somo of tho l aber works i ncl udsd
in tlro Sutta-pilokc
and in the cornmant&rioe
and chroni cl es
l E
the term Abhi dharnma i s i ncreag.
ingly uscd in its iiterary senso to rofer to tho text
<l r to l :ooks
of a spoci al col l ecti on. The dsri vati ve
Abhi dhamrni &o
1q.i .;tc
refers to one rpho i s eki l l ed
in tho doctrine perta^ining to ultiruate truths.
Abhidhamma, itsolf a tecirnical torm, han given
rige to a numbsr of other cornpounds x'hich por-
form a convoniently useful technical function in
tho di scussi ons rel atrrrg to the speei al doctri ne.
Thus, Abl i i dhamma-ur6ti kal o
eubj ect-head of
b Ap, 14 2 Yi n. t Y, 144 ; DhsA. 3' , Vi sn. 829,
6 phsA: 2; Vi nA. I , 20
AA. I I I , 366.
7 Vi n . I , 1 { ; P. 1 8 1 .
, _. _Fi , 267
2L4, 918; I I , 230; 1. . I , 288, 290; I I f ,
107: I Y, 308.
{i l n.
344 ;
pt un.
; AA. I I I , 366
Dpo. v, t 7 .
10 M. I , 472; A, I , 2L4: Yi n. I , 98.
44 : Suttautaflca AbNdbammaflca YtnayaflcApl
12 DhtA.3 : Abhtdhemmo ti sstt&ppakaranllut.
v, 37
Abhidhammam chappakaripan.
14 DhsA. 2s
; M A. I I , 256.
L6 DhsA. J6; Dhs. l .
l DhsA.. p.
l. keDslrhena abhidhautmo ? dhammEtireka-
cl' rallll:lavi8egaltheDt.
hi ettira
r:' nl8addo. .Elsewhere in the rame work (Dir.d. 19-20) Budtlha-
lii'Ea B8]'E. that tho
aDlrd conveys as rnany aB
:li meaniuge:
hi abN-eedalo
..:' i ia- paricchitrnadlkesu
2 Vbha. so6.
r/.F4.??+;3?,33Q; vbha.132-e; D1. Irr,
Drrr. 1001.
+ Dh8A. 21 : Et t ha hi _Vi l l t spl i akSrn i gArahena' bhagavat A
i cAhuJlato desltattl l!q6dosan6, Suitairtaplgatarp vbtreia-
r :5 i
b hagavat5 vohArablhullato dosi tatfi' vohtuadessnA,
bhagavatA para-
- : :ha bAhullalo desit,BttA pBramat,tb&desBnil
ti vuccau.
t h. ' : 1 , r : , . - . i l r l dt r r : t r i r r e
. . l i r l i i r l l r ar nr n&- t , &l r t i
i ( : -
\ hl r i , ' i i r nr r - . r nn- ; r , r l i
1t - - t cxt
er f t , i r o s; r er . i * l t l or : t r i ne
--\ l , . i t i , l l r. + r r: t : 1{u}*_\ ' l t i B =. r1r{, t
}rt i cl or f er: }rni ri l l {. of t h o
r p e c i * i r l r ) ' : : l r i r r r
; , \ l r l r i r l l r r + r r r r n * - l r h i i j r r r r i v r r ,
1 e
ar r al y' : i . r or r t l . i e l , ; &r +r s cr f l he sJi eci r r . l t er : l l r r i que
, l bl r i r i l r g, r r r r na" k at l r r r sn . .
r i i sr : uss i 0n per t s i ni - ng t a
. : r. rr: c: i gl t i r: i : l . ri ge
A. Lri r i r l Lxi ul rr{. }-dt srl ni r
l r -
oxposi .
t i orr of ' spr. r, i i r, l
(l oc: t ri rl (-i
Al , rhi dhu, rn; ! i t r-\ ' i rodk)H
con! r t r r ) ' t o specr al d<- i c, t r i ne
&nd Ho cn.
W, S. K.
Tlro oceumencei of tho word abhi<Ihantma in thr:
l i aI ' dt : t t ! , Ja, ! 3 connect , eci rvi t . h i n^ct ruri t i on i n t ho nri e, :
of rnr; na, gt i c l i f e
(abhi . ui naul oi l r, t . t t nn)
depri vea t he
word of t he speci al rne&ni ng gi r' ' : n t o
j t ,
i n l at er
works. .[n \-ina1' a tcxt, a0.,' r,rrlh,a,trLrte. e,nJ ahhi,,)-
, 1. . 1, 1t
c7o not ri ' f or t o ri ri , t , hi ng ci eepor t l ran
" wi i at
per t ai l r s t o t ] ) e dhamr na and vi r r u. ya " , Ll i o eap&-
bi i i t l ' of t eachi ng vrhi ch i s consi ri ered t o be an
escent i al requi si t o i n arrv t eacherr' moi rk. *, nri s' hi ch,
i , e1€rf
c&nnul bei t i i , kr-: n as a
1rr' l t f r-, rrnt i
st u(l ] -
4n. i t ' -\ f )r)si t i on of psl . ci ro-r-r, n. al 5' si s. . \ s
(j i Jl nbe-rg
st ; ;
i r
: "
' . f
l re ci ni f
i , l ' r, , -: . rrrgr'
i i r t l )e Vi nrr. t ' r-r rvl ri et r
rt -, ri I r'
l ,
i r. : Bl i ppoi t )s t t t e er r: ; t eri , -: e o1' an I
i t l i i . ri <t t t r i r, n
: , t i , , : i . . t i s r-)r)o i n t t ro I Jl i t ; ' kh, t ; t r, t -ui bhanga
I f a
nur r . havi ng &skc( l f or por r ni ssi on t . o put , & r i r r esLi or r
reqarci i ng l . ht r Sut t ant a, vi ' c; ri l , l
(l o Ho i n reqard l o
t he L) i sci pl i ne or t l i e Abhi r l t r aor ma, t her o i s an
c, f f cl r i : e of expi at i on. ' " Ti r i s vi ew i s suppor t c' l b. v
1. B. I -I crner
who s&, \ : F
\ _-' et t he vnrv presence
of t l ro word gi i t hd, r? i s enoush t o precl rr<l e t ho t orrrr
' i r, ht dhamt t ?a
f rom
gt rr, n, , l i ng
i -l r t ho l i t erury oxogt . si s
of t hat n&rne, f t )t no ref ' erenee t o f ho t hi rd Pi {t r, ka
a--" such would havo conrrltinr,.d a re,ibrenco to i' rari
of t ho r n{ t r t , or i &I , v6r ses, wi r i c} r one of t l r e } ' r f akas
f i aai l r' e&rne t o i ncl ude. "
' j l he
r-rnl y " pessl &qq , . n
: i , re Bhi l : | : huri -vi bl Lei (t a rl uot ed *i bove
j s
t herr
" unl ' csi t ni i ngl y assunre, l t o be rn i nt el pul at r, rn "
bv i ) i r l r : nber g.
Tl ' re carl i c' r uses of t l i e t errn abhi dl Lanl , ni . , z do not ,
t i -rerei c, ct : , corrt el '
g, n, y
cl rggcsl i on of t ranseendet r-
i i r l r c\ - , a! t l i ough ' ' - ho
t r ansl at i on of t ho t ei r m r t s t i t l e
of a: l r-. nt i re col i ocf , i on of psvcho-l ogi co-eschr-l t , ol ogi -
cal t re. rt i ses l at ural i y rvi l l hu, vo t o ornpl rt rsi so t ho
rpeciai rne€uling r:f t,he r,refix abhi.
At Lhi dhdrnrna t he. n has been t , ransi at ed &s
sper: i ai dharnurn " t t ot h by I ). J. I ' homas
G. P. I l al al asekera2e rel brri ng t , o t he moLj er of
t e' rrl ; i ng f orrnd i n t he Al , t hi t Jhat nt t La Pi t aka . vhi ch
rs eo di{l' eront from the mothorl errnpl<ivod irr the
: ui t r! s.
' i . ho
t ransl at i on by l -. L. \ \ ' oci d' , varcl
" e-. ; t ra, ri oct rLnc. " i : l rrot warrant ori o-*' i ng t o i t s
icnrrection with abhi-utlw.t1a which can only r.rean
" ner t i r i ni r l g t o t ho Ci sci pi i nt - ' " . And t l r i s appl i es
ul so ro i , i s t rt l nsl at i on of abhi dhat t nn
f urt , hor
I t i s . l . i 1 .
. t t . 1 . I .
' : J 2 .
, - . i . !
r ; ;
' ,
. t p . i i 1 .
t ' - ' . ; , . , i 1 .
. i . 1 l l , ) ! t , -
t [ " 1 n .
1 ( i ; I ' i s n l . i i 0 l
^ " - ' ; , , . : ; i o .
l ' ' r . 1 I I I . i r J l ; . 4 . 1 . I l i , 3 1 ? .
I ' r ' i . I
r l - i .
I I I . x i i .
ci hi t n^ru{r "
t t
Lt 1 i t e conrroet i t -, n wi [ n. . f urt her di s-
ci i : l i ri e ". E. ] f . I l are' i -r t ran: sl at i on
. ,
l l or. s
Di r amr na " i s ol so j oLned
t r r r be
, ,
I l or o. Di sci pl i nt r
' ' ,
Bnrl cannot , t herrt f oro, rgf er i r. ; t he Abhi dl ut nt nt a
P i t ukq. c' ! ' r l l l r l r , : u. ?i r t ho r or nr nr ) nt &r v
t , r r cg t i l
r.' xplair: it in thui rvar' . IJere &1s,), t ire.-refore, t l^,,)
ref orr. l l r: a i s rrot , t o f i wre dhart rma hut
; rrst
t o
, ,
bei nt l
cl uesLi c-r. oet l on *' l rat pert ai ns t o t he dhamnrn ri rrrl
wi r eb per t ai ns t o t ho cl i sci pl i ne " .
At auci t hcr pl &ee, t rowever, abl t , i d. hamna i s
usod t oget hor not vi Lh abhi xi t t oya, as i n al l t hc
provi ous i rrst anr: os, buf wi t h aedal l a, whi ch rrre
But t a"ri i n t he l orrn of quest , i ons. Theee cat echet i cal
sut t as aro usi ral l y neont i onod &a ono of t l i e ni no
cl ssst rs <-i f l l ut l , -l hrst , t erxt s (nauanga-sat t h, u, -ad, sant t \
&ni l c&nnot , t . l rercf ore, be t akon es B general nanro
l or t l rs rvi rol u' , l har: t mo" i n opposi t i cso, t o c, bhi dharnmu, "
T b e A nu g a h
l; ! t.u q a. tuf kr,
3 3
speak ing o f abhi.d. hqmfi kt.
- u,,r!ullul;q.t,ltary, gives two instances :
" n trr,ik
irt' rta.i:ring
to toaciring, & ts,lk pertaining
t o quest i ol ri r; ' g ".
Agnrrr. t ho wcrd i : r usod i rr t he Ci t t a (Hot t hi sdri -
put t a) , \ rt i kt 3r ont l i n t he ' Val rd-ga-*i ngo St t t t o
whero Ji i , l ors are eai d t o have
" a t ul k pert ai ni ng
t o t l , + rl oct ri ne " (abh' i dl t amrnakal ho. ri ).
I ' horo i s
not hi nq i n t l ' oso sr t t r as i o i st i i cat e t ha, r t he t vor r i i g
bei ng t rgr: , rl i rr t he spt ci sl i se, l moanurg of t he s\ -srt em
of phi l os, - r ph. v, col i ect er l i n t he
" Abhi dhamma
I ' i t oka
r-l rereas i t s use i n t he Gul i s, quni , -! ut t ai B i : l onre rnore
l i rrked wi t h t hat
pert u, i rri -ng t o t ho t l i sci pi i ne "
\ abhi ui nayo. ).
It has, therefr-rre, be{rn suggristecl bv I:[orner
t l rat t ho u, ort l abi ri , . l hnmnt a occrrrri ri g i n t ho sut t l rs
ant i Vi nal i u, ul t hor r gl r l i ( ) : , r i . di t ' at i ng a compi et o
and cl c. , sed eyst
(i rn
of phi l r i sophv, " ht rd boen
i nt ended t o st arrd f or soru. ot hi nq rnr. ra t hat t dhant ma
and ui rxrycr, perh&ps i rr t i i e sorrse, oi ' sorrro rnore t harl
usually l:r.nnplete grilsp rr,nci rng,rjlor^l of thom due
t o f rrrt her et url y and rot ' l ect i on. " The pref i x abi i -
has hoen eornpnred t o t hat ot . her pref i x at l hi - i t t
cr, rnrbi nat i on ri ' i t h ei l rr, ci t t u, an<l pu. f i . f u7, hi gi t er
l nol sl i t . y' , i . c. . r nor e l . i r an t l r r , f i r - e pr eceot s, hi gi r ei
t hought , and hi ghor rvi sdorn, l r. hi ch &ro rei at , od t o
t he spl rores of exi st encei abovo t l ro wt ' rl i l cf eonso-
pl eaaures
I { . G. A. v. Z.
I I I . Verbal def l nl t l ons. I n Chi na, Abhi d] rarma
ts translated &s
dharrna (law) " (
pr: orl ess dharrns ", (
ml l i f ).
" oxcol l ent rl harrnu
f f i i * )
t ho st udv ai . ro' . rt dharrn*
( pS
c, .
l bci r g dhar ma " (
r yH ) .
Accor i l i nq t o t l i e , ' om
rnent ar. v of t , he Ekot t cra-agoi na, " A' rhi dhurma rs
t ho great dhr, rrrno. f i i e c*l l ed gl er-rt becarrse i t ra
qrorl t l <nov; l edge uf t ho f our t rr-i t i rs and rl esrroi ' e
' ' {-r()i i g ' , ' i ows,
rgri oi &neo and ci eJusi on. And t }re
r b i d .
J/ . i ,
I I I ,
I I ] Q.
A A .
eieht forrns of intelligence, ten forms of wisdom
e,nd tho ri gtrt vi ew ot' puri ty hel p to surmount, tho
eibst,aelee of the three rcalmg of $snti€nt beings,
Theraforo it ie called the peerless dltarma. "
Another Eou.rce s$ys, l ttrl ri dharma i s cal l ed
' excel l ent
or peorl ess dhanna
bec&ttse i t, reveal s
wi edom. Agni n, i t i s eal l ed
' proceedi ng
ff,JE )
(:auss procoe(ls to effect, nnd
i t i s r:rrl l ed
rl l :nrrni r,-ccrrl r,rnt' i ng' boci l ,uso wi sl rl orrr
confront,s i ts obj eets. Frrr{' her :"l rc Mahd' ui
.4dstra gi ves vn,ri ous theori es as to the verbal nteani ng
of Abhi rtharma, namol 1v. (a) The d,bhi dharmi kas
give the following re&sons : it, is able to invostigate
and di scri mi nato the charncteri sti cs of phenomena
thoroughly well
it is abio to reflect, on the various
natures of nhenornena and
rnto them ;
it is able to perceive and realise phonomena its
dharma is very profouq.d and rcachos the very
\'a,rious sacretl evos of wisdom are
puri fi ed b1' thi s Abhi dharma ; i t i s abl e to reveal tl i e
hi dden and subtl e nat,ure o{' th;"ngs
t}ro expounded
dharma i s not i nconsi st,ent
i t, can conquBr al l hnreti c
doctri nos. (b) \rasurni tra gi ves tho l bi l owi ng reri ,sons :
i t i s al wavs abl e to i nvesti gai e ti re nature and
char&,cteristics of phenorneni, expounded. in the
srl tra, &.c. ;
i t exl rl ai ns the twel ve-member caueal
l aw and tl e i nherent naturo of phenomena; i t
hel ps us t,) understand the Four Nobl s
' I' ruths
thoroughl y
i t, st,rrdi es and practi ses ti ro l aw of
the Nobl e Ei ghtfol d I' abh
i t, enabl es one to roai i so
i t arrangea pi renomena i n vari ous
ways by mo{.ns of profound doctri nes. (c) Bl ra-
danta' s theo-' v : i t i s cal l ed Abhi dharma
because it co iiects, B,rr&nges and diecrirnirrat es
euch probl oms as defi l emen-t, puri i ,y, bondage,
emanci pati on, degenerati on and el evati on,
by :ne&ns of Bentences, phrases and words.
(d) Par6ava's theory : it ig called Abhidharma
because it is ultirna,te, ereellent and infallibie
wi sdom. (e) Ghosaka' s theory : i t i s cal l ecl Abhi -
dharma becauso, through it, one who seekg
emanci pa' ,i on, fol l owi ng the ri ght practi ce, gets
olear insight as to suffering, c&use and cessation
of eufferinB, the path, the preparatory procoss,
the penul ti mate path, the process of emanci patron,
the speci al hi gher process, tho nobl e paths and the
noble fruits. (f) l'he Dhormaguptakas' theory :
i t i s cal l ed Abhi dharma becausrl of the pretl omi -
n&nce of dharma. (g) Ttre n{ahir.n6dsakas' t}reory :
it is called Abhidharma because its wisCorn ably
illuminates the phonomenal. (h) The Darqtdn-
tikas' theory : Nirvdna is supreme amongst all
thinqe and the Abhidharmo is next to it and there-
fore it is c&iied Abhid.harma.
(r,) The Sabdavada
theory: o designa,lres removal and bhi designatee
diecriminarion. ft (Abhi<iharma) abaadons fetters,
baC predispositions, trivial st&ins, the outburst of
bias, and discriminates aggregatea (akandha,), senso
organs and perception and their objecta (d,hatu an.d
dyatana), causB,l l&w, truth (aotya),
material and
spiritual'nutrimont (d,hira\, tho fmition of tho
path (6ramangaphala), factore of supreme know-
iedge (bodhyanga), &c", and therefore it is callod
Abhidharma. (il Buddhapdlita's theory : &hi
39 Part I, 1?: evam abhidharmo hi dharma-lakga4oprde6a-
r var0po nne y' avaSit t4trs iatra bhaga vaioktab,
{0 D/r.c.d..
: Samnlsambuddho va pathdmataran lbhi-
d! 3qmi ko.
me&rrs app€.s,rance and this Abirirlharma, clrarzs
al l the good and cal rses vari ous factors of st,preme
knowl edge to &ppe&r. Therefore i t i s cel l ed
Abhi dharma. (k) Buddhatl eva' B theory: obhi l no&ns
predominance and t,his
is iL1&llod
,\bhi tl harma becauso i t i s predomi rrant,.
l (l )
Y6,malabdha's theory : abhi me&ns veneration an(,i
this Abhidharma ie called .\bhidharma beeause it
ie voner$irlei *n<i honourable.
The ai.,ove are vorbal defrritions of ^\bhidhoi-m*
grven i n btre Xl ahaui bfui qa-l a.stra.
(*.v. ABI{I-
doiines nnd explains it in s nutsiroll in his Abhi-
dhorm.alcoio-iri.stra. "Abhidharrntt,
" mon,ns " {bcing
the dharna " and dharrrra designates Nirvana and
the {bur tmths as tl re l aw of ti re i deal . That w}ri c}r
confronts this clhanna is Abhidharrna and in its
prirnary senso it is pure and immaculal,o wisdorn,
but i n i ts wordl y seuse, prel i mi nnrv v;ri sdom,
antsrior to pure immacuiate wisdom, and abhr"
dharma books themselves are cailed Abhidliarma.
This rraculate wisdom includes innate wisdom.
wisdorn consisting in learreing anci irearing, wisdo:n
consi sti ng i n thougl rt, wi sdom acqui red by praeti ee.
r(. M.
I \ r . The or i gi n of t he Abhi dhamma. A cr i t i cai
siudy of tho toxts of early, modieval and rnoclern
Abhiclhamma leads us to tho
tho origin and developnent of the Airiridhamrna
exterrcied over B considerable period of gradual and
systematic historical evolubion. Reasons of ortho-
doxy, howover, proventod the early Buddhistsr llrom
cul ti vati ng or approvi ng a stri ctl v hi sbori cal vi ew
of thi s devel opment. The tradi ti onal el ai rn, shared
aliko by the thers,vddins anci tho Sarvastivadins,
asr:ribed the Abhiclhamma, bot'h in regarcl to its
historicai origin as weil as in regard to ibs lilerary
form, to the l 3rrdci ha hi msei f. Accordrng to tho
Abhi dhq.rtnakoi auyakhya, of the Sarvi sti vndi ns,
the Buddha hirnself tarrghi t'he Abhidharma on l
variety of occir,sions.3e
Attha-g,1lini' of tlie Ttrera'
vadi ns, whi ei r descri bos the Buddha as tho fi rsf
Abni dhammi ha,
gc' "" to the i engbh of cl ai mi ng
tl rat the seven treati ses oF the Abhi cl hantnre Pi taka
were themsei ves uttered by the Thi s
text, in an interesting and valuabie pa,ssa,ge, speaks
of a twofoid origin of the In this
connoction it. r'r,nswers as ms,ny a,s
pertaining to tho orrgin, purpose and conbinuitv
of tho Abhidhamm&. Aceording to these answers,
the Abhidhamma was inspired by the earnest
aspiration for eniightenment, matured through
fivo hrmdred and fifty births, realised by the
Buddha at the foot of tho Bodhi troe, in tho rnonth
of Ves6kha. It was reflecied upon by tho omni-
Buddhe. while he was on tho seat of onlighten-
mont, during his week's stay at tho Jewolled
Mansion. It was taught in heaven, that is, in the
realm of the thilty'-throo gods, for tho benefit of
tlie latter, that is, for the purpose of enabling thern
to get &cross tho four floods of life. It was rocoived
4 l Dh s A. 3 . 5 . 2 1 .
42 DhtA. 31. i.e., origin
pertaining to itc realis&tion and
that pertaioing
to its exposition (Abhidhammo
dve nidiuAui :
adNgama-oiddne4g desani- nid6uam ).
by the gode, and is studiod by the venerable seekerg
after perfoction ae well as by the virtuous worldly
fok. ft has boon rnastored by those who have
extinguishod their depravities, and is held high by
those to whom it was metrnt. It, ie the word of the
Buddha, and hes been handed down by the succes-
nion of toachere *ntl their pupile. Through Sdri-
putta it has been sueeessively handed dov:n by
Bhaddaji, Sobhita, Piyaj6,li, Piyadassi, Koeiya-
putta, Siggava, Sandeha, l\{oggaliputta, Yisudatta,
Dhnmmiya, Dffeaka, Sonaka, Revata and others
up to the time of the Third Council and thoro-
aft,er by their prrpils.a3 Througtr tho traditional
in India it wae brouglrt to the island
of Ceyl on, tha0 i s, by Mahi nda, Il fhi ya, Ut,ti ya,
Sambala and Bhaddasala and again it wan.handed
down i n i te new homo by thoi r pupi l e.a{
This traditional account no doubt contains
vah,rable historical information, epecially with
reference to its lattsr part. Tho orthodox view is,
ao alroady montionod, that the Buddha not, morely
rnepired the l,oter ggouth of tho Abhidhornma but
was hinrself responsible for the literary form whir:h
the ssven treatiges havo aestrmed within tbe Abh'i-
dlwmrno Pitako. There is, however, intoraal ovr-
dence in the Buddhist textg therne€lvee which
militatee against euch a elaim. It, is very signi-
ficant, for instance, that there ie no reforonee,
evon nominal, to the Abhidharnma rn what nre
generally rogarded as the earliost authentic texts
<rf early Buddhism such a€ t'he Sutto-nipd'ta and
tho veree portions of the Jafu,ka tales. And, as
has boen mentir.,ned already, even in ttrose placee
in the Di.gha, Majjhima and Ahgutta.ra Nikdyas
where the term Abhidhamrna, occurs, the reforoneo
ie not to a literary compilation or composition but
to a distinct techniquo of arralysing the Dharnma or
to a litorary classification based on thie technique.{5
There is also a moro positivo kind of ovidonco
which tends tri oonfirm the critical opinion of
moderrr scholarship in regarcl to the origin of the
Abhidhamrna. Buddhaghosa himself roeords that
tho ascription of the Abhidh&mrr]& to the Buddha
had been questiorred even fur the early daye of
The monk f is.qabhuti of Mandeldr6mo
held the viow that the Ruddha dicl not preacir the
Abhidhanrrna and cited tlrc Pct:l,esaoiluira Stll"ta
$s srrpprrrtrng him, while, on ths othor harrd, tl-ro
rnonk Suirranndeva tried to pcrsuade his lis{,enere
tborrt tho Budeltra'g nrrtlrorship of tho Abhirlh&r11m..&
hy ei ti ng the orthori ox f,ru,rl i ti on.{? Cri ti cs rtl i sod
the eame question at n letcr date irr respect of the
Kq,thfrnattht. IJrrclrihrrghosn, t1rrct,+re tho Vitanri*v8,.
rlirrs (p'rol-ra,bly rneanilg cynical sr-rphists). as sa.ying
flrat tlre Eath,tiuatthll was composecl by the elder
Iloggaliputtrt,tissa two hunclrocl ancl eight,eerr
lr.ftor the cleoth of tlre Brr,:lrlha, anrl t,hlrt,, thgrefore,
rt oup1l'rt ,,r 1to lrrjeci.ed a,s having heon spoken b;'
t l ra di eci pl ea.{s W}i Ie bei ng corrstrai ntr<l to u,dnrrl
rhe l ruth of ti ri s hi stori eal evont, Buddi raghoea.
Irow€ver, forcstal l s ttro obj ocl i on by hol di ng tl rrrt
r n t l r o cnse of t l r i s book t , l r * Br r dcl l r n, ha, cl l ai r l r l owr r
tha l i st, of srrhj ecte nnrl tl re uppropri tei ehni ri uo
43 I 1] uA- 32,
41 t bi d.
4 5 s e e a l g o D. I l I , 2 6 7 ; M. 1 , 2 1 1 , 2 1 8 ; . 4 . 1 , 2 8 8 , 2 9 0 , l l l ,
1 07.
46 Dht A, 28.
for their olucrdation on tho part of his disciple
who was doetirle(l to bo born over two hundrod
yeare aftor hie own death.{e
Il ie generally accepted thet the Abhidhammr
originated anri developed out' of the Dhamna. Tho
term Dhamrna, in its norrristive B,spect, bears
the widest meaning and comprehends tho entire
teaching or docttine.
l)hamma was taught,
to composito au<liencea ag and when oceaeion
prosented iteelf to the Buddha, &nd the language
us,ed w&e largely non-philoeophical with a fair
admixture of tho colloquial. Ae tho undorstanding
of the disciple llecame deepor the necessity aroee
for a more statonrent of tho nature of
reality. The Dhamrn& was capable r.rf being under-
sioocl and grtrspod only by tho wiso evon though
it was presentod frequently in popular diseourse.
Honeo thero wero occ&siorig whon the doctrino
was not well gresped by eomo diseiples even after
the Buddha had taught, tlre
On such
occasione. &s the suttantas themselves record,
it was custornory frrr thr.'st' disciples to botako
thornscl vos agai n ei ther to the Buddha or to ono
of his initiatecl disciples. who ttrereupon undor-
took a fi rrthor detai i ed exposi ti on of the knotty
probierrrs involvod. Tliis detailed oxposition and
explanation actually took t,he f,rrm of a, comrnontary
anrl the beginrrings c'f tho Abhidhammn cen bo
partly traced to it-
Espocially br:causo of the fact that the greaf,er
part of the Dhamm& wa^B taught in a froo stylo,
the rich and varied contentg of the suttas lent
thernselvee to a wide variety of interpretationg.
As ttro word of tho Buddhe gradually grew into e
religion and philosophy profossod by an increaeing
nurnbor of pooplo, the necessity arose for a prociso
and mor"e cetegorical prosontation of bhe doctrine.
illhis was all the more necessary in viow of the fact,
that othor contomporary sehools of religion and
philosophy wsre tuntinq out t,heir own literature
in whit.:h they attomptod to prcsent the doctrines
precisoly and systerrratically. The riehness of the
philosophical t'ontent of the Buddha's discoursos
rtlloweid for the possibilitv of divergenco of opinion
nven among l ho Rrrcl cl hi st monks themsel ves.
That thie was actually eo is indicated by the
erarly tristory of the emergence of tlro Rrrddhiet
Fchools. Each school tried in its own wav to ronder
explicit wha,l
only irnplicit in the earlier dis-
eorlrsos of tho Buddlra.
accelerated aftor thei Council of Vesali which was
oxclusivoll' devoted t.o the discussion of ten poi-uts
of mona,sti c di sci pl i ne. It x' as at, t,he Counei l of Pd!a'
l i pr r t ba, i n Asoku' s r ei gn, t haf cont r over si al poLr t s
u'ere seit,tled and incorpt:rat.ed il tlre canonical
fexts urrrl er tha nrrtn€\ Krtth,Tt' ati h,uppakarana.
It wotrl d B,ppear. t.heref' ;rt-' , that tl re vari ous school s
u' i l h schi snrati c terrderrci es i raci .hei r ori qi n between
t]re tn' o l tt,r-.r Ccrunci l s. In ttre Pal n' l i putta Counci l
the cl rspuLe \r' ?!s no i r,rrser about rul ee of di sci pl i ne,
as at \-esai i , L,ut atront th6 fi nt' r poi nts of psycho-
l ogy and l ogi c.
' I' hese
di vet' gences wero natural l l '
4 7 l t l . s A. 3 0 . 3 1 .
45 , 0i 8. t , 3.
4rt Dhs A. 1. I t i sat t herl di nuat rayert a
{, hapi t aur6t i kl yrr
desitattA sakalaqr pe&rrlr pak&ranaryr Buddhabh[aitarp eva
ui nra
j at arP.
ref i ect , ed i l t l re Al rl ri rl harnrrra works t hat \ 4' ere
i n Droress of bei rrg compi l orl or r: ornl l osorl
at ,
t he t , i me,
I ' hi g al eo expl ai rrs t he reasons t l rrrt l erl t o t he
convcnl . i orr of rnany rrqsembl i cs orr(l counci l s f or
t ho pt t r poso of <l ' : t er mi ni r r g t he enu( ' L nr eani ng
' '
1: oi nt s
of conl ro! ' ef s\ , ' ".
' I l r. , ,
di f f orcnces carno
t o be more exaggerat erl wl i el i t ' l t t : i r sr: l l ool hei d
i t e own of osed sessi ()rt $ t . o cl eci rl e t l re i rnl t ort <i f t l i e
docr, ri i re.
' I he
e*rl i r: r l i f ' e of eremi t i c*l rnendi r: arrr: 1'
gave pl *ce gruel rui , l l . v t ri onr: of sct t l crl monu, . rt i ci srrr
.ancl, +18 tl rr-::lrrlt, of titc
expansion of
narl y Tl url rl l ri srrr, rrrorrrl st , crl cs e&t nrl t o bo est aul i Bh-
ad i n H(ri t , L6re{l t t l i t , ct s. r{rrnot 8 I i ' orn eur, l r ot l rer.
Tho l i f e of l oi rurrc t l rt t s $et l t t rerl i nt l rt cerl t ht , nt orrl i s
t o enga. go t l rerrrsel r es i ri phi l osorrhi crl l *nt l l i t crrar] '
pursui t s nnt l t i re gec. ' graphi cal i sol at i orr ol ' t he
monagt €ri eg rcst . t l t r-rt l i rr t l i e gr<i wt l r of i ncl el t ert r-l cnb
Bchool s of t hot rght "
' I ' hi s' expl rr, i rrs
rr, t orl oe rn{l nv
of t he di spari t i ei s bet ween t t re vari ort s school s i n
regard t o t he , \ bl ri <l hr. r, mrna. l f hi s ai . i o r: cnl . rast s
wi t h t ho posi t i orr rel at i ng t o t hc l )ht l rrrt na. Wl i ere. t r, s
t here i s a rc. markabl e t i egrr' . e of agroernel t t a. n! ' : )l )g
t he earl y sr: hool s on bl re i nt erJxot nt , i ot ' L of t l ro
earl . v t eachi rrgs i t . rcl rrdeci i n t he l )hrr. rnrnn. t l rere
j s
a marked l nck of such agreernenL i n regarrl 1, o t l ro
doct r i nes cont &i r r ecl i n t ht l Ai l hi t l i r nr r r nr . r , . f ' ht
I )I t arnrna was sharerl i n comnt ot i Lrv al l l l t rrl dhi st s
pri or t o t hoi r secessi on i t rt o si : hool s rl rt ri t hoi r g, . : o-
grrrphic,al s(rp&r&t ic,tr frorn <lrr,. a.not,tror' . fn vicu'
of the clifl' ererrces {rm()Ir!{ tho srr:}rools on the srttljert
of t he Abhi rl hanrrna ot rch f ' el t t he need f {)f t i ro c<i m-
pi l a, t ron of rr sepi l rnt , o . L' rt rr. ka f or t i rei spr: ci al t . r. t t rl
el aborrr, t ed cl oct ri no. Fl ven f rot rr t i i e poi nt of vi t t w
of literrr,ture. wo a6e tho contrast tretwoen tho
Dhamma, and t,he Al:hirihanrma.
' fhore
almost eomplele correspondence betweon t,he
Sutta Pitalco5' of the ear!-v schools, as tho rtvriil&blo
vorsi ons i n Pal r. St i nskri t , Chi nese and l i bot a, rr
show. Btrt in t,lro c&se of the Abhiil,harrvrrur, Pitraho,t,
there is not, o\-rln corrospondeinee in lriilno in rogarrl
t o t he t i t l es of t he t : anoni cul , , \ bhi t l harnrnt l t oxl s.
l et al one agreouront i n rl oct ri rre. Thi s ci i spari t v i n
l i t erary' rr' orks i s espec' i rl l l v cl earl v i l l rrst rt i t od bv a
comparat i ve st rt l l of t , ho Sarr' l rst , i "' t rt l a and t l t o
Therav6da. \ \ ' e ca. u, t l rt , rt -' f ore, si rv t ht rt *' hi l e t l rt ' r
Dhamma br, . l orrss t o t he
peri orl of rurrl i r' i docl
Budclhisrn of thir d.ats. tho Alrhid.ha.rnrna
bol ongs t o t he peri od of ' di vi ri ed Brr<l rl t ri srn. T' hrrs
al one can we &t : count adeqri at el y f ur t ho wi do rnt l asur, :
of divergence in r' ()gard to t' lrt-' -lttlt i,diortrn.tnct Pitakas
and t hoi r subj ect -rn. l t t t , r. I . ' r' orn i t s ver' ' u- i ncept i on
and t . hroughout t ho rnecl i t . r' al : l nd rno<l ern
l rori ods.
t he Abhi dhamma er-ol verl orrt l t l er-el ot rcd i n t he
i sol at . i on of t he sel l i u' at e school s.
\ ' . The met hod ol t he Abhi dhamma. The
met hod of t l re Abhi dht rrnrna (Abhi dhert t nt anat l al
i s di st i ngui shed f rorn t hab of t he Sut Lant a. .
' f l ro
di f f erence. bet *-een t ho Dhamma ancl t he Abhi -
dhamma consi st s proci sel v i n t ho ci i st , i nct i on
bet ween t wo met hods. Thi s met ho(l assumes t he
f orm of a speci al ki nd of anrr, l vsi s cal l ert , 1bhi -
dhomma-t t h' Qi at i ua, t o be di st i ngui sl i eri agai n
f rom t he Sut t ant a-bl t i j ani ua. I n t her sut t as t hero
is frequent reference to lo<.rsrt anr.l, theretbre, v&grrr)
and unsci ent i f i c popui ar desi qnat i ons suci r es t he
Lorrn puggalo for an i-rrdividrrai. In tho Airhiclhamrna,
on t he ot her hand, an i mpersl onal t cr: t rni ca, l t er-
mi nol ogy' has t aken t he pl ace of popul ar n&mos.
Tho i ndi vi rl t ral , f or i rrst , anco, i s consi dere<l here
onl y i n t crrms of so manl ' cat eqori es such ns l ; handha. ,
dhd. t t . t and at l o, t an d, i n a mrrre det *i l ed arrd t hororrgi r
1rrr, y t i l rl n i s t . o i re f orurd i n i l re st rt t . as. l f rs. I i h! . s
I ) avi ds ( EI i l t . I . l 9)
of t ho Abhi dl t ant r na as
a r ecot t nt of sr r I t ant a t l oct r i nes; n- i t i r ana] r , ' si s &n( i
el a, borat i ons nncl comrnent , : ht : nee, not a posi t i r. e
cont r i but i on t o t he phi l osophp' of ear h' Ruddhi sm,
brrt an anal yt i e, l ogi c*l arrd rnet hodol ogi cal ei a
borat i on oi ' what was al rerr, . l v gi ven i n di scoureee.
' I l re
ari al ysi s i n t he Abhi rl l rt rrnrna pr<l eeeds
wi t h t he ai d of t f r e r net l r od of i ndr r ct i on. Thr :
progress f rorn t he p*rt i crrl nr t o, t ho gei noral
i s al ways
t o t ho i l dvrl nt u, gr-r o{' t }ro Abhi d}rammi ka, X' he
obger vat i on of t l r e r r i i t l r r e and f unct i on or l r ehal i our
of part i cui ar obj ect , s and event s ancl persons l eads
nat ural l v t o t he st al . ement of f un<l amont al cha, rac-
t ori st i cs cornmon t o al l
pl renornen&.
-[ n L] re ul t , i mat e
anal vsi s. t l r i s r net hot l
' yi el cl s
r r s knor vl t dge &bout
t i re f i rst pri nci pl es t hat g. rvern t ho rvl rol . e rrni verse.
I t i s t hi s krr<; wi edge, cl evt r, t t -. r, 1 Lo t he l evcl of i rnrns-
di nt o i nt ui t i on t hr or r gh f , i r e syst er nr r , t , i c pr r r i f i cnt i on
arrrt t kr, el opnrcnt of t ho huuran rni nrl . t hat , f i nal l y
r osr r l t s i r i t . l r o r eal r gat i on ol ' f ui l enl i ght cr unent .
1' hi s expl ai ns why t , i r c Ai r hi cl hanr mi ka si r ur r s t he
r not l xr d of r l or l r r ct , i r l n' w. hi ch onl y br eeds ondl ess
spect r l at i on t o becl or i r l t l r e pr r r i t , y. r nd openness
of t he mi nr l of t he t r r r t h- scoker .
Tt l e net , hod of t l r er Abhi dhamr l i ka i s not .
however, conl i nod onl y t o t ho arral yt i r: al . The Abhi -
dharnma <l eni os t he cornoet et rce of rnero anal vsi rr
t o yi el <1 us a cornprehensi vo st at ernent of t he rr&t ure
ancl f unct i on of event s and obj ect s. Hence t ho
Abhi rl harnrni kas have recogni sed t , hc i rnport ance
of svnt ho"i s rLs & met ho(i t hat srrppl ornont g anal vsi s.
I n t ' l ro t l bl r, i , l hurrt rnrt I ' i t a, kn of t ho
' l horavdrl i ns
t l re rnet l rod of anal ysi s i s i l i ust rat ed i n t , l i o Dhant ma-
sangat t i . whi i o t t r o Put t hanu, i s whol l y devot od t o
t ho apl i l i eat i on of t he met i r od of synt hesi s. Ana-
l ysi s hel ps us t o know t he pari i ci pi al nat uro ol '
phenomena. Synt hesrs, on t he ot her hanrl , gi ves
i nsi ght , i nt o t ho dynami c f uncLi on, as wel l es t hc)
c&u$o f or t he sepsrabe i dont i t y, of t t re samo
pbenr, rrrrerra
Tho rnot l r, rd of t he Abhi dhamma has gi ven us
a descri pt i on r. rf phon, rrnena as t hoy are madL'
t vai l abi o t o percoJrt i on. Thi s at t empt t o under-
t ake onl y a rl oscri pt i ve anal ysi s of ompi ri eal real i t y
has el i rni nat ed t he possi bi l i t y of t he i nt rusi on of
specui r. i t i vo rna, t t er i nt o t ho Abhi dhamma. The
prrrposo of t ho . {bhi dhamma i s sol el y t o underst ancl
t ho rvorl d &rorrnd and wi t hi n us nnd t ho onl y
f unct i on of t he Abhi cl hamrni ka. whi crh can be bot h
et hi r: u, l l -v edi f yi ng anrl pract i cal l y rrsef ul , i s t o
descri be t he dat a as t hey are act uai l y present ed
t o percopt i . )n. Thi s i nvest s t he f act s st at ed by t hr:
Abhi dt ramrna u' i t h a sci ont i f i c charaet er.
I V. S. K.
Ruddhi st phi l osophy i s not {r more spoeul ati on
on rnental anal ysi s. f t i s no doubb anal y-ti cal through
aud througi i , so rnuch so that the Theravdda school ,
wh<>se svstem of phi l osophy i s now under di scussi on,
warc earl i er known as Vi bhaj j avdda, the Anal y-
ti cal School . tsut i t i s anal vsi s wi th & purpose, and
tho purpose is othical. And thus wo havs a psycho-
logy of conduct as well as & moral code basod
on mentel anelysis. WilL (clwnda), volition (cenni),
adjustment of attention (cetaso obh.irtiropano') or
aspiration and intention (tahkappa) shos' the
working of ths ruind as it inclines Eitlr craving
to either unwholesome or the so-eailed good, And
that iF exactly the content of thnt Compendium of
Mentel Sl,ates, the Dhammasangani, the first
l.rook of
which constitute tho coilection
of plriiosophical works, tho Abhirlhamm,a Pitslca.
It, is oLrvious that tho Abhidha,rrune as a wholo
nnd the l)h,anrma,Eoi,gani in
&re works of
serious stud5r. And in this is found the grcat differ-
ence in etylo arrrl eomposition, in metirnd of
exposition and argurnent,, a,nd oven irr the basic
approach tn tlre subject betwoen tho Sutta-pi,taka
and the Abhirlhamma-pitraka. For, the suttas aro
expositions in the form of discusgions and disBourses,
giving details of eircumstances and of the people
toking part therein, whoreas the Abhidhamma
teaching is entirely rievoid of oxplanation (nip-
pariyaua). It is certainly not a handbook for
beginners and a f*ir amount of at least acquain-
tance with tho sul-joct mattor is presupposed.
Neither does it essentiall'y add to the knowledge
of the Buddha-dhamm& which could be gleenod
from the suttas. But whereas this doctrine is
found ecattered, incoherently, throughout the
many thousands of sutt'as, this s&me doctrine
is methodically arranged and systematically
oxplairred in the various books of the Abhidhamma,
without historicsl detail regording persons or
occ&sions, frequont'ly in the acadomic form of
question and answer. A summary at the end of a
ehapter adds to its schclastic appearenee. Thus
wo hsve a plan
an expositron (nid,lesol
in quostion and answor, rounded offu'ith & summary
(appand,l .
In tho euttas the doctrino is given with a practical
purpose, the development of morality, of insight,
the attainment of roalisation. In the Abhidhamma
the preacher has been replaced by the scholar,
who'so main interests ano definitions, technical
determinetions, analytical knowledgo and syn-
thetic logic. Yet the goal is tho same for both.
The suttas will preach of aitruistic lovo and self'
less virtue, of mental absorption in meditativo
oxerciees, of purity of living, loading to clarity of
thought. The Abhidhamma will enalyse ttre process
of thought,,
components of corporeality and
mentality, and theroby provo that there is no
abiding entity which could be called a soul. And
thus the two meec agein in tho realisotion of soul'
lessness (onattd) through self-renouneing virtuo
and self-renouneing wisdom.
I { . G. A. v. Z.
VI. The Characteri stl cs ol Abhl dhamma.
In a
precoding soct,ion w€ g&ve verbal definitions fourrd
in oarly literature. These ore definitions oither of
Abhidhamma in its final and perfected form or of
Abhidhamma as it should be. They do not denotr:
the actuol or historical Abhidhamma in its various
stages of dovolopment. In this eection, we shall give
the charaeteristies of Abhidh&mmo &s seon in tho
existing Abhidhamma literlture of various stages.
Tho origirral Abhidharum& lr'&s a sorl of commen-
tary on tho eutta
was iho Buddha's teaching,
as is
in the juxtaposition of the pair (abhi.
dharrn.a and abhi'uirwya) found in ttre Nikdyas.
Graduelly, annotation and explanation on tho
teaching (dhamma) and precept (uinaya)
cluring the Buddha's lifetiroe or immediately
after his parinibtrdna. Theso werrs called abhi-
dhamma and abhivi,rutya rospectively. In the oarly
period, they v/ero inclutled in tho writinge as
commentary, sutta and eystematised sutta. They
aro tho oldest form of Abhidhamrna. Thoir eharac.
toristies wero: (i) Thoy annotrited and oxplained
the sutt,a texts and gavo definitions and expla-
nationir of terrminology. (2) They arrangod and
classifiod rrumerical doctrines uccording to numorale.
(3) They systernatised the Coctrinee preached in
tho suttas and ostabiished a consistent method
of practieo. Thos€ wore the distinctive charscteris-
tics of the earlioet Abhidhanrma. Theeo abhidhamrnic
suttrls wore attributod. to the Buddha or to his
farnous discipies. Thoy are now included in tho
sutts eolleetion. Those Abhidhammic suttae deve-
loped into indopendent Abhidhamma which may
be cailed tho fundamental Abhidhamma. l'heywer.o
produets of growth tluring a long period. In aecor-
danco with the various etages of dovelopmont tho
methodology too unrierwont some changoe. The
early f'wrdarnental Abhidhammo had the above-
mentioned throe qualities in common with tho
abhidhammic euttas which procedod it. The
only differeneo was that in the former the qualities
wero rnor€ developed. Accordingly, they atill
consisted of explanations snd interpretations of
the suttas or their a,rr&rrgornont or orgarriastion.
But in the noxt stage, Abhidhemma graduelly
deviated from tiro sutiss and came to hovo sontenl,s
of rts own. Tho mothodological charactsrietics of
this (soeond) period v/ere : tho subjects of discourse
were classified by some abhidhammie standerds,
by arrangement into various brerrches (P. Pafiho-
consideration of the subordination of
concepts of the ohjeets of discourse according to
their connotation and donotation (P. aahgoln,
Skt. ocrigraho)
conaideration of concurrence and
correspondence of verious montal functions, &c.,
(P. sampayogo, Skt. aam,prayogal.
By moans of these throo mothods, tho conceP-
tual definition of the objocts of discours€ becams
very oxact, anri mind and matter \r'ers congidored
as a wholo. In early Buddhism they woro explained
only as far as they had Bnv connection with practrye
and ernamcipation. But hero they cemo to bo
oxamined as a whole and objoctivoly. Consoquently,
the method of classification usod by original
Butldhism and the early Abhidhamma proved to bo
inadequato. And there aroso tho method of claeei-
fication unique to the Abhidharnms of this poriod.
Lot us explala it concretely. In original Buddhiem
and the ebrly Abhidhamma. matter and mind
were syntheticellv ciassifieci by such categories es
fivo skandhos, twolve dyotonae, eightoen dhihn.
Brrt in Abhidharma of, e.g., the Sarvdstivddine
from the middle period onward. all forms of exis-
tence were classi{ied into five categories, namoly :
tr{rpa) ;
mind (citto,)
attributos of mind
: that power which bolongs neither t'o
mattor nor to mind and yet activatoe matter a,Dd
5. S.P.C.
mi nd (eUl a. ut ppayut t a-cl hnt nwt a\
&nt l , t he uncon-
ditionecl (<rsuriklmla-ditamnal.
I l ut l l ri g cl $gei f i cat i on l nri rl s nrorr' or i oss r' ; i i h
Eshool B.
(l n
t hr, . ot her hant J, i rr t , ho l at , o . \ l rl ri rl hi l mnt rl ,
al l t . hi ngs, l rorrr t ernJrorsl rr, t rd l ot ' nl rel rr, Li i ' ns" rLf i )
consi cl er l ul i n t , er r ng of cr i nr i i l i r : r r ; ol . cj t r r sos of t , ] r er r
bi rt h, ri se, cl : r' rr. 1' {rn{l ext . i rrt f i ri n. Agai n. sor}t o
sehool s r. rnsi drl r t he rr(-' cornt )l i gl i rrl c. ni or non-
accorrrl rl i shmcnt r, f sor; rr. ,
1. i l ri ' n
nt t : norr l -, . y- l ho
i n{ i l r or t se r : f r na, i , t +r r t , r , l r r i r r i r . l " I i i t l r er t , r , . , r . J i , , r , r , g
gt at ecl
t , ho r : i r at r r , ct r . r i " gt i eg mai nl t . ( : ( i nr f n{ t l l
t o al l
school s ot ' Abhi dhr r r r ) r r r f i .
K. I I .
The subj ect -mat t er
ot t he Abhi dhamma.
Our knowl edgo
of the i ntt rnai a,nd rl xterrru,l
worl cl s
r s oht ai ned.
t l r r ough s ons or \ , per r . eJ t l i oi r . , I l i i i s
wor l d ot Benso cxper i cnce
i s cor npr cl r t nr l ed
bi ,
mi nd and matter. Ii eal i tr.. l rorrovor, i snot erhatrstod
tho cl ata of the si x sense org:ul s. ti l t,i mate
re-al i ty tral scen:-i s tho. errrpi ri cai rvorl d of rel rr,ti vi ty.
The tobal i ty of l i fe i s, thorcfore. ful l y cxl i a,usted
b_y .pi nd, mattor anrl ul ti rnate roal i ty. These pre-
ei sel y derfi no tho seope and l i mi t of th" subj oct-
ma,tter of tlle Abhirihanrrna.
datrr of
"nri"o..r percopti on aro ei thcr corp,c,real
or psvchol ogi cai .
pvery datr.rm of corporealitr-
found to be i rn
j nstari ce
of eonti ngent oxi stence.
The conbi ngent i s tl rrr,t r.r.hi ch i s subj ect to chango
and ovol uti on. Al l corpor' ,.aI and' psr.c:hol ogi cl al
data are, therefore, of tl i e n&bure o[ phernornena,
for the non-conti ngent
noumenal natrrre sai d by
spe-culative philosophers
to unrlerlie them is noi
yiolded to
perception. Tho funrlamental
gen-eric torm wliich cornprehencls
all phenomena
is dhamma. The Ab_hidhamma is largei.v devotod
to tho di scussi on of dl mrttn(Z or
rrt,i nomena. In
as the empirical world is
Abhidhammika is wholly interested in tho modal
vjow of reality. fn the view of the Abhidhammika,
thero is.
in all the data of sensorv percep-
tion which does not admit of the nature of dhiamml,
for ali phenonrena
&ro ev&nescont, non-substantiai
and lacking
porfec_t Lrarmony and c,rnsistoney.
As a resul t of the appl i cati on of thi s test of real i tv,
tho di scusgi on of o pri ori eategori ets such os
God and soul are not f<rrrnd in the {bhirihu,--r.
Thi s l eads to the Abhi dhamma defi ni ti on of'
what i s real i n tho funri omental sense. Thi s i s trono
other than
are four tvpes of this
real i ty, namel y, mi nd (ci tto),
co-el l i ci enr,.s of mi nd
matter (ripa) and riltimate realitv
(nibbana). Of those four t'"'pes the first three arl
empirical and mundane, wlrile tl-ier fourth alone is
transcendental. The reality of the rirst threo
consists in their capacity for ehange and evolution.
Paramatlloa rne&ns fundamental- category. The
four tl ?ee of paramattha aro basecl on-a di sti nct
rheory of degreos of trrrth and real i tv. Al thoush
ail iour
t1'pes of reality are commonly ealled
parani attha, there i s a vi tal di fferei rce i n rhe l evel s
of real i t-"' as betq' een the fi rst three and tho forrrth.
Tne former belong to the roairn of empirical realitv
whi l e the l atter- bel onqs r o the transcondental
reai rn ot' the unconci i ti oned absol ' ,te. l ,Ii nd and.i te
co-effcrents and matter, al thorrgh cal l ed param.attha
e:e nbt unci rangi ng enti ti es enduri nq and per-
c{uri l rri e i n c}raracter.
' l }roy
i rave no trnderl yrng per-
nrarr€rrl, n&+,ure, whilo t,he fourth pa,ra,rnattha,
narrr:i y, i ri t,i mate real i ty, boi ng of a transconrl ontal
n&Lure, dors not l ontl i tscl f l ,o verbal pre<i rcal ;i on.
' Ii rer
fbur L,r,pes of rrl ti rna,t,es corni l ri s;, accordi ng
to t,he l l :erar' i l rl rr Abhi dhr' .rnn1a. & r,otal r-.f ei ghty"
bwo r;ategori e-=. I' he rni nd i s one ul ti rnato, tho co.
e{fi ci onbs ,,f rni nd di vi de thernsel r' os i nto fi fty-
two rrl ti mntr' forrns, rnatter i s anah' sed i nto bwenty-
ei g)rt di sti nct forms a,nd real i t.v l ni ,hbdnui consbi -
trrtes one rrl ti rnate frnm the trarrsc€fndental poi nl
of vi ow.
Tl r e I l r r t i r l l r & &sser r , s t ho supnr nr l cv of i l r e mi r - r d
i n the ri i rcct,i on nnd rl eLermi nat i ori of l i f' o. Tho
rvorl tl i s l ei l bv the rni nd (ctrfr:na
ni rl ati Zo[' o). Thi s
t r ut h l eads t b t he r e+cogr r i t i or r t l t t t t ho pr ( ) per
st r r t i v of man i s hi s oi l ' r r mi nr l . I i t h. r cl al i sr r t i on
of t he t r r r t , h i s posi ; i bl o or r l v t i ' r r ough t ho dover l op-
rnori t and
l ruri fi cati on
of tho mi nd, i t then fol l orrs
t,irat, the proper understanding of its natrrro and
frtnci i on must, l l ocessari l 5' precerl e anv seri orrs and
successfrrl att,empt at such puri ti cati on ond devel op-
rnent. Si nce tho Abhk{hamma teaches t}re path
to the real i sati on of tnrth. the stud.y of the mi nd
has heon gi von the foremost attenti on and con-
ei cl orati on throughout i ts di scussi on of real i by.
Thcl content of tl rc Abhi dl i amrna i s thus predomi -
nantlv psvchological. Ilori'in we h&r'o tho first
seriotrs a,ttempt in the history of human thought
to pl aee the studv of psychol ogy on a sci enti fi c
footi ng. It i s a system of deseri pti ve and cri ti cal
psychol ogy whi ch " psychol ogi nes " wi thout the
ai d of a rnet:rphysi cal psyche. It cl ai rns onl y tr,
deseri be ancl anal yse psychcl ogi cal si tuati ons os
thoy act,ually occur. The value of the Abhidharnm'i
ur this regarcl iies in tho fact that it gives us cn
insight into the mainsprings of psychological life
i n t ho i ndi vi r l ual .
Ihe thoroughgoi ng psychol ogi cal anal yses of t,he
Abhi dhammi kas refl oct tho hei gtrt:r 1o whi ch the
science of tho mind had u,t,taino<l arrrong the Rud-
dhists a,t e very oarlv clate in the history of intel-
lectual progross. The classicai Abhidhamma term
for ttre mind is citta. IL has other synonyms such
&s rncrno, rifi,fr.dne e\nd cete, The mind is no abstrac-
ti on. It i s parti ci pi al i n forrnati on. Gi von tho
rrecens&ry condi ti ons. thore i s ori gi nati on of con-
sciou.qness of one sort olanother. I{enco the mincl
is always a specific instanco eonsisting of parti-
cul ar r:haracteri sti ce.
The mi nd, i tsel f consi dsred as a seneo-door,
is surrcitrndod t;y five other oxternai sense-doors,
ti re eye. e&r, nose, tongue and body. Percepti on
ie described and explaineci on the basis of the etimuli
which impinge on the one or the other
of the 6ense organs. Sensory eontact comes
about, as a result of the coming togethor of a sense
orga,n and its corresponding object. This sensory
contaef thon leads to the birth of sensations of
one sort or another (visual, auditory, olfactory,
gustatory, tactile and, in the caee of the mind,
the sixth sense org&n, conceptrral), which in their
turn genorate situations which are ploasant, un-
pleasant or hedonistically neutral. Pleasant son-
eations conduco to the growth of craving which
makes one attach ones€lf to objects of one
sort or another. This attachment
motivo impulso which koeps a-going ths strearn
of hocorr,ing, whieh ia nothing other than tho con-
tinuity of life in Ell ite ma,nil'eetatiorre-
The Abhidharn:na deels in detail with the procose
of pereeption. Aeeording to the Thoravdda ana,lysis,
thia ie marked try eeventeen dietinct steges of
cognitive and conceptu*l ecrivity, From tho etage
sf tlero a,rea,reneaa up to tho poilt when there ie
an indelible regiatration of the cognieed object
t-here &re Bevent€sn thor:ght-momentg involvod.
According to thie theory it would appear thet
ori€ Jnornont rif phyeicol ehango ie co.extensivo end
co-oval with sevontoon momants of psychological
change. Ifeuce, the Abhidhamme eays that the
urind ch.anges sixteon tirues as f's-st as matter.
Ihs co-efficionts of mind a,ro the vsrioue non-
:ognitive elsnrents and the Tireravride ligte them
as amounting to s total of fifty-two,
eaperately lilted, probably on *""onht of their
inportenco for ths psychology of hurrrsn conduct,
The Sarvsetiv&da Abhidharma,
all reality into eoventy-five ultimate dharmas,
edde to the analyses of the Theravadins in many
i mportent ways.' fhei r oxtengi ve cl assi fi cati one
&rs srlmmarieed in the Abhitlitarmakota and. tho
comrnentarios thsroon,
just &s thoeo of the
Therovada a,r6 summ&risecl in t}ae Visu.dd'hirnagga
and other commentaries on the books of the
canonieal Abhidhamme.
The analysis of matter in the Abhidhsmma ie
aignificant eapecially in viow of the modern sciontific
resoarcheg into the subject. Matter, according
to t,he Abhidhamma, is considerod as a function
and the Therav6da enumeratos aB meny as twenty-
eight forrne of it'.
Perhaps the moet important singie contribution
of the Abhidhamme to tho history of thought is
its fully developed end thoroughly compreheneivo
theory of caueaiity and relativity. Being a thorough-
iv consistent attempt at explaining the dependent
origination of all phonomona, it is, in its widest
emprrical Beneo, a giga,ntic theory of cosrnic dyrra-
rnrcg. f-'he moet voluloinous work of the Tbersv6da
Abhicllramma, namely, the Patlhd'na, is wholly
devoted to tho consideration of this tlreory from
the poi nt of vi ew of i ts appl i c*ti on to the facts of
F€nEory perception.
The Abhidhamrna deals at length with the
mechanics of mind control and with the teehniquoa
cf psychic development of tho mind. The primary
crm here i e to i ndi sete the path to the real i gati on
,-': ruisdom ar paitfid, The Abhidhamma coneludee
s' rti r t,h€ di eeu.qsi on of tho ul ti mate real i ty of
-' .zbl :i rut. Tl re l $tter i s roore frequari bl y defi rred i n
e' ,i ri r-ai terms nnd more rnrel y ag the ul corr<l i t,i oned
.1.bsol ute whi ch tranecenrl s al l snti nomi es. ThroLrgl ' ' .
t.hi s di gcussi on i he Abhi dhamma avoi d,s t.he
subtler rnaLaplr-veice of the lnt,sr lJuddhiet Al'Jeolute
i i cel i st c.
w. L K.
r=l j ' L
Subi ect-mattsr bel ore ths l undrmental
Abbi dhamma" Abl ri dhernru* devel oped, aB we
=+'*. sir,-,ve, from the attempt at clarifieation of
?. ' . . ri t i
1rn: d, ci rel d
i n t he rj l rLt , 8, . The subj ect -met t er
::eeted there was the teachinge of tho Nikd.yae;
eapoci al l y thei r creod anrl doctti nes. Lot us tske ss
&n exampie the Potr".sarnbhiddmagga, a Boutce
Irtere,trrre which existed iretbre the firnriiamental
Abhidiranrna. In the book tirirty iterus conoer.ning
ci octri rre are troatt' d. Ti re-,, are (A) knowl edgo
wrong vicrv-s (dttthi1, routdfulness regarding
resp irabic n
pa na), c on tro I iing p ri nc r p I e (ind,rdy a),
sphere of exietence
1gat1' ),
karma theory (kamma), perversi on
l ui pdl i sal ,
excel l ent dri nk (munrl aTtegyc). (B)
association of quietutie and insight p1uganaddlwJ,
truth (aacco,), fsctor of supreme i<nowledge
(bojXh.angu), love or amity (mettd), absonco of desire
(uiraga\, anaiytic inaiglib (pa{t)sambhid,i), wheel of law
(dharrtmacakka\, tranecendental world (Iokuttora),
spi ri ttral powsr (bal a), voi d (tufrfi a). (C) great
psychic powor (iddhdl,
clear undorstanding of truth (abhisarnaya), detach.
mont (ai,ueka), behaviour (coriyd,), marvols
{pdlihariya), "
equal-heoded ono ", who simultano-
ouelv attairrs &n ond of craving (samaadeal,
application of mindfuiness (ealapallhfrna), ir.right
(uipassand.), tabulatod burun&ry (rnatika).
Thege 30 iteme are in most cases given ih the
Nikdyas. But eorne
further progress. At any
rate, these lJ0 rborns exhaust the irnporbant problerns
of Buddhi st derct,ri ne. But s;' atemati seti on i s not
complete. Their arra,ngement and organieation ie
eeen in the Pali Vibhanga and iire Dhartttaskand,lw
of the SarvAstivada school, treatisee representativo
of the oarly fundamental Abhidhamma.
IX. The l undanreutal Abhl dhamma ol the oarl y
poriod. To bogin with, tho Pali Vibhariga urranged
the subjects of study into tho following 17 items :
BenscJ-orga,ns and sonao
otrjects (,j.yatana\, eloments (dhdtu), truth (aacca,),
controlling principlo (ind,ri'gal, mode of oausee
(paccayakd.ra), application of mindfulmess (ealti-
pa{(hdna), right exeC,ion (aammappadhfr,na), peychic
power (i,Cdl,ipada), fa,ctor of eupreme knowlodge
peth (magga,\, meditation (.ihfina,l, mt
of precepta (sihkhdpatla), analytic insight (patd-
cambhid,l\, knowledge (fid7ta), miscellaneous vicos
(khuclrl,akattatthul, and, essence or surnmery of -
clhammir ('Jhantm,aharlutla).
include the
important probloms of Ruddhism, euch a$ five
khandhas, twelve d,yatanas, eighteen dhdtus,
twonty-two indrryas, twolve-momber
caueali t.y, fo ur satipnf'fhanas, four sammappadhanae,
four iddhipadas, seven Lrojjhangas, tho Noble
Itrightfold Peth, meditation of four
four iruppa eamFpatti, tho fi.vo prercopte of tho
house-lrolder, four analyfic insighbs, r'aiious typeg
of wi sdorn, arrd vari ous evi l ci osi res.
l)harrnackrtndho c,f the San'astiv6da deals
vri th the l bl l orvi ng 2I i tems, rn' hi eh &to rn the
rnai n the s&rno aB those menti onsd rrbove. Thoy
ore: s€rtg oi precepts
four phaseq of
(ronversi on t,i Tttri pttt!!angcut, perfeet fai th (auetya-
prosri d,a), frrri l i on of tho
Jrath \i rdma,nya,phal al ,
praefice ancl krlori'Iedge (pralipai,-abhi,jdd), noble
i i nea,ge ot roei uses
(drya-uanr,l a),
ri ght exerti on
(samyak-prahi na), psychi c pov/€r (yd,i l hi -pdd' a),
application of mrnd ful noss (sm7 ti-Ttrastlwna), noble
meditation ('Thyana), the illimit.
able (aprarndno), formless meditation (arupyal,
prectice of other meditation (samdd'hi-bhdvandl,
factor of euprerne knowleclge (bodhuangc), rnrs-
cel l aneoua vi ces (kr*udro,ku.t;a,ttttl , contrr:l l i ng.
prineiplee (ind.riy oJ, senne {)rgn,rr:< anci sense- objeet,s
(i yatanal , sggr' ega.t$s (.tl rari dhai . i ndrry
qrl emenLs
(buhru -dJr.i t
tr), anrl l arv of eausat,i on (ptrut' i ,ti ttt tumt i t-
pi rl a\1.
Tlie tweni,y-ons iternrr are a lit,tL. more f.hrr.rr
tl ra 17 i tems crf tho Pa,j i l l udcl hi sm, arrd rci rrghl l '
s;-enki ng, ri r&rry i t,errrs of t,hes,-r two sets c:oi nei do
rvi t,h err l esr:rnl -ri e ci l etr oth.rrr. ;l nd nl i of t,l rem are
rol ovsl t Lo thi r pri mary rl octri nes of Budrl hi sm.
But Buddhi sm treats worl dl v nrobl ems besi rl cs
the d.octri nal ones. $o i l i e Al rhi cl h,"rrrma of the
early period also dealt n-itli thcsc rvorlclly' prol-rlerns.
The neeti on whi ch deal t v' i th thern i s cal l ed the
l traj i \.upti -i ri sfra
(Skt.\, pa.,fi .fi .atti (P). In Pal - Li rrd-
Chism, in,lividual
of va.riotts kinds, rangingl
from the rrnonlightened layman to t.he ernlightonod
Bairrta, aro doalt with in the Puggalu-pafi,iuatti. Tn
tlro Sarv&stivd,da, world (tokal, aetion (karma),
c&uses (u'paclo), &c., aro treated frorn the worldly
standpoint in the Prajfrapti-i,istra (Taisho, 153!t1.
Theee worl<ily conceptions (lemporal questions,
isstres) wero riealt with only errperficinlly in ihe
Nikfryas. Tho Pafi,fi,atl1i gleaned and arranged the
discuasiona which had been scatterecl.
X. Tbe Abhi dhamma fron the mi i l dl e peri od
onward. When the above-rnenti oned contents of
the early Abhidhamrna camtr to be studiod bv
ths mstiod adopteri in the Abhi.lhamma frorir
ths middle period onward, thoy v'ere siudiod irr
tho abstract and objectivoly, anrl the study tbr
tho sake of prrrctiea wliich had been i;raditional
since original Buddhism beeamo the stridy for
tho sako of theor-v, detactred from practice.
Consor;uontlr', the ciassification of the contentg
was, as has beon menti onod before,' made i nto
met"ber (ril,pa), mind (citta\, mental attrj.butos
(cetasika), the unconditionecl
These studies wero mado irr various schools and
in scmo cases various theories a,roso in
sehool. Some discourse books eollocted those
different theories. The Pali Kothd.oatthu i-e a,
of this kind and the book contains 217 items of
difforence. Though not a fundamental discourso-
book, the S am ay ahhedo p ar ac
e akr a describes th e
history of the divisions into schools and their
divorgent thoorios. Among others, the Mahi,-
c^ibhasa-idstra also gives many divergent theories.
XI. Manuals (Compendiurns). When the aqe of
menuals followed the sse of fundamontel
Abhidhamrna, tho pract,ice dt
earne to
be discussed again, l-or example, the form which
tire Pali Visudd,himagga chosa vzai to set up seven
stages of purity nsr the grading of Ilrrddhist,
drscJpline and to oxpound the doctrirres accordirrg
to them. The Abhidharmakoia-$d,stra and the
S al y os i d.d,l1i
6dstr a r':f ti:e Sautr6ntika line sysiorna-
ti-ee doctrirres acr:ording to the order of tho four
tr.rths (sorro-w, origin of sorrow, cessation of
Forrcw and the path). Agai n, Skandhi l a' e Abhi -
i',cntid,:atira and tho Mahdyd,na-pafi,caskand,ha-
s,j.ctra of Vasubandhu of the YogdeEra School.
ar,j other uiscourse books arra,ng6 tho doctrinos
and thecries in the crder of fivo aggregatoe. But
on, the olLrer hanci, some, based orr purely objectivo
ti,eories, disc"qs doctri:eos by classi.fieation into
mBt t €r ,
mi nd,
meat al at t r i but es, &c.
XI L The met hod of st udy adopt ed by t he Abhi -
dhamma. 1. The ntethocl
the eailry Abhidlrumrno :
Ilv whu,t methods was the sr"rbject-rnatte.r rnentionecl
i n the procedi ng chaptcr studi ed ? Ao has been
reterred to earl i er, the metbods al so underwont
changes as the Atrhi dharnma devel oped. Fi rst,
]et us look rr,t the met,hod crf the 6ariy ,\flridharuma.
ft hrrd three di sti ncti ve features.
' i ' h".o
wore: (I)
the i rerns concerrLi ng tho condi ti ons by l vhi ch
eqi l s ari se and thcso eoncerni ng practi ce
ermari<,ipation are svstenraticall5r e"xpr-.trnrlcd. This
rtletlrod can be seen in the Pali 'Dai,isarnbhiddtnagga.
arrd tire 1:'ibhatiga and tl:e Dh,arrnoskandha of
tlie Ssrl'hstivada
(?) various cloctrirres a,ro arranged
i n nri meri cal Ihi s can bo seen i n ti re Puggol a-
arrd in the theory of evils expoturdod in
bhe I' i bl Lanqo and !.!rc l i u,ngi ti parl l i tl a; (i i ) exposi ti on
of ductrirros and dofinition and explanabion of
the terminolog.v. I'his irt rleen everywherro in the
early Abhidhanrma oncl is t;'pical of it.
Those three ciistinctive featuros in rudimontan'
ftrrrn could be seer, befors the establishmont of
the fi tndamentai Abhi dhamnra i n the surtas
and other lit,er*turo of abhidhamrnic tendency.
Iloro particularly, in the Pa{isanbhidd,ma,gga and
Lbe }i,idrlesa, the features are noarly the same as
in tho Abhidhamma.
2. The nteth,ori of sttultl ad,o,pterl in the Abhid,htzmtnu
of the rnidd.le period and a{tnr.' The methodological
characteristics of the Abhidhamrna of the middle
period and after were, &s has already beon
menti oned:
$l .
Coi rsrderar,i on accordi ng to abhi -
dlrarnmic standards (I.'.
i,afi,h<t-Ttuccha), $2"
doration of the subjects mattor from the point
of viow of connotatiorr and donoiation
P. sangaha),
Consideration of the concurnonce
nncl coexistence of mental action (Skt,. sonr.pra,yoga,
Considoraiion on tho conditionel
roiation of phenomenel succession and coexistence
(Skb. pratya.ya., P. paccayol,
Consideretion on
maturity and non-maturity of the phenomena
(Skt. saanonvd.gantana), Thsse will bo surveyorl
$1. Questio,ning
(Pafi,ha-puccha) : In the Pali
Abhidhamrna,, 22 triplets (ti,ka.\ a,nd 100 doublets
(d,ulca) are established as standards of coneider-
ation. The totai of 122 stanCards &rle ealled
abhiclhammic table of contents " (abh,id,hamtna-
mdtikd\. They are tho standards applicable +,o
tho whole Abhidhamma. Othor schools havo no
sueh fixed standards and the kinds and numbere
the eonvonionco of the occesion. Tn
begin with, the 122 standards of the Pali Abhi-
dhamma are Bs follows :
A. 22 TIi IPLETS ("/Ii ,4) : (I) Good (l cwal a),
bad. (akusalo), indetorminais (avyakata);
ciated rsith pleasant feeling (sukhdrya uedandyo
sampa,uutta), associated with painfrrl feeling
(dukkhoya ,'.
aseociatod with neutrel foeling
(ad' Lu. s'.); (3) Result (vipaka),
tirat which he-s r€sulf,ant quality (r:ipAkad,h,am,mo),
that which is neither rosrrlt nor a, thing having
resultan-t quality
(4.-6) That which hes the act of
epplied and eustained th inking
tho act of sustained thinking only (adtokka-
ai,&ram,atta), ihe act of neither applied nor
suoteined thinking
(7) State ot'
being aceompanied by zeat (piti. eahqata), atate
of being aeeompanied by happrnesn
ctate of boing ar;r:r,rrnpnrried by indifferenco (upekkffi'
aatLogato,l; (8) Removability by vieion (d,asaa,nena
pa,lwurbbol, removabilitv by culturo (b lt duar fi'
1 1
o, p"
i rremovebi l i ty oi tl i or by vi si on or by cul turo;
(g-- 10) Gning to degeneretion
purification (apa,cauagd,m'i), t o neither degradation
nor elevation
(l I
The trainee
(oekhi11a), the
adept (asekhiya), the one who is neither trsinee
nor adept
(f 2) Limitod (paritta), sublime (mghag-
gate\, i nfi ni te (
(i :f-14) Low (hi na),
of mediurn worth (rntjjhima)
oxcellent (pary'itrt)
(15) Fi xed r*' rongful nagg as to eons€quenca (mi cchat'
t*niyataJ, fixed rightfulness as to conseqnenee
(aammutt'<t-m'iyatol, rrndefined
T*et (otitaJ, f trture (an'd'gata), present, (paccuppannaj;
(19--20) That which belongs to one's self (ojlhatta\,
whot is oxternal to one's self
what is
both insido and outside of orresolf (ajiha'tta'hahi'dd'ha)i
(21-22\ What is visible and reacting (sa'nid'ussa'na'
aappa,{igha), what is invisihle and reacting (anido's'
Banu.sel l pLl l i gha), what i s noi ther vi si bl e nor
reacting (anitlas sana
<4t yt o,tig lt'ct
( DUKA) : ( l ) Mor al r oot s
(hetu\, wl rat, aro not moral roots (na hetu) ;
Concomitanco with rnoral roots (sah'etuka),
non-Concomi tance wi th moral root,s (ahei ukai :
(3-7) Causally relsted (ea'ppaccayo,), not ceusally
relatod (appaccaya\
(8) Conditioned
(9) Visible (sonid'assano),
(i0) Roacting (sappaliqlwl,
not reacti ng (appa(i gha); (l l ) Havi ng materi al
form (rfr,ptf, immatorial
(ar{t'pi'\; (i2) Mundane
(lokiyo), iupramundane
( 13) Boing
cognised (kenaci airtfieyya), bein_g ilcognisable
(kinaci na, aifi'fr'eyya); (Ia) Stain (d.sava), no stain
(no d.saaa); (15) Havi ng stai ns
havi ng
no sts,i ns (andsaaa.); (16-55) Havi ng obj ecte of
heving no such
(ani i ammuq' a); (56) Mi nd (ci ' tto), non-rni nd (na
(57) trIental attribute (cetas'ika), not mental
attri bute (acetasi l ca.); (58) Conj oi ned wi th mi nd
(cittasampayuttaJ, dotached from rnind ("!t"'
ni ppayuua)-;
(59-66) Oti e' s own (ai j hatti ka)'
eiternal (bd.hira); (67) I)erived (updd'd')-,
cl eri ved
upada); (68-75)
_Vi ces -
uon-vi cos' (rw ki l esal
; F6-77)
Vi ti ated (sanki '
litghu), not vitiated (asarikilittlta)
(78-93) Realm
oi' san"u (kd'md'uacaru,), not reaim of sense (ria
kdmaua.cura) ;
(94) Real m of l brrn
(rt1pduacaral ,
not realm of form (na r&'ltd,urtcara\ ;
(95) l-ormless
(ar[t'pduucara\, not'formlessr realm (no
arfrpd,oacara) i
(96) Ineluded
(.pari'yd,panna), un:
inclrrdea @pariydryanna)
(9?) Leading onwa'rd
(niaadnilco),- not loading onward
i gel -
fi xea
{ni yata),
not fi xed 1o,n' i yakt' );
ifa"iog e boyond
(sauttara), having n^o
(anuttara); (f00) Stri fe (surapa), non-stri fe
(arana' ).
Tba Sariputra-abhidh'arnta-iastra,
in its Chinese
translation of an unknown school, gives 36 doublets
and 7 triplets, a total of 43 standards. Tho Jfi'd'na'
pra"sthind of ths Sarvd.stivdda gives 50 standards.
IIoet of them can be found in the 122 standards
of the Pali Buddhiem, but some &re different
from thoso of the Pali Abhidharnma, owing to t'ho
diffrrrencee of e€ctarisn Buddhist theorioe.
Ciaesilica.tion (Sangoha). Aided by invosti-
gations by means cf the standatrds listed &bove,
the ettributes of eoncepts became defured more
and moro minutely and exactly. Consoquently,
the identit5r, rosomblance and difference of the
doctrines and items u.nder examination becamo
clear errd distinct. Accorciingly, it was natural
rhet the contrast or sompa,rieon of tho concoptual
connotation and denotation led to tho subordination
of ono to another.
Mental ossociatiom or combtttotion
(Sampayoga). Mental function wae examined with
reference to perception, good and evil deodl, the
practice of the path, the reelisation of the fruit,
meditation anci various psychic powors. And the
eoncrsLe mind in thoee ca"ses wca analysed and
montal substance
as &n agent wae distin'
guiahed from mental attributes (cetasika'1, The
cnexisteucs of the mental substanco and ite attri-
butos wa,s cqnsiderod as combinetion (aampayoga)
This theory, too, veriod with schools. For oxamplo,
with the San-dstivdde, the conditiorrs which
regul ato combi nati on &re: (l ) Equal i ty of supp/rrt
(diray a
sornarn). l{ental subgtance and its at'tribut'os
should ha,ve the a&me sonse organ for eupport.
(2) Equal i ty of senso obj ect (d' Iambono' s"). tr{entel
substanco and ite attributes ehould porcoivo ths
sar ne obj ect . ( 3) Equai i t v of mode ( ak' t r a' a") -
I[ental substance and its attributes should work
in the same maruler when perceiving. (4) Equality
of timo (bcrla-s")
sJrnchronism. Ilental
and its attributes work ut, the samo timo. (5)
Equality of substence (d,rauya-'o1. As montal
attribute agsociates with mentai substsneo ai the
same time, so two or more ageneios of t'he same
attribute c&nnot, associate simultanoously with
one menial substance. This is called the Theory
of tho five-aspecL llquaiity of tho Sarvfr^ctiv[.d4.
Pali Buddhisrn also sets out much the s&me
Theorg aJ Correlntion'
This theory
is ini,ended to rnake an oxhaustive survey of tho
spa,l,ial ond tornporal relation of phenornona with
one another &s they appear ancl disappear and
chango. Montri l associ sti on i s, of course, one of
those rolations. As for conditions, the theory of
corrolation rnay havo developed from the considera-
tion of tho tweh'e-mornber cotrssl ltw (pati'cca'
samuppdtla). The law
originally rrled morai
actions only waa o:itended and mado applicable
to all physical and meterial phen-omeno as well as
to moial actions. The I'ali Abhidhamma gives 24
relaticnal conditions, tho Sariputrdbhi'Jhnrma,'
id.stra l0 kinds, and the Sarvdsti'i'icla 6 or 4 kinda.
These theories of various schools show some rosem-
blance or similarity wit,h each othor, buf, probably
there had boen no di roct rel ati on among the vari ous
To begin with, the 24 kinds of rela'r,ional con^
di ti on ol Pal i Buddhi sm &ro the fol l owi ng. (l )
Condi ti on of causo
(hetu' paccaya\. Immodi ate
c&use, pri nci pal c&uso
(2) Obj ect, (drammarye' p").
ObjectJ which cause cognition
Various auxiliary conditione, msdiote
or indirect c&us6
(4) Contiguit'y
sarqo ae the next ono
(6) Imrned-iato conti'
grdty (s arnanantor o
The immediately precediag
mental state performs tho function to give place
to the imrnediately following mental stato
eoeri etence l sahaj dta-p' ).
Coexi stenti al rel eti on of
concurrent rn*terial or mental things
(7) Recipro-
city (ofr.r1amufi,ito-p''\,
reciprocal relation of
concumcnt mentsl and nraferiel things
(8) Dopon-
{rti ssaya-p' ).
Serrsati or}s or psrcopti ons depend
on the corr€spondi ng sense-r)rga,ns or seats of por-
cepti on ;
(9) Su-ffi ci ng eondi ti on (ununi ssoyu-p' 1.
Object and cont,igrrity becc,rrr6, 5llffiqring condition
i n order to becomo more powerfrrl
; i l O)
Sense organs and senee objects
troeorne eondition by +rntecedence
(l I
(pacchn j
Succeecling mind bocomos condition
l rrecedi ng
(l ?) Srrccessi cn (d,seuano-p").
Tho relation in whiqh powerful epperception lasts
{I )
Harrrre (ko,mm,a-p' ' ).
tho rel ati on of good
or evil karmn with material and mental thingp
( 14) Effect (aipd.ka-p"). The relation
karnic result wifh eoilcurrent material and-montal
(15) Nutrimont (ahnra-p").
of material and spiritual nutrirnents with body
and mental oxperienco
(16) Conirolling power
(hdriya-p"). Relati,on of twentv-two controlling
powors with maferial and menial things
Medi tati on (.i hana-p"). Rel ati on of the consti tu-
ents crf moditation, euch as appliod thinking (vit4rkko)
arrd eustained thinking (uicd.ra\, with coneurrerrt
(18) Path
Rel ati on of the
constituents of the path, srrch as right view, &c.,
with eoncurront phenomena
(19) Association
(sampayutto-p'). Relation through association of
mind subetanco anrl rnental attributes
(20) Dis-
sociation (viptpoyutta,-7t")" The cas$ where there
occurs no association
(21) Prseence (atthi-p.'1.
Dopondonco of matter arrd raind on oach oLhor
for existonce
(22) Absenco
of the preceding montal state to the succoeding
(23) Aboyenco (vigara-1r'). Relation eimilar
to itom (22i
; Q4l
Continuanoe (avigaU-p").
sinilar to it€m 21.
Some of these 24 itoms resenrble or overlap some
others. Thoy are not adequately arranged. This is
not s strict errd logical classification. The ren
relational conditione oxpo',mded in tho Sariputrd.
bh,idharma.-6detra seem to correspond to those of
Pali Buddhism, as given here in perentheses:
I (l)
( 1 , 5 ) j 3 ( 2 )
; 4
( 8 . e )
; 5
( 1 3 ) ; 6 ( 1 a ) ; 7 ( 6 . 1 0 l l ) ;
8 (7)
10 (3). The four rel ati onal condi ti ons
expounded by the Sarv6sti vEda are: (l )
Condi ti on
of_ calrso (heht.-praty^aya), (2) Condition of objoct
(3) Condition of immediate conti.
(4) Conttition of domiuance
Theso corresponC to tho first 4 or
5 items of Pali Buddhism. The
c&uses expounded
aleo by tho Sarvd.gtiv6da are : (l)
Cause of co-
oxistanco (sahabhft,-hetul, (2)
Association (sampno-
yukto-ho),, (3) Relatiun between the similer
Csuse of all-porvading evils (saruairogo-io1,
(5) Cause of offect (dpako-h'1, (6) Various-c&use
\kd.rana-ho). Comparison with t}re 24 cr.,nditions of
Pali Abhidhemma gives the following table cf
ep-proxi ml te c-orrospondonco: I (6)
l t9y ;
( 1 2 ) ; 5 ( I 3 ) ; 6 ( 3 ) .
5, Samandgatrwno. As to the possessing and
non-possesslng of something, we have th; dis-
cue8io.n by the Sarr'Estivdda, but iue exposltion
is onitt€d here.
XIII. The Val ue ol the Abhi dhamma. Ir was a
distinctive merit of tho Abhidhamma that it eygte-
matically unified various doctrines of oricinal
Buddhisrn into a, consistent system and
exact definitions of all Budclhist terminol,ogy,
claritiing all Buddhist concepts. But it carrietl
with it somo slrortcomings. Tho definitions oI
concopts and the exposition of doctrines wer€
too forrnal and uniform, with tho result that the
profundity and sublirnity of the early doctrineg
were lost. tr'or, it is impossible to gtasp the stresm
of concrete practico by uniform and abstract
definitions. In original Buddhism, tho sarne tor-
rrrinology conveyod varioug meanings as the hearers'
understanding ancl abiliby varied. The abhidhammic
definitiorrs deprived the words or concepts of their
nuance and flexibility, and the abhidhammic
studies ggadually deviabed from the practice
of the
path and became mere theorios for thoir own srrke.
eubtle and c.ompiicated.
roliqiosity and prac-
tical nat uro propor to Buddhiam wero
It' rpas
fo -19c.tif-r'
those shorrcomings
that lVlah6yEna
Buddhism arose.
K. M.
Xnr. Abhi dhamma as rol i gi on. To i l re rel i gi oua
consciousnegg human life is essentially ethically
conditioned. The moaning and significance of
human conduct ean be msdo intelligible only from
tho standpcint of ethics. Culture and civilisatiou.
whether of tho individual or of the group, are
inconceivable withorrt the motivo force ilf an
ethical ideoiogy. trforality ie t]re sense of valuo
thet, t,he mind attaches to human behaviour, in
thought, rrorci rrnd deed. All eth:cs, therofore, is
psychological. Ethical oction is fully conscioue,
purposivo action. Ifuman action, il it is to be
ethically significant, has to originate always from
volitional impulse. Psychological behaviour is not,
a mochanieal process. Tho lawe of the mind are
from the laws of physics.
Since the Buddha &sserts tho supremacy df ioina
ovor matter, what is ossential for the soekor after
ethical and spiritual perfection is to understand tha
nature and tunctions of ps3rchological procosses.
In tito view of thei Abhidha,mm&, the stirdv of
ethies and- psychology is not an academic pursuit
but something Chrrt is essentially relevant
and harmony of individual and eocial
Tho Abhidhamma markg a consistont anci hishlv
succo_ssful attompt at the harmonious intege"tioi
oj e1!i9q, psycholog;' and reiigion. This facf givos
the Abhidhamm& its distinctive reiigious charact€r.
The discussions in the Abhidh&qun& aro charged
w.i;h a thoroughgoing_ethical oamostness springlng
directly from the religious conseiousness of
Abhidhamma. ft is only in the light of the intonee
interost in ethics and religion that, we c&n make
of the seemingly unending and remorselessly
monotonous classifications and enurneratione that
keep on occrrrring in the pBges of the Abhidhar"'na,
both canonical and corrrrnentarial.
XV. Abhidhamms 8s Phitosophy. Tho Abhi-
dhamma conetitu.Ces i:he rosults of an inquir,v into
tha nature of human oxperience, both eeisory and
extrf,.sensory. Sinco tho resulte aro stated and intor.
preted in terme of langrrage and logic, it allows the
-.lbhicltromma the
justification to be considered as
prlriloaophy- Tho function of philosophy, if the
latter ir to be practically uaeful and ethically
edifying, ic not to indulge in speeulativo aogitetion
or m..ra intallection but t,o undergtand naturo.
undorstanding cannot be obtained or developod
without referenco to the observatiorr of the world
within s,nd a,rorrnd us in ths way it actually functions.
The prirrciples that govern naturo are not mado
,rvailablo to sense perception diroctly oxcept
tlrrough instances and illustrations in ono's daily
exporience, srrch &s sooing falling mangoes and
decaying bodies. They can be discovered only
through the philosophic method of analysis and
svnthesis. If we aro not to romo\'/o ourgelves further
away from reality it, becomes imparativo that we
first describo rather th&n ro-interpret the data-of
our perccption. In this regard the Abhidhamma
ean be introducsd ae a critical and descriptivo
pirilosophy. Tho groater part of the contont of the
Atrhidharnma is &n analysis and synthesis of
phenomena, but it does not, stop at & mere pheno.
menalism or realism. Towards its labter part
tho Ahhidhamma doscribes the unconditionorl
&bsolute, but it doos not claim to be a thorough'
going monism that altogether deniss the objcctive
reality of the world which is recoived and contirmod
by the sensations. Realism thab donies the world
of spirit ie false materialism, while idealism that
denios tho realil,y of the phenomenal world removos
the very possibility for ethical striving and religious
and spiritrral devolopment. Tn the intorests of
othics and religion the Abhidhamma avoids both
extrerues and follows ths middlo path of sanity
and corn-mon aonse.
w. s. K.
lJlrr-rocnEr,-sv :
(On ttro canonical toxts of tlie
-tblridharnnra) :--8. C. Law : A History oJ I'aLt
. ' . r t r r ut t t r e, I I , pp. 303- 4?; J.
' I ' akakusu
: On t he
= L t hi,rihar ma Lnt er atur e of th e S aro^astiua.din,r, J PT'S.,
l 9{}5} : L. do l a Vsl l ee Poussi n : Docurnente d,' Abhi -
trad,. et unnotds, BEI-EO. (XXX)
-{r';rrru,tiloka : A Cuid,e throualt the Abhid,hannncl
' I ' i t ako,
( Cl ol or nbo, 195?) . ( ui t no doct r i nes of
: i'rt: Abhitlhorms S<rlro,ris) :
Il,hys Dayids :
-{ Manual u.f Ps1tchological Ethics
;-. Z. Arrng and l \Irs. I{hys Dtrvi rl s: Cnrnpendi um oJ
Phi l osopl tg, PTS. Tra,rrsl nti on Seri es
T. I. Stcher-
' f' he
Centrul Con.cepti on oI Buddhi sm:
1-rrl l i rr Poussi n; L' Abl t,i dharrnakoi a, trnd. (Pari s,
i i t:3-5)
J T{asyap: Ahhi dl ,am' nt,a Ph,i l osophy,
I & I I .
ABHI DHAMMA- AHUI I KA i s e Bub' cor nr nent ar y
th{} :\trbi dl rnmma. l ht: work gcnoral l v known
i ,]. ti i i s name w*s wri tterr by bl ro*t,r-apdl a to
r p p lomr:nt, t,l rc r-rrigin al A b h,irth ann t a- II fi.I a
kd c f
\ l r r nr i : : ,
{ r *i , l r .
l t i t
( Ju.
69) . f t s of Hr : i al t i t l e whi e } r ,
r,-r' i vc1-trF, i s i ess frr:qucrrfl y us6tl , i s Ll natl l tq,uo,nnartd
' , au,
60) , Ti r c r t , r r l l o
Abhi dl wmnt o- anut i ka,
r r pf er i r $ i l r i i r r i r r *ci i l r l r or r ; r t Pagd, n ( Bur r na) , daf , ed
: i l 4 I J. i i . ( l +{ : l . \ . ( . ' .
; ur r r } nf ; ; r , l i st of 295 t ext s
offered by tho ruler of
and his wife to
tl re Sangha
V, 183). Ari yavamsa, the
cel ebrai ed Burmese teacher and author of the
l Sth century, composed an i nterprotat,i on (attha-
yoj ano) i n Burrnese on the Abhi dhqmma (atthakothd)
anuti kd (Bode t PaIi L' i tereture of Burma, p. 43).
ABHI DHAMTI A- M0I ATI KA, or , t o gi ve t , t r i s wor h
its proper title, Paramatthnppakcts'ini., or Sa,tt-
d,bhidha,mmagand h,a
al(hakathay a, m ulqti'ka ( Go. 69
i s an exegesi s on the enti rc Abhi dhamma-pi l aka.
As it was the fl,rst born (dd,iblnitatta) of all sub-
commentaries, it became known as the Mulo
Tnka (Sasv.33). It stands a,pa,rt from the i ndi vi dual
conlrnentrl,rie.s <;n the severr books belonging to
bhis coll_cction (p'i{o.ka). Tho work is ascribcd to a
certain Ananda (Vanaratana Tissa), wiro, like other
conrmentators, Xlaha Kaccdyana, IJuddhaghosa,
Buddhatlatta, l)hammapdla, was an Indian by
birth. lle
joined the Order of monks in Ceylon and
stood at tho hea,d of the Araffflavdsi brotherhood,
which was founded at ttre boginning of the tith
century, during the reign of Aggabodhi II, and
which was devoted to & more seclu<led hermit's
l i f' e. Ho i s sai d to have composed thi s work at the
request, o1' a. seni or morrk, Buddhami tte (Ou. 69).
Ai ti rougi r there are occrl si on&l di ssents, e.g., tho
rt>j t:cti on of a stati c phaso of' thorrght, apart from
i r.,s ari si ng arrcl cessati on,r the work whi ch i s the
oklest exiant sub-comment,ary on tho Abhidham-
rna,2 i s ovi dentl y basecl on tsuddhaghosa,' s commen-
tari es.
An interpretation (a'nutdkd) on l}oo Milla
and named the Liwttlr,a.uanryand, was compiled
I)hamrnu,ptla, although sometimes thie
work is included in the list of commentaries and
sub-commentaries attributed to Dhamrnapdla Aca-
ri ya (e.g., Gu, b0 and Bri str.:i 3). Thi sAcari va l )ham-
rnaptlir,, however, livod before the ?Lh contury,
rrlien tho ftimous Chineso braveller of thab tirne,
Ilsiian-tsang, ref'elred to him. Dha,mml'pt1la, Junior
(Culla Dhammapa,la), on tho other hand, rt--&s &
scnior pupil of Ananda Vanu,ratrrna Tissu, ref'erred
to alrove. As he wa,s alrea,dythe author of the Sacce.
(q.v.) i b i s more l i kel y thab i t was he
who cornpi l ed the expl anatory notes bo hi s teacher' s
Various schools had in the course of time
composed their ovrr sub-cornmentaries, and. when
confl i cti ng cxposi ti ons had i ,ecome too obvi ous,
they were reviewed by l\Iaha Kassapa, the author of
of the Sucldltam,ntasangaha
alicl his brrntl of echoiarly
monks at Jetavana Vihdra in Pulatthipura (Polon'
narulv&, Ceylon), after the reconciliation of opposing
schools during the reign of Parakramabdhu I. The
outcorno of
revision w&s tho Paficappaka'
raryai{hakatha rn t}ireo parts concerning tire Abhi'
dhamma works, excl usi ve of the Dhammasanga4i ' s
Atthq,s aI irti and t he Vrbhanga' s S amn n hauin'adnni -
The arrthor of ti re ]Ii ti a
i fta, therefore, protrabl y
l i r ed i r r t j r e bt l i . or 9t h cent ur y, a, nd shoul d not
br,. confusecl u' i th artotl rt' t Anandu., u' h<-r al so bel onged
to the l rrrti i ti l vtl si br' .rtl rerl l ood and l l ' ho wi .r,s a
t . l i sci pi e of Udt r ur l r ar asi r i
l l e' t l hankar a, t he pt r pi l
1 Sh\re Zan Aurg : Camp. ol PhiI' Iutlod. Essay'
p. 26.
2 D e z . y . 3 .
of S6ri put t a, i rr t hc *rri y l 3t h cent ury duri rrg t . l re-
r ei gr r of Vi j ayabr l hu I I l at Junr l xr ddoni ( I ) t l r i r ba-
der r i ya, Ceyl or r ) , : r , l t h<r r r gl r t o t hi s l r r t t cr Ar r ar r da i s
f rerl rrr: nl , l . y nsr: ri t rc: rl t hr: i rut hrrrsl i i l r <; f ' t he Abni -
dhant ma' M* i 4- ! i ku,
Frr, l rn-l eu, [ munuscri l : t copi rs cf t hi s v' ei rk are
ext s. nt i n manyt ernl rl e l i br; rri es i n Cl ei yl <. rn, sq, r, grcl i ng
tcr . Fiomadasa : Lunkiiu,i Pzt.:kolupot Numtitsoliyu,,
a r: at : r, l ogue of
l rul rn-l edI
. : \ L$S. l 1r
(j rryl on
(L)ol orrrl -ro,
r 95 9) .
H. G. A. v' . Z.
of the 14th centurv cxpi ai ni rrg sorne pa.ssages ol '
t he Abhi dhamm* ( Gt ' . i 4) . ' I he aut hor i s u, monk,
named Vi mal abrrddhi , wi th the al ternat,e prefi xcrs
of. Nava- a rd Cufl a- (Gr. ti 4). Il ut, i n the earl r.' peri od
of Pal i -.tsurmese l i terature i t i s not al rvavs posei bl e
to unravel the confusi on oI' ndrnes of Burmcse and
Si nhal eso a,uthors. Thus, the Si nhal ese nronk,
Sdri putta Mal rasami , author of the l ' i naga-safi gal tu
wri ti en i n the l 2th centi rry trnrl of' a paraphrase
to the Abhi dhantrttctttl ta-sgrLgai n. i s cal l ed i n -Burma
Nava Vi rnal abuddhi .o He shoul d uot, however,
be i deni i fi erl wi th t,he arrthor of l he Abl ui dttantrttu-
ABHI DHAMMATTHA- SAf CAHA. l i r i s wor k r s
a, summa,ry (sangahu) of the sense or meaning (attln\
of Il uddhi st phi l osophy (abl ti dh,umrna). Ir i s a
ma,nua,l compiled in Pali not. earlier than the 8th
century A.C., but i t came i nto use as a text book
for sbudents of Abhi dhamma i n the l 2th centurv
only. It is a treatise excessively condenserl, yet
extremely popular as a handbook.
" Even at the
present clay this ms,nua,l is still held in the higliest
possible esteem in Ceylon as well as in Burma,
and has been nrore frequently commentated and
translated in Burma tha,n anv other text of the
Abhi dhamm&."
' I' he
authqr' s namo i s al ways
given as Anuru lclha, who, according to Burrneso
tra:lition, wad a senior rronk (thera) in {ieylon
residing in Polonnaru\4'a in the llulasoma Vih6,ra.
Nothing more is kno,a;n of him, except that he
was the author of two other books, Pararnttttlta-
u'inicclwy a a od I{ dt nar fi p apariccheria, am d, perhaps.
of the Anuruddha Satake.z
Four sub-cor-nrnentaries have been written on
this cornpendiurn, trvo in Ce-ylorr, Pord,na-lilod, by
Nava Vimalabucldhi thera, and Abltidhantrna,ttha,-
aibhiuq.nE by Surrrangala thera. and trvo in
Rtrrrna,, Sankhepa-xannantl by Saddhamma Joti-
pala and a recent, work, Pa,ramatthudi,ltano
b-v Ledi Sayadaw.3
Although the Abhidlrurntna,ttha-.sangaha covers
in its final chapter moro or less the sarne rango of
as Buciclhaghosa's Visuddltirnagga,
the t$'o works can hardiy be comptrred otherv'ise.
For, rr-here the V' i sudcl l ti ni agga Lreats i ts subj ect
u' i th arr ampl i tudo of i ntorpretati on and cri ti eal
expi anati on v-i th the i xsi stance of numerous
l egenrl s ancl a, weal t h of ' l ri st ori cal rnd mvt hi cal
det ai l , t i r e compi l er of t l i o Abhi ci h, ant r Tt dt hu-
sungaha i s so severerl v t : orrt : i se i n hi s srrbj ect -t nat [ er.
t ht rt t t ne cu, n harcl l y speak of ' hi m as t l re " a, t i t hor "
oi ' t her eor nl r enr l i um, t t t e v, or k bei ng mr r c, h mor e i r r
t i l e nat ur e of r r n exi r : 4si ve t a. bl e of cont cnt s. l l ur l cl ha
ghosa, , l nor eoi ' er , l r as gi ver r r r s i r r l t i s I ' esr r r Jr / / r i -
nt egq(L a pract i cal st andarrl
-. 1' ork
on t t i rr mct horl of
t l er-el opi ng si l i nt , hoorl bi z rl l earl s of ' r' i rt rre rrrrcl
rne<l i t at . i on. l t i s et , hi cal i rr. i t s ent l , evcl r u. herr he
t r ei r t s hi s st r bj ect psvchol ogi r ' al i y. Anunr dcl ha i n
lris,tntattltu-sttitgalut ha,s gi,r' en tr, purelv
t heoret i cal u, nu, l ysi s wi t h a c<; nci seness l ; orcl eri ng
on t he l aconi c.
Tl re work coul d be cal l ed a I )i gest , brrt f or t he
f act t hat t he srrmmary i s so eompaet t l ru, t i t mi ght
easi l y cal l se some ment al i ndi gest i orr. l ' or hr: re
u' e f i nd i n ono smai l vol urne t he whol e subj ect -
rnat t er of t he Abhi di ramma u' hi ch i s cont ai necl
i rr seven books on psychol ogi cal et hi cs, deal i ng
*' i t h consci ot rsndss bot h moral ancl i mmoral , ai
cxperi enced i n t he vari ous spheres of sense, f orm,
f rl rrnl ess ancl t ranscendent al : i t s concomi t ant s or
ment al propert i es (cet asi ka\ , anu, l ysecl and cl i s-
t ri but ed ac<-. ordi ng t o t he ment al st a, t {rs i n whi ch
t hev occur ;
t he process of cogni t i on t l et ai l ecl i n
i t s sevcnt erel t i rought mornent s ;
t he process of
beeorni ng or l i f e i n t he vari ous real ms of karma
and rebi rt h
t her many aspecl s, <; ri gi ns, groups and
qua, l i t i es of mat t er wl i i ch rney be so subt l e t t rat
it is mere forun (ril,po,)
the laws which govern
condi t i onal ori gi nat i on and i nt er-rel at i onshi p;
and the varioug stations of mental exercise and
spi ri t ual devel opmont .
A1! t hi s i s condensed i n l ess t han 50 pages of
pri nt . I t s very t erseness does not make i t easi l y
i nt el l i gi bl e t o l ay readers, but i t shoul d not be f or-
got t en t hat t hi s book i s not one of exposi t i on,
Tl i e eomposer t ri msel f says i n t he openi ng verses:
" Now wi l l I speak i n sumrnari es conci se
of t hi ngs i n Abhi dhamrna-l ore cont ai ned ". {
And ho contiriues to enumerate the four cate-
gori es dcal t wi t h i n t hi s compendi urn: consci ous-
ness (uifrfrina ) ,
mental properties (ceta.*ika) . material
qual i t i es (rupa) and omanci pat i on (ni bbd' na).
Further. we find that every chaptcr and section,
i n whi ch each of t hece f our chi ef di vi si ons i s sub'
di vi ded, i s rounded <1f f wi t h & verse gi vi ng t he barest
outline for purpose of rnemorising tho cont' ents.
' I hus,
t he i rvel vo cl asses of unski l f ul t hought
(alcusala citto) are to be rnemorised as follows :
Atthadha lobllamttlcnfi dosamfildni ca. daidhd
m, ohami l l d, ni
crt rl t : e' t i d"*ddasakusal d, si yum.
(Ei ght t here are wi t h root s i n greed,
th<-rse frorn hateful seed,
Tu' o are i n conf usi on caught ,
I n al i t wel ve t ypes <-rf si nf ul t hought ).
Havi ns
deal t summari l v wi t h t he ei ght y' ni ne
cl asses
of corrsci ousness
(whi ch may be expanded
t o one hundred
and t went y-one by resol vi ng each
of t he
ei ght ki nds of t ranscendent al consci ousness
3 For
further details, see Poli' Lilerqlure of
t C!*icnaum
of Philatophv,
i \\'rnt€rDitz : Eiatory ctf Ind,inn Likrature (Calcutta Uni-
versit!' publicaiiou,
1933) II, 222.
p. 90.
i nt o l i ve. t hus obt ai ni ng f t r r t y ki nds i n pl ace of
ei gl i t ) , t l r e Abhi dhant t t t at t h. a- xt ngoi a passes on
t o t he cl asgi {i r: at i on of f i f t y-t rx' o merrt : rl
l rropert i es
(cet n: ; i ko) seven r. rf r, r' hi cl r rt re eommon t o each an<l
r r vei : _y t hougl r t , si x col r t i ngent ones, f ot r r t eer t al r va- " * s
l i r r l i t : r l r . r . i t h r r nski l f ul t , hot r ght anr i t went y- f i r ' e
r' u! nri l on t o rl l l rl est het i e st at en of mi ncl . Tl re vari ous
e' r, rnrbi nrl i i ons of ' t hese ment sl propert i es const i t ut e
i l i i ch l ' eri ct y of ment nl s! &t es or t hougl rt , processes
rvl ri cl r mnkr: n onr. l . drrri rer t hc keen ser: sc of psvcl ro-
rrrr; r, l l , si l r i r, t srrch an eorl y t l at e- l ' or f ul l er e. xJrl ana, -
t i orr of t hese rnent t , l propert i es, see CI . I TASI I (A.
' l ' he
t rrrxt
l l t r, rt
of t | e boqk t reat s of t 5e c' . c. mi -
t r r nt s pr r , r t i er r l ar t o t hr : vur i ous st at cs of consei ous-
' I hr. rs,
sense-i mpressi ons rnri . y be di vi ded
nr, . eorri i ng t o i l re si x senseg *n(l accor(l i ng t c-r t he
nnt r r r e of t , he i mpr el ssi or t o{ ' pl east r r e, pt i u,
j o5' ,
qr i . : f nr r r l r r r t l i f f t : r er r e: t : , whi eh o, gr r i n r esul t s i r r l r ,
i , r r ge var i et y or <: ombi nnt i ons r l nr l mut l r &l excl u-
sl ( ) ns. I ' l r r r s
at nong t he ser r se- i r npr essi ons whi ch
r r , r e t l r r r r esr r l t of r nor al deer l s ( cl onei n a f or r ner bi r . t l r ) ,
t hr: rcr i s onl \ ' 6rt . l rt t ' t rt t hat i s rrcc1yn1116t ri ed I . r1'
pl east t r al r l e f eel i ng ( kr i yi ku- sukl ut ) .
ar r d t l r u, t i s
t ac t i l e i r r r pr es$i ons " ( I l I , 2) .
Anot her cl assi f i cat i on of t hought s i s sl r or l ' n i r ccor -
<l r r r g t o t ho r oot s f r om u' l r i ch r i t hought or i gi nt t es :
qr eed. a, ver si on, i gr r or ance. r l i si nt cn' sbccl r r ( . $s,
l f f cc: t i on anr l i nt r : l l i genr : r r
al t hor r gh ei ght er - ' n ki r r r l s
c, f eonst ri ousness f l , re rnent i c)ne(l rvl t i r: l r a, ro not
( : ondi t i ( ) nccl
b. v ar r y of t hese r got s, 1. 6r . , when i r
t l r or r ght i s not f ul l - gr own. For dr : t r r i l s, sec I I UTU.
Thi s i s f ol Lrwed by Burnrnt r. ri cs regardi ng con-
sr : i ousness r r nder t ho aspect of f unct i or r ( ki ct : u) , of
sense-door, s r. rr org&ns (t l uura), of sense obj er: t s
l , . Tr ur t t r nt r nu) , of sense- t r ases ( r : at t hu) .
Pnrt l\/ of ttre Ablti,rlltuttr,rnuttlm-:;ungctltq, deals
* ' i t i r t he pr ( ) coss of cogni t i on and nr ent i ons how
a si ngl e uni t of ment al a, ct i r, -i t , y or t hought -rnoment
. -. , -rnsi st . s
of t , l rree t i me pl rases, t , o u' i t , rrascent ,
dr' ' v' el opi rrg ancl breaki ng of f . $event er: rr such
i l r. rugl rt , -rrroment s const i t ut e t he norrrri rl durat i <-rn
ol ' rl rnat eri rr, l pherrorncrrc)rr. I t i s i i rt erest i ng t o not e
t i ri rt " I Juddhi st s have come t o speuk of mat t er a, s
i ; r. ' ; t i rrg f <. rr severrt een t hougl rt -nrorne' nCs ". 5 I t i s
no+- t he t hought whi t : h l rr, st s t bot l ong !
Fol l c- r wi r r g t he nnr l yt i cal pr oc: ess of t he bi r t l r
&r r d t he passi t l g of a t l r ought i s t he next sect i on,
r i er r l i r t g r vi t h r el r i r t h, i . e, , t he \ ' { r r i ( ) r r ;
Jr l ; r nes
<i f
i r l e, l or r r t , y pcs of ' r r l r i r t h, { t r t ( [ $; x t ( : { ' r r k i r r ds of
AEr r ni r r r : sul i i r i g i n r t l r i r t h.
l l at t er and t , l re t , rvc' nf
. 1' . gl ght
nt at c' ri a, l qrr*rl i t i es
; r r e f r r i t t . i l ' t i ed i n I ' a, r t Vl . F' or r l et r r i l s, sce I t OPA.
- { l l t l r e r l i st i nr l t . i vo st r r t es sr : t f or t h i n t l r i s u' or k
up I o t l r i s st * ge ar e no\ v r n l l a. r t , \ ' I I cot t : gor i st : d
. n ei i t i r l r r l nt . gr ouyr i ngs. I I r . ' r e we f i r r d f i r st . r ' * r i ous
r ; i . i egor i t " s ol ' evi . l , mi xed ol t egor i t ' " s t r nd al l t hnt
. . ' : t ; i r uH
Lu l r r l i l l r t t ' r r r r r t ' r r t ( l t odl t i ) .
f ri -r! -t \ -I l I cl r: rr. l s u' i t l i rel j r, t rons. f i rst wi t ] r t he
. i . - l : l nE
&i r ( l
( ' { } r ! si ng
of r el at i ons accof di ng t 0 t , i r e
, . :,,.' r--r f' cir-pent l ont, origi rrntion ( pnti.:(' ( t,
sel t t.r t pTtdda
, r : I l n+ i s f r er l t r ent l - v l bunr l i n t hc Szt t t a- pi t ukr t ,
. r r r i t l r i , n r vi t h t hc syst er n of ccr r r el r r t i , r n, whi ch
I : h' ar. Zan Aung: l rrt roduct or] , Essi t y Lo i l rc Aomwrdi um
, t . i [ ' ht l ' )sophu,
D. 20.
eonst i t r r t es t l r e - qubj ect - mat t er of t l r e Pat t hana,
tlre last, <.rr " Great Book " of tho Abhid,hu,mrna-
pi t aka,
The eonci ur i i ng
l ) ar f ,
t r l . st s of mi nd cul t ur e,
t l r e f or t v exer ci ses f or r ne<l i t t r t i on ( bhut ana) ,
t l r e st t r t es ot ' r nent al al r sor pt i on
\ j hd, nu\ ,
unt l supcr -
ncrrnrnl i nt ei l ect i on
\ abhi i t f i ri ),
rvl i i eh nl l l eacl t o
pt r , ci f i cr r , t i on ( sunr ut ha) of t he mi nd. Rer r l i nsi ght
( ui passanci ) . l r owcvcr , i s t r , t t ai net i akr ng t he pat h
of pur i f i cat i on of mor al s. of t l r ought s. of vi ews.
of dor r bt s, of di scer nment , oI knou' l eci ge ant l of
i nsi ght , by r, on<: ent rat i on on t l . re sal i ent rnarks or
cl r r ur i r r t er i st i cs of i mper manence ( ani ct : a) , conf l i ci ,
( dukkl n) ant l eqol t : ssness ( anal l r T) .
- l )rnrrnr: i p: rt i on
\ ui rt rckkl rr; , )
can be at t a, i ned t hrougl r
real i sat i t . rrr or i nsi ght f ol l ou' i ng . t ny one of t hel e
t t r r ee r ' nnt r , mpl at i or r s, r vhi ch t her ebv bet ' ome t ho
ci f us( r of emanci pat i on ( ci l l okkhu n u kl r u) .
H. c . A. t . Z.
TI I (4.
, \ s i 1 t : ernJl errcl i um 6l ' t [ e
yust ,
, l i t er4t ure
of - El r r r l r l l r i st pl r i l osophy eomJr r i ser l uncl er t t r e n&r n( .
. \ l : l r i t l ha, nr r r i i t . t l r e: r e l r i r , s l l t : r . n no mor e usef r r l ancl
r r se.r l l rR,rirlboo li t li rln tht: Ab ii i d lLu r t tr n
( q, v. ) . u' l r i r ' ] r f or t r r or e t i r ar r ei gl r t <' ent ur i t ' s r r ow has
or : r : r r l r i t ' cl * r r l r i r l ue pr - , si t i ot r as
l r r i r r r er
unr l mt nual
! . r.
st u(l (' nl s. of ps; , ' cl rol r. rgl ' unrl phi l r, sopl t . v i rr
I Jurrni l rrnrl
(l t ' r, ' l on,
I t s exrre, l l ence rrs a handbook
f <"rr f rrrt her st udy, a, nd a r-: ornpenrl i urn f or ready
ref erence. l rrorrght at i out a eonsi dernhl e amount
of cxegct , i cal l i t erat . uro, u' l , i t : h became ol l t he rnorr:
necessar. v orvi rrg t o t , ho ext remel y condenserl
nat r r r c of t l r e r oml . , endi r l r n.
Thc earl i est l i rrow' n at t , empt i rr cornpi l i ng arr
i nt er pr t ' t at i on of t l r e cor nl l er r r l i ur n, wi t hout r r r t r , ki ng
i t a reccrrrst i t ut i on oi ' er, condensat i orr, i s t , he: { bhi dl t ant -
t nat t l r, q, -st t t ' t gul t u, -l i l ; <1 v. i ri ch i s eal l erl t , ho Pord, na-
f i l ' r7 a, nd ascri l : ecl l <; Vi mnl t rbuddhi l hera (^easo. 3' 4 :
hAxenaL)e' mt a I ): [ , 1, t 1, t . . l : l ! i ] ). I n Rurrnrr. t ] ri s aut ] ror
i s al so cai l ecl Nr r va Vi r nr l l abudr l hi . l r r r t he i s bet t er
knou' n i n
(Jeyl orr
&s Sd, ri put t a ] [ ahE"sl mi . I I i s
prrpi l ' t oo $' rot e & srrl ). cornrnerrt ar. y on t he Abhi -
cl ha r n,n lat t lte
ane uh,a. en t. itled tl rc A b hi tl hqt t t r tt ct ttha
ai bhdt at t l ( q. t ' . ) . " r vhi ch st i l l r emr r i ns i n f i r , vor r r bot h
i n l 3t rrrna and i rr
(' ey. l on
" (Pal i . Li t e rat ure of Lt egkt n,
173). u' heret rs t l ro I ' oruqa
! ' i l ; ri "
i s crt nsi ci eret l t 4ri t . c
srrpcrrurnurt t erl " (Cont pen. di ut t t of I ' hi l osophl l
i x\
urrt l so l i t t l o used, t hat
t hi s u-ork i s not known t o
exi st i n Ceyl on at pr esent " ( Do Z. p. 4) . I l ven t he
rerJ/ exharrstivo Ltnkd,ui Pttskolctlnt Nd,mdtaliya
(I i . D. Somadast r) has f ai l ed t o di s<. ot er a, si ngl s
m: r, nt rscri pt . ' l ' | rc G an dl oa u* a n *e, or H i st or. r' of Bodl i s
{ } [ i nt ycf i ' t r l . ) . ai t bor r gl r f ar l uor e t i t t r r i l et l t hr ' r r l
ei t l r t r r t l r e ^5r i sanor ar yt , su or Sr 7. ' r r r r o' ' at nsr t di pu l . nd
l nel t t i t - . r r t i t l g r l i t r l l es of aut l t r - r r s at r r l * ' or ks of sever * i
ubl t i , l hant r t t r t , : sq i t r t r t hu
- r t t t ut i kd. , .
: r u, . l r i i s t l r e - l ) asa.
r t r r \ zr l l t . i t anr . t ut t i 7) \ ' \ - epr r l l at r udt l l r i and t l r c, l / r r nr -
, sr i r e- t t r t t t i l t i . sr T l , t ' . { r ' i vr r r - amsi r . l r as r r o r et i ' r t , nco t o
t i r e ol r l e' st i nt er l , r r t r r t i r i r r of t l r e Col r r pr , ndi r r m of
Pl i i l osopl r t ' . t i i e - | l , l t i Jl , t t t t n t r t t t t hu. . t un gci hq- I , or dnr t
I I . C. A . v . Z ,
ABHI DHAI | I I YI ATTHA- Vt t r NAVRt i I , o st r l , -
'= i-, rn me rrt.a r v (ti,k6\ r:rr tlr er A bhid,hamntatt ha,
s rtng uh a
q. 1' . 1 u- r i t t en i r r Oeyl or r t r y Sumni r gal a Aor r i ya
Gi ' . 5l ). rr, pupi l of Sari putta' ]Iahi .sami (i n Fl r.rrma
knrrrrn a,s Nrrvg Vi rnrrl atrucl cl hi ). S6,ri put,tg' s crom-
rri *ntgr-v crrr the
worl <, r:ai l rtl LIrc Abhi rLhaa*
r nutt h,u. s an
I' or c|rya
ti kd, ( q. v.
br:came ent i rol y
er:l i psed l :1' hi s pupi l ' s
qrsegcsi s,
r,r,' i ri ch i s ther most
popul ar and most authori tati ve i nterpretati on
of the Abhi,tJh,amr4attlw,-.sangcrka. In l3urma it is
known tr,s the
fi rmous
Ti ka
" (Ti ' ka gyau), because
of a masterl y exposi ti on thereof bv Ari yavamsa,,
and is generall;' rvell known and quoted as the
" Ceyl on Commentarv ", Earl i er, i t
' .as
known as
tl re
beauti ful
Ti ka
Qal c,khanati kd,
,S-dso. 96),
" because the comments i n i t are so very apt to
the subj ect of
,di scussi on
" (Pal i L' i terature of
Ceyl on, 200). A subsequent commenta,tor, Chapa{,a,
who also wrote a cornmentary on tbe Abhidho,m-
mattha-sarigaha (,Saso. 116), compared his own
modest work, the Sankhepa-o*aTtttani, to a firefly,
whoreas Sumangala Acariya's Vibhd'uani' is likr:ned
to tho moon. But then, he adds slyiy,
tho moon
cannot shine within bamboos ; the firefly can "
(PaIi Literatttre oJ Ceylon, 2Ol).
This late medi.eval l2th contury work consists
of I00 ol a l eaves, 18 i nches i n l ength. fn thi s *' ork
it is stated that, several commentaries have been
written on the Abhidlwmmattha-sangaho, with the
following titles : Abhiil'lnmmattha"sahgaha-Pordna
T ilcd,, by Yimalabucl dhi
Abhitihamm a,ttha
s ang aha,
padd,rtha-sanne, & Sinhalose paraphrase by the sarne
(hore caiied Sariputta Mahd Thera)
mattlw-sangaha-pd.ayojani, by a Buddhist monk of
Ldva (Laos ?).
According to De Zoysa's Catalogue o! Pali Mu,nus-
crigtts these are not now extant in Ceylon,
and the latest inquiries in this fleld have not
boen more successful
(K. D. Somadasa : Laihd,ad
PwkoloTtot N dmdualiy a).
narne of an
old commentary written in Ceylon on the Abhi-
d,hammd.uutd,ra. Tt is ascribed to the thera Sumafi-
gala (circa l2th century) who was also the author
of the Abhid'harnrrtotthauibhd'aani,, a commentary
on the,tthaso,hgaha. Sumangala was
a pupil of the tltera Sdriputta and speciaiity,
iiko that of his teacher, was the Abhidhamma.
A more recent work having the name a,g
that of tliis old commentary and serving tho same
purpose is said to have been produced in Burma
(Buddhadatta' M anuals, xviii).
a book u' hi ch, as eug-
gested by i ts very name, i nvol ves a
' descont
i nto
According to its author it was
written to enable monks to acquire skill in rogard
to the noblest of tho canonical divisions,l and in
eubstanee is said to be the s&me a;s that which the
Buddha preached to an assembly of gods in the deva
worldf. It is the unfailing remedy (hattlnsdram),
sa.v€ the author, for monks profossing the
Abl udharnma.E
The book consi sts of twenty-four chapters of
whi ch si xteen are enti rel y i n verse, one enti rel y
i n prose, and seven i n a rni xture of prose und verse,
But ttri s patterrn i s no i ndi cati on of tho scquence i n
w-i ri ch these chapters appear.
ctiapters arb generally called nidd,eso
(exposi ti on) and are as fol l ows:- (l )
Ci tl ;a ni d.desa;
(2) Cetasikq, no
(3) Ceta.gikauiblrdga n"
(41 Eko-
Ili,bhodi no
(5) Cittupatti ?to
(6) Aramrnap-
vibhaga, ;
(7) l'iltrikacittapaualti zr'
(8) Pu,kiTtnaka
(9) Pufi.fiaui7td.ka,7tuccaya tuo
(10) Itil,pa-
o*i ,bhaga; (l l ) I' i i bbana, n"
(I2) Pafi .hatti n'
K arakapa,!;iue tlha
(l 4) RupA'.^a,cara,
-semddhi -bhauana
(15) Artrpdaacara-sarndd,h' i -bhauu.nd rz"; (16)
-Abl l i frfrn
(I7) Abhi fi ,fi .d.ratnmct?L& n' ' i
Di!{hi,uisuddlr.i no
(19) Kahlchauita,rana,uisudd.hi
Maggd,maggafiirtodassanouisuckJhi n"
(2I) Pati,pcnnfid,,ssarlauisudd,hi, n"
(22) fi aTta-
da,ssanaaisurJrlhi n"
Ki, kathi;
(b) daccabhi sanwyo l cuthq,; (24) Paacayo mo.
Ttio first chapter is an analysis of the mind
(ci.tta) iuto eighty-nine types
twenty-one of such
typeg are said to be u'holnsorns (lcusala), tq'elvo
irn'wlrolesom e (akusala), thirty-six restrltant (uipaka)
tr,nd twenty non-efficacious (kri,yd), The second
clrapter €numerates ttre menttil facbors
w'hich a,re associated with the types of conscious-
ness clerssified in tho tirst chapter. In the third
chaptoi each of these mental factors is reckoned
in terms of the particuiar t1'pe of consciousness
with which it is associated. The types of conscious-
ness, howevor, are hore regarded as consisting of a
botal of one hundred and twenty-ono.
The fourth chapter is a discussion on the mind
viewed vanously for examplo as conditioned, good,
rcsultant, &c., or as thoir very opposites. The fifth
chapter tho types of mind in terms of the
planes crf existence (bhttrni) and the persona (pugga.Ia)
born in them. In chapt,er six is &n enumeration
of tho objects (dramntaTta) corresponding to each
of the many types of consciousness. Chapter sevon
treats of the typos of resultant consciousness, nnd
of their arising and continuance. The eighth chapter,
though called pakiq,qtaka or iniscellaneous, discussee
tlie rninci in its functional aspect,, showing how
sensory objects are presented to the mind and the
prosess of ideation that follows. The mind is hore
tikened to a road spider that has a web spreacl in
five directions.
The next, chapter nine, deals wibh the meatal
formations, both
and unwholesome,
the thirty-tn'o t5ryes of resultant coneciousnesg
that are presont at and occur even after the morDent
of rebirth, as well as their ca,usal conditions in
regard to relevant states of existence. Tho tenth
chapter is an analysis of form (ril.po), while the
eloventh is an exposition on the Absolute ot n'i,bbd,na.
Chapter twelve is a discussion on the ureaning of
pafifia,tt'i or connotation. Chapter thirtoen is an
erposition on causality and involvee the denial of a
perm&nent entity, such as tho soul, which is said
to be the doer of all actions whoso results it also
3 lbid. o. 7.
Cl rnl . rf t ' rs f ourt corr and f i f t een descri be t he
mct i i o(i of t , l i e cei rr{: errt rnt i on uf t he rrri nrl i rr regarci
t rr t l rt r spl rrrrr: s ei l ' f ori n
\ rf i pduucart t . surt t ddl i )
l l rt r {nri rrl ess
\ rt rt i l i Li . t ueura-, \ urt . i dl t i )
rcsl )f ct i vel y,
wl r i L: chr r l - r t t . r si Xt r : t ' I t cl l l r r . u( ' r i l t ( . s t l r c Ji t ' a sr r per i or
sl r r r i l r r i r l pow( ' r s ( Jt t t i t t " t t hl t , i i t i t u1. l ' hi s ci r i l pt er .
l r u$' t , r , er . r uskes
I r r ovi sr t } t r
i r . i r t r +' o
( ) t l r cr
sJ) i r i t ual
l i r r ! { { t r s- . - ( r t t i gu. t ot i t t r t
i r t i r , r , u, t r r r t i
U' u! l , t i A' , t t t t r i t i l yt qa
ri t 7ruru
=--' *' i ri ch
rl r(. srr. i t l t o i -, , , . , . al , ai -rl e of l rei rrg
t r r r l ur , ' ed t l r r t i t r gl r t l r c
I ) ( r 11' ( , r
r r f t l r r : t l r vi r r e ey' e
\ di bba-
eaA' l ; hu) . ' l ' l i i s i s { r r l Lr w, ' , 1 l r ) r . : i r u, pt er s ev ei i t een
r , r ' l r i cl r di scr r sEes t he o; r er i r t t ol r t r f ul l scr l ' nr r of t l r ese
: uJ) ( ' r i or sl , i r i t r r r r l
l ) r , \ , r
r . r s.
' l ' i re
nt : xt i s cl ropt er ri ght ({: rr r. l ' i ri cl r rs au expr-, si -
l i urr errr t l re: el gvr-, l rt l rrn(' nt erf kl c, wl ecl ge
1par1i l ul
nr i rrsi gi rt .
' I ' hi s
i s i bl l uwecl l . l v urrot l rt , r t ' xl , rosrt i <. rl t
{chl rpt or
ni nct r: arr) as r, <; i i uw orl o rrnl st ri t i one-
gel l ' qrf
t r, l l el orrbt s, - rl r: rrbt s {r. ; rcrgurds cnust rl . i t v
t huL i s pcrt i nerrt t c. r bot h n*rne unri l orrn rvl ri c: l r ar-e
t o be reckorrcd i rr t crnl t s of t he t hree perrr. , ds of t i nre.
A:rd a peftion possessecl ol' sucrh klowledge is liero
cl escri bec{ &s a
j uri i of
st , r' ei l rn-l vi nl rer
\ wl l o-
Eot upan?L. ; -), Chapt er t went y currt ui rrs : r, di scussi on
on t he puri f i cat i on of hno*l edge a, rrd rnsi ght
regarding tlrtr riglrt aud
' *.rong
rvhi l e chapt er t u. ent )' -rrl l t -: dcrrl s l i kewi se wi t h t he
r uet i r od or w&y r ; f sucl r pur i f i cat i or r . Next . i n
chu, 1-rl er t ' went y-f wo, t he f ot rr l ; ' 1res of kri orvl edge
assor. ' i rrt , -rd wi t i r t l i u
Prr. t h
of eni i ght enmenr, are
errunrerat t rd and cl rapt er t , u' ent y
-t l rree.
wi i i ch
corrsi st s of t u' o pt i rt s, deal s f i l St *' i t h t l rc dcf i l o-
ruentts thut nrust rtecessarily lre purged ond then of
t he c<; grri surrce. abu, ut l orrrnenL, real i s&t i on and
rnent al <l ul t i vat i on r*' i ri ch ei rrrul t aneousi y oc. cur
in regarcl to each t,14rc of krrowlcdge unt,ocedent, to
eni i gl rt eume: ri t . And i rr. st of ul l t here i s el rnpt er
t,w' enby
fo ur whiclr en rlru(rr&tes tlie caustr,l condi r rorrs
\ peccayu) arrd t i re ruarurer i n whi ch t hese ari se.
At t l i e enrl of each chapt er i s a verso whi ch
urges t l re nccessi t y of u st udy o1' t l ro Abi ri d. hamma
irr order that one ru&)' nuccessluily put, an end to
t i ro rni sery of repeat ed exi srence.
Tlro authorsirip o[ t]ris book is a.scribed to
.tsrrddhadatta, & corrterrrporery ol the great scholia,st
l 3url rl haghosa. Accordi ngt ot he verses at , t he end of
t hr: l l r-rok, BFddhrrdat t u composrrci t l rrs work on
t i rc rcqrl est t : l ' a monk cal i ecl Surnat i { w}ri l e resi di ng
rfL tlit, Eostorrr &lansion (pdcinu-ptisrjda) at the
pori uul l t . rl I r. i ven.
' I ' t re
rni l nsi on rr-us evi dent l y
I rart ,
uf 4 l *rEl r' . ' sLal -rl i sl rruet rL t hs, L wa, . s si raped l i ke
I t -re ernct ol ' morrnt I i ai l rrso
\ Kel usasi kharal cara)i
ond i rl t l beerr bui l t , by one h-i t nl i u, <i 5si r. I ' l i s est a-
bl t sl i merrl rnt r. y wel l l t ave beert t he Kel dsa vi hi ra
! s $' l rr. : l r ret i : rerrr: e rs rngdt : i n t he -I l uhi t , unt . sa as t he
ul ouri -l t erv f rrl u wl ri ci r t he great t l rera Suri y&gut t g
ct "I rt r: : wrt l l l ri s rct i nrrc crf rUonks &L l l ro t i rue ol t i ro
bur l di ng ul t he . l l ui r i t , hr r pl l t Ant r ! . dhupur a. 6
Ai , r : r r r t l r r r g Lu t he l eget i <l s t l r at l r r r , r ' t . gr o\ ! - n r ound
I i r e { j ol r l pr J. r i t . i or r <r t ! l r i s f , r q, k, I Jr r r l r l i r ar l r r t t a i s
{ i Lr r d, ur , l 4( l I , 1413.
5 i Er i r l . i l . i 4l l .
0 . l t i ! : . rri rr,
' 1: t .
i Ettddhaiultq' t fuI urluuk ,l' iitiui' panarn, tix
i . r hi d, ! . l { ( 15.
supposed t o l : ave mct Buddi i agi r osr l u' hi l e t he l at t er
was j or r r r r t ' vi ng t o Cer ' l on nr r t l r equest ecl hi m t o
I t ' t l r i m l r i r r - e t l r t , comr nor r t i r r i es af t e. r l r e had t r ons-
I at ecl t l r er n i r r t o I ) al i . i r r or , 1, . , r t l r at l r e t nav sur r r r r l a-
r i ze t hem. Ar r r l v' hen Buddi r aghost i r ad event ual l v
cor npi i ed * ' i t l r hi s r equest Bt r dcl hr i dat t a i s sai i
t o l r ave st r r nmed ur ) i n t her Abhi r l l t ant mr l r at ur o
ai l t l r at r y* s cont ai . t e. l i n t he ^4, bhi cl hammt r
( l or nmon.
t i l t ' i t ' s.
' l ' l rc
Abl t i t l h, rt m, md. t at dra i s t ho earl i est r-' i ' t hrr
rron-canoni cal Abhi dh&mma books wl i i ch at t empt
a syst emat i sa, i i on of t he Abhi dhamnra. f r i s not
& cornrnent ory l i ko Lho Sammohat , i nodoni or t he
At t f i , ast l l i r, i , but &n ori gi nal work i nt ended t o
corl ve)' t he i l rn<l s, ment al s of t he Abhi dhamma, t o
t , i rose i nt ent orr st udyi ng t hem. I t i s f ree f rorn
vari ot rs horcsi os t hat had crept i nt o t he vari ous
echool s ancl i s ba, sed on t he t radi t i on of t he t rI ahA-
vi hi r, rn rnonks. B As such, i t , has been deseri bed as
cont ai rri ng t he qui nt essence of t he Abhi dl t dmnTi kas.
It seems to have boen supersoded later by
s A b h i d hcil ; tr r t a t t has ait g a lm wlr ich Anuruddhe com
posercl i n t he t rrel f t h ceni ury.
H. S. Coonev .
AgHt pHRMMI KA, or r c. * l r o hus s peci al i set l i n t hr . '
Et udv of t he- . Abhi cl hamma.
From very errrl v t i rnes
of nronks rl evot erl
t i r cr nsel ves t o t hs $neci i r i st r r dv ancl r eci t at i on ot '
rl i f l i ' rcrrrt st ' ct i ons of t I , , , , , , *r. , ori . Tho l i t t l e u$a cl l '
rvri t i ng i n t l rosc davs uncl t i re necrrl t o prr: st : rvr: t hc
sacred l i t erat rrre no doubt
(rnr' ol rr$€i €)d
t hi s svst enr
w' i i t ' rebl ' t he cat ron u-i rs l l rrn(l {. rt l doryn f i ' orn gcnera-
t i ci n t o genc)rat i on u, n<l prt ' s. rrved.
' I ' ht ' se
bcct l me known bv ni l rrl e$ rr' hi cl r i nt l i cat ed t he
rl at rrre <i f t hei l spel i u, l i sr-r, t i on. ' I l rrrs t l rc Sut , t t rnt , i kt r, s
l r' erc t i rose prof i ci cnt i n t l rr, Sut t a Pi t aka ;
t . he
Vi nnvadhart i s, expert s i n t l i o \ ri navi r, , arrd t t re
Abhi dhammi kns, mi l st er s r r f t l r e Abhi di r ar nr na. 2
A gr oup of Abhi at r i r , r nr ni kr us wus known &$ t i l ) ] r i .
dhammi kagruJa, . j ust t s o groul ) <. rf Srrt t nnt i kas rvns
ref erred t o s, g St rt t rl nt i k: l grr, na (\ / i st t t . 7{i ) . I n
cert ai n mat t ers, t he , \ [ -rl ri d] rarnmi kagana hol d
opi ni ons di f f eronb f rorrr t he Srrt t ant i l i rrgan{r.
I n t i r e At t hasdl i ni ( p" _17) t he Ll r r ckl ha hi msel f i s
descr i ber cl as t he f i r st Abl r i r l hamr ni kt r . : Sant nt d-
sar t t hur l t l l l : ' T{ t pel . l Lat nt t t ar enL - I bl t i , l l r t t nr r yi ko.
Of t hc Budt i l r a, ' s di - " ci nl cs t l i e i br t ' n- r r : st Abl r i t l ham-
mi ka
. i va, s
St i ri put t rr, . i l i s st i ccessors u' l ro convevet l
t b e r \ h h i d h a n i n r a u D t o t l r t ' t i r n e o f ' t l r r . I l i i r r l
Cor r nei i ar e sr t , i r i t o i r nr ' , ' l r et ' n l Jl i r i r l , l ni i . St t bhi t a.
Pi yt j r l l i , Pi 1' a, pt i l n. . I l i vacl r r , ssi . i i , r - i r , , i t 111 1. , . Si g-
ga\ " t , Sr l nt l eha. , l l oggr r l i l r ut t * . \ - i sr r t i i r t t r r , l ) har n-
mi . r a. l ) i r sakt t , Soni r l i * . Revr r t a ar t r , l c, t ] t or s. Th, :
- { bi , i <l l r ar nr n. l w&s br ousl r t t o Cer ' . l , r n L. , r ' Jl ui i i l r da.
I t i r l l r i r ' r r , L. t t i ] n. I Ji i ad, . l , i t r . r , i , t . i n<i Si . r r nbal a anr i
Fr eser
ve, i b1' , t suc r ' essi ol r t , f t ] r t i r pt i pi l s
l Dhs A
3 ! ) .
1 Abht dhanmarn a+l hi t u ubhi dhamni J: o : Eaccdl t urt ut ; nt t i
($l ni rnl ese ed. , 190"1. p. ut )). rei , al so p. ?1, and Sul dan-dr
( I l el mer
Sr ni t l r , 192s) , pp.
7s6, F09.
2 Ther e r vcr e t l so t ht : l ' l l i i r nakas, t he
' Reci t er s'
of t hr
sect i ons of t i re Sut l o Pi l aka, I n t he cnsr: of al l t t rese
speci al i st s, t he f act t hat t hc! ' rnade a spcci al st udy of ont .
' sect i on
of t he canon di d not meau ! l t xt t hay had not st udi t r l
the rest r.,f the canrtrr.
The Abl ri .l hatttmi kas wore hel d i n vory l ri gh
egtecrrl . Tl rt:y were r--onsi rl ererl strl reri r:r to l l re
Suttanti krr.: rt.rrei \' i npvl ,l h*rr+s. Tl i i s i s evi dent
frorn l i terury ret' ererrccg urrd el ri qrul rl ri rr recorcl s.
J.n ths Atthasal i ni
29) tl re' IJrrrl r,i l rtr, i s reportecl
a^r har-i rrg sai rl fhar' ttre.trrre prea,c:hers oi ' the ri oc-
t r i ne ar c t . hc Abl r i dl r u, r nr r r i kas, wl r i l e t he o*, l r er s
t hougl r t l r ev mny pr e: acl r t l r e r i oct r i r r o ar e r l ob
e r r l g rrt'i-r,cl r ers. l n t l' r,
e,.i,i lu i, n a c o rn mentary,
t oer , 1. l r e sr r pr t : r i or i f y ot ' t hc Al r l r i t l l r ar nnr i k* ovcr t he
An*l -rtri dl r arnrui k a
Al rl r i ,l i rarn rni ka
i s asserted.3
Tn the Il i hi ntal e l l <i ck Inr+cri pti on c,f l l ahi ntl u trV
of t l r o l r r t bcr hal f of t he l Ot , h cent r t r y t he exponent s
of Abhi dhi l rrrrna rrrb\ {:l el rrl y }ronourei d atrove the
exp{}nents of tl rt: Srrtta s,rrtl Vi na.' ' rr,, l or .i t statos
that, t,hcy sr€ to rect'ive twelve sharcrs (t,a.<ae\ aE
r r gai nst seven ar r r l t i r ' e c, f t he er t her t wo ( EZ. ' I ,
t J5, t 00) .
Reforences a,re made to individu*l Abhi-
dhammikas who were
respected monks.
In the cornnrentari os the most
promi nent
of them
i s Abhi dtrarnmi ko Gocl atta.
The word Abtri di rammi ka i s found i n post-
canonical works, tho earliest of which wa"s perhaps
Lhe Mi l i ndapai l ha ( 17, 341) . hr t t r e canon t he one
who i s wel l versed i n tho Masber' s teaci ri ngs i s
referred to a,s Dhnntntatl huro. I/i nctyadhuro, Mdti -
kddhar o ( e. g. , Vi n. I I , 999) . The t er m Mi t i k6cl har a
is very proLably the foreriunner of tho term Atrfri-
cl hammi ka of l ater ti mes.
The Abhi dhanrmi kas are most frequerrtl y referre<l
to i n tl re comrnentari es. In the l /tftn' sal i ni (p. Li )
there i s an al l usi orr to Abtri dtranrmi ka.s i n the ti me
of Buddha Kasrap_a and the S Lornrigalauildsini
speaks of ei gi r t Abhi r l hanr mi ka bhi kkhus who
eame to tho ai d ot ki ng .DutthaqrrrnLr.ri . It i s sai d
that the l atter had not, been ai ri e to sl eep for one
whol e month tl i rough j oy
_hi s
' r' i ctorv
ovor the
Tami l s and i t v' as tl re ei ght Abhi dhammi kas who
succeedecl i n i nduci ng si eeP i n hi rn i r' ,' chanri rrg
tIrc Citta Yarnaka ot" the Abhi,-lhamma Pif,aka
(DA. II,p. 6a0). References to the Abhi dhan^mi kag
&ro also found in l'a-hsien and Hstian-tsang.
Fa-hsien says that on corbain days tho masters of the
Abhi dharnma make offeri nss to the thi pa bui l t
i n honour of Abhi dharnrri a.{ Hsi i an-tsai ' rg, too,
comrnents' i n hi .q descri pti on of l l athura (N1uttra)
that on fast days those u.iro studied the Abhidhamma
honoured the thipa erected in memory of Siripr.rtta
(Beal : Buddhist Recordt of the ll'estern IVorld,
p. l s0) . Seo al go ABHTDHARMI KA.
L. R. G.
ABHI DHANAPPADI PI KA, & di ct i onary of Pol i
sl TrL, nvms, conrpi l ed by Moggal l dna t l t era who
resi ded i n Jet avana Vi hdra i n Pol onnaruwa, (Ceyi on)
ci uri ng t he rei qn of ki ng Pari kramabdhu t ho
Gr e, i t r l l 53- 1186 A. C. ) . The t - or k enj oy s t he
3 ln ,bhtJi,a,mmiko hi dhammatp kltthento, agarp nkaocfuIa,
aysm pr*do'ti na
Abhid,hammiko tokovilfu,m
tzizt lfo,ntydr'rcr.' ct{t parauilanp paratsddoniyilmeruna dipeti :
Y t . i l .
t . 5 d
hi ghest aut hori t y, hol cl i ng i n Pal i l i t ernt rrre t he
sa,rre pltr,ce as the u' ell-known Atnarakoia in
Tt nrs we l i nd 3: l epi t het , s of t ho Buddh. r, 46 of
Ni bbrl na. ! O of Sakl i a, t t re ki ng ot ' t he gods, t o
merrri orl onl y t l i ree Of 179 ent ri cl i of t he f i rst book
on -Flcaven
' Ihe
second. book on
e. rrt h (bl ru-kl nndal rs di vi ded i nt o si x cha, pt ers
crn err,rtlr as soil
\bltir,ttt' iuagga) ;
on township (pura-
uagga\ whi ch cont ai ns, e. 9. , 24 syrronyms l br house;
a, cl rapt er on l rurnans (' nara-ur. t gga), gi l ' i ng, e. g. ,
l 0 synonyrns f br rnan, 15 f or wornun, but 2{ f br a
wi se une, wi t h rrrany det ai l s of t hei r anat omy,
Eiotirrng and householci articles
a chapter on the
social order of ttre lbur castos (ca.tubba4,4ta-uaggal
wi t h t hei great est number o1' sobri quet s (f
for one' s Lrnemy
a crirapter on forest,-gardcns (arafi-
fiddi-' uagga) u,nd one on the underworld
ua, gga) whi ch i rrcl udes al l t t ra, t i s not sol i d errrt h,
e. g. , hel l s, oce&na and wat er-l i l i es.
' I ' i re
t . hi rd book
i s mi scei l aneous (sumaf i i t a-khar. t Qa) and has f bur
<:haptt:rs on distincr,ive f' eatures
' uaggrr,),
otr rrixed iterrs (sankinnu,-' L,agge), on mani-
fold aspects'
and on indeclinable
pref i xes
\ ouyoga-
' I l ho
ent i re work l i st s u, l i t hese ent ri es i n l J03
st t rnzt rs of f orrr l i nes each.
A c ornrrrcr rt ary t hereon, the A b h.i <Ihd, t w p pudi pi kd
! t . ka,
wa, s cornposecl by Ut r, burarrgabal a oI Vi j aya-
pur&, a -Burrnese explanution by Nar.ravdsa, arrd &
complete index
' ,v' rth
grammatical notes, the
Abhid.hu4rytadipilcd-s{tci, by n Coylon. Iluddhist,
monk, Waskaduw€ Subhut i i n 1883.
H. C. A . v . Z .
Bt r l r - t ocRet ' uv: ! ' ausb<j l l , JI ' TS. 18E3, p. 150
Francke, Gesch. and Kri t . p. 65.
( Ti b .
Mionbrjod,-kyi bstan-bcos tna-tshogs gsal-bo shes-pa
ntiit,-gsha,n-mu tiq-phren-ba shes-bya-ba), u Sans-
krit-Tibetan ciictionary found in the Mdo-},{grel
secbion of the Tibetarr
It consists
of 12 aarges divided, somowhat indistinctly,
into prakora,ryas. It' w&s compiled by Dpal-
hdsin sde and had as its principnl source the Antura-
koia. It was translated. into I'ibetan by th6 great
transl ator of Sha-l u, Chos-skyon ben-po or
l ) har mapi l abhadr a ( Oor di er , I l I , ' p. 5I 0, Nci . 2
T6hoku, N<- r . 4453) .
ABHI DHANOTTAROTTARA, or Auat l r Tnq- $ot r a-
tantro, wtrich iu rendered irito tr'rench as " Le plus
que rup6ri eur quunt aux cl 6si grrati ons " (L' I nde
Cl assi que I I , Sec. 2017) . i s a l or i g Tant r a ( q. r ' . ) i n
68 palolus. It describes iI lnass of bijas or germs
whi ch evoke rhe Buddhas i n thei r essences, strch as
Vaj rasattva, Vaj radaka, &c., and of psychi c
creati ons
\bhaaanri ).
l t i s Rn UpadeSa (q.v.)
and cont,u,ins an a(rcount of the esoteric rites rt'trich
Legge: tr'd.-hizn't Rccmd, of Brutdhistic Kingdanu,
44-46. These thupas are s,aid to have been erected in
monasteries in the Madhyadesa (central India).
A B H I D EA TT oTTN,R o TTA RA i _)t ABHIDHanua.nlpl
" resembl q i n cl rarac[ er t ] ro Tdnt ri kn ri t rral of
Ersl i ml i ri i srn, arr, l rl i f t ' er f rorn i t onl y i n l rei ng
i rrLl reEl crl t , o cl i f f erent ot rj ect s " (8. l I . Fl odgsci n :
E. *. +11t i s on t i rc Lunrl zt arJes, L' i l . erat ure und Rel i gi . ot t
, t J
] i epul unrl r$
' I ' i bet ,
l 9 f . ). As n t reet i sr: c, I t l i e
Ta, nt ra ci u, sr. i i t , i s f orrnd enrbodi ed i n t he l l gyuri
arn{rt rl l ot }rer f i rnrl ornent a, l t oxt s o1' t }i o 1' aj r, rr. arro
\ L' I t t de
Cl ussi , cyt e, l l , ree . 2{)40).
-l t
ui so corrt ei ns
rnl t st , i c nra, nt ra* arrcl di rect i ons f or t l re u' orshi p of
rl r: rrri gocl s arrd gr, , rel and ovi l spi ri t s of r, ' uri ous
krrrds. Al t horrgl r t l rrr vr. ork i s nnonynrous i t , rr: rl r' be
ri hrEt {: rl ' ed t , l rgt srrrori g t l rt :
' l ' uri t ra
r' r' (; rks
l vi t }r : r' l t i r: l r
l i i rr-chrn i i z. af i -po' s rl l rui i r r: i *ssqrcrat erl i s t l re
- l bl i dh, i na! t ar ot ! . &r d, ( I I I Q. X, 38?) . l et : or dr r r g
t o t , l re Ol *rri L, a, t ul ogur: , l ro' , vcver, t hr: 74i on-p, t , r
Lrj od"Ut h, i rgyud, l Ll t r-t t t rr. ; ; l l ex-b, t rt -l i ' a, rt l ri r, l r i s t l re
ri r, l e t rndl ' r r+*ri ch t l re u, grk i s krrot vrr i n
' I i l xrt rr, rr.
l v*g f i r' . . i f . t rrt t r*l t i t crl , r' evi sed urrt l
edi rt , , i l b\ . r ! rr:
grent l rrrl i rn sei l i ol af L)i pari kara, Sri
. 1r-rl l l rn
(>. t -.
\ Tt SA) t r , t r r l t i r e Ti l r t : * r r t r ar r sl at r r r l t i n- r . l r t : r r -
t }re gr.errt $clroli.}r .J r-rfrna,
j r i
ar r t l r l r e t r nnsl ; r t or
( ) l r os- kyi
hr t sot r - hgr t r s
r' or' i st ' t l rt - Fi ri nl l -v' , Arrant n nrr<l sorne kt sser knon' r' r
t nl ri sl rt t , or=: c t ' ri t rrl ri i t ' t l i I cornl l l t t c erl i i , i urr ol Li re wor. k
( o l t . No . l 7 ) .
Tl ; E Br : er r e i s l , r . i r l i r r t . l r o ni r or l o r i l ' u Gul r ) ' r r ka
, rf t hq rr$. t nc of l ' nj rukrodha i . )ahi rrt t l re l rnl i ot
Li ght rri rrg Pd, ssi on-- u' here t he grei rt Tr. l t i r: rgat *
Vuj r*sat t va once soj orrrned. Tl t crc cert ni n crt her
' l at ' hi gat es
sol i ci t hi rrr ro i mpart t o t , i rern u knri *--
I =dge of t ho seq: ret ! . t cren(: e of dest ro_yi ng t l re ne!
ol ' r, he I Jrr, l <i rri .
' l ' h1rs,
t l rc f ' rrl l rl r{rne of t he 11 111-i ; -
$' rtj rak ru llru dul; i ni.j rllu
sunt utt rap,r7bhid hanottarot t ct
r u- hr ' l t t yu.
' I ' l r i i s
kr r or vLr r l gc i s r ml r * r t eel i n a ser i e' s of
r : r xt y- f i ve: l cct ur cs. At t er r l ef i ni ng t l r e t i nr t ' , 1: ho
pl ace, ar r d t l r e
1r er $( ) r i l i
l i t I or t l r l u' i r r sl r i l r of vr l r i Lr . s
xi ndb of i rrryri i , t . t ur spi ri t of ' \ ' aj ra. s*t t va i s di rect ed
t {r Lt e rrrr. rrl i Lut erl rr; xrrr i rr t hc r: ss<rncc of cert t ri rr
i eLt f j r! * ol ' Ll re i t , l l rl rl rt x; t ,
"r' hi cJr
coast , i t l rt e t l t e i ri i l . -
r nnl l t r r i s. I n hi s
j r cur ' t
t l r c r vor uhi l r per $i r ( ) l l l ( l r ef l oct
r i pi r i r r t t . ent , I . r r l poi nt , $r r ( ' l over . i L t , he svi l i l l r l e' ] . ot t ,
l onnurg a bl ue ut nrosl i l rcrc, t hrl rt -. rr1ron a i -rri l l i anL
re<{ t ri at i gul ar l ral u f onned l -ry t he s. r' l l abl e
' ronr ' ,
i i reret t l ron * l ' rurt -l i kr. r $, r11. €: r)' gl ur. r' l urrnerl by t he
ri yl i ubi e
' ,
rrni ; i t l l crerrporr a t i l ur. cornered
-r' el l uw=cui uuret l
t umcno gl obt : {ormt : <l }r}. t l rr' '
c}' l -
l * bl e
' i t r ur ' ,
l l q, nr us! Ll r er n r r r edi l at e or r t hi r r vi r ct : l
i h*rga' uru, u' l i i ch he shorrl l i mrrgi no t o cronsi st of
+' i gl rt , red-col (Jurerl l spukes
l ri g, ct xl
orr t l ro gl ol . ro
ri t oresrri rl .
' l ' hc
l rrn' n r: rf t l ro d*rni -goddess i s l i er. ce,
l ur r r - r r r r i uLl r er l . t l r - el ve- u, r r nr : r 1, &c. , t r r d t l r e Ll i j . i -
rrrr1rrlr$! fi-ir ltL:r tt; Um luutt <ih nrultrj,.:ukhuin. ln this
way. t , h. : r' i l ual s l uri t t i e perf t : rml nee ol ' t he ri t es
i rnd l l i u *' urst ri p oi ' ct : rt ni n ot l rer di r. i ni t i cs narnr, d
$r e gi \ ' cl r t r . t , l r : r r gt l r .
' I ' f re
Yogi rri s, t t ' l roso r+' ri rsht ; r r-{
l rnrt i r' rrl arl -y
i . ri j rri rr*-rt l , rrr' * t l r: scrri l -x, ' cl n; *orrre, . n l ; . rrr *s t he pi t l r
o{ ' t , l r o l ot t t s r i t r r l k, l l ' i t } r l ut r r s- l i ke pi nk cves, f bnd
i r i ' * ' ) r r i e gnr r r r eni s, udor or r s r r s f r esh ssnr l al
l . ast e,
, r r r r l der , ot ed r o t i r e ador r r . t i or r t r l ' Fi uf { at n ar r r l } r r s
. . uec€ggors,
' l ' l t r: re
rrl ' o st : r' i . rarl ki rrcl s of t l i csc i sorl re
i r r e t - ' r r l l r : cl I i r r l nj us, oi l i er s l ] r r i hn, i s. ot hcr s Rur l r r r s.
' l - i i e
! l i kr ni s
nr e wor r t er i o{ a } r ng} r t 1e1l r ' et nl i l r i xi on,
havi ng t he ar oma oi t l r e l ot us, beni gn cor r nt enances,
red e] ' es and r: ai l s, ancl f ont i ness f ' or decorat i ng
t l rei r roorns s' i t t r pi rt t rres ol l c' t us t l orvers. They
bei ong t c t he r a" e c, f Padmanet r a.
I n
' " i r e
cor r r sc of t he n' oi k ar e al so not ed sever al
charms and arnrrl et s t o prot ect persons f rom t , he
nt , t aeks of evi l spi r l t s. ci i seases and ot her er - i l s
( R. -L. 1[ i t ra : ] ' e pal ese I J u t l , , . l h i . st L i t erat u re, ' I
-; 3
l .
T. R.
ABHI DHARMA. See ABHI DH. \ l l l l A.
SASt ng, a rt -. st ore<l Sanskri t , f onn of ' Lhe
(l l i i neue
A- p' i - t ' t r n- mo- i a, - vi i n- t su- l un whi ch i s a t r ansl at i or r
l , ) - J l si i an- t sang of an i mpor t ant Sar vdst i v6da
Abl ri t l l rnr rrra t ext , cai l ecl t her L)harnt askand, ho,
( l { anj i i r Nc, . I 2- qt i ) . See DH, I RMASKANI } HA
the reiitored Sanskrit Ibrm of the Chineee
F{"B$E n s,E'#
^ 1 " p' i
t tto
- (lrie i
tht n
tsuJ utt,
( Nan, ; i r ; , \ o. I 2$! ) whr ch i s &' ur ansl at i or i by
Fl sf i i rrr-t snng of t i rc l t l i i l uLri ua, t . f r-*) an i mport an;
r \ bl r i dl i r r r r na t ext i n Sar vl st i vat l a.
ABHI DHARMA- DI PA. The t t al r r r - l ee. t . r r r anuscr i pt
( ) l
t l r r ) , l bhi dl i ar t na- t l i pa u' as di scover ed i n Ti t r et
t , ) I i u. I l uj l i r nnkr i t - t i l vi r r r a r n t he ycar 1937.
l l e l r r ougi r t t ] r e p] i ot t - r gr aphs of t hi s ] l Sj . w] r i ch ur e
pr eser ver l i r r t l r e K. I t . Javr r sr vt r l } t eseur ch l ns.
t l t ut ( 1. I . r ai . t t i r . l
I ' l re I l S. i s i rrcompl et e. Tho l a, st f ol i o i s nri mbered
l l i U.
( ) f
i i r ese or r l y t i J f ol i , r s i i dt ' e c. ) r ne t l own t o us.
' f l re
Ml ' i . c()nt , a, i n$ t l vo u' orks, r' i 2. , t he nret ri r: a, l
Altli,dh,artttu,-dipa (here rel-erretl, tt' as bipa) and a
I )rose
c()rnrreut rl r)/ on i t knon' n as t he l ' i , bhds, t -
l , rat t l i i . r' rrt r.
(l rer€ ref erec{ t o as I t yt t i l ,
' [ ' ] r c
ki r i hi r t ext , r ' i 2. , t l t e Di pu, cl <; sol y f ol l ows
t rot l r i r: , t he r' r, rnt rl nt s anrl i ri prresent at i on i t s coun-
tcrJ)$rt . tho (here rcf' crrecl lo as
-i {o. (o)) of Vasu}-. , ant l l rt r.
' I i re
ei ght Ai hya; 1qas of
t be Di po corresponcl t o t l i t : ei ghi Jf o. si r; t hdrut s of t he
Koi u.
' f ho
n' . r mber of ' t l r e kl r i ki s l bund i r r t he
cxt i r nt Di l t t t i s 51i 7, Of t l t r ' : e t t l ur ge t r r r ml r t : r ( r r l , r out
3U{)) r: crrespt . rrrd, : rl rrrost rt ri e l t ; t ' ut t e at t <I st rrnet i rnes
u' or(i f ol rvord, t o t he k. i rrkrl s of t he Ko. {a.
' I l re
(, oi l )ment : rr-y on t , I rr: . Di pa, t l rc l -rt t i , i s al so n' ri t t ct t
r i r ( ) r er or l ess On
. i - t t e
; r r i t t t ' r t t
ol t , he , 4bl t i d. l t r t r ni u'
J: oi a-Ehusl 1o.
\ he: re
ref erreci t o rt s , / Jl l o. si To) of \ : ust r-
bandu. l t r vi i l be evi dent f r ut r t t l t e
! ' ar sr r ge$
quot t r d
l rel ou' t i rrl t , t hi s conl l ncri t &r\ ' \ \ ' &s n' ri t t s, rt sol ei r'
i or'
l resci t t
i ng t l re t r: ' t l t r. l <. l t ; x V. ri l l h, rsi krr. r, ' i crvpoi l t t ,
r r r cr r r ur t ' r i r r g t ht ' t ' r i t i ci sr ns l t ' r ' t ' l l ed i r gl ui l r st i t
i r v t l i e I i <, 6t r ki i r r r , r r r l r i s l / / i , 7. * r / , t . - \ i t i r r t t r gl r cr r t i t ' r si r r g
i t , t l r e I ' r ' f l i , i r r nl ( , st
I r , i t
t s. i s i r l l i r r t i t zi t i un r t f t ht l
I Jhi s' t , t . I t i l r ) r r ' ( ) \ \ ' . ; t br - . t t t f i f t r l i r r gc' pu, sst i Hes
f ' r or r t I i , t ' l al t r r r t t r , i
I , r r sr l r l l s
t i , e si l bl t - ct - r nat Ler
i I i nt , ' r r r - r r i , , s: i r i , r r ' l t ' : ; l \ 1 or { l s. At r i i e er r r l 0t ' t ht t
f i , , , r : cl . \ . . r . L, i . r i i l r , i ; . Lr r . ' i r t i t r - ' s t l r i r t l r e cor r t ; r oset l i t , i r r
r or r f , . r r l r r r t
_i '
' . r
i t i r t l r e I i i r sni i r i l - Vai bi r i r si ka sr : l r t t oi . :
l l r. rt hi - I i i , i s, t rt i er-eai s t l rat l ri s rt : rr. l rrf l i l i at i on r*' as
I I am gr; i t r' l i ri ro t l re K. I ' . . l aysswt l ] t eseareh I nst i t ure
: c rr! rust i ng t t re rvi t l t l he rvork of edi t i l rg t l t i g l l S. wl t i cl r
, - l , $ b,
' . ' n prrt rl i shed i rr t l re Ti bet an Sal rskri t Works Seri es,
pr ayo
mayi ' yanr
dth the S*rrtrir.ntika. Ho often uses the adverb
ki h. to ehow hi s di sagreement wi th the Vai -
fo!1i r.+i ka vrew. On ul most al l coutro.uersi al poi nts
betwcen the two, he openi y the i i autrd,nti ko
vi c-vr' -poi nt, In hi s characteri sti cal l y pr,rvverful
"tyl e,-
VrrnrrLrurrrl hrr cri ti cal l y exanri ne.s Ll i e cJrat:-
ot' thc Vnibhirsikri,s, a(:cuses tirerir of being
l i teral i st,s, ri tl i ctrkrs thci r dognrati sm and compares
t' ham *' i th su(:l r hert.Li cal :;r:i rool s rrs the l j l l nkhva
and Vai 6esi ka. Ya(orni tra ri ghtl y observes tl i at
Vasubandhu beJongs to the Sautrant.i ka school .s
We l earn frorn Param6rtha' s
' Li fe
of Vasuban-
dhu' { that Acurya Sa,nghabhatl ra, a corrtempor&r}'
Vaibhaqika, *'rote t,-rvo commentaries on the l{oda,
ealled Nyuydnusdra and Samaya-,prarLIpikd,, in
order to present tire orthodox Ver,ibhasika view and
to correct the Ko6akdra of hi s Sautrdnti ka, bi as.
These works are Rvai l abl e onl y i n thei r Ohi nese
translations. No other u'ork written against the
Ko6akdra has come dowrr to us. The di scoverv of
the Dipa (with its VTtti). therefore, is of great,
value as a sole surviving origintul work of' the oillio-
dox Vai bhagi ka school . IJei ng an i mi tati on of tho
I{oicr (and ttre Bhagga) it does not add muc}r to
the subj ect-matter rel ati ng to the Abi ri dharma
of the Sarvd,stivida school. But its reft:rences to
the Kodak6ra she<l a,bundant light on the major
points of dispute between tho Sautrd,ntika and the
Vaibhdqika, and also on certain controversial
aspects of the life of the Ko3ak6ra Vasubandhu.
The extant VTtti conbains the following sixteen
hostile references to the Ko6akdra :-
(l) Ko6akdras tvdho-- anuSayd,nu6ayan6t s6s-
rev6!r. tad etad abratrrna (Fol. 32b).
(2) Tatra yad uktaqa Kodakdrela-'kirn idar.n
EkEfum khddyate. s6magryd,r.n hi saiydm
dlslam ity upacd,rafr pr.avarbate. tatra
kah pa6yati' iti. tad atra tena. bhadantena
sdmagryanga-kriy6 (paharaganr?) kri-
yate. Abhidharrna-samrnohdnka-sth6-
nonEtmdpy ankito bhavaty ayoga-
6unyat6-prapdtdbhimukhyatvam pradar-
6i tam i ti (l ' oi . 35b).
(3) Ko6a,kfd dcasta-na hy atra kiicit phalam
utprekshyat& iti. tarp praticlarn phalar.n
EdarSyate (Fol . 37a).
(4) Idam idenim Abhidharma-sarv&sv&m Ko6a-
kdraka-em1ti-gocard,titar.n vak t&vy&m
( Fol . 37b) .
(6) Ko6ak6r6daya[r punar 5,hu!r-' avd,rthopalab
dh6,v evs cakshur6din6m paflcd,n6m Edhi-
patyam'. t&d etad Vaibhdsihiyam ev&
kifrcid grhitam. n6tra, kiircit KoSali6-
rasya svaka-da#&nam (Fol. 39a).
Ko6akS,ras tv6,ha-' sarvasriksino riipa-sa,m-
ghdt,a! paramdgur' i ti . tena sai rgh6ta-
vyatiriktar.n rrlparn anyad vaktavyam
( Fol . a3b) .
(7) Tad i dam ati -s6,hasam vartatoyad vi ruddh-
ayor api dvayor dharmayor ekatra citio
eamavadhdnar.n pratijf,ayate. na hy etal
l oke dri sta^m i ti Ko6akarah .
3Saut r6nt i ka-pdksi kast vayam I ci ryo uai nam art ham
prayacchatr: Spulnrthd. VUdkhUd, p.
{ Bl ' J. TeLakusu, T' oung Pao, Seri e I I . Yol . V. 269-96.
tad idam andha.vild,sini-ka1,d,kea.
gu4otkirtapa-kalpar.n codyam Arbhyate
( Fol . 45a) .
(8) Siddhe sabhdgatd. Kofakd,rah puna^s
tdr.n VaiSes ik a
pari kalp ita
- j nt i -paddrtirena
samikurvan vyaktar.n p6,yasa-vdyasayor
varr.ra-sddharmyB,m pa6yati tr (Fol . 47a).
(9) Atra punah-. Iio6a,kdrah pratij6nite-' eacit-
ti keyanr samdpatti h' i ti i ad
etad abauddhi yam (!' ol . 47a).
(10)' sama,rl hi -bal ona karma,j al n j i vi td,r.etl ham
ni rvart' i [yuh samskA,rdci hi s]rfhdnaj am,
6. yur ni i , vi pakah' i t i l i o68k0r ah. t at r a ki m
uttaram i ti ? n{t tatrri t' a6r' am rrr,[&r&m
vaktavyam. yasrn6,n nai trr,L Sutre' vata-
rati , Vi nayo na e&mdpSva,te, dl rarmat64r
cl ra vi l ornyat.i . ts,srni cl b6.l a-r' acl ranavad
adhyupekshyam et{rt
Vai tui i kasdstra-pru.r' e6a cl v[,ram rl rab-
dham tena bhada.ntenety adhyupekshyam
et at ( l ' ol . 49u) .
( l l ) Tasmd, t pr i r vokt a- l akshar , r a eva bl r i ksur na
yathi i trrr KoSakaruh (l ' ol . 99b).
( I 2) ' Abhi dhyi daya evt l kar r n&- svabh6vei i ' i t i
Sthi ti -bhi gi y' i rh Ko6akdra[r-
' kot r r r
dosal . r ' Sdmkhyi ya-
darSu,rrarn abhyupagatsr.n syn1, (Fol . 9ab).
( 13) ' Sf i kshmam kuSal a- dhar ma- bi j am t asnr i nn
aku6ale cet,u,sy avasthitam yata[r puna[r
pratyaya-si rnragri -sanni dhdne sati ku-
Sal ar.n chi ttarn utpadyate' i ti Ko6aki ral r.
I' uktyAgama-vi rodhat
tan neti Drpa-
k6r al r ( l ' ol . 96b) .
( I 4)
' Evam
t u sd, dhu yat h6 Ddr sl i , nt i kl ndm' i t i
Ko6akarah tacl etat Sautr6,n-
ti kai r a,ntarsatam l l uddha-vac&na-
ni fi -sravana kari Sl cl yarn avi r bhavyate
( l ' ol . l 04a) .
( 15) Tad atra Ko6akri rah pra6nayati -' ko
vi ghnah' t at r & vayam pr at i -
v admaf r - . . . ' dur bodhd, k hal u
dhar mat E, ' ( Fol . l l l b) .
( 16) At r a Snr v6, st i - r ' i cl a- vi bhr ashl i r Va, i t ul i ko
nird,ha-r'ayarn api tnn svabh!,r,an pari-
o"lo".t'u.t u':if
moh6i kana-sthdnam Ko6akfirasyeti
( Fol . l l 2a, p.
Of these Nos. (3) ancl (4) r' efer to omi ssi ons of
cert,ain topics by the Ko6ak6.ra in his Bhagyo.
Nos. (2) and
(5) deal u' i th certai n aspects of tho Sau-
trdnti ka theory of percepti on. No. (6) deal s wi th
the Ko6akd,ra' s defi ni ti on of paramdr.uu. No. (7) refors
to a controversy about the co-operration of uitarka
and vicd,ro in a single moment of consciousness.
Nos. (8), (9) an<l (10) deal rvi th certai n i tems of the
much dobated Vaibhasika categories callecl sdrla-
vi ,prayukto-sary,skdra. Nos. (I), (13) and (14) have
a bearing on the Sautrd,ntika theory of btja (seed).
The l ast two refererces, Nos.
i I5)
and (16), deal
with the fundamental Vaibhesika doctrirre of the
real i ty of Three
' Ii mes,
i .e., the Sarvdsti vada.
i t t
B certain Naroneirayafas (A.C.
663), of tho
norihom Tsbi dy-nasoy. This work coneists of, ton
chaptere m iJ fasciculee imd nus into 139 pagw
(Beat, op. ci t. 82 :
2 vol unes
; Gl l i ouen "). fre
conten.ts <;f thre work are
saine as thog€ rnention€d
eboyo exceot thaL ssctron ll L l,acking, Thie work
h&s rrrb been found rn Tibetan. The Abhidharnu-
ETdnya-r4asba of Dharmottara is mentioned by
(6th centur5r) eiCo by eido with
work of K6ty6yn-;putre (Nanjio, No. 1294 aud
Tekakusu, loc. eit.)- Tlto Samyrulcto-Abhidlwrttw-
HTd.aya-Sd,stra,, on the other hdnd, ie e work of
ll chspters in 16 fa^sciculesrunning into 362 pageo
(Beal, op. cit, 82, " 6 volumes
Ttioueu") o.d
compiled by l'a-kiu (&tr) whoee Nanjio
n:storen es Dhsrmatr6t&, whilo Ts,kakusu conjoc*
turee a poseible Dha,rmators, a corrjecture whiob
he eupporCs by the fact thet tho name is given ar (ffi&ffi) in tlie introductory
further diffEre from Na,njio
in that ha mentione only Sa:rghava.nnan as tbe
cranslator of the presont work, whereae the latter
etat€s thst this wark is a traneiation by Sanghe-
varmanr and othors
A.C. 434, of tho earlier Sr:ng
dynasty. The contente of thie work diffor from
thoso of the abovo two in that section I L takos
the forru of a
Conelusion'. Tliis work too has
uot beon found in Tibetan. In thie book the Abhi.
dlnrma-dbha^ga is mentioned as tho authority for
the exposition given by the a:thor. Eui-chi (ffffi
6th centur5r) expressly etatee that this book belirigr
to tho SarvSsi;ivfrda school (Na.njio,
No. 1287
Takakusu, loc. cit.
T le Samyuktobhidharmo-hfdaW-
ld^stna was $lso translated bv l6vara in l0 fasciaul€!
in A.C. 426
and in A.C. +gf hig trunelation was
continuod by Gugavannan, so that it was coryleto
in l3 fasciculos^ But tho wholo tr*nsle6i.r-wag
atrroady lost in A.C. 730.
T. R,.
Ttrie is morely tho rsstored Sanshit for:m of tho
Chineso A-p"i-ta-ma-Ja-cldh-lun (
FEruRFAfiffi )
which is a trirnslation by Heiion-tseng of K6ty6-
yaruiputra's Jfuinapxntlfrna (Nanjio,
No. f276).
Seo JftAN.q.P.RaSTHANe.
pay also be mado hero of two furthor
ABIIIDHARMA-I{O6A-BH^I$YA. As iudicatod bv
sorke which are conunentaiiee on tho above. In its very i,itle this is a commentary (Bhasya), in
:her'r reetoredform their titlee read as Dharmottaro. pros€,
tho Abhid,lnrma-ka{a-kirikd of
A-ihd'horma,^HTdayo-S*frc (fiffifi19ft*1L.ffi)
_"tta Faramartha tolls us rbat this prose tnxt,
Ilrsceil^nsoug (according tg.,
_N:.1;:o _
the Sanskrit original of which is lost, *as compiled
Abhtd.tnrma-Eyd,aga-Sdatra (#Fqtntrl,L.=#).
by-Vasubandhrf hims€U at the request ol the
Ki$mira-Valbhdsika,s. The K6rikas and the Bhfisya
Tho Dh,armntlora-Abhidlwrrna-HTdaya-Sdctra
form the comprlation known under the title The
by Ufo6u*Q (Upajita, according
Abhidharma-ko6a of Vasubondhu (cp. Nanjio,
Beal ,1 vas traasl atsd i nto i ts preeeat form by Nos. 126?, 1269, l z70; TM. T0g0).
It nray be noterl thst ihese pri,ssa.ges nre all hostilc
et, exposing Vasuba,ndhu's
vicwg, He ia not only censufed for hrs ipgrorarrce ui
rire Abhidha,rma and hie Sauhentika leanirge- irut
rriHo areli€ecl of entering thg portals of Mah6,ydn*,
of oreepting the Yaitulika $6stra and of following
rhu ayoga.iilnyatd-uoda. Finally,he is calleC a.napo,r-
taie from the Barv6stivdda, and an &dvoca'r,o of
tlrc trisaqbhios-add,a. Tlris doctrine is contarned
ur Ve€utlend.ltu'c Trt-suabhdaanird,e#o, a work of the
Yogdcaro-vijfianavEda schooi. All these reforeucea
;€€r!r to allude to Ko6akErn Va,subandhu'e
onvergiolt to Mairayann,,E &ceounts of which ars
preaenred in Pararnartha'.q LiI'e of Vasubanellru.
The na,me of tho author of the !)ipa ia not knowa,
Tita Vrttt caile hirn Dlpnk6,ra- It also refers to hie
-,rlrer rvcrrk called Tattna-eapRtdi, whieh is u.nknown
i r us. It may have been writton on the
of the
;'eramd,rtTm.-aaptatiko of From tbe
evidenco it would a,ppeer that ths DEyta aa
:r'r.i as Lb'a Vytti wero written by oue &nd the saroe
inrye s€ ir the csse of the Koda and Bhaqya"
Tne Vytti refers ouly to s6ven ominent Buddhiste,
Aivaghopa, (Arya) M*itroya, I)ha.rmntrEla,
Ghoeaka, Vasumitra, Buddhadeva and I{"'nir,ra-
-Biu. Sa,ighabhadra is not mentioned, but soveral
\-rs\r-s of the Dipaka,ra aro identical wit,h his views.
\1'e. thercforg, ca,n ascribo thie work either to San"
:ir.etrbadra or to ons of hie dieciplea, particularly
\- rm a] a- itra, who is said to havo enterta^ined a dssir-e
:o writo euch 6Estraa
as v'ill causo the learned
raen of Je'"'budvipa to forget the narne of the
Vehiclo and deetroy tho famo of Vasuban'-
.fifu " and coneequently to ha','e
fallen into the
t:,rpest hol .l
t' .c
P" S. Jar Nr .
-1,,1' t-t'q,n-hsirl-tru,n, or Abhidhar:rnahpdaya (Abhi-
d-barma-sdra), regtoration iato Sanekrit of the
nAmB of a Chines€ translation by $aighadova,
anci llui-yuon, in 391 A.C", of a work by
ia-sheng, (ftffi).r It coneiste of lC cheptore in
{ fasciculee and nrns into 96 psg6E. Their
.,lnt€nt8 &ro &el followB : l. Introductory
:. Dbitu
3. Ser,nntrE,ra
4. Kannan; 5. Anu6aya
d, Aryapudgala; 7.
8. Samadhi
SLU-to-lo (sfrtra)
10. Miecollaneous,
I I.
5 For controversiee on thie point, eee my articlo
On tho
Tlerry of Two Yasubendhus' ln tho 3SO.4.S. 1958, xxi/i,
g: -53,
t S. Beal: Bnddhi^at, Rzqrils oJ tlu Wcstarn Worll,T,pg.
l i + 7 .
l. liaajio, No. 1288, restores tNs Dsme lnto $anshit as
D-:majina (6) wbile Tekakusu interprets it as Dhar-
=: : ' ara, JPTS. 1904-5, pp.
140 f . Cp. Beal I n Tri pi @ba
33, quotlng Jullau- (Cotuotda ncr") who equntoa Fe-
Sheng with Upsjita, whllo bo hims€f ssys thst- tbb usmo
would seem to mean Dhrymsjits. De la Yall6s Porusln.
Ahidlwtnu.ho$o dn Vantbatdhu, Introductlon, pD.
lxlil and L'Ind.e Clotriqzu, oeclion 2134.
eive Dharira?il.
2 BesI, Bud4hirt Rccotih of tlu Wadern World, p.
n. 102, where fAvera
A.C.) is glven as a tlanslatsr of
the S a4 g ukta
abhidharnw- hfd,oy o- t ilstr fl .
ABH rDH AR nrA Kosn-sH ls
yA -TI
K A- Dlt A BHTDHARIvTAKobn-Smrnn
AM A, tr lso k i,,., ro'lr *,',! h lti,i!, h,t t r r rr ul:o d u.i dst nt
t a. t ! i l i r t ha- l xl cL or si r n
1r l y, { bl . i , d
l t n r t t t r t . kol o- bl ul s
l r cr
1i l ' :ri . trnrl Kol ai attuurtl mti ki t.
' l ' l ri s
rvork l ras i re,rrr
Jr r e*er ver l
f or r r : r : r r l y r r r i t s' l ' i l r t ' t r i r r t r . ansl ut i ol . t l r o
Cl t r t g r t r non- puhi r r r r l sor i - k, yi l r Sr r r l - 1ur hi r g\ ' : r - ( . l r r ) r
f gr el ' pu,
( don- i ayi <l c- kl r r : - n+r - f r i t l r l , , i i r vr r - l r i r . !
' .
l t i s
r t .
' si r 1, 61- 4t r r nr nr ; r r t ar . y '
by St l i i r i r r r r ; r r i or r t l t e . - l l f ui -
tl l t,o r t r tq.-kgsa-,4d,xtt' tz rrl ' !' asrr l l r rrr l l rrr. It tv' ,rs tr' &nst-
l r r , t r t r l i nt o' I ' i l r e: 1; r n I r y l l l r i i r r r r . r pr i l t l l r l r t r r l r t r i r nr l
d. l - r p( . ' i . r r s t n t l t o Jl r l o- Hsr el ( : ; i l t r u) st . r : t i or r r ; f t l r e
l l i l r et : n Teng. l ' r r r ( Uor t l i er , I I l .
4t ) $ : J, ' , l l t l t . i
<l Jtu,' trrako{q. de l ' tnttba,ttdl ttr <tf' L. tl o l a Vrrl l 6e
Pot t ssi t r , I nt r odr t ct i t - r r r . t r r - , . xl j i i i t r r t l ssi : r r r r d
' Tl l .
\ u . 4 ' 1 9 1 ) .
ABHI DHARMAKOSA- SASf ne, r t t eat i sc' wr i t t en
bv Vasubancl hu cl trri ng tho err,ri i er peri od of hi s
l i l i , rvhen ho harl not yet ornhracrtti }IahdyA,na
R.rddhi sm. Il e rvas i i , nati ve of Ga,rr<i hara i n north
Inrj i a ci rca the 5th centurl ' A.C.. a,nd beeame a
Buddl ri st rnonk of tl rt: Sarr-i sti vi da school . -\t,
th:l t ri me the Strrvrr.rti vi rcl i rrs i n the north of Indi *
regi l rr l e-cl the Vai bhasi l i us rus the representati ves
of ' or t l r or l ox I Jr r ddl r i snr ar r ( l ar l her ed excl usi vel v
to tlro Maliiyibluisu. Vasrrbandhu vrtl,s onc
t,heir lbllorvors ilt tlrt-r begirrning. Rut lator iro
ncloptocl t ho moro' progressive' vit-'ws of the Sautrir,n
ti ka school antl wrote a gencr*l
srtrvov ot' bhe
theori es of the SarvAsti vacl i r school i n a .som,rwtrat,
cri ti ori tone aqai nst the Vai bhu,si ka:, and that i s
the AblLid,hantt,ul;o,iu-.1istra. Ar, lre composed
the KeriitA in 6o0 skrkas ancl later the 8.000 Slokas
of the Bhdsya in prose form to erplain it. It was
enti tl ed the
Kosa of Abhi dhurma " (tho word
koia meaning & ltox or iI shenth) because
this work include,:l t,he essentials o{' the important
texts of the Abhidharma of the Sarveitiv6da
eclrool as v-ero pr()pourrded in tho Jildnaprasthd,na
whicli rvas regarded ts a funda,me,ntal work, tho
si x pfrdtrs. i .e., tl ' te l )harnrusl ;andl te, &.c., and tho
Maltduibluigd,, lvlrich rllso constitrrted tho basis
on which t]l,e rlbhidhq,rrttakosu u-rr,s written.
According to the tradition tolrl by ITsrian-tsang's
disciples P'u-kuang and l'a-pao, Vasubandhu hsd
gone to Ka6mira in disguise and studiod the Abhi-
dharma literaturo four vears under tho insi:ruction
of Skandhila, with the purpose of preparing a
thorough criticism of the Mahau'ibhnsd.-Afierwards
Skandhila discovered his real intention, and
thereupon Vasubandhu returnod to Gandhdra,
where he began to lecturo on tho Mahauibhdsd,.
Each day
he finishod one
wrote e summ&ry in the forrn of o 6loka. Thus
at the conclusion of his loctures he had amassed
600 Slokas which w€re collectively known
as the Abhidharm.akosa-kd.ri,kd. When this
work was first irrtrodueed to Ka6mira. the scholars
thero thousirr it an aid to tlieir sect in the propa-
gation of the ttreoriee of the Mahdtnbh.ri;ta. tt, was
only whon they read Vasubandhn's subsequont
Bh.dsyo that they began to realise it *'as a iork
conrposed to criticiee the MafuJuibhapd,. Although
such is the tradition, scholars at
a.cknowlodge ths.t the Abhirtharntakosa-karitcd. wis
composed on tho basis of t}re Sontguktd,bltidharma-
lirdoya. rvhich was then prevalont in Gandh6,ra,
added with extensivo adaptations of the matorials
cont.ainetl in the Maluluibhrisri- Thereforo, it is
not i n r-.onr:ordance wi th faet t,<.r regard i t ttrrrel v
as i I c( ) r nJ) enr l i r r m oF. t l r e Mahdr i hh, i si i .
<rriginul Fjanslirit text.s of the{a -
i ' tl ri l ,' d i r,nd the Ahh' i dl ,tarrttako.4u-bl ta,yrTa u' ere l roth
l ost i r:ng tr,go i n fn,l i a. <;nl r- frrr,cmentarv quotati ons
Ir;r,r' i ng been preserverl i n Yai omi bra' s Abh;-
rl l tcrrttakoi at:t1i l rhyr1. In 193+ ancl l 93ti Ra.htrl a
Sankr i t l . ; r ; ' a, na. t he I r r cl i an schol ar . di sco. r er er l i n
I' i beta,n rnonasteri es rl i e Srr,nskri t texts of tho
Abl i i d h,arttt ako.4a-kri ri tri aurl tl tc,Lbhi dJt urm.akoi a
bltrisrlrl (irs the text of tlte kuriku is restored b.y
rrri rki rrg :rbsLracts frorn tl i e Rhd..tya, re' peti ti ous
:l ncl srrperfl uous l i nes someti mes cccur). whi ch
texts he brorrgl i t back to Indi a i n pl :otographs.
In l 94ti \r. \:. Gol i hul e c:ol l ated and publ i shed
t,he kri ri l cd (Tl te' l ' efi of thp. Ahh.i rJharmal :oi a-I:dri kd,
of l t asubat t dl r . u, , I l l I I AS. \ - ol . : 191.
Lt } Ci r ' nxc,
Tlre tcrm Allhidha,rma m&.v be rendere':I, in
brief'. os the stud.y of the clharma. Iio.da prirnarilv
rncdns a rer-,eptacl o or a store-houso, and aecon-
<l a"ri l v i t, si gni fi es a di ct.i onarv or a l exi con, whi l e
tlre terrn .ldstra, denotes a, philosophical or a,
religioirs trea,tise. Tho Chinese translators translite-
rated this title as
mo-chu-sh6-sl r6-sa-t,a-l o, and rendered i t i nto Chi nege
as Tui -fa-ts' ang-l un (meani ng
' totvard '
dhar r na
f f i
' st or o'
f f i
' t r eat i se' ) .
Tibetan translators inierpretoct this title as Clros-
nti o n
(the' excel l ent-dharma-gtore-house'
This 6d,stra consists of 600 6lok:r-quatrain
stanza,B, rvith a detailed proso commentar;r to
each stanza. The book is made up of nino ehapters.
Of the nino chapters the first oight form the main
text, while the last is considered a subsidiary
chapter. The first eiglrt chapters taken togother
constituto a eomplete sdstra, while the ninth seoms
to be a later addition or &n appendix. According
to somo scholars the ninth chapter was originally
nn indepenrlent treatiso, which camo to be appended
to the Abhirlharm,a,koia s"b a later stage for the
convenience of the studont. This view h&s, howevor,
norv been rejected.
Abhillharrna-idstra (or troatisos on Abhidharma)
and works of a similar na.turo seom to have been
produced in almost all schools of Buddhism.
Ilowever, the Abhidharma treatisos ($ustra) which
now possess are mostly books written in the
Puli lansuago and transmitted through the Thera-
vida school of the south. There are also Chinese
texts which belong to the Sarvdstivida school of
Buddhism. Abhidharrna treatises of the other
sehools are very few in nrrmber. Tho Sarvd,stivdda
school was the most porverful of tho schools of
northern Ruddhism of the Christian ora in north-
wesi, fndia. A large number of Abhidharmo trostises
are said to havo been written in this schooi.
prosumably in Sanskrit, but most of these works
&re now lost. A fow. however. have been tranelat€d
into Chines€ and are preserved in the Chineeo
Tripilaka. Some texts have boen rendered into
Tibetan and preservod.
The above-mentionod works, howover, ropresont
only one branch of Abhidharmo, study. On tho
ABHrD HARMA KoS e-'snsrnn ABHrD HARMAKoia-riAsrne i{,
oi i rr; r l t rr, nrl , l . l rere wt l s t , i re prrl drrct , i r: t r of t i . re compen-
rl i ri rug. l l l l ro srrbj ccf rnl ri . t L' r of t he ccrnpenri i ums
rl' s,g u,fr' &ng111| ;<rTqttrtni.r,liel,llV A,ncl in r:r)rrqise fOrm,
Tlre ,{ ltlt,i,lh.rtyni,u.l;o,{a belongs to t.ire cllrss known
; rr rol ri penel i rrms. f i xn, rnJl l es of su+l : . ccrnnenr{i urns
are t l ro . 4nt , rl a, rnsn hv {: , 1hosa, u' hi e}r i l el r; ngs t o t , he
enrl ' ", peri od, rl bl d, dkormuhyCaTl a b] ' Dharmot t ar*
, ' i , ' , ' , t
i l rrj c(: i l t rrn' A, C. ) al rd t , ht , Abl zi dl rnrmauat d, ra
: , -. ' : i k; r, rrt l l ri l ; r. of +r, i at r: r rl a, t e. Al l of t henr har. t r
, ri t n
i t rf . i crl ' cri
i rt t l i , r CI ri rr, r. rr:
' I ri pi t l ka.
t t rese
i . t l ; ri . rrrrrrt . t ar*' t Abl t , i , el t t . dr?n{t l l t ' ddt l d, $eent s t ro i r: rr' e
' ; ' , ' , 1
1. f i 1r r r r r i ql ,
i r r ; l t : t l i l r ,
l r . t r r l conr r nr - t r t nt ' i os on i f
rrL-! r/ -1 r' rri i t r--n l r: ' I
i prl srrrrt , i .
I ] i i t rrnt ri rgupt & and
=. . ! . : ! -i r, l of , i rt : rt ' . \ : i : i gt t l ; r*t r. di l t ' s . ' l hl t , , : , l l t rt l nt nl ' osa
-, l i i , rr' rrrl .
i n l , i rl rr' *kt t , =; i t l rt ' i , rt -' i rt i scs of Ll hi i , r' rnot Lara,
' ' 1' ' e-i i ul i
| l , rr{l I J}ri l rrl 1t i ' gLl pt *. I ' }ro suby(}r: i ; -, nr*t t t rr
: rl re Ahl t i i , l l arnt ul coat -! ; C, t t rcr i -* so syst emat i cal l 5, '
- : : ' r i nsed
ancl bhe ar qument at i r l n i s so t hor ouqh
: r; r. c i t earned t he narne of t ' he
Book of I nt el l i geuco' .
i : n-l r, g al gr: r. rcrn: ; i rl ercr. l t o bo t l rr: most au' ri rori t at i ve
of the Sa,r"' d,stir' ' ada -*chcol, ancl ir largc.
: . ' l mber of coi nrrrent ari os rvere w' ri t t en orr i t ^ Of
: i ese. t hree rvei e wri t t en i n f rrdi a' . These are st i l l
rst ari t . e i t hor i n t he ori gi nal Sanskri t or i rr a
: : nrl -ere, ' L f i rrm. namel v. YaSomi t rrr, ' s r\ phut , i rt h, t i ,
>: i - , i i ar nat i ' s' f ai t i xi r t l t , T r ; nd Pr - i r l r avar dt i u, n: l ' s
: - t ' : . -rt r. r. i rt . l i sri . ri . t r, . l Jesi des t l i ese, t l -rere i s al so arr
: : ri ri gJt ' rl vcrsi on r; f t , l re t . e: i t t r)' J)i mri , ga. art *
r i' -)
rtr l<ind of special
giossarv b1' Samri' t,ha,:leva.
-,' i
t,irese worJ{B have been preserved in tho
l -, bet an l ' cri {i o-rr. f f mav ai so be mer}t , i oned. hero
: : . i 1i t i i e -4bl t . i ri ! t q, rnt rt , i coi a oi t en verg{)s on i he
i , : i ri l es
cf t ho Saut rd. ni i kt l , & soparat i sf , school
: ' t he St rrr-F-st . i vdrl a f a, ci i on. \ Ve f i nC i t . t heref ore,
: r: i i ' i si ng t he ort hodox vi es-s on vari ous p<; f urt ' s.
-: r' tiris very reasor-r, in his oxtensive tteatises
:' . : -!
p' i
t a
s h, t t,n
c h 6 r w
-I' i -l
t t' n
1$FJM €H
E;+ ),
: \ i,7 rn,an.!J ri i
tl,vs i,7 i
a.nrl A
rt r'o
q'nQ .
t.s1q'n.-t,uti (
, onrgmpori l ry . -rf \ ' asubancl l ru, bi t t srl rt at t acks
wt' rrk for its urrcrthodos viev,' s. Aftor Sanqha-
-: ; *, -l ra. however, no rl ew t reat i ses were prodrrced
. : -
' i re
Sarr. ' dst i v6da school .
i n t l re Chi i . e: l o Tri pi t aka. . t here aro t rvo r-ersi ons
, : : l r e Abhi . dl nr makci a- l dst r u. Ther e ar e
( l )
t . ho
: .
t r
chil t €
sl r i h,
u,tt, (
mmlr€,H lF.€K;ft )
i n
: : r' : nr. , ' -t wo voi umss t ransl at ed b. y Li l i eri -t i (
i E# t
: - t he {i t h cent rt ry A. C. , ancl i 2) t }r<t A-gi i -t e-mo-
' .;l ;.e-l un,
F{mtrtrfff,"€;fi '
i n 30 r' ol i rmes
' ri nsi t . r, l e(l
by f {si i an-t sang i n t }re Tt l t cent ur' *.
l i -e I i ari kd vorsi ori i g al srr prr: served i n t he Chi nese
- : i ; - r r t aka. I t , i s r r nt i t l er i A- ] ; ' i - t a- nt a- t h. i i - sh6- l u. n-
-,,i g
i f-tl fi i ti €Hi H.Sffi ffi )
an.i r' ' a' transl ated bv
i {s' . ran-t sang.
ln the Tibetan Tengl' r.rr there is on-: Iittriki
' . -. : si on
a, nd one SA, st ra versi cn of t he r, ert . Ti rev
: , al e becn t rari sl at ed, b1' . I i nami t t a and Dpal -brt s*ra:
: l aksi r a. St ci r . , , r bat sky i i as pr r bl i st r ed t he i i r st
r; . api er ancl &i : rl t i -, e f i rsf l t al f oi t he secouci
r. . l r' t er of t he Ti het an versi orr. l j esi cl es t h. : se.
. : r Ui sl rur vei si on of t he Abi i , i rl , i nrrnal ' osa has ai so
: een ci i scovered.
Of rhe commenf , ari es of t ho Abi t i dhannako, 4a
ment i oned above t he ot i gi nal Se. nskri t t ext of t ho
. : phut dr t hd i s ext ant .
Cont ent s r - r f t he Abhi dhar makosa. As r nenl i oner l
er : , r : i i er . t l r e, I bl r i r Ll mr r i t , r i : o. i , t consi st , s oi ' ei gl r t
rrrrr. i n i , l rapi , ers. i rrr cl ori e a{ l rl i t i onrrl rt }ragri , er ( P r t dqal o, -
: ' i nt . 4c. o. , t t t t \
u' l i i cl r di . . - i r sscr t hp pr r - ; hl enr of non-
r - t t r r r r t r - r or i l t i i i t nal r . Tl i , . r ' i r i i l r t . ' r . ; ' . r - hi . r i r i or m t h+r
r nui n t exl a, r e l l r e l i r l i i r u- i r i : i : l ) hal t t i - ni r deSa,
I r r dr i ya- n . I , r r ka, - n , Kr l r i t - i a- n' . - - \ ni t i &f i r - n' ,
I r l r r l gn, l am, r r qi t - r l , I i r i l t a- n
. Sar r ' : r t i i r i - r - , Ti r e
i ; r i nci Jr ; t l
sl r l . r i e. ' t s t i el r l t r vi ' Ll i r t r t l r l t er l t mi i \ : l - r e
grori l -re, l i t s f ol l cxvs : (l
r' -rposi t i c' n of t he i ernr
I ) l r t l r r r r &' . I ) h r r , r mr r s i g r r i f i e s t l r o ' e i e l n r - , n r s '
*' l i i r: l r const i t r. rt e t i re rni r; i l , t he t ' ocl }, , l i s u' ei i as
a, l i r ' r i st ent t l i i r r gs; ( l ) t he r ei i sons f or bei ngs
; l oi r' ' g
nst ri l -1. i t n<l i . rcc<; mi pg sul rj t --et t o ccrrt i nuous
r oi r i r t , h ; ( l i ) t l r e
i r at i r
wi r i ch l e; r , t l s bei ngs or r t oi
i l hr si or r i nt o er r i i ql r t enr ner r t .
Ti r e i i r st cl r t l pt t ; t ' r i i vi dcs
" r l i
dhar ma i nt o t wo
r:liisses : .siit;rat.,u tlnii' and,iraurz. Tlrey aro rrex[
citrsr,ifietl ilga in as .s
a t t t.t l: rt e
artd o."ca iras l; rta
rr no .
J, ' hel r i i rl i ou' s rr cl , rssi f i cat i r. rrr of c{l rarrni r, i l s gi ven
i n t . l i e . l qani , a , \ t t ru, ri amel y. t he f i vo skandha
(rf t pu, L' i (I (, t L(-t . . s, t m. i f i d. sant skd, re. , t ' i j f i , anu) t ho
t.r,elye tr,irat,(qli[
(r' ril,' .srr.s,
srotra, OltriiTt,a,
kaya, nt an. rt s. ru pa. i rr. f ul q, gant l l ut , I ' ct st t , spra. t t ct t l t l (l .
dh, ar r nt t ) anr l t i r t I s r i i r t l t Lr ( t i r e t r vel vr l i r sr l t ar r a
i nerrt i oner-i i 1l -. 1r1' , , , f i )got l l {rr wi t h at , i , : +t t r ai i i l dna,
, srot rn ri -i
' rl ri na.
rl l t rri nrl i ' i i i t , -7rut , , j i i i t : a t i . i f i ri na, kri 11a
, ' i . i i urn rn<l rrzr: ri o f
i . i i i , i i t u t . A r-l erai l erl oxposi t i on
especi rrl l v r-' n t l re ni 11 rrre anr, l si ruct t t re of rf r, i l a i s
i l l , ; o gi r-en i rere. Thi : ; r. l i set t ssi on gi r-es a i ot rg
rrr: posi ri on of t he f ot rr grerrt el ement s (prt hi ui ,
d.p,,s, l:a,i/ti,) tnil the tlreor.\- ,-rf the ir,tom
( J; ar ar nap. ul .
I n t he seeond chaDt er, t he t werrt y-Lw' o i ncl ri yas,
ancl t l re l i ve st at es of exi st enee (rt t pa, ci t t a, cet asi kt t ,
:"itta-a.sam,Ttrayukte, u..tam,skrta) aro explainod, fn
tlre latter, the theor-v af skandJm-d,yatanofi,hdtu is
cirrefuliv reconsidererl, anal;,' sed in detail, and Blso
svstenlatii;ed frorn the standpoint of the Sarvisti-
vi,rltr. AII pirenomen& &re sliow' n to be the msult
ol those dharn-ras working together. The prrnciples
of interrelation aro fullv explained and also the
relation of the dharma,s to ea,ch other---eaeh
standing as & cause for tin effect thus rnaking trp
t i re exi st ence of bei nss and t hei r envi i onrnent .
Thero aro 6 ki nds of eauses (het u), 5 ki nds of ef f ect
(phal a\ , nnd f our ki nds of condi t i ons (prat uaya).
Causal i t v i s expl ai ned as t he t heorl - of
' t aki ng'
ef f r: ct
\ gral t arut l
gi vi -ng' ef f ect (aduna).
Ai' ihc enil of the cha,pter, mind is classified into
t hree t ypes, good, ba<l and neut ra, l .
' I he
t hreo
ki nds of mi ncl a, re f urt her sub-di vi cl eri i nt o l :
el asses and al so i nt t i l 0 ci i vi si ons. Thei r mut ual
rolations ere s,lso cleult with in cietaii.
Tho thirC, chapter cioscribes the varrlorrs forrns
of r-' ni st ence and l i vi ng bei ngs. and t he eondi t i ons
ant scedent t o t hei r t . l ki ng val i cus f orms of oxi s-
t ence. I t cl eal s. f i rst l r' , *' i t h t he f i "' e f orms of
eri st enr-' e nal nel l -. bi ri i i as bei rrgs i n a purgat ory,
; i s dopart ed spi ri t s. ai ani mai s. a-q human bei ngs
iintl as
gods. It ciegcrilrcs aiso the 1,1t"se -ephores of
es-istencc. n&mei5' , tbe krintrt-dhi,ttt, ril' pa' rlhdtu,
r, , nd t he , t r{i pa-, l hdt rr ;
al so t he f orrr ki nds of bi rt h,
narnel l -, l ; i rt h f rcm t ho somb, ovi parous bi rt h,
bi rt h f rom moi st ure, and bi rt h havi ng nc depen'
.len"e. It rnentions the four stages of lifo namely,
bi rt h, exi st ence. deat h, and f orrrf hl v t he st at e
5 s PC. 9 7 0 4 n
i ntcrmecl i ary to rl erath and re-l ti rth. The twel ve
stagcs or l i nks of ci rrrsabi on &ro next deal t
s-i ti r i n rel al .i on to thr: three di vi si orrs of ti rne,
pr r st , pr esei ' l t a, n( l f r r l r r r r , . 1L al go onul ner i r t es t he
l brrr I<i nrl s r:f goocl . l fhi s i s fol l ou' crl by a di scussi on
on tht: pherrornrrrurt r:f rl yi ng. It cl oscri i rcs (l ro
worl rl l rrJ t,hc rcceptnel e ol ' al l types of krei nqs, as
l ,h* rer.' r' pl ,ucl c of ti i ree huge r"ri rcul ar di scs of
gr:l tl
, ei f r+' *ti :r ancl of *i l rdi i t ni rn-ros tho ni ne
mol rnti l i rrs, t.l re ei ght, sr_' i t,s, ti to forrr eont,i nents, the
vi l ri errrn prrrg;l tori cs, the srrn and rnoorr t,urni ng
rouncl l It. ,l rrraeru, the nurnl l t--r of heaveni .r- sl ,l i eres,
tho mei i si rrnments antl ti i mensi ons of the
-bodi es
of al l bci ngs who br:l ong to i ho di f{' erent sp}reres
anci nl so i hei r l i fo sl )an
ancl tho vi ci ssi turl es the
rvorl d goes
througl t duri ng tl re for:r kal prl s. nrl ,mei y,
t hat ol '
f or mi ng' , of
mai nt ena, nce' , of
r l est nr c-
t i on' , anci c, f
' v&c&nt ness' .
I t al so descr i i r es t ho
three mn,j or and mi nor cal ami ti es.
The fourth chalter gives the different, kinds of
karma, as a result of which beinss t,ake a varietv
of forms. Fi rst of al l karma i s anal ysod. aceord.i ns
t o i t s
sel f - nat ur e' , i r i t o t hr ee ki nds. . t . r mol r l ,
ka,rm& pertaining to the body, karma pertaining
to speech and karma porbaining to willing and
thi nki ng. Al ong wi tl r the bodi l v karma or karma
pertaining to speech (palprrble karma) thero exists a
sub tle r tqt a
kar m,o cal led au ij i4apti kar ma, (
irnpalp ab I e
karma), i.e., the karma of acquired chaructor
or habit. Tho relation between tho anteeedent
mind and tho rosultant karma is next, oxplained
aceording to tire twot-old theory of samutthd,na.
Tho resultant karma is goocl
or bad in accordanr:e
with the stato of mind that causes the karma.
Auijiiapti karma, is next divided into throe kinds,
namely, sarytv&rs. non-sa,4nva,r&, and noither
8a,lnv8,r& nor non-s&r.nv&r&. of these, tho first
sann)a,ra aui.ifi.apti, karma is further dividod into
three, namely. prd,timoksa, d,hyd,nn, a,nd
Tho eoming into being, tho development, and
also tho elimination of the various auijfi,apti karma,
are noxt explained. Tho karma theories given in
the Aganti Sil,tra aro also onumeratid. and
explained in this chapter with special roference
t,o the theory of the ten karma-patha.In the latter
half of tho chapter are discussed the interrelation
of the differenf, kinds of karma, their effects, tho
threo kinds of oDara1ta and the +,hreo
The fifth chapter begins with an explanation
of the ninety-eight anudaya.Ilere, the six-principal
anu6aya (rd,ga, pratigha. mina, a,uidyd,, dfSU ina
vici,kitsa) bocomo ten with dr,tti being divided
into five. The ten anttialt& further subdivided
beco[ro ninoty-eight dealt with in relation to
the threo worlds (, rtipa and dtil,pua) and
each of the fivo classes of disciplino. This is followed
by a elassification of anulaya into I I saruatraga
anuiaya and 9 il,rd,huaaisaya anudaya. Their distii-
bution in relation to origin and character is also
described. Other doctrines given in tho Agamo
StTtras, namely, that of d"4raua,, oghn,, yoga. updddna,
samyojana, band,ha,na, uTtalcleSa, paryaoasthina
tno,la, are also treated in this chapter.
Tlie sixth ehapter hegins with tho two modos
gf removi ng defi l ement: (l ) by i nsi ght i nto the
Four Nobl e Truths
(2) by di sci pl i ne. It then proeeeds
to explain tlre method of removing defilements.
T_he fir-qt staqo
tlre preparator.y
of the
tl rreo dhdtu
four ku*ai a-mrhl a' .
One who goes through tl resn two i ni t,i al courses
enters the group of the Hol v Ones. Fi rst, hi ,r
disciplrncs lrirnsolf iry rneans c'f the dqriana mrlrgu,
i nsi ght i nto ti re I.' orrr i Vobl a
Truths, and then.
by rnt:rrns of thei bhdt' and,-ntri rqa, Irc cl estrovs (l to
ni ne ki rrds of r.l efi l t.ments"
Tl ro ncrt st,r,po' i s the
esa' i kse-ntti rga whi ch bri ngs ttro frui t ot' -rr,nrhant-
shi p. .fl i gl ' t, st,ages are covered al togetl i er bv rhe
Lhreo tnr|rga. i []ro fi rst, of tho ei ghr-stasrs i s the
srotrl ,patti and tl re l ast i rral rantshi l r.
To,"varcj s the
en<l ot ' t l t e chnl r t er ar e gi ven t he t l i f f t ' r er r t cl assi f i -
ca,ri ons of tl i e-.
l i rr,tl i
a,s l bund i r the Aqa,ntas, i ,o.
tlre four prat'ipa,d, the four sm.rtrtu,pastlr,lnu,
fottr .sam21akprah,rl,na, the four
the fivo
indriya, ilre fir-e lnla, the Eevon bodhlJanqa, ilno
aight mdrga, and the four aoe\1a7trascida.
fn tho seventl i chaptor a detai l eC account i s
gi ven of the ten ki nds of knowl edge (ctul :hl ra-
samltdaya-jfid,na, nirodha-j'., md,rga-j" .
anuaSla-j.", k,garn-j', anutpdda-j
porucitta-j" ancl
samzvti ,-j
1' hi s i s fol l orved bv the varj ous attri -
butes bel ongi ng to a l Jurl dha, namel y, ttro ten
powers, the four forms of fearlessness. tho three
smrtyu,pastltdna, and the great compassion. It also tho vi rtues eommon to the Buddha
and tlre saints, namely, ardncl, pranidhdna-jfi.d,na,
an<l t,he four prati.samuid, as well as the virtues
common to the Buddha and ordi nary bei nge,
namell', the six abhi,jfifi, tho throe uid,yd,, and the
three prdtihfrry1a.
Tho eighth chapter gives a dotailed explanation
of tho different forms of samfidhi meniioned in
the Agama. ,,qtitra, i.e., the fow dhyd,na, tho four
d,rcJ,pqa, the eight samd,patti, and the throe sarnd,patt,i
(saaitarka,-saae', auita,rka-so,uicdra, auitarlcq,-
auicttra). It gives slso tho gain rosrrlting from the
different tvpes of samddhi, namely, tho attainment
of tho four aprannd,na, the eight aimolcsa, and
the eight abhib hayatarua.
The last and additional chapter, Pudgal.auinii-
eazta,, is an indepondent treatiso. Ifere the 6tman
theories arlvocated
tho Vd,tsiputri;'a and by
Brahmanism &ro refuted and an attempt mad-e
to establish tho d,tman-less nature of all dharma.
The posi ti on ot tho 6estr" i n the hi story of Bud-
dhist thought. It is needless to eay thar the Ablr,i-
d.harm.akoiq-idstra is ono of the most important
Buddhist treatisos. Thero are three pointJ which
we ha,vo to take into spocial consideration with
r.egard !,o this 65,stra.
Iho Abhid.harma.koia
occupies an important place in the history of the
Sarvd,stivdda Abhidharma literaturo. (2\
It is
related to the rise of fndian lVlah6ydna thought.
(3) It has a spoci al moani ng as a of
tho fundamontal doctrinos of Buddhism.
With rogard to the first point it may bo said,
(aJ that tho AbhidharmakoAo-id,stra,
systematised tho Sarvd,stivdda dogma
(a) tfrai
it marked an advanco in Sarvestivdda doetrine;
and (c), that it introduced Sauir6ntika views.
As mentionod earlier. the dogmas of the Sarves-
tivida sehool woro given a definite form in the
JfirTnaprasthdna, but the systematisation wae
not yet eomplete. Tho, too, though
it &'as so voluminolrs a,g to coutgin almost, evorv
doebrine amd therory. w&s itself not a s.r'stenratic
treatise. The first work thon which systernati-"ed
the teachings of Sarvirstivir.da school was tlie
Abhi dharrrrah,y d,a
a,' t he A bhi ,l harmok o i a fol l ou' od
tha Ilrtlu;11o
closely brrt, it rea,r,'angecl tire
cubj ar:t rnnfl nr of i ho ti rd,uaa and added to i t,
whi l e i t u' i l g not so mrrch a cre&Li vg rvork or a no\v
philoaoplry, in $t)rrto plrr,ces Llte author expresserr
iris owrr hermeneutic viowg, c,g,, in tho interpre-
tation of tlrn
theory and tire
mt,orprotuti'rfi c,f tho thoory of t]re Lsn lcarmu-
Thi e g;rrrrri l l i y f' ol krrn' rg f,l i e orthodox doetri ne
,rf tlie $arr,rist,ir"rrr]irr .4i-tst,rlr, yer" at' tirnog it,
i l rr,tcs l ' rorrr i L, eri ti ei si ng SarvA,sti vdcl a doctri ne
r.rvort:ly. Tn thig work 1.he &Ltthor pref'ers refl,sou
to tradi ti on i n the treatment of hi s srrbj ocb-matter'
llis views an prapti and niltdtla-sa,bhagu, on the
i ntorrnodi ary trxi stence between death and rebi rth,
orr aui.ifiupti-karme,, testify to this fact. In his
r--.xposi ti on of the ahove-mernti oned doctri nos \zasu-
franclfru always tor-rk the Sautrd,ntiku standpoint.
is a, very significant fact, for Saut,rint,iha
phi l osophy i s the hal f-way houso betrveen Sarvas-
ti vads phi l osoph.y and MdhS,yana Buddi ri sm.
I ss, r r I , ' ul i AH, r sHr .
Ths &uthor' s atti tude of rel yi ng sol ol y upon
reasorr, irrospectivo of t'lie established dogrnas,
is evcn moro rnanifest in the Bltd,pyo of this sirstra.
Irr tiro kariku portions ho eittror uses tho phrase,
" ft i s sai d so " t,o express hi s di gsat,i sfacti on
wi th
tix. tlreories of the Xlah,ri,uibhd.sri, or only poinls
or-it some questions.hle points in * rather resorvocl
m&nner. anrl then c(inchrdes in corrforrnity u'ith
the Mshauittfulsa convention. Ihe brevity of his
staLerrierr.t,s oft,en obseuros hig re&l interlt. It is in the
Bhasya tirat, he begins to gi"'e flrll expr:essi.on 1,o his
orr'n opinions, frequently alluding; to tiro thoories
of the Sautranti ku, school and maki ng reptatecl
di scussi ons ou therr rrnti l the ri ght or wrong of a
p roposi ti on i s posi ti vel y cl ari fi od. IIe oven tl r oro u
ghl v
eri ti ci sc+s tho t,trcory of the
strbstanti al i ty of the
ti ' rrr:n ti mos, i .e.. the past, i ho preeent, and tho
i ' .rturo ", v' hi ch wa,s tho most fundament,al posi ti on
of t,hro .Xlahuuiblulsd helcl by the Sarvi,sbiv6,dins.
IIe onl y rorrrari i s at the end. " Tho f)harma-natrrre
l j verv prol i .ntnd ", so that, one shoul d not eonsi der
anv ol d theory as unterrabi e
j ust hecauso i t i s
,.1 i }-ri ous and harrl to understand. (Seo the fi fth
.ni l pter
of the 6d,stra). Theso rvords i mpl y that the
i -' l l orvers of the Xl ahuui bhasri onl y adhored to oi d
ti .pori es, regardl oss of thei r correctness or error,
.nd that i t rvas neodl ess to refer to the fal l i bi l i ty
-i tho establ i si rment of thei r theori es. But Vasu-
:randhu did not accept tho theories of the Sautran-
' -rxa
school i n tctto, though ho hi ghl y esteemecl then'
i f i s atti tude towards them was of one who ci epended
,rn re{tson al one. For i nstanco, i a anal ysi ng the
:alsehr,'od anci roality of the threo kinds of dharma,
:.e., akand.hfi, dyalan'o and d'ltitu, the SautrS,niika
s:hooi said that only the dhd,tus aro real, but
\-asubandhu held that ttro d'yatanas a,ro &lso real,
::rply-ing his respect to the theory that "
tho twelve anas i ncl ude al l dharmas ". &s oxporui ded i n
i he sfi tras. As rcgards the aspoct of separato
d,lLttrntu-iq,klstzf os', sucir as gcnoral
mental frtnct,ions,
i .c., cl esi ro, &c., i gnoranc:e, tho root of l i fe, and
so forth. rvhi ch ti re $sutrtnti l <a school hol cl to be
fal se, Vasubandhu atl vocal od th.l t thev are roal
i n a,ccordari ce wi th the proposi ti ons of t,he Sarvds.
ti v&da school .
Li i Cr r ' uxr ; ,
The two mai n phi l osophi cal systerns of fndi au
l\{ahaydna Buddhism aro the I\{adhvamika p}rilo-
sophy of N.rg6,rjuna and his follov'ers, and the
Vi j i rapti matra phi l osophy of Asi rri ga. \-asubandhu.
and others. Tho former is based on the radical
criticisrn of Hinay6na teaching, mainl5- the Sarvd,s-
tivd,din cloct"rinei
and the lat,t,er i,r esr,al,rlishc.d cn
the }Iahi yfr,ni st modi fi eati on of tho Sarvasti vEdn
philosophy. fn order to give & new irnpertrrs to
Buddhi srn, 1\[ah6,ydni sts had to eonfront Sarvds-
ti vddr:. phi l osophv, cornpete *-i th i t and surpass i t.
Sarvfr,stir'5da philosophy, theirefbre, liad a,n
i rnportant boari .ng on tho ri so of l l trhAvnna thought.
And t,hi s {dstra, whi ch courpl etel .r, svsterrrati sed
the Sarv;.sl ,i r,grl a
l rhi l osophr,,
ot:r:rrpi od &n
i mpor t anb pi ace r n t he dovel opni eni of Ma, hr l yEne
ttrought. ft' ma1' be menti one<l herre. that, there i s
& very cl ose rel ati on betrveen \ri j rl apti matra phi l o-
scpl i y a,rrd the Abhi cl harmako6a svstem. fn reeent
tlre vierv has been put forrvard tha,t \tasu-
bandhu. tl ro author of tho Abh,i dharmakoi cr,-i cl stra,
i s not the samo as the reprrted AcErya of \ri j frap-
ti md,tra phi l osophy. Yet, the unrl eni abl e fact
remains that this Srrstra, which deviates from
tl re orthodox teachi ng of tho Sarvasti vadi ns and
i s deepl y ti nged wi th Sautrfr,nta doctri no, sorvei d
a,s an i ntrodi rcti on to or a, forerunner of \ri j i rap-
ti mi r.tra phi l osophV. Ws al so note that most of tho
Indian cornment&tors of t,his Jl^stra u'ere lrijflap-
timatra schclars.
Tho hi story of Rurl <i hi sm i n fndi a, Chi na, and
in Ja,pu,n showg that irr all these eountries tho
,l bl i rl hul tnuko{a has been usod as ti re
pri mer
Ii utl <l hi srn. In
(l hi nn
anrl osJroci al l y i ;r
j apan
Agrl rn,,. rr,nd ti i o Abl i i rl harrna l racl l ong been
nt-gl i :ctecl ; these brvo branches of Brrtl dl ri sm were
resi l rrl t,rl i rr tl reso counl ,ri es as bel ongi ng to H-i na-
.r' a,rra
thougi rt, and
toachi ng. In spi te <;f thi s,
t,l ro ,{ bl ti tl ,h,urnwkoi a,
t,}re Bor:k of Intel l i goneo ",
x' as r:onsi derod to l >o thc treal ;i se whi r,:h toaches the
furrtiamonta,l cloctrines of lluddhisrn.
of the Sai stra was, t,i rerel bre, recornrnentl ed a,g a
nocessu,ry mea,ns for l .urni ng frorn Il i navai -re to
]Iahi r\.r1nrr, strrtl i es. l ' l ttrrr-. i s i r' l so a prr;r' erhi ' l l sayi ng
among Ji l prrnese l 3Lrddhi st stuci erl ts :
ti rree
r - ea, r s
r , , f I ' i . i i t a: . t i t t t , i t r n ar uI ei gl r t yer r r s of . { bl i r , -
f i , . t 1or nt al ; ol o ", - r , ccor di ng t o t l . i i s savi ng of t ho
pr escr i l r , ' , r l per i od
of cl even r - ' r ar s f or t he st udv of
i l ui l cl hi *m. ' e, i ' : ht \ - . ' ar s ar e
' t o
be cl evot ecl t o t ho
sLudr ' , r i t he Abh' i dhr t r nt al : osu.
Hi st or y of t he St udy ol t he 6et t . u. Among t ho
comrnentruies of tLrc AbhirllLd,rnwkoia-6d,stro which
are consi derod i ost are those of Vasumi tra and
Gunamati . Thi s shows that the 6d,stra was studi ed
not onl.v* as a book of the SarvS,stir'Eda school,
but also a,s a kind of general introduction to
Buddhi sm. I-tsi ng, ths Chi neso pi i gti m who wont
t o l ni . l i a &t t he end of t he ?t h cerrt , ury ancl sl , udi ed
i rr t he Budci l ri st r-ol l ege at . Nal arrt l i i , t ei l s rrs i n hi s
i t , i nera, rv Lhat i n t , l re Brr, l t l hi st col l cgos and rrronas-
t ori es of l rrct i u oi , t ] i cse
. Jays,
st ' . ri l ent s whl had
crrnrl Ji et e, : l t he f i r, sr rt age of r: l url y, i . e. , Sa, nEkri t
gr&rrt rrri nr nl r(l
. . ' crrrposi t . i orr,
l rrr, d t ri pror: eer-i next
t o t l i e st r r t l . y af l t et u- t : i ' 1y4, l ogi e ant l t he st r r dy of
- 4hhi di ot r i nakoi * . l r r t l r e l anr i ' r i st , monr r st { r r l r r s of
moel g, rrr Ti i ret , ari , . l l l ongol i rl , rvhi ei r are est at rl i sht nd
on t l r $ i i nes of t he Nal ar r t l i r : ol i ege of l sl , er I ndi an
I Jr r i l r i l r i sr i r , i he, 4 l ; i zi r l her mkoi a- i dst r a i s r eckol ed.
al rxrg rvi t i r l f ni Lreva, "s, 4bl t i , sant a, l l d, I a, "t i i drct and
Lltrnclralrirt,r' s lVdrJh.y,ttttttuatrira, {as or.r(r of
pri rre i pal rr"cat i ses *' hi r: l r st udont s shorrl d st ri (l y.
' f' hct
Abhirl.h,arnm.A' .ela-iistrq wes int,rrrdrrcecl into
Ll hi rrl . i ru 5{j 4 l L. C, rvhru rt was t ransl a, i erl b1- Chi n t i
(Fi -"-f f ). I i . y t hi s 1i nro, ot hoi r t re&t i ses of t l i e Ss. rr' ; i s-
t i vrrrl a Ecl ro()l (sri r: l r i r, s t l w J i ' Ldnaprust h, ci rn, i be
A b I t irl li s,r ti ta
h,r d y u, i,b,: M ol t tiu i tlhas d' t h acl ah' eadv
been t ransl at et l i ri i o Cl rrnesc, l , nd t hcro \ l ' as
al reu, , . i l ' a scl i ool knol vn as t he Pi -t ' u, n-t sung- (g&f i -),
or t he Abhi dh. r, rm&, school . f et , af t er
()h' ; u-t i ,
Lhs Abh, i t l hart ndkol u beearne t l re sol o subi eci ; of
etudy and tlie otiier -:reatises
-ri' oro
puf osiri6. .^\s a
resul t , t l i erc &rose t he Ci ri i -si r6-t sung
1f {f ; -' : f ; ; ,
t he l t oi a scl rool . Sorno 90 vears af t er Uhr3n-ri ,
.l{siian-ts{r,ug nriide & r}e\\' tra,nsltltion of t,he itrstra.
Bosi rf es t hs Abk' i d, kurt , t ak, ri a-sdst ru, l f s, -i a, n-t song
t,ran-slatecl rnoro tharr 40O voluxncs of tlie Srr,rr' 5,s-
t , i r. dda t roat i ses, i ncl ut l i ng a, rl e\ v r-ersi on of f he
Jitdti,oprastitdna., a, cornplcbe version of tlie 200
vol urned Mah, Cai bhaRrl . &c. l i i s pupi l s, Shon-t i
(fr*#), P' u-kua,ng (*)Ct, a,nci Fa-pro (fl ffi ),
wrote & wel l -knowi l corrrmentary i o rhc now
Chi ncse versi on of the Abi ri dharmqfuc;srt-;i ti stra"
These fol l owers of tho Hsi i an-tsang school ai s<r
cri ti ci sed severol y tl i e oi d vcrsi on oi Chdrr-ti l br i ts
i naccuracv. Si rrce then ffsri :r,n-tsang' s neu' versi on
becamo the on[5' text thai rvas strrdi ecl . Someti rne
l ater Yi i an-hrri
(Hfi F)
w' rote tho Chi .t-sh6,-l u,n-
su,nq-shu (ttr€;,ftffiDfi), a commontarv to the
Abhi dharnruko,i a-kdrt.hci , expl ai ni ng i n a si mpi e
rr&nner the teachitrqs of the Abhidlmrrno.koia.
Yi i al -hui ' s comrnentary i s a very useful text.
ft sen'es &s &n easy a,ppro*ch to the studv oi'the
Abh' i dl mrtnakosa-,4dstra. Several sub-commentari os
to Yi i an-hui ' s cornrnenttl rv were a,l so u.' ri tten,
Thtr studl' of the Abhidinrtr'af,'cJa w.'s irrt'o-
ducerl to Japan try tho scholals w'ho went, to []liirra
j apan
i n the 7th eentrrrv to l earr l l uddhi sm
under Tfsrran-tsang' s rj i rec-t pupi i s. l ' rom ti re
Il oi an to the l (amakura
peri od.
the studv of tho
A6stra u,&s pursuerl i n i l ru p;reat ternpi es, the
Todai -j i at Nara, l l nryaku-j i orr IIt. Hi ei , and
Konrobu-j i on l \{t. Kd;' e. Chi nkai (!}.ffi ) and
(lfltr;) ll-ero a,mong the most f'amoug
sehol ars of the peri od. In the Tokugawa peri od
the strrdy of the Sdstra was carri ed orr i n
monastori t:s and teachi ng i nsti tuti ons bel ongi ng to
di fferent
Budri hi sl school s and. sects. Amons
the r*' cl l -known schol ars <,f t.he Tokusag' a
pori ocl
are Kai d6 (RE),
Hocl 6 (i ffti l ), tr' u-j aktr
' ($ffi )
and Kai ou (i trffi ). These schol ars, not bei ng content
wi tl r the mere study of Hsri an-tsang' s vr.rsi on
of the Abhidhq,rmql;oia-3d.stra. proceeded to compare
i t' wi th the ol der versi on of tho 6d,stra by Ch0n-ti
and theroby made & nev contribution towarde
t he st udy of t he ' d' st r a'
r ssl r Fur sdHASHr .
Rr nr , i ocRApl r y : I { i nur a. T: A St ud, y . I t l r c
- l bi t i d. i t o, rnq,
i d. s t r a, r' evi sed ecl i t , i on, Tokyo. 1 93 7. pp.
959-: i J+. ! ' u-i caura, S. : -' l n I nt t ' oi l i i . et i ot r, t a t l t , e , 9t | dy
oJ t l t , a Abl t i dharmakol a, Kvot o. l {f , i 1l . Ouyang Chi en :
l' re,fatc to tlrc Abli,ttl,hartnako6a-td,stra, i\anking,
199{. Takakrr. $u. , J' . : , The Esseri , t i al s of Bu, ddl i st
Phi , l oso1' hy, l Jorni rav, t t ). -rf i .
1i p.
Bi l i l i o, l "rt phi cul J-at es. '
' l ' l re
t i rst , (. h: , -l rt {' r $ t . he Spl t ul drt hi i
has been prrbl i . ri rcd b; ' 7, evi and St t : herbat sky. The f l rst l i nl f of
i l t e secr; rrci cha, 1-rt r: r i urs been pi i bl i sheri by Wogi i rara and
St cher: brrt sk-t , arrd t l re t hi rd cl ri rpt er by L. i l e l : r Yal l de I ' onssi n.
' Jllre
l' ull te-rt i;f Llrc Sphtttii:tl:ri rvas uuiriisired by \l' ogihrira
(1t )32-3(i ). Tl ri re i g a, l si , arrot hcr edi t i c' r^ of rhe Sphut art l f i , ,
cori t i i i i ri ng t l l e i i rsi t l rrl e ci i : rl _rt ers cn! 1' " prrt ri i shet l by N. N,
Ll rv rrt 1t ! . . 1i ).
' [ ' l i e
Sani kri t ori gi nal s of t i rr:
, ui hcr
t wo r] ut nrrren-
t gri es i rar-e ! ()t bc, , j n recol t rcJ. . AI l t l rrce rrof urne: l i . ari es are.
hot t e\ . ' er, l i . rLi ri d l rr J i Lret arr. i ' urt i rernrorc. a l i l l gt nent of
t l re Cl ri nt ; e r-ersi (' l i <, t ' t ha 7' i t t l Dd. i t hd a, . r, f l l l so a pai l o[ an
l i i gl rri r versi ui i i ra. ! e i re(j u recel f l l ' di scovercd.
Of t i re t ext s ni eut roncd a(; cl ' e,
t , ke
l i d, ri l : d l ras been t ral sl at i : ri
' I eramot o,
i ut , o . l t 1; l \ nur{r t i Dnr t . l t e
' l l j bct at r
l ersi on. auct
LI' ,e I' utlUul;ttbt,i.ien\(I i-r; Slcirrrh;ri.sik1' f unt tlir: Tilx' tari inttr
Engl i si r.
' f i rs
cl rt i re S[ -qt ra l r. : . s Lr, rerr t ri l nsl u, t erl L, y de ] ; . u Tai i 4e
l oussi rr l r t , o I ' rei rch. f bl l or. vi l g t l sl i an-t "sa ug' r Ci ri nese r"ersi ori
(i n ccnt pt ri son al srr wi t l r Ch€ut i ' s Ol i i nese ver: j ! ()! 1, t hc
' l ' i i l et rn
versiori, arrd the ilphulti,rtiiii {-r(lilrneut"ary}.
' [.tre
lirst chapter of
..tpnirldrllrd rolulrrr:ntary has becl triursiatetl by \Vr,Lliliara,
f rom t l re S: rnskri l ori si nal i rrt o . f ur; l l est : . I ' i re sec6nd ci i apt er
' -rf
t ne s: t l ne t cxi l r; rs t re. ' n rendcri d by L' . \ 1-o{i }rarg art ri S.
Yat naguchi f rorrr t l re Sansknt , i nt o Jayl rrrt se. -1rrt l , t i nrrl l : ' ,
the litrrd r' hapter of t,hs Ahhidh0,rtwko(a-(dslra and the co*es-
chap[er of t,tre Si;iiuldrtitd, beerr translated bf.
Yanrl guchi ant l l ' unahashi i nt o Japi t l cse. f i om t he Sanskri r
ori gi nal .
As a result of scierttiffc researcheg cilrrir:tl out in more
recent years on Lhe :{bhidhannukafu-idstra in Ildra, Jirparr
ancl i n l l uropc, several nery edi i i ori s aud t ransl at i ons of t i t e
t ext l t ave been puLi l i si i et l .
, \ r: ronq t hel rr l l rc l l oseuberg' s
lXc Problene
Buldhir' fiscirr:rr I' hilttsttphie. Stcherbut,sky' s
Cenlral Cottceptiott ol J;taldliisnt, de la Vallee l,orrssin' s
Ltt ]Ioru,Ie hc' iu.hlhiqtu, irrrri .L l.runalrash.i' s
no lienkau
(St ut l i es on I r, arrrra). A
(l ont pi ei -, e
corrcordauce of Hsi i an-bsang' s
Chinese versiot of Lire sristra rvag marie bv $, Funahashi and
I . . b' urrahi . . si ri . ani l a c()t rcl : re cci l cord. i i rni e r. rf t i t e Sauskri r
I{driktT was rrtird{, b1, .t. I3areau. Aurong iotroducfqll' $' q11s
to the studlt of tlre slrstrr written in Joparrcse are those b:,'
S. l ' unahasi ri , I ' l kl gi and -F] ukauni . (I .
l ' . )
t he f ol l orvi ng i s a l i st of t l i c Ti het an t ransl rt i ons of t he
Abhidhurmaltoia-Sdsl.ra antl itg cornmeutaries: fi\ Chos mhon-
pafti mdsod-kai tshtg lefuur-byot-pa (Abhidharnako9akdrik&),
trsl. by' Jrnamitri an,i l)pal brlsegi Rak$rue. r,2) Chos mion-pal.ti
' ;ndsod-ka
t btud-pa ( Ab hid.lnrmelosabh tip
uu), i0 fa scieulesl by
thc same iranslatnrs o1' the previous
ryork, (3) L' ioa ntnon-pafti
mdtul- ]at i bsknt.-bcoe' kyi tshig-lcku,r byas-pa$i' rn um-pai bfuI
(Sait ghabhadra' s Ab hiti,har i' rutsum,ay uprad,irrifta:), 4,500 Slokan
arr unkrrown tritns:lator.
Akas m,hr.n-pahi mdsod,-kui
gnad -bV
i sgroTt.-?na (Di nn:rga's llI a.rmapradipa), 4,000
3lokas, trsl. b-r' Rnal-l.rbyor zla-ba and l.Ija.rn-l.rpal gshon-nu.
(5\ Chns miLon-puhi mdsul-A' yi. rgua-chcr hqrt' l-pa don-gAi de-kho-
na-i i d, (SLhi rarnat i ' s 1' ut l t qrt hd. \ , t rsl . by Sha-l u 1, 6t si ba cl : r, n-
po and Dharmap6labhar-lrn. (6) Chos tnit,n-pahi rndaul-hy{
{ad, mls han- fi.i.d.- Lg i r
e s- su. hbrafi
( P'irn avardhana's
Lokpa4frw+sdrini), 1d,(.|00 Stokas;
by Kanaliavarma and
Ni-ma grags. (Tliere is au abridged version abstracterl by
Mchime yon-tnl hbar.) (7) Chos nnon-pafi.i nulsotl-kyi
biad don gaal-bu, (Yafornitra' g
SphQirtl,i\, 18,000 ilokas, trsl.
lry ViSrrdd hasi
and I)pa l-brlsegs, ( 8) Cios rrt rt o n-palti md *uJ-
kyi ,
f i . grel -l , i , ul
i *-bar- mkho-ba t Si nt i st i radeva' s Updui kA),
trsl. hv Ja)-aSri and Ses-rsb
[rod-zer. All ihese trans]atiolg
are collccted in the Tilretan Tengyur,
There is a French versir;n, known as L' Abloidhurmaktia da
Yasubandhu, translated by L. de la \rallde Poussin in 6 VoIs.
and publ i shed i u Pari r, 1-q23-31.
Ilef<rre the intrcxluction of tlie Abhi.d,harnako(a inlo Cirina.
lJrrddhist schoiarg whc studied tho Alrhidharnul, or
thc Ohinese -tbhidharma inaeters, held the SaryVuktdbhiriharma-
hfdaya :rs their chiet' text, and so they were also known as
rrrasters of the SarnUuktabhidhantwhrdalta. After the -{bli-
d,lwrmahoia was translated into t,he Ctrinege, they gradually
took up this work as their priucipal text for study ald hence
the arising of Ko6a rnastere. They also wroie a number of
commentaries on it. At first, rvhen ?aramlrt,ha u' as translating
this eistra, he erpounded c' n if repeatedly frtr thogs who
participated in the translatior work, so as to meke tbe
tranelaced vergion clear and correct in meaning.
Thereupon, Ilui-k'ai wrot€ the TluoretbaL Commanlary
iu 53 fascicuies. Aftenvards, Tao-yao obtained the
maDuBcripts of this comrnerrtary afi,er Hui-k' ai' s tloath
ar: d abri dget l i f i nt o 22 f asci cul rs. St i l i i at er, Hui -chi ng
according to his own understa.nding, wrote a coqlqtentary
on the $dstra io rnore than 30 fascicules- All tirese lvere
imporiarlt, writings, truL noue of llteln is now extani. -t\fter
produced ltis ttew versiolr of the Srlstra, it rvils
hi ghl y est eemed by t i re schcl ars of hi s t i me, as i t i nt crpret et l
th6 hhurmnlaltp.zqias in a brief but' colnlllete tna,trtier attd
could be used as a preliminary text ftrr the stuciy ot' the
Vijfiaptimatra theories. Tltus titc stutly ot' the nerv itistra
carrre i nt <r vogue, I I nny of I {suan-t sane' $ di sei pl es $' rot e
conrmentaries on the new version of the ' ltitidharm.akofu,
t he t l rree mocL f amou, e ones hei rrg Shen-l ' ai ' s Conmen-
laril, l"u-kul,ng,' s Secord' a::.tL b' a-pao' s Lirinrmetiary, each
r: ; f t l t r=: nt i n 30 f , r: ri errl es. Al l t . l rcsr: are ext . at t t , l t orv (except
lilrirr-t' ai' s
of rvlriclr onlY tr few ftgcicrrlc:.r are
l rrr: servrd; . r\ f t ern' arcJ: i rl uri rrg t l re i i ' ; ri -yi i ; l u pet i t )d (ci rca
; ' : 2-727 A. f j . ), Yi i ari -l rui rruri i e abri t l grnrr: nt s f ront t ho
c: rnrrnent ari es rvri t l err b. r. P' u-kt r; rt i g art d l ' n-pao, r' rrl : "' t o
erplaiit Ll' n' . KiirlkE (elso thc slokng in the ninth chapler on
t f i i : Ref ut l t . i orr o1 t he
(i rasp
of Eeo), rvhi r: h
t,rrured lllq
On lhe Abhidharntakola-kiiri,kd. itr
i{0 t;ncicules. It rv:rg cutrt:ise artti easy
' ,rr
sturly arid \,r<ls
a vrr: ' Jropnl l rl rvor! . t at er, {l }r' urrg i rvrot c t he rVol er o. f Cl t i . n-
4t ra t rr l {. 1 f i rgct i ' t rl eg, f cr t ht : ex; t osi t i ort of t , l ri s
(: onrnl ent l r! ' ,
but i i i s rrox l usl . Ol rl y l i r. t i -l i t t i ' s' i ' l t cort t i cnl t t i ot ea orl ! he
t' o, ul lhe I{drikat in 6 f*scicrtles, and
' Iun-liu' *t
oj t Le Comnt ent ary ol t he Kuri ki i i l 1? {asci cul es arest i l l ext ant -
-{mc, ng f i re l ost execet i c rvorks t here were l i ' rrei -chi ' s ] {ot s
r, i l t R' -l bhi dharmal , : osu-: uI sl ru i u I 0 f ; rscl cul es. I f uai -su' s
o t i l n t ent a rl t i n 15 f a. ' ; <: r cul es, Sl 16n-ct r' i ' ng' s' 1' heoret i t al N d e s t rr
s f erv f asci cul es, Hsi i an-. t r, r' s rVol r. s oJ Chi n-ht n i n 20 f rrsci -
c r t l es, &c.
I n t l i e l -i bet an regi orr. Ji nat rt i i ra, who t rarrsi i rt , : rl t l re
. l bht i l hur nal coi a-l dst ' ra dt rri n g
l i re l i . ri t t t er peri od of pf ()paqi I -
t i , j r r . 1vi r 8 r r gr ant i di sci pl e cl ' St , bi r i r nur t i . As or r e wl r r - r i r t r l
r, . (ei vel I t hi s si st ra l i <l nr a ri gi rt sol ! rce, l i e wOrkcd t ' nrrrget i -
r: ri l l r f or i t s
Jrrot t t ot i on,
' t i t e
t r: rt l i t i t )t t
yl as
suf i l )r' rrdet l f or l rort t , ' -
I i r r r e wher r t l r e ni l er Gl at i r i l r - t na dest r oyer l l i t r t l dhi sr r r i r r
1-rbet . l )rrrru* t he l at , . rr peri od r. rf prouagrr, t i ot t of l l rrri di ri -nr i n
-[ i bet . i t , was Mchi ms I J
j aur-rl byans
crf t he Snar-t hari nrorrast crl
a di sci pl e of l l chi rns
' I hanrs-cad
t ri kt rcn-po r, f t t re I l kal . r-gri ams-
l )i ! scct , rvi ro f i t l l y devel opecl t l t e st rrrl y of l hi s Sri st ra at t he
rnrl cf t he l 3t l r cenf -l uy A. Ll . , and cornposed t l t e
(l hns
t nnon-
pui,i rn,lsorl-kvi, I.lgrel-bo, mion.-pafi.t r0!/4r, it\ u-hich lte rrr:rrlc
! i i orort gh and di scri t ni t t at -i ve exarni nat i orrs r-rf
t "l i e
vi crvs l r; , rl rl
by ol d nrast ers ol r t l ri s sl i sl r: r and t i rus est abl i si rr, : d t l re ! i nal
s_v-st enr of t , bi s st udl ' . Af t crwurds, t he I )gc-l rrg. . s-pa s, : r. : t . l ai t l
rven nl ()i e enrphasi s on t he st rrrl r. of t l ri s $i rst ra and
J-i ut
i t
as t , l i e i i rri ri i t ct n i rr t he curri ct t l urn of exr. rt rri c l l rrrl dhi srrr.
t ; uddhi si nrost ers of sr: r: cessI vc gcnerl f i orrs, such ai L)gr-' -
i ; dun grrrb,
I i s<. rt i -ni t t t t s
qt i rq$-pa,
I )kon-rrrt ' l : og chos-hl i hal ,
Rs) ' ai - ha l r i n- pa, I . l j l r n- <l bl ai r s bsh: r d- pr r , &r : . , l r l ve al l
x ri t t en errDl i t Jri LLorv works
' r-rrr
t l re , l bl t i l l h. urni ul ' o. (a t o be
. -1. r, -i i eri i rrrt l l ' ol l owct l by srt i t l t rt t s.
)f i rrt ' ot er, t i re st t t dy of t ' ! t c . {Dl i t l l : . ut t rt uk, t i d, }r: rs aLrrr }rcc' n
sFrl p()pul t r i u . I upi ru. -{s t ar i r: y: k us t l re
' l ' "l t t rg
(i } r)ast v
I i t l rarrese t l onk schol ars, l )i -rsl r0, [ ' l ri t su, C' l ri t l rt -srt : rnrl
(i rt rbd
l ' ri t d cornL: t o Chi na ot t e af t er t hc ot her t . o st rt dy Lt t e, l bhi t l har-
n, , t koi t t l -rom I l si i ari -t sarrg ent l
(l l ri h-cl r, rt r.
^{f -t er
l et ur; ri nrI l rr-rrns, ; 6at t at t gl t t , i t , t () ' l api t nesc st u(l cl rt s rr, t t ri cst ab-
l t sher l t he KoSa sect . Al t l r . t t r qh t hi s sect was l at cr af l i l i ai ed
! o i l i e I )l ! i i rrnal akgar. ra set : t , t hi s 3i i st rrr was st i l t ! ri gl rl y es' reemed
, ! s a f ul r(l l rrrt : rrt zrl t exL t l i l rt I rrrt sb
t . r, -:
st udi cd. JI : rn! scl rr-rl arg
' *
rot e c()n)rnrt rt ari es ort i t .
' I ' l re
rvor-ks of scl rol ars of l at et ! i nt es,
. , r ci r
as t l el shi n, C| i r r kai , Sl r usl r i r , Shr j - o. ' l al i - e, t r ' uj aku,
Ri nj o Hodn. Kyokugi t . &c. , r t r e of t er i user l t ' v sci r ol l r s f r j r
: i t urerrce i rr t l re st udy ct | ' Ll rc , l i ' hi Li l Lt nnakol a. ( L. C. )
AB Hr DHARMA- KOSA- t 3As r nA- ) KARr XA,
Ei l i . f f i E{ Rf , =; f t Am, 1- p' i , - t t r - t t t o- : l ' , i l - . , l t i - I t ut -
pc | ! -
: ) nt q, r est , or od. Sanskr i t t i l l e of t ho Chi nese
r r nnsl &t i on bv Hsi j an- l sang of a wor k by \ r asu-
t , anri l rt r. f t consi st s of 8 cl i a, pt en; i rr 2 f ' asr: i c: ui cs
r r ur ni ng i r r t , o 53 pages ( Nar r j i o. No. l 2i 0
- \ c , s . l : l t i 7 and 1269: cP. al so' f akakusu i n J PT, c.
i 9t J 4- i J , pp. 132 3) .
' f hi s
i s a, col i ec t ' i on of 600
r r i nci Jr r r . l ar xl 7 addr t i onai \ ' er ses expl ai r r er l i n
r i r e - 4\ - t hi dl ar r no, - koi u- ! <l st r o anr l t i r t t ' l bl t i r i l t ur r r i t L-
, : osa-bl ut sya.
A$VA, a t . rr: a, t i se b1' t he <-rrt , l rorl ox t eacher Srrnqha-
bl r adr a i r r r el ' ut at i or r oi ' r i i r , l bl t * ! l t ar nt a- koi cr . . Si st r a
of VasuL-' t rnci i ru. I ' i ri s *' ol k i s i ret t . er knorvn a-q t he
A b I i iC ho r t t,, t
k o ! a
t t t e t
-' l
) rrt di j ) i A' tl i tist rq ( Ilareau;
SI t (. rTS OI . ' I TAI I , LY BLrI l DHl Sl l . s. v. Si rrvi "-rt i -
v r r t l r i r s) .
ABHI DHARMAKOSA S0HOOL. gr : r r t , r al l y kr r ou- r r
as l i o3a St ' hooi . Set r K[ 51- 11.
RI NI -NAMA i s t l ru ns, nre r-r1' a t e-rL wl i i c' l r cxi r: t s i n
' l ' i bct arr
onl y, t r. nd appc&rs i rs such i n
' I ' engyur,
-}l non-1rt r, (vol s, Ct r an(l
(Jl ri r,
f ol i os I br-34i r, 7 a, ncl
f ' ol r <: s I br - 322i r , ? r ' espect i vel , v ol ' t ho Sr l c- dge edi t i on) .
' f l rt '
i t ut i rorshi p i s i . t scri bt ' rl t o Phrr. rarrar' , l h*, -, u. , *
l i r r pi l
of ' St i r i r r r r r at i ar i cl t he t ci t r . l r cr ol . I i nami t r i l i i nd
Silt' rrd rrrbr:clh i. hr.rrrLrkav ilrlner atlcl P il
gr i t gs t r ansl at ' cr t i t i r l Lo I ' i bct ar r ( , \ .
( i .
I l aner j ee :
Sur t , d, , : l i ' uut -I o Li t e rut ure, p. 73 ).
l , er , 1 11 | , 11 1i t : r i st s r u
' l ' i l r t , t t r r r
t , r r l y, i r r r . , J
gI r l J ( ' i r r s
t r s
suci i i i r
' l
et r gr t r t . - \ l r r r . r r r
l l : t .
( r t ; i - . . J u, l i r i i os
i br
j 8?. i ; ,
i r r r r i \ r : . i . r l r a- l l r i - $, l i r ; o1' t l r e St l cr - , , l gr t
t ' r l i t i o r r , . ' i ' 1 , , - ' i r u t l r ( r r c , l ' r l u s \ r { ) r l i i t s Si i i - g r r r r s - l l , r r .
. Jat r r Sl r i t t r ct Sr , s- r ' i . r , i , : - l r ot l - zr l t l ' i r r r >; i at et l r t . i r r t o
' I i l i et ar i
( A. t ' . JJur r er j ct ' : , \ t r l r , r l nl i r ' t i t l l Li t er r t l t t r t : ,
p, i 3) .
- ( KOSA- )
f i AI l I A, t r, wol k l vi ri ch exi st s i rr l i l rt ' t a, n orrl ] ' , rrn(J
appea, r - c i i s I r u( r i r i u
' I . ' engyr r r ,
i l nor r - Pi i , ( l ' ol . Nr r ,
I ol i os 951r 1- : ) l a?, ol t , ho Sr t o- dge er l . ) . I t i s o col nr u( i n-
t a. r v
( ) r r
t l i e t t bl t i dhur r t t ukoi a, t l r e r . r ut hor l r ci ng
Di gr r agt ( l ' h1' ogs- kyi gl ur i - 1r o or I ' } hyogs. gl t r n) .
$j . r , r n- hp. r . l - f { zi r on- l i r r
l , r ' at i sl a, t ed i t i r r t o' I ' i l , , r : t i r n
(' \ . t j . l l i rt rri erj ee : Suruust i uuLkt Li l t : ru, t t rrc, yt .
"i l l i .
( ) r
Sput dr t t r r -
t r b h[ . cl hurt t ral : oi u
-. -
a uh] t yri , t I rt ' r rn rr] o o1' ). ' uSomi t ra' s
r . or nr r r er r t i r r yr or r l , l r e A bl t i : ! I i t t nr t uLuut o{ Vusubundhu.
' I ' hi r l
r +, cr l < r s, I br t ur r at t r l i ' ,
l - r r t r st ' r ' r
t , t l i r r t ho or i gi nal
Sanskr i r , . I t i s i r ot ext ar r t . i r r
( : i r i r r ese
l r r r b t hcr o
exi st s a' f i bet t i r r t r u, r r sl at i or r l r v Vi Sl r r - ki l r usi r nl r a
{ r r r d D1, i r l - l r r t scgs. wi r i c i r r en. l s
( ' l r r . r u
r nn, l r r - pr r hi
rnt l sod-kyr l . rgrel -b6ad
' z
((. )r. rrc{i er, [ I ] , p. 395
' l ] ] I .
N o . 4 0 3 ! 1 .
I ' l i o cornnrorrt a, rv oI ' l u, sonri t nr, l i rl l orvs t he st yl e
ol t l i o l l i r r cl u pl t i l us<- r l r i r er s nr r t l di scusst ' s t l r o
t l ut -' st , i ons rai sr: t l u' i t , l r rcl t rel rce t o t l reri r
i l hi l os, -i -
pl r i cal bear i ngs, i r uL supl r hes n( ) t ' r t t i or l i ' uer a I
r r l r : ul i i r r L: .
' l ' i r r :
u' or l i . i s di vi dcd i r r t o t i gl r t ci r apt er s
t : i r ci r cl l l ed t l : gsr t sl i r r i r . d- . r i , ( . r , pt aci e' . TI i o f i r st
cl r apt er opr l i s t vi t i r a, t i i . ; t ' t t s- i ot r , - i t t t l i r r i r r ni i , r - . , r dut , v,
r+-i rrcl r i s sui t i t o i rc <-. , 1 L \ t o l i rt rd"
-ct na
sd| raua,
I c; r ci r r r g Lt ) r r - br r t l l , ut Lt l i l i t ot i i ct ' er Lu. t r ul , u,
or t l t i r L * ' l r i r : l r t . f f t ' r ' t s er nzr i r ur l i i r t t on I l ' ot n t . i t e bor r d
, , , l mi r ndi r r r u exi . i t r ncL' . - f i r eu l bl l <l r v d, : scr i Dt i or - r s
t , l t l r t , i r , , t ' i r c st nLi CI l t or gi l r ) i
g' i r i t
l r cr . r i r i i i t r r t o
( ( r f l ) or ( - ' i r i t i
; t i r cst - ' I r i cl u( l e t he f i ve sel l : i ( ) r y
' [ ] r u
i i i . l Lwo l ( ( j sasr , ] l Anas i r avc bcen edi t ed by S. L[ vi
and St ci r r ' r St r l skY
( l Jl J. XXI ) .
: . f l Jr r r t l i r i l ,
p. 35
; A. C. I Ji l ncr j t ' e : Sur t ust i ut i du Li t r r ut ' r r e
p. 73 Naul i ct , P.
orgrns, eyes, €&r;, &c., and ce\/en de.srres
*ol l ectrvei y cal l etl tho u,dl t' ui tnti ka-dJtdtu.
' Ihe
secorid chtpter l,rerrts r-rf orgunie anr,l rnturtal
funclions (indriya), whrch are rochoneci sis bwenty-
t.*.o. The
trut,s of tlre clitt'erent orders
l rei rrgs rcsul ti rrg from carnu,l desi res (kuntadhutu\.
Thr: subj ei :t of' the {' ourth c}ra1,rtor i s t}rc rc,L-rti on
v' hi ch c;rrr aeti .;ns l rei l t to our I' uture l i {b, urrtl tho
{:orrer;Il on(l i ng good or evi l . sti r,l ,es t' xperi enced rn
tl rc eorrrso of corrl i ri ued exi sfenae (sutytsdra).
' Ihe
fiitlr describcs t,he puirr antl srr{ll'rinq (dz,hkha)
r esul t i ng f r or n st r cl t ct l t r Li nt r ed exi st , ' r r oo. ] ' ho
cixtlr ref'€rs to potrcefirl cc,utetrnpl*tior (sarufulh'i)
arrcl t,bu ru:r' l ui si Li on (surrtpddanu)
of penotra.ti rrg
i rrei gl rE (ui paSyurui ). l ho sovcnt,h trcats of. know-
iedge (jirurio) lvhich is <;f trvo kinds, orte uoridly
{Iauki ku}
rrrd i rrrpure (sdi ruuo), ari rl the other
trirrrsscndedal (lokoltora) and pwre (artuiraua) or
that whieir results li'om yoga ureditt-r,Lion. The
eiglrtlr explains sa,mdd,hi or concentration of tho
rnind (cittaikagraia) whereby all lronds of cxistelrce
&re dostroyed (uajroparnena santedh,ind mraayo-
anapr ahalw r4' kr tu art
On the v'hole, rt may be remarked tha: Ya6o-
mitra's glosses &re grammatica,lly correct and
nhi l osorJhi cal l v
accurate. l n hi s di cti on he fol l ows
ittu g"*io*atical scltool of Pd,lini. In his philosophy
he pursues the canonical s[tra texts and erpres;;ly
dengmi nates hi nsel f
' Sautr6nti ka' .
We do not
possess all the aubhorities on wrich he
relies. Nevertheless, Ya6omiLra's labours reproseut
that servico to llucidhism which rs rendered by
the pliilosophical treatises of tho Bri.hmuqras to
the Vedas which they cite at every step. Yasornitra
asgumes tho division of the Buddhist torts into
the I'hree Baskets. Il"e rel-ers fairly frequentl5r to
lost works. To the more eminent ol his authorities
prefi xes the eprthet Arya (nobl e), or Stl ra,vrra
(elder). Tho quotrrtions of Ya6ornitra are soroetimos
at other tirnes brief. They beat witness
to his immerrse reading and orthodoxy. The concord
the Tibetan and tho Sauskrit is uniquo.
Among the noteworthy oiders alluded to is ASv:ijrt
so often uret within the Str,ns}<r'it texts from Nepal.
Wo also como acrosa Dharrnatrdta anti. Budcihildeva.
we encourtter more froquenbly Gu4ramati
a1d his
disciple Vasumitra wht-r both preceded
as expositors of Vasubandhu's Abhiditar-
N_ext we notice Sa,righablradra, Bhada,nta
Arya Dharmagupttr, Acurya lflanora,tha
ond. Jlhadanta
are two or thrce titles of bool;s
se:em to bo of rron-Iluddtristic origiri, e.g., .ivir-
grn*ha-i d,.sJro, whi ch rras probabi ;,' a_ Jai nu rvork,
There is alscr an u,lhrsi<.rn to tlre t-*otarudriya of
Vyasa, no doubt a Brahmanical treo,tise. Arnong
the herotical sects mentioned by Ya6omitra
Pandaras,.Pi6upalas. and Kipdlikris. Iloreover, he
refutes the VaiSesikas" He admits that tLe Buddhists
rrere b1' no rne&ns agrered on a, nurnber of Cisputed
p5i l osophi cal questi ons. Thoso sshool s whi ch he
c,re. ml st often,ei ther l br the purpose of refutati on
i . .
i ]
". : : .
, j l rrd. Ut . , I I , pp. 3i 6
r i . ; t c. 201: t .
or l i rr enteri ng l ri s ei q-n <1o<,l rrrrri l protest, are the
Buci rl l ti sts of I{as}rrrri r an<1 Ueyl on a,rrrl tho Vhtsi -
putriyas. The Kii6miras a,re frecluerrtly mcntioned
and are sti g;rnati sed as outsi ders.
The method of YaSqmi tra does not l end i tscl f to
a. reeonstrucl .i on of tl re text of \rasul l rl ndhu,
hi s
os' n exFosi ti on bei ng so co-mi ngl ed v.i t.h tho words
of ttro aul .hor wi ronr he i nterprets. At tl re l owcst
cstimate Abhid|tarntulco:irz-uyakhyri is a corrrpiiation
of texl s and phi i osophi cal i nterpretati ons.
Ii one of
the subj ects he treats of i n hi s work i s exanri ned i n
a consecrrti ve rri el ,hod or i n a l cl gi cal mani rer. T' hey
:r,re al l mi xr.d up and th,: same matter i s di scussei
in scveral conncctions in the work. I'ho doctrine of
Lhe bool < i s mLni festl v that of tho most anci ent
schoeil of Iluddhism, lvhich u'as atheisiic.
Thus, the woik is of ppoat importance a,s B
repository of tho various metaphysicai thooriers of
tho earl y Budci hi sts. It takes up, one after a,nother,
the vi l ri ous topi cs whi ch engaged thei r attenbi on,
out their cira,rttcter, notices their authors,
decides upon their rnurit,s with great tact and
learning, a,nd forms altogetirer a vaiuable work of
reference on the subj cct.s
I ' , Ra, r apar ui A NA.
y AKHVA- r
6 As Tn A,
Sa,nslint reslorar.ion of the titlo of an carlier
Chi ncso transl ati on (.j i i 4-507) by f,aram6rtha
Vasubandl r t ' s AbI t i dht r nt et ko$a- i Gst r q, . , , Accor di ng
to the San-dai -zCr-nr.-rk-rol i , " says Nanj i o,
seventh chtr,racter of t.he Cirineso title is sometirnes
.left out. If so, i.rr-rth Sanskrit and Chinese tities
exactl v {l grce wi th each other, i .e., wi thout
' r - yahhy5"' .
l t r onsi st s of I chapt er s i n 22 f asci -
cul cs, anti runs i nto 6i 3 pages (Nanj i o.
1269, p.
l Jti T : al so Takakusu i :r JP' l ' 5. l g01-i g0i r.
p. l 3- ! , n. 71.
ABI I I DHARMA LI TERATURE. * I nt r oduct or y.
I,'rom the earliest tirnes there wero, {rmong momberg
of the Ruddhisb Order, expcrts called a,bhid.ham,ntiko
(d.bhidharntika) who spccialised in the study and
expoeition of Abhidharma. lu wa,s, however, during
the peri od of sectari an Bud,-l hi sm, i .e., a.fter ths
growth of various scirools that Alihidharma bocamo
& separrr,te bra,ncli of sf,urly wilh :l special literaturo
attached to i-r, elthough ihe prototyper of such
liieraturo was l,o be found evon earlier. Not all
schools, nevortheless, siror*'od tlie same onthusiasm
for the study and devolopment of Abhidh&rn&.
Iho llahasangtiikas, for exarnple, laggod behind
the others in this respcct,, although an examination
of tho texts of
various schools
each school liad its own Trtpigaka. (On this seb
The grorvth of Abhidharrrra studios and their
incr:rporrltion into booke cair bo divided,
Soroe cf irre inforuration given in this article also appeare
elsewhere, sometrrnes in more del,ail, under separato topicr
ag persons aud b,roks, herein itemrsed.
' Ihe
i r repeat ed here i a accordance wi l h i he
pri nci pl e
adopt ed i n
t hi s Eocyci opaedi a of nraki ng each arbrcl e, as f ar ag possi bi e,
P. !!.
Lileralure, pp. 3-5
pp. 279-286
L' Inde Cl.a$iqup,
rci r: ghl 1. , i ri t o t , l rrnei
l rl i ases.
l l l l re f i rst covers t i re
yreri orl of ori gi rri rl or
pri mi t i vo
I i rrrl dhi srn anrl
g. ' es bar: l i t ri t , l ro t , i me of t , ho l l rrrl dhai hi rnsci t ' .
Tl re eecorrrl rs 1; i re peri od el ur. i ng rl l ri ci r ' \ l i l ri dha, rma
bee* r r r e ; ; r r r i r r r l el i r , . l r r l t : nt r : ol l cr : t , r or r or yt i l uka,
, =l r. t a, , , 1red f rorrr l l rer t u-o ot l rr: r
7: i t ui ; us
of Sut t r ari d
t r: i n*ya. l ' hi s rvas t i i e pt : ri uri ' rf t l re c<-, rrrpi l i r, t i on of
t hn f i rndamr: nt al t erl s of t l re . l i . rl ri dl i arm& and
mt ry l rc i i ssi gne, . l cl rrorroi ci qi cal l y t o e-rt cncl l rom
rrborrt , t hr: mi rl ci i r: c, f t i re 3rcl cerrt rrr\ ' I i . C, ' . t o t he
i ri ' gi nni ng of - t ho Cl l rri sl i r. r, n cra, . f i ri s
! cri oci
roughl y
, . ' ai nci dcs r vi t i r t l r e r r €: r i t r r l o{ ' t ho r l i f f er er r r i abr t , n of
I - t r r r l r l hi st sul r r . r ol s,
' l ' l ro
t , i rrrrl peri ocl ri arv t i re product i on of
, ' ot rrt ncut nri . ers Lo f l re {urrrl i r, rnent u, l l , rooks arrd
rnanual s baged on t hom. , L' hi s peri orl va, ri e. s i n
ei i f 1ereut xcl roo] s brrt , roughl y sl l eri l i rng, 11, ext cnri erl
i rr. rm sbout , t l i e beqi nni ng of ' t , he Ll l rri st i l r, n orrr
t i l l about t he or r d of 1, l r o 5t . L cor r t , r r r \ ' , , \ . C. I Jr r l ,
of course, t l i o compi l t t t rorr of t ' ornrrrenl al i cs ancl
r r Bn us, l s novcf i r, ct uu, i l y' cea, sc+cl corrrl rl et ei l ' , espcr-: i i r, l i y
11 t he sout , hcl n scl i ool s of Pal i I Jucl Chi srn, and
i rr sonl e count ri es, l i i i o l l urrna, t , he procesd goorj on
er-en t odi i ; , ' .
Lel us r' t ow proccerl t o consi dcr i n grea, t or cl et ai l
: i : e t l i rt ' e pori oci s mcrrt i ort ed above.
I . Abhi dhar ma pr i or t o t he est abl i shment of t he
Abhi dhar ma Pi t aka. I ' ho doct r i r r o r vl r i ch t l r o Budcl l r a
renr: hed t o hi s di sci J; i os a, nd f ol l ol vers ci rrri ng
t i -e 4i r y()&r$ <l f l l i s caroer rrs t ea, (: her u' a; ; i i l t er
e, - i i t er l onr i col l ect ccl i nt o t l r . f our Aga, m, . s or t ho
T"i vt i , r* i l i a, ya, s i rnder l l i e t ' ol l ocf i ve ni rmc ol t hs
. , . t t o . Pi t aka. I n u- r l di t i on t o t l r cso \ r ' cr o t ho
( l i s-
cl r , l i nnr y nr l es enr l t odi ccl i n t he Vi nava, anr l eor l i f i r - ' d
r > t l r e i ' i n, nr t o Pi t r t l ; a. . . \ t t l r e
( . l or r nr : i l
of ) { a. j . r . gr i i r a,
: . - . . l i l i mmecl i at cl y ni t cr t ho I Jr r r l dha, ' s r l eat l r . t ho
-' r-: i , , l rj
of t ho l Jurl cl ha' s t oacl ri ngs u a, s rchc, arsed
r: r. , . i surnrnari sad urcl er t ho apl rcl l at i on of t Jl t arrt ma-
i : o. t t t . .
l f l i i s cornpri sed t he c\ rrt i re spi ri t . t ra, l u' eal t h
: : l r e l i r r ddhi sbs of t ho e ar l v pcl i od.
' l ' r , r ' r ur a{ t or ,
i t l , L: car ne nr r ccs si i r ) ' not r onl y t o
- : . : r - r ve
t hoL) har nm& i l ncl t l r r : \ ' i r r u. r ' t t , bV cor r r r r r i { . t i ng
t . r' i ri t o rnc[ ro] : 1' , brrt al so t , r st rrrl v u, ncl oxpcuncl
. - ' : r i . f t r vns f ound, i n t l i o c&sc ot t l i e J, ) har nr na, { } s
, . : : ; r - , , r di ccl i r l t , he <' ol l oct i on of st r t t , as, t hu, t t l i o
: : : r i n rrl ri ch t , l ro cl i scorrrseri \ 1' cr(-1 ccl ucl )od. &ncl
i : 1 | L, r r i er r t s t , l r er eof vi r r i er l l ar ge, l y accor di ng t o
r . . . - - r ; r i t ur o Of ' t ho a, r r r l i t : nce t o r vhor n t hev $' er o
: . ' r , ' l r c r ' i . ' l ' l r r r s , r v l r i l e s ( ) r n o s u t t a s c o n t a i n e d
: , r r r r ) l r r r r l r Ocor r , l i t r : r l oct r i r r es, oLl I er S c( ) nt ai ned
. . : , a gener al
1ea<: l r i r r gs r r - l r i c' h \ r ' or o easi cr t o
- : . i - r - . - . t i . ncl . l l or r : ovt : r . t l i o I Ji r dt l ha el i ci not udhor o
' -
i ' . l , p. r' "i r-rul ar SySt crn i rr ex1. r<. rt rrrdi ng hi s cl l c' ori nes I
: . = . : t -yrenrl ecl l argei 5' on ci rcumsl nnces, Sei : rnons
ri : : e
preEl ched as t ho t i rno and oecasi on i l roso f or
a i : noni t i cn. I l any of t he sernl ()ns t l rat , r, , ' t re rerneui -
: ' : ' . , : L
^i r. r. rl
preserved were, t he rof ore, I ' ri r, gment ary
a l . i Ol t Cl l COn CTSO,
I l t l i o caso of t ho Buddhn' s i r nr nedi at e <l i sci pl cs,
-' . , . ' . j . , ' cr,
rvl i o recei vod i nst rrrct i on di rect I ' rcl rn t hei
1. 1, . . . : " r , t t r r . so ser mons t hor r gh br i ef wer e B, cl equ&Le
. . : - . i t ] , r . sL. r r noi l r i wor o r t r t ci er st ood by t he l i st ener s
: ,
- , . . i ^or n
t hev wer e adcl l c' sse<l . But t o r l i sci pl os ond
- - r-. -, nces rvl i o c8me & cont urv or t rvo l at er, t ho
: . .
. l rsr' s \ \ ' Lrro l ess i rrt el l i gi bl o.
' I ' ho
necessi t y
: . . : t l i o- i e f ur
l r r ovi t l i ng
f r r r t i r er exPl anr t i ou and
: . . . i . r ' . r ' ) l s. A si r ni l ar Dosi Li on i l r oso r r ' i l i r r esar d
t o cl i sci phnary rul es, t oo, regardi ng t hei r i nt erpre-
t at i on and appl i cat i on, Thus bogan t wo n€w
brancl res of st udy, ono cal l ed t he abhi d, l t dt nt na f or
t he exposi t i on of t he doct r i mo and t t r o ot hor , t , ho
abhi ui naya, t br t he i l t erpret at i on of di sei pl i nary
nrl es. As t heso went on t here arose speci al i sbs who
gavo t hei r at t enl i on t o on6 branch of st , udl ' or t o
ot her, cal l ed respect i vel y dhart t nt arl haTt i (bearers
of t he doct ri ne) and ai nal Jad, hard (bearers of t he
rules), wirile exports of LLra abhidhanrma and obhi-
uiru4lu woro given the
r 1me
of matilcddltard
(bearers of t he mat ri ces or
rnoul ds
of exposi t i on).
' Ihe
term nxdtikd (Skt. mci.trkri) means a summary
of e discourse on Llrc abhirJluanlnlq or ttre ablr,iuinattu-
At a lntor stage, Lhe dhurrurrodhnrq, was also callod
sut t ant i l ca (Skt . . rt i l rri nt ' i ka, masber of t he t ext s)
and bohussuda (Skt . bahusrut a; l oarned).
lVhen tho Sutta Pitalta 1v&s soD&rated into
' books'
cal l sd. Agam. rs or Ni kavus, st , i l l ot her
t erms were rrsel l , o. g. , Di ghabhanaka (reci t er of
t he Di gha-ni k6, ya), Ma, j l hi rna, -ho (reci t er of t ho
I l aj j hi ma- no) , Si l myut t i l - bo. Ar i gLr f t ar a- bo, Kr r dda-
ka-b' , and , I rrt al i rr-hhari ri l i a (rr-rci 1, rl r of t ho Jr. l t a. ka).
' Ihoso
who u' elo well vorseci in ail tho fivo l,iili[.1' as
! ! ' er e cal l er l Pr r r i l r r r r ol i ; r vi l i i r
( t na, st er s
of t he
l i vo Ni l i a. yrrs). As Li ui e *' orrt ort , t I rc abhi t ; i naya
u' as &ppcr r cl or l t , o t l r u l : ; ne. uu f i t uka i l r r d becanr o
t l r o t i r r , r ne 91' sl , r r t l v f or t l i e
. r ' i i l l l t , 1/ ur l l Lar d. ' I ' ho
Puri ut t ra, of t l re l t al i I t l i rcz, . ; / rt I t i l rt , l . : ct . . ri nri t he Vi naya
of t he Dl i a. r r nt Lgi r l r Lt r l i a school cont i r i n not i r i ng br - r u
abhi t : i rt ul l t t . ' \ s a, resul t , t ho t orm mut i . krf , rLl t ara
s-a. s cont i ncrl t . o Abhi cl i rarrna sneci a, l i st s who rvors
i r, l scr, e. r, i cl errt l -\ . , eal l ed t l Jt [ t t t t rt ut l i u, t hi l i a (Skt .
t Ll t t t t ' nt r t l , t t t hi br , : exl r osi Lor ot ' t t r o cl oct r i t r o) , I n
t l i o I Jucl r i l r i i , s ( ) ! \ ' r r
i i l " Li r t r e, t i r or o r vcr t t t nonl i s I i ks
Punna l Ti r. rrt l rri Jl rt t i t , nuns l i ko l )l rrl rnrt rrr, t l i nnd, and
l a; -rnerr l i l i o Oi LLag; r, ha. paLi , u' l ro woro f amed &s
dJLat nrnct kat h, i . l ; as. \ \ t o al so cornLt ncross l l )a, ny
i rrsLi r. rrcers rvl i ers t . ho t t ' rrn dl t art t rurt l ; at hi ka, f ound
i n t he Pal i I ' i nava Pi t . i ka. i s
' t , ransl l t , ed
i n t hs
Cl i i -rrc' so versrons &s " di scourso-t nast er ", t ho
ert rri vi r, l errt of ubhi dl ut rt ni l i u, Norv. t , ht r t orn ubl t i -
t l l i r l t t nt i l ; a i s f or r nd i n t l r e Pr r l i
' I i pi f t i l i a
onl v i r t
t l x; ] i l t udcl aku, )i i l ; u, t a wl ri cl r i s . l i r, i t : r t hi r, u t he
f bur Agi rmas (l {i hrt ; ' l s). I t seemJ l i l i ol y t }rat by
1l r r r t i r r r e cr f t l r o l br r nr r , l i r i n <. r f ' t l r o , I i / r i r r l r l ul ; o Ni kt i ua
anrl t l ro )i i , / t ! t 1, 11, t l ^o st udy ci f t , he Abhi dharnrna
hr r r l cl ovel , r l r ed t o a consi ( i er abl e oxber r t .
I t shoul d bo not et l t l i at , cl -rronol ogi cal l y spei rki ng,
t l ro t orrrrs dl t arnt nrt dl t ara, , t ' i n, ugurl f ui ra and t ni l i l cd, -
tllt ura a,rofcrund onl;' i rt LIte nI a.j.i lt' itrt.(t and At' t
q r t I turo
Ni kdl l t t s rvl i i cl r ar' e L' onl pnrt l f i vel v l , r, t o u, r' rrong t l re
Ni l i l "yas. Tl roy l . ravo rl ot , t )een t raeocl i n ei l hcr t l re
I )i r 1h, rr, )' l i l ; t 7,
r. ot ' t l t e L\ ' t t 1 t L. ,
t t t
l (
t -l \ -l A c7' t , r' Set ' t ' t t , i l r' .
t . l re ai rl . rel l at i ons o{ bal t t t s. sul o, t ' i t t rt . , i <t ' . I hara t t nd
dhant nt ul "t t t h, i ka ara al -*o f ouncl oul v i n t be )I oj j hi rnct
a, nd. t l i qui t ara, \ ' i kt 1, l d, . r,
q' hi l t . :
t i rr, r t l rree nl rrnes ot '
, sut t at i t i ka, t ' i t t uyadhr t r o &r t i i di i ot i i n: ukat i t i ku &r o
nLJver f orrnd i n t l i e f our . \ *i kht ' as, Lrt t t are t ound
or r l f i r r Ll r o I ' j r i r ; ; r ' a Pi t ' t I : a <- r r r r t t l t o ] I ahu- ni dd, csq
of t l r e Khud, l u. ko - \ - i i ; cl r o.
' l ' i r e
n&mes st t t t unt i l ca,
z' i nal l a, i l t ar a i i nt . l
; b; t i , ! i t ct r t Lt r Li J: u,
hot vever , &r e
r r over t o be l ound i n t i r o Vi naya I ' i { aka cl i t her ,
bu! or t l f i n t he ) I ct i , u- r i i , t r , i ' : se.
Tl i eso f t r, ct s
t hat i b w&s f -rorn &rnong
Abhi dl r ar mt s1; uci al i sr s t huL ar ose t ho r r bhi -
dharmi l . : as, and i b rvas f rom t hem t hat Abhi dhamma
l i l cr at t r r o hr r ul i t s or r gi n.
\ \ ' i r*t ur: r' c) t l rr. t , i rorue-g t hrt b t i rose f ore-runners
r' i r l t r. ri bi t rrl l rt rrrrrki l s
t i ro prepgr8t ory Bt age
: t l rr-l red' : \ \ ' hcrc hrl vi t t i rr: i r &chi s\ t l ment s been
prrs(,' rf
' : ' -fhcly
&ro fouud in t,lic: exrsting iSrzifu
i ' zi aku, . [ n t l r r : st l t , t &s of t i r e : t I ut ' t . t l r t r t t and t he
1l ' t.i.)ltt.tti.rr, -l tt.kriqrt.,' r. tiro phra,-"c abh' idhnmrnaicath,arn
kut l i et i : l ra i rrear: i reg , \ bl ri cl Li nrnme. r-k; r: t ri ne,
i s
l rerl rrerrI l i ' r, r: ; erl , Ant l i rr 1, l re suLt i r, s sf t ] re ; I t ' t rt ut ! aru
-\ ' i k, -t . t t rr, we i i rrd t l rc Mu. l odcedal La, Sut t a anci t he
' 1.' fre
forrrrer, in whit:h llaiia-
kei l -! . . hi t rr" rl uest i orrs *nrl t i i ri prrt , t a answL' rs, de&l s
rvi t i r t l rt : di f l ' ercri co bet ween wi sdr-, m a, nd i gnorarrce,
rvi t l r consci c, rt rsness, st ns. r, t i on. perccpl i on, ri ght
vi ew, t , he t l rree st t l t es c, f exi st ence. t i i o f bur st ages
. i l r Ana
( r r i edi t i t l . i on) . at t ai nr nt : ut of a, nni i r i l r r , t i on
nnd- t hrer: f brrns ol erui l nci pa, t i on. I n t he l at t or
t rl rt t &, J)l ra, rnrrri rrl i nri i --t , ansuerrnq t l re quost i ons of
\ -i si rkha, her i rusbancl bef , . , re i i er ori i urabi orr.
t l vi ' ci l s ori t he sul -i j ect ' s of t i ro {i ve i ; l t , t rt 4l t , rL, : , t l t o
i i eresy of rncl i vi dLrai i t . l ' , r, he rel i r, t , i cn of t he l ri sht l ' ui Li
Nobi o Pat h wi t h 1] re t l rree st url i e; , t i i o ci i f l brori co
becween t he coudi f i oned and t , i ro rurcondrt i t -l ned,
ir,ttairunent o{' tnnihilation a,rrd }iibbirna. lfho
&bove-ment i oneri di scourses. t ho l ' edal l a-sut t us,
may v' eil bo regarderi a,s a kind of Abhidharma.
Norv rvhat, subjocts wore treatecl in the
Abhidharma research aa seen irr tho Agamas
(Ni kayas) ? And by what rnot hod ? I he aubj ect s
wi l l be cl assi f i ed. i nt o t he f oi i owi ng t ): ree groups:
I ' i rst , t he syst emat i c exposi t i on of t ho condi t i ons
generating evil desires and virtues, matter-q
corrt:erning training and emancipation, ancl dis-
cussions of tho general doctrine. Under this categorv
come the Bohudhdtulcc Sutto and ttre Ch,ach,q,kkh.a
sutta, of ltto Maj' iltimu )iikd.ya. In the I}ahudliatuka
Suita, the fu-nctions of tho oighteen dLtd,tu (elements),
the twelvo sonses and objects, ihe twelvo links of
causetion a,ro treated. fn t' her Clrinege translation
of this sutta ("4fi-ffi) or (Erfii*ftf$) besides
tho above-rnenti onecl , ths four ap1-rl .i cati ons of
mindfulness, tho Boven factors of wisdom aro &l3o
treated. In the Chacl",aklcha Sutta L}i^e subjects are
tho six sense organs. the six senge objects, tho
six kinds of touch, the six kinds of perception,
the six kinds of craving, tho conditions generaling
evi l desi rog and t he course of t hei r ext i nct i on.
Tlrc i' e,Jalla Srrttas mentioned earlier should also
come irnder this category.
Tho eec, rnd group i s t he nomcrrcl at rrr€ of t ocl l ni ca, l
t,erms arrangod in numerical crder. The Sa.n.giti
t\uttonto and the Dosuttarq, Suttanta of thr: DZgho
)i ikaya belong to this group. In the Chinese irans-
iation. we h&ve, besides, fhe Ekoitarq, Sfitru,
(€-FFl Sf g). Theso sut t as &rd col l ect i ons of
definitions and expositions of various discoursos.
Tho numor&lg e!' e from ons tc ion or olovon. I' he
Songi.ti Sutta,nto of thig group has boen enlarged and
developed into ttio Ahhidharrna book aamed
Saigitiporydya of tlrc Sarv6,stivd,da school. The
Puggola-' paiifi.,ttti of ihe Pali Abhidlla,m,ma Pelaka
i s al so of t i i e samo t endency. The above-mont i oned
Futtfta in the Dcglta Nikaya trnd the -caigitipuryi.lo
*re seid to have beon preached by Siriputta who
was well versed in Abhidharma. And tlne Anguttara
\ikiya, which ie for tho most, parb a colloction of
F,r: a 1' ari;rat irrterprctaticn
(by Oldenberg and llorner)
e: -r Lrf , i DB-{U}I . {. f i , .
qt s.
?1. zi i . --Ed.
ilerris arra,ngeci iu nr"rrrierica,l ,Jrder, soerrr$ to have
beorr srrlrngr:d in accorclance with the abi:Lidharmie
Lendency' .
' -fho
thing can be sa,itl about tlio
It' it:utta"ka (of ri' irich the Chineso trarrsla.tiorr is
Llrc ) h1t+ktoka
$ifff f${tg1.
Tl i e t hi rci group eont ai ns sut t as
. rvl ri ch
gi ve
derai l ecl e-rposrt i ons <; f Lhr: ri oct , ri ne nnd of \ : rt s! -rs.
' I hi s
t r: ncl errcv i s represerrt et l bv i ho sri t t ar of
t l i x, rri rrri rri i t i on (ri i t i r, ori gaj of t bc )f t t . i j hi l nct I i i ; t t t ; rt , "
' f ht r
f oi i cwi rrg ei gi rt sut . t *r, s a, rt 1 i nr: l uci ecl t . hr-rei :
C i Ia,
kc,mrnu-uiblt anga, fi u tfur, II u,ii a.kun' nto-u ihlw it,gr,t -
s. r' . Sal ul -1t i anrt -, ui , bh, at i rTrt -, s. ' , , i . ' dt i est t -c-i bl t ari . qo, -s, , ' ,
Arq, rt rt
-ut bi t e?' Lga.
s. t \
D h. ut t t - t : i , hhr! t i
qrt -, s
. " . S u, e. cq
uil.' hait q
s.o an d D ak k h.iy. rt " t tt h hr; riq o.,J u tt,:,. il' iray al I
cori t &i 11 dei i i i l er-l def i ni t i ons ar. i cl e, rposrri ons of
such ci oci , ri nes as karnrna
(ki t rrna, ),
i ! -rnr. r and
out or Ronse org&n-c, t , he si x worl ds &nrl 1, i 1o
gat a
trurlr.s. trIrrst cf thern wcro preaehed bv tlio tstrdrlho.
Ilr:t, st.rrne \4rcrc proec:he,:l by iris clisciple-q who
r+' ci l r-erst : rl i rr l l -rhi di rarrnu. I ' or i rrs*r, rrco. t ho
[ ' rl desu, -t ' i hhurt , yt t Sr. rl l ct . r, . . i ] s
1: rrt ac] recl
b: r ] [ u, ha-
rloSgltl I an a (
JI ah [,
msuci gir lyii3' ;r,1ir, ). 1,r rtl t,h
tti.hhai,qu -r ullo by S6rir;utta. In th is rn&n nor, tiettr.ilocl
r l t )f i ni bi ons arrcl exposi t i orrs of si i npl o t eachi ngs
ruere l ror-l u. eni l y seen rn enrl y Abhi dharrna. The
rnet hod o[ cl of i ni t i on, as rovoal e, i i n t ] re abovi r-
rnori t i oneci l : i bl unga . {i rf i as, sl rorvs f requent
coi rrci dr: nr: e or si rni l ari t y v, . i t , i i t f rab of earl y Abhi -
dharrna bot rks. Furl her, t l . ro arur' . l t at i orrs t o t l re:
Lj nes i n l l re verses shoui r! a, l so i rel orrg t rere. I n i i re
Sunty;a11a .\-ikd1yt,, 1or instanc€;, \vtl fiucl a detailed
cornnrent arv ou l t , r, ersa of t \ e r\ ut t ani pat rt (844),
whi ch
. ; -as
gi ven f or t he benef i t of Hnl i ddi ka, . a
lav follou' er, by )Iaharnoggullana,,
' *hc; r.vas
i n -{b}ri di ranna. T' }ro sui t a i s ci uot erl whol i ; ' i nt act
irr tlro tVahdniridesa.
II. The Intermedl ato Li teraturo between the
Sutta-pi taka and the Abhi dhamma-pi taka. The
abhidharmic tenrlencw referred to ea,rlier w&B
al readv di scerrri bl e i n the Buddhp hi msel f and
his ciisciples skiliecl in Abhidharma. Afterr his doath,
tl:ig tenden,*ry
probabirr.' devoloped stiil furt}ier.
of the abhidharmic discourses were. &s
alroadv mentiorred, con[ained in the Niknyas.
]Jur u'hen tlre i,endenc-r- becarnu rrrcrro rom&rkable, &rrito a litercrv utyio peculiar to Abhidharma,
scrnel.:riJrg different bct!r in conteni arrd fbrm from.
the sutt&s i:r general"
abhidharmic books
wero &rr&ngeci urdependenth; or the eutte propor
arrd developed them$elvos ilto the furidarnental
Ablridharma.'vvirich in tutn bet;ir,mo Ablidhamn,,a-
pitakt. As a matter of fu,r..-t,. no example of the
transitional or intermetliate iiteratura botween
tho SrTlra and tho Abltitl,ttarrira-7.trtul;a ca;r be finnd
in tho literaiure of Northern Buddhiern. But io
Poli Budilhisra, we heve tho P<r.tiaczmbhidameggo
and the )l&lriasa oi' tiro Khwld.ake N -tka,ya,
a,s ex&rrrples,
The Nad<Ja:'c consists of tw<., parts : Lbe Malui-
n'tdd,esq and tho Cila-ruidd,eso. The lioluJ-nid.deso is a
coilecbion of wortl-by-word annotations of 210
vorses of 16 s::t.tas in the Altlwka-uagga of ttre
Sutta-nepcito. Tite Cfr,la-rriddeso is a comrnontary
on l l E verses of 18 suttas of the Purogano-"-aggo
af i d 4l v{i r' $eg of ' orre srt t t a, i n t he sarne St i j t a-
-ll' ' o
A tt ln ke.
tugqe arid the P d.rtiy an a
nr6 *rnri ng t he rrl dost port i ons of t he l l u' Jt i i ^i s, ;
c&n{Jrl. 1' r' otrir,trly. their
i' rrt-itotype
1r&.d been iorrnecl
dr ; r i nq t bo Rut l t l he' s I i f o r i r ne. The sul t a' s and
vergcg of t hoso t wo vl l ggas a, i () i l rr{ri rxi i n t }; e sr: t t a$
of t l rn Sumyut l o ; \ t i kf i 3u, wl ri r: i r i t sei f i -" r' er. r' ol d
and, u. Bwl rs st u. i ed ht rLl rc, crrnt i t i n$ i ri i t , l l , ; ggi i , i l i r, na' s
v; ord b-"-. - u' orci i nt erprct i t t i (f rr uf nrt -' t ersei (5n. S. 14).
. 1r, rr, rry rrr, l . e, t he }i i rl t l e"se i l re rl i e i el t -" a' i : . i ci r gi vo
abhi Cl l art rri c i nt erpret at i an t t ; st r, . ' h ; errt i rrl rs d, s
Tl ri : , ' l 11l mku-' uuqga ri , n11 t . i re i l i r*qat t u-uct , t ; ga.
i rel ongt ng t o t ht : cl d{-rst , sl rat rt .
' ' l ' hr:
<1t : l i ni ' i i i t n rr, n' . i
er1-rl u, nnt i r-. , rr of t i rc cl au; cs ant l t l r(-' l ocl i i rreal l ert t : s
nrcr ent i rel y of t he rl a, t t t rc of At rhi rt l ra, rri l rr i l rrri
r, t {rFe {' r}rnpl el el l = rvi t i ; 1i rt ret : of cc. rl T . \ bhi C}i i i rrr: rt l
t -rooks. }l orer; ver, w' e i i rrt l i n t ] re ] ' . l rl rl t r, vu st t ci i
wt i rrl s as s ut t ard i k u, i ' i rL. u i
u, Ll i i a ro i l nel i b l t ' i dhan t t ; r i k t t ,
anrl .strtlrr, ri.r' Lrt1.ytt l.;rul '
' firese
are n(' vcr
l br r nr l ar r vr vl r er o el so ei l l r er i n Sut t u- r : r l ' i r t ut l t t
j ' i t uku.
I t ' r r - r r r r t , hi s poi r r t ot ' r . i 6, r ' r ' , 1. ] r e . \ i ddesa
t ri rl errt l _v l : cl ongs t n t , l rt t Ja, rest , prr, rt of l l i o ut ut l u
P, t ul : r u * , nr 1 t he l ' i r ut ua I ' i t ukn.
\ t r, sl rri l l n(rw di s{: rrss t l rer Pt rl ' i srt rt t b}, , i ' i drt nggi L.
j n
t l r i s l - r r ; ol i , t , l r l r t , 1' <l oc! r i : r n, l
1r r , r ' bl ens-
r , . ' l l r cl r
q' t ' t ' , r
ri rnl t , r, l ' i t , h i rr erl ri . "' l -l , r, l rl l ri srrr, ; al ' rj i rei i . ed
i i i t l t reo pa, rt s {i nd t ht rt . v ci t i t l t t er: 1. . \ i rrrosr. ri i l t t l e
i ri t r-rort arl t i t ems ol ' 1, he t suddhi st doct rLi e {re
ent i rnerat ed. Everv i t ern i s
l rre<rct l ed
t , v t l i c si ' l i ri bi l s
cul l ecl t rt dt i kd, (mot her of cl i sct -rt t rse) or t he
(' (i rr' -' t sj e
r ' or r t enl
and a deLai i er l col nnr ent ar y f c, l l os' s t l i e
t rLAt ' i l t d, or t he t ext . Ti re nrc. t i rod i s rnr-rch t ht ' si l nro
as t l t at adopt , ed i n l he si 11l 1: Jl , l i i t i hrr. r' rr, a book' r.
I n sonl e
(' t l rl rl el l t i i ri e! . 1.
t , ()o. t i t t -'
j i i t l ri o
f i -i rrri a. l
Abj ri dharms, ci ef i ni t i on l ri rs been rl r. i ri l . . rt et l . I rr t , i ri s
t espc(' t . t l re Pct t . ra rt t t shi i l dut aqQu. seerl i s t o l ; ei ort q
r . r t l r c sr l , r r r e cl a. cr s ot l i t er al ul r ' i t , s t l i e. ^\ ' r . , l r l . , st r . f : t
rhese t r' " o bocks
' ui ' t e
t l rscourst l i s nrrt rt l 1 <, ge' . l rer'
croirerpr' lt &nci contuitis an a.,h:ri-' rtrtro ol' sr-rverir,l
el enrr: rrt s. l l <l ret -rver' , t he d<; t rt ri rrs r-ort t i ri net l t l i rl r".
i s rrrol c purrri t i ve t han t hat r: f t i t e eari . v Al t hi ri i rrl i i rma
brrci ks. \ \ ' e rnav i nf er, t l re. rrl t -cre, t hat t l i t . )Ji ddesc.
arrt l t l re Put i cq, t t rbl t i di nut gge l rol onge<l t o t l i e peri r. rrl
i rri or
t o t ho ei nt t rgent ' o of t l t g sor-el t . [ ' ri , j . i , 1
i -' l ri '
<l hnrrt ri ra hooks. I i i l t , t rs n' as rrLent i oi ret l l t i -1, -rro,
srrci r rvt rrt l s i . t s srt ! . t i t . r! nrr: l u ; i rri l t i l . t ! i "i . ! l ut rt t rno
, r l r cadv l bt r nt l i n t l r e Ji r l dr sc. i r nPl . v t l r o cxi st ence
r , f r r r i Al , l i i i l l r &r r na l r t ' l cur gi r t g 1o t , l r o 1' . r " i - pi 1al <a, nr r t i
y, e
r r r &\ / l r i i
; r r st i f i et l
i r r sr i Jr posi i r g t i r i r , l ' l . i ' . " t i ; o t t t ne
1i . re J' r, ddes{r rri i , s
1-rrodrrcecl . ,
t l rc r' u. r. l -. . Ai , , i rt rl l , r"rrua
t r, roks rr' et ' e al rerr, t i 5r i n exi sf rt rt r: o i n sr-i rEo f i -i rrn or.
ut i t r i st , i r r t , he col l r ee o{ ' p; r oul , i r .
' I
crdrl' these t."vo boolis Lrelong to tlro J' ,htttlda!' :rt,
^\ i kcl 11u arrd &re i nci i rt i oi l i rr t i re f )ut i t t -yt i t a. ! : o a. n, . l
n( r t i n t l v: Abl i . i dhar ) i i l i a- p; i ul ; 1. I t se( ' r l l s. l i ( , r v{ : ) \ ' er .
t het t ' w&S a t i r r r o
g' l i cn
t l l i . ' i t o t vt ' x, t +t qr l r r i er l l s
- \ t , ] r i r i l r ar r na boohs. Ac<' r - . , r t i r r r g i o t l r e, i t i ; t t t t t , , . / r t l a
t ' i i : i st t i ( t i r e cor nt nent t t r l ' c, f t ! t c I t i ' 1i L, , t . \ ' i L' , ?' l r l ,
r i , o r ( l ci l er of t , l i o ' Vaj . i l t i i nu' - \ t l ; 17, t t t i r r ol ur l t - ' . . i t l r ese
r ( , xi s i n t i r e 5u/ l a- 7t i t uka, i t s . I t , pi - t ' sr l nt . l r r i t t l r e
r r . ( : r t , : i c, f t I o I ) t gi t u
, \ ' t l i r i 17' l pr r t t ] r er r r i r i t ] r e
- - 11. . ' i t i , i l , ut t Lt t t n- pi l t r k, t , f n i l r , '
( ' l i i r t ese
t r i i t i sl at i t . r n
r i - t i rr f ' t i t t nt t ! . i rri ogSa
t E?f i Hf f i f t )
of I ' put i ssa,
t l r e r n&r r ut t l of t t r o Abi r al ' agr r r - r ' i har $ st ' ct , st r me-
. . r
i rat di i f ' e, rr: rrt f rt rrrr t he l l at rh, ' ' ' i hara s(' gt ,
' rvl t i ci ;
. . . Dr esci l t s t he sot r t l i er r r Bt r t l <l l i i sr n of t ot i t l y) , t l t e
\ i 4rl t . sr: and t l rt ' I ' at i . st t r, , bl i , i . dert t ugrl l , &re f ro-
. r r - i cr ) t l 1' r - 1r r <. ' t ed.
I r i i i r t , ' 1: i nt i r t ! i r t t ugga, ' r \ e r l r i ut B, t i or r
from these tu' o books is
ily the elause
' "
t l re -. \ bhi Jl r+r, mrna se, ys
' ,
or. " i t ' i s sai d i n t ho
-. \ bl ri t l hanrrn&
' ' .
' I hrs
shurvs t l rt t . t t l i e aut i ror of
tlro l: i.;ituttirttatrqa rr:qi' ,trleti these two hooke as
Abhirihr' ,rmn lrt urat ure.
P*li tradrt.i' 351 nttril,utc' s tho &lrriror$irip of these
t rrc bc. : ck*" t o $ri ri put t a, oi i e ot ' t he
Bu<l i l ha' s
irrllnediritr: discil-rles. \i-o c.llrnot, Iiowgver, &ccopt,
t i re t radi t i or. i i ; s i rci ng hi st ori cal l y t rue. I n t hesL,
trooks the i.).arne c.,l' Sr1riput,t,. oppea,rs. but only in
t ht .
t hi rd pen: ei r.
' l he
t ra. j i t , i onal t l i erl ry
{e^. t
t o t -ho
r r ut i r { ; r ) l r as, pcr i r aps, dL$ t o
' Lhc
f acr t } r ar S6r i put t u,
ti*ing r' ,;r;etl in ,ibhidliarni&, lr' a,B constderect most
conr, rl et erri , Lo i ; e t l rt ' rl , rt i . , hor of i -, ooks havi ng an
Abl rr, : t i ra. rrna, t t : rrci errcy. I n f : r, ct ,
j udgi ng
f roru f hei r
c()nt errt a, nd [ orn] , t l i eso bocrks shoui t l be regarded
as ^' i bi u' -l i ri i rrrri r f )r-! oks rat her t l ' at i as st r brrrs.
I l I . The Fundament al Abhi dhar ma. , 4. bi r , i dh, an. nx:
I ' i t ol ; u. t s
(, 1i rr
t . ' i ' i i ro t l rr"co Pi t akag seoms l , o l : ave
l rr: en prrorl i i cr' I at i rr t l l i r r: &ri ri us sect s hnC est sbl i -ghorl
I ' l t errl sr' ' l ' ' t l s. l i ur, F: r)1-: l ()t l i i l l g i i k. i , l i ei r prOt , Ot \ T)+)
pr ot r : r l ; ! i ' t ' x' s1ei i i ! \ ' , , ' i r
er i r l i c- r . l hi l . \ t r hi r i l r ar r na
l r r , ol . r ; l t s * r : sr . r : I I ) r ' r n t ot l u, . r l r i t vc r i l l & sf ci , ar i ar r
r ' ] ; a t , i , ; i . , . ' r ' i l : , '
t ; r ' 1 , i r i i i r r i i 1 1 -
r i . L l : r : r , - ' l i r r e , t l r a i .
r i r ( l r scl i r ; ol . t Ll i " r r ; . . ' r ; r i r ' ; i t . i r ) ; ) .
l r r oducet l , \ bl r i
cl l , t r t na i r ock: ; of i t r : or l r i . \ \ - s; r - i t nnof , r l ef i ni t el ; -
as( . er t r t i n t l i c. i r ni c . ' i t i r c seui l r at i or i oi ' t i r cse - . cl : ool s.
l \ l , r r et l vor , r l i e st i ) i r r i r Li r l l l r i r - , , - . s r r ot set , : l r t o i t at ' e
t akerr pl t r. co i n a L' rrr, f par' rui i c, {' t i rn, : . At , l , r*st ,
t \ ! -() or i , i rre. e l rrt rl ri red vearl l rrl usl -, I r: rve ei npsed
bcLr.,.' cc' n t ito tirs;t, brancliing anrl tlro fir-r*l sub-
br i " n, . , i r i ngl ' \ b, . l r r t , . t l r o begi nnr ng oi t ! t o f l l r r i st i an
er*. ei gi Li een of l ' . rc' : rt y st , hooi , s rvero al readj ' i "
+: ri st errce,
' l ' l rrrs
; : roc' ess
of bl i l nc: l l i ng cover. eci
rr,bc;ti' ,' , trl' o clt iir.r€ro liundi' ort veurs fror:i about
: i ()0 H. (i . l ' l , e -. 1 l ; hi rl l i ocrri *r,
booi <rr of each school
probt rbi ' . ' gi )t - st i l n(l &rt l j sr, rl dri ri ng t , i ri s peri ocl . I U i s
t o l l e i rrl -erreri rl , al ; t i re, \ i rhi ci i rarrnrl l . , ooks of Pnl i
Budt i hi snr , -ul , l cf t l : e l i arvi rst rvrl t i n scl i ocl l wor, : no{,
procl ur' , : d i n rr, r: l rort t i rne, hui r, l ri r, l , t , i i r: rl r rert rs son-
e, dera, bl t -, grol vt h of t ht ; ueht a. rrd cl . oc! , ri rre, wl i i ch i s
f r: i ccu. l -l i c rn t I re ' \ l -rl ri i -l l i i l rrns bc. oks t l rert rsoi ves. The
: \ bhrr. i i i rr, rnrrr bot r! <s
(' arr
Lo groi rl rerl
i rrt o t hreo
cat egi -, rrDs :
(' i l ri )' ,
rni t l dl o ar: rl i at e.
Tl r " i r i r , ( l i l i l ' i I r t f i i , \ l r hi cl l i ar r na uf i r ect &t i &n
Brri kl l i l rrn i s r' ot rt ui t t t ' rl i n t ht r $evt : n <, l i scourso books
of t . l r*r
. : 11r, i i st i r i t l i i sr: i rooi arrcl t l re se\ ren rl i : rcrourse
l - i cl ks t r i ' I ' r r , i i l ' ] r t r l r l hi s: r r / r ul : i ci i i s vi r l r i i r l i . , t i : e
Buut . i , i : . n
' -l ' )reraI at l a
school ).
' . i . ' u
t h, -. so ruuv be a, l ri t , t l
i i r e, Sr l r i Lt t t l r , t - ui - , hi . dhar r nu- St i
; ! r a. of &r r r r nkr r o* - n
schooi _ Acr ' c. r ' ci i r i S t , t r t . i r a I , l . l i t r r r di t i cr , i i r , ' _{ } r } r i -
cl l ra. l ri m, r, r' r. i , i {i i st
l rreache,
l i i }' t i i g I Jr, l rl ri l l , 1 i ri l nsei i
r l ; r r i n; I i . l r e l j r r eer r &i l t v r nor l l i r s i r r r i r r . r er i l r a of
+" i r e
l i , l gr , i l s bci ur o
' . 1t t "
JJi l t l t i l r i l s r n! , \ i l i er i r r r t l ot . l l er
t l l i t r r , s. ' l ' l i r , ' n Si i l i pi r i t i r l , t i g{ , . ' r l t i ' e Br : r l r l i r a, l cr
r el ) { ' i t , l i ' " 1' , t : i t i r r r . } l : i , r ' i r r : } r t ' . t i i l l r . Si - r r i ; r r r t t n, , r , , f t er
t r r r l l i t L- i l l g l l >\ sl , r r ] r r r t i ( ' ; Ll i - \ ' , r : r ' , : a, Jl l r - " 1 t f t o l r i r ' l f i vO
l r r i r i i r . , 1 di : i - ' r l r l t : : .
j r t
t l : t Kot i t r j t ' r - : t t l ' u. t l i e l &s t of
t i r e. , , . r ' , . , : i \ i r i t i , . i f : i r i r i r i l
i - : r , r 1; s- <.
t l r t , i Jr r cl r j l ' a. s eei ng
i nt o i l r e f i l t i n' , , ' el i : , - r r L: i i l er . l t i r e r l i f f sr ent doet nne. s
ol { } i c i l - r r r ol r
. r ' } r r - r ol s i n t i r e l br r r r of } I ut i l , : o
{ mot , } r a- r ol ' r l i scor t r sf : ) . } l c r . r l t an t v- o l r r r ndr od
3' ear . r
ai t t r t l r t : Li r i t l r i l , i i ' s
l l i r r i ' t i bt r d, na,
i n t ho r oi gn
of l . i rr; Asr. rk. , . , ri , f l i -rence. r of r; ; ri ni on erose rvi t i r
r c, l t ar i l i o Fi r r , Ll l i i st doct r i ncs. l l oggat r i put t a Ti ssa,
t ho s, rr, i or rr. ronk of t l re
(-)rrl er.
+. he
t hi rd
r : o' i nci l i n t i r e ei r g- l t ul , Pi r t al i put t a, and r eci t ed t ho
Ji at h, i t at t h: r.
ref rrl . i rrg l ret erodoxv a, ncl asserf i ng
Lr r Li r oi i r l t vi ow poi nl , s, t r , t : t : or di ng t o t he mut i kr T of
t l rc I i ut h, ai i ut t l t i , wl ri r' h, ar: cordi ng do t radi t i on,
hgd t rt : err l ef t , Lry t l i c l Judci l i a i ri msel f . l n Pal i
I -l r-rr. l ri l ri srrr, t i ri s i g conri i dorcl d &s I hi st ori cal f act .
rupport i ng t l ri s vi erv, sol no $' e-qt ern schol ars, t oo,
t r: cri t : o t ' l rt r f i rrrurt l at i ut r of LI t o Kct t huuat t hu t o t he
rei crr of Asei kl at t d al l ege t hat t ho aoven ' \ bhi dharrna
b,-' iit* luul all been coirrpletoct by t,hat tirne. It is,
I roq' cvor, rrol , rrecept ed by cri t i cal scl i ol ars t hat t he
.Lbltid.h,anttnu-' ltiiuka rvas ple:le:hecl l-r.v the Buddha
1r i ry hi s t l i rnct rl i sci pl es
; _nor
do t he. y bel i eve t i yt
t l re P*l i Abhi dt rrl rnrnn, l rt t ol i s were compl ot ed by t he
rrri rl <1l e uf t ho t hi rel rrr. : rrt ur. y I l . C.
' I ' ho
vi owg of
scl rool s, obt i ougl v f ormul at ed a. f t er Asoka' s deat h,
l reve L: cen urt rodt t cerl i nt , o t he Kat hduct ' t t hrz. Besi cl es,
adel i t i ons m*do l s, t or i rr eeyl on are t o be f ound not
only in Llrc Abhi.dltamma-pitaka bluL also in tho
Sutta-pitaka and Lho Vinaya-pitaka. rvhich aro
supposecl to have be_on procluced before tiie Abhi-
dlramma book-q. It is. therefore, improbable that the
completion of the seven Abliidirarnrna bookg was
offocted earlier lhnn rvhen ali the extant Pali sacred
texts v-err€ reduced to writirr.g in tho firsb cent.
B. C.
In tho Sarvusti vdda sehool , ti re Abhi dhurma-
pitraka lr'a,s not considered to contain the direct
sermons of the Buddha, Even the earl y Abhi dharma
books wore put i nto tho rnotrth of the Buddha' s
di sci pl es, such as Sari pul ra or }l audgal vavana. Tho
later Abhidharmabooks are said to have been
by Vasumi tra or Katyd,yani putra. who l i ved two
or throe hundred years after the Buddha's pari-
ni bbi na. Thus, i f we admi t that the exi sti ng
Abhidharma trooks were written by SS,riputra or
Borne of his conteinporaries, we must adrnit that
the early Al-,hidharma books had alroady existod
duri ng ttre Buddha' s l i feti me, because Sdri prrtra ancl
Maudgal yayana had di ed before the Buddha' s
patinibbirna. But tTre ^,\ uri g i ti
par y d,y a, attributed to
Sdri putra, w&s & devel opment of Lhe Sai gi ti -si l .tro
of tho Dtrgha Agamrt
)l i i taya), ancl the
Sarigiti-st1tra s'&s cortainly Siriputra's sermon. ft
v'&s n&f,ural enor'igh. thorefore, that tho Sangiti-
parguuu, wliich
procluced later, basod on tho
iiangit'i-siltra anl with additions and extensions,
was attri buted 1.o Sdri putra. Accordi ngl y, stri cti y
speaking, even if tho prototype of what is now
called the early Abhidharm& w&s preached by the
Buddha's direct disciples, it assumed its present
form onlv after the Sarvir,slivdda school bocame
i ndependent, i .e., & consi derabl e ti me after tho
Bucidha's parinibb6,na. Another two hundrod yeara
wouid havo olapsed beforo the middlo and the late
Abhidharma books weie produced.
Ae for tho Sd,riTnttra-abhidharma-.4r1,stra which
belolgs to sn unknowrr sohool, in Nd,g6rjuna's
(vol. II) e quotation
rs given to. the effect that S6riputra compiled the
-{bhidharma book during the Buddha's lifo timo
because he understood the Buddha' s words, that
lster \-ritsiputriya recited it and it was handed down
to that ciaf undor the nams of Sari,'pu.tra-abhicJh,annq,,
Th:s book, too, seerus to have boen htrnded down,
as i ts ti ti e Euggests, as a book ofdi scourses preached
r]' srrri putra. The book contai ns & synopti cal
col -l ecri on of the seven Abhi dharma books of othor
echooi s. It i s representati vo of e stago hal f-way
between the eari_v arrd the middlo stage o[ <J.evolop-
The ebove i s a bri ef a.ccount oi the oxi sbi ng
fundamontal .{biridharma irooi<s. The next sectior-r
wi l l deal wi th the sevon ,\l -' hi dharma books of tho v6da, the Sari putra-o,bhi dh,urnw, the com-
mentari es, rnanual s and oLi rer mi scei l a.noous works
on tho l undamental Abhi dharma, the Sarrtrl rnti ka
echooi and the Drr,r,s!frnti ka, whi ch detached them-
solves from the Sarr'isrivida school and had their
own pecul i ar Abhi dharma doctri rro, i l nd, l astl -v, tho
Satun.gidd,hi-iri.ttrct as tho manual of thege schools.
In bri ef, the secor:cl parb wi l l doscri be tho ehange
end development ofnorthern Abhidharrna Buddhism.
In the thi rd part,, wo shal l di scuss the hi si ori cal
devel oprnent of ti re Ai ri ri dharrna l i toraLLrre i n
connoetion with the sevorl Pali AbhiJharnma books
and thoir cornmentarios and manuals.
IV. Abhi dharma Li teraturo i n the North. t.
' I' HE
As far as the Abhidharma w&s studied in sectarian
Buddhism, tho Abhidharma might be said to havo
devel oped al ong wi th schol asti c Buddhi sm. Sonre
schools contributed much to the growth of Abhi-
dharrna while others did not. Of all tho schools of
northern Buddhism, that which made tho largest
contri buti on was the Sarvdsti vdda. I' he Abhi -
dharma doctrine of this school had much influenco
on tl i at ot' other school s.
' Ihi s
school i s consi dered
tho most represerrtative of all the tsuddhist
Evon the Mahd,y6,na schools were influonced
the doctrinee of this school both positivoly anl
Originally, the basic proposition
of the Sarvd.s-
l,ir.dda school w&s, as its namo signifies, the doctrino
of sclruclnl asti (all things exist). l-rorn this
popular and plain proposition the school developed
e r&riong,l and dotailed doctrine. All the llfah6v6ne
echools adopted the doctrino of this school, either
directly or indiroctly, as an introduction
io their
rocondite systems. That wa,s the reason whv it
spread bobh inside and outside India a"
scholastic eoetarian Buddhism and iaid
dation of the }Iahd,yEna schools. At first irs contre
was in the
district, but in Asoka,s reign
and aftsrwards it moved into north-west
where, above all, Ka6mira was considerod the contle
of orthodoxy. Against this nsw eub-school,
Sarvistivdda of Gandhdra aud Parthia to tho west
of it, was callod tho wostern school. Lator on, tho
influenco of SarvS,stivd,da permeated
far into ths
districts of central Asia and still farther into China
and, Japan. In the other direction, it weut into tho
T.dands (Sumatra and Java)by way of Burma
and Indo-China.
SAR,VASTIVADA : Theso soven books aro all oxtant
in Chineso translation, but in the Tibetan version
there oxists onl;r tlrc Pra,jfi,apti$dstro while tho
Sanskrit originals havs beon lost. Authors havo
been atiributed to the seven books, but ths Chinese
tradition according to llsiran-tsang and tho Sanskrit
and Tibetan versions disagreo with regard to the
aseription of the authorship of most of them.
The soven Abhidharma books end traditional
authors may bo thus li.cted : (l) The Sangitiparydya
(ef,. Strri putra
; Skt. ancl Ti tr. 1![er]ri rl i arrs!hi l a)
Ttro l i hrrrmasknncl ha ((l i r. Il a,rrrl gal ytva,n{.r,;
ti l ct. & Ti b. Si ri put,rn)
(3; The Pra,j r-rppti (Ch.
Kfr,i yrl yanu,
Sht. &
' l ' i b.
Maudgnl vfi yar.a)
' fi re
Vi j i i Erraki r_va (el l tl rree sorl r' c€rs : I)ervusarman)
{ 5)
' l ' t r o
Dhf l t r r ki yn ( Ch. Vasur ni t r a; Sl { f . . &
' l ' i b.
Fri ri i a)
(6) Tl i e Frakarar.r* (u.l l three sortrcos :
1' *surruLra)
(?) I' ho Jrrri nrl, (al i tl rreo
sol l refrs ; l :ui ra),
1' l rougl r the authsre of the fi rsl ; three i i ooks are
not the snmc i rr ttro Chi neso. the l i betan ancl Sans-
krit, traelitiong, all the B,utheirs rnention,td tr,ro ther
Eucl cl ha' e cl i i ect di *ci pl es. If we bol i cv.: i n the
trntl i ti on, t,hegO bcrOkg rnugf, |ave bccl pro.Irrceci
i n central frrdi a on or neor ttrer nri ddl o Gartgel i c
pl a,i n. As for tho forrr[i r book, rr,l l vorsi ons agreo
i n al tri trr,l i rrrq i t, to Del vu{nrnrrl n, The Ku-sl ut-i ott-
k; (
ffi.Etft;-* ),
& cornmentary on the Ablti-
of llu-kuu,ng ( g)C
who is
eai d to l ri been a, pupi l of Hsi i an-tsang, says
th*t llov:r*rlmtan w&g
rnau of tho first centurv
after tl:e lJudr-llri.r,'e pu,rinihl:iina. He was not L
i l i rcct, rti .l ci pl q of t5o Br' l dh*. Accordi ng to t' e
' ornrl i ti on
st' northern Brrtkl l ri srn. Asoi <a l i ved aboub
a iiundreri you,rs afr,err tho ISucldha's p:rrinibbiinr.r.
ehr<,rnologi.eally, Dovoirlrmo,n livccl sorne
i rrno
;rri or
to ttre ki ng.
' l ' he
Trrr,vel g of Hsi i a.n-l sa,ng,
Ttt-t' i ttg-l t.ti -yi t' al ri (
JqEE!fi r=11),
vol . V, testfi es
thnt thr-:rr: w&g & i-rig rrlrrrastory in. a srrburb of the
rnetrr:pcl i s of the <:orrntry c,f Vi i ri kha, and l )eva,3:r,r.
nrtr,n rrrrote tho Vijituna-kfi.,1a in this n'ionrrstory.
Yi eri khrr, i s i cl enti {i od wi th S6,keta, fhab i s, Ayti dhyu,,
wl ri el r nl so l i es i n eentral Indi a al ong tho Ganges
and haif rvs,y beLwoon fl6,rir{ and SrAvasl.i. It
fol f ows thon tl rat, the Tti i i i ttna-kri t1a, toe, w&s pro-
tl obi y
bofore fhe So,rvEgti vi -rda school
BFreed to norLl r=west l nrl r.f,
Vasurrri tra, euthor ol tl i e l )hatul rA|e anri the
P r olcrtr u, &ce ordin g to t tr o K u
sl m
r o n- A'i (
{&*-ffi Ee
vol . I), l i ved i n the earl y pert of tho l brrrth
eenturv after tire Buddlia'g death. He prr:bably
lived abttut u hrrnrlrt,rl y,.:tr,rs s,ftor Asoka. lfsrirr.n-
tBa,ng' s Iti nerarl ' (vol , II) says that 1asurrri tra
rVtote t,tn I )hdtukd,rla and tho Prukaru,,ra ne&r
Fuskr,,ru.r'u,Li in the
district. It rna,3,-,
t,lrerelbre, lro inf t:rreel from t,lris that, thr,so [wo
hooks wcr$ prorluee<l after the fiarvdstiv6da echoo].
r r r over i t o nor t , h- west I ncl i a, , ' I { f , t yayani put r a,
author erf Llre final i.rook. ttrc'Jfiiy,a,pra.stltd,na',
eccordi rrg to Ll srrrun-tsrr,ng' s l ti nera.ry (vol . IV),
' wnrLo
tho trerr,t,i so rr,f,
' fl l mmsi i vana ' I' ornpl o,
fi vo
l rtrndrod l l euut,h-wegt of Ci rrs,v$ti , i n the fourth
eer r i r l r y o, f t or t , hn Hr r r l t l hn' s t l eo, t l r ' . ' l ' nmast l vana
i ,l xr.t1-r1:osetl brt be uornewl rero l rear rnorl erri Dol tri ,
Tlre firct, thst tlie book r^'as produced irr the east,
t.e., i n contr*l Inel i a anel no+" i n tho north-wnsf,
i s al so rrrenLi {rn{rd i rr tho tl l al ouui l thi ted-sdstrn
(r' ol .
Wo mi l y
l rrtrsurue,
therefure, Ll i r:,l rnoel <,f the
Hr]1ir,1n treatigesr wero prc,duced irr contral Inclia,
trel'cire tho iiarvd.stivtldrr echool bega,n to florrrislr
ur r r nr Ll r
u' <: st , I nr l i t .
E€rvr:ri t,re*tises rn&Jr llr-r divicieci into t.hree
: ca,rl y, rni ddl {, o,nd l ato, accci rdi ng to t,hei r
rlrlctr'inRi eontenbs nrrd their fc.rrrn of expreseion.
firsE tlrree, Lltr* ,\rzitgitiysilrvd..11a, Lha Ltharntctskan-
d,ha and Llte Prajflapti, corno trnder the first group.
The rrext two, the I;i i i, l he I)hd,tz' .-kri ua,
como i nt o t i r e mi dr i l t ) gr ol l p, whi l o t , he l asb t wo,
tlrc I' rukararta a,nd t,he .Ir-uTrraprastlrunrt, bolong
t o t he l at o gr oul l
A. Earl 11 -l [ t h, i rl harno. ] ' rorn t he f act t ] rat t ho
f i r st t hr eo t ' r eat i sr . s ar o al l at t r i buf ed t o Li r e i mmo.
di at e r i i sci pl es of t ho Br i dcl ] r a. sr r ch as Sr i r i put , r a,
Maudgal . y. i ) rf nrr, . ] I ahakarrsr l . i rl t r or I {at va. vana,
rve ehorrkl i nt or t ha, t oven i l t hev were r-ror t , ho
a, et , ual aut hors, r' a, rl . v Abhi i l harma w-as devel ol . red
f rom t he met horl ol ' di scourscr pract i sed by t hose
di sci pl es-
' f l rev
werei verserl i rr . \ bl i i cl hu. rnra and
t hoy v' erre de-c. ; ri l rec{ &s t l i e aut hors of t hcse books
boca, uso t hoi r rl i scour. i os provi dod t , ho prot ot ypt r
for fhem.
I r r ea, r l y Abl r i , l l r u, r r na what was or i gi nal l y meu, nt
b5. ' t l ro s' orrl ^\ l ri ri rl hi rrrnu. wus t ho met , hot l of di . . r-
courso, t hu, t i s, t i . ro e-rposi t i on of t ho sut , ra as t he
l nw ar. rrl i t , s svst ernat i sai . i orr, Of t i ro vari ous hi ncl s
ot ' Abhi t l l ur. rni a, , ouri v r\ bhi ri t rnrrna s, l ono rvas
di rect l y c{rnnr)ot rr(l u' l t l r t hc . l qant a (Ni ka11a\ .
' "[ l he
AL' ' hi dl i arrrri . r ri f h. i , t er rl evel opment gru, drrul l y
<l et a"cheri i t : , r, i f f rorrr t l ro srl t ra ani i , dovel opod
docLr i nes r . r nr l <l i scor r r ses of i t s own. At f i r st t , he
r, ' uri r. rrrs sr: l rooi s hni l rnrrcl r roscrri bl s, nce t rncl cl oso
comerj l )()n(l r-. ncf i t rt oi rr-r anot her, brri , as t i rno u. ' ont
on, t hev dri f t ed &ps, rt , t ri l rl rer. sl roq' ed gj et l t di f f e-
r euce u, nt l cl i scr eDnnc' . . i n l l r ei r t l oct r i nai cont ent s
t r t t cl t i r i . i r f or r r r g' ol ' expr c ss, , , r r .
I he f i ai el t i -par71dt 1a i s, i t s rrrent i onod i t of oro,
rr, coi l ect i orr of t ecl rrri cal t crms, &rranged i n nrrmeri -
cal orCer (l rr: rn ono L(-) e' l er-en) i n oxt r, cbl y t ho
same rn&nner a,s that of tlto SaruTiti-s{ttra, of t}re
Di rghu Agan, a, (Dt , gl n \ i l ; arya).
' f l re
i l orns con-
t ai ned i n t hi s bool < oro more nrl nl erous t han t hoso
of ' Li ro Su, i . g| t i , -si l t ra. Tl ro cl e{i ni t i ons and oxposi t i ons
&re morg el al ; or: r, t r; arrd mi nut o ;
and what rnay bo
cal l ecl abi i i dharmi <. r der{i ni t i rrn has been adopt ed.
Tl t o I )I wrryt f l ' sl c{i nd, hi t i s a col l ect i on of i mport , ant
Coct ri nes avrrl t heori t ' s of t ho earl y Bucl cl l ri st pori od,
a,s fortnd in the Aoarna.
' ,fhev
deal wit,ir the
prucept s ant l l ' ai uh of t l , u l ay peopl o, such as t he
pct f i . ca si k. +d1t ut l dni (t he l a' vrnen' s I i ve precept s),' ud,ro irotdpattyangrl (tho i;onsl.ituent pa,rts of
t ho l ower st , age of conversi on) arrd cat zt i i ro auet ya-
pro,sdd,a (tho four kinrls of' pcrr.ftx:t faith)
eoncerni ng bho pruci , i r: o t rrrl errl i ght enment of
disciples E:iir.) &io rnemb€rr:: c-ri' t,lro
srrch as
f.our 6r6,ntunya-',a
1' rrri,*,s of iho lit' e crf thc
reeltrso), tho four abhijilu
and pract i ce), t ho f our ury1a-t : q, mi a, (nobl ei l i neago),
f t rur sat i t ual c-prnl t ul t , t {ri gl rt exert i ons), f our
Td. d. hi pdCo
(bases of ps1 cl i i c porver), l bur snr. rl i -
prast l rdrm (e, ppl i cat i on
of mi ndf ui noss), f . our d"rya
sat r yo ( nobl e t , nr t hs) , t l i o r r obl e ei ght f t - i l <l pat h, t he
f errr ri i t , i t ri rt u. (t ranrl ui l l i t r-),
t i rc f our apramd, na
( t r ounr l l i r ss r r i odi l at i ons) , t i r i - - f ovr Cr u p, , 1a aonwpat t i
( at t ai nr uent of f or r nl esg t nedi t at r on) , t he f our
sanndhi - bi t r l t ' t t r Li
r l ) r &{ r t i r Lr
of r n, : di t at r c, n) and t he
Beven [ 61] ht yd; " t i a ( 1r i c1or > of * i sd. - r nt )
t ho- ce deal i ng
wi t h t i r e f r r nr - l anr nnt al t he, , r , - ar r ( l cl oct r i n* ; of Bud-
dhi srn, e' ; cl r ; . +s rni -. eel l art eous vi ces (ksudl al cauast u,
k i ai a) , t he: 12 concr ol l i ng pcwer s, t he l 2 sons e
organe arrcl obj ect s. t he f i vo skandho, t i ro vaf i ouo
sl emei rt s of t i re worl d (ba, h, t t -dndt u) and t he t heory
of trvcir-o causes. In the sirnple
f i rral nut hori t y rr. ' as sougl i t i rr t l i o Agart a (Ni kd, ya)
arrcl ihe
frorn the sr-rtra are expatial,ed in
ei t rt ai l
$yst 6nr&i i cal l _v t l reori sod ai t er t , ho El anner
of al : hi d. har r r r i c, l e. f i ni t . i on * l ni i espl anr r , t i on.
' l l I rc
I ' ral i i t t Tt t i rrt
t l rc
' l ' rl rrrt an
l ri l nsl at i on consi st s
rrf t , i rrr-x-r {-l ene(; pt i t (pra1i l o7t t i \ rsl Lok, a (worl d, }, l r. et rt
(carr-ce) ls,r:,rd irarnut (ir,ct.ionl. -tJlrt ille hetrr
7n' tjfia7tti
*l onr. r$ rransl i t f ecl i nt o
(l hi nese
Ef f i ; # ).
' I l rc
1t ru. j r1u7; t l l T' r1r 7t ut -t rt t t t ! i i
i s ; i , sr: rt . of
l t oprrt ar
cr€eJ. l "rrr i nst ai ree, t . l re h, et u-' praj i l rt , pl l ei escri bes
i ho uarrsel i ot ' t l re se\ ' en Lreq, sures oi ' t i re cul cru, uart [ , -
ri . j d ( t l re rrrr rvcrgal rnorru, rcl r ). I t abo rl escri bes
I,her t' ,rrtlrnato signs ir,ncl exceiletln aspects of tho
I Jrt dl l l rn
t , ho ei l ueeg of vt ri ous , . ' vi i desi res and t he
prarrt i c* of ' r' i rr, rres i l rnong *l l serl t i ent , bei ng-c;
t , i t , , r rr*u. : r: * r. l f t , ht . l t i d. t arru-l -, t Au (t -rr 1; hr: physi eal
wor l , l , t l r st i l ,
j i r , nei g, r r , l
1' r =el t at i on) : r i t cr car , r ses
of l ' *ri ot rs l -cJrms of physi t ' ul : rnrl rnent r-t l phenornena.
l l r, r. rrv si rf ra, s I rom t l rr. r Lqat nu, are qrrot ed as
ur r f hr : r i t y.
' l ' hr :
cxpl an&t i ong nr r : pl ai n r r , nd si mpl e.
They ilt' e entirel.v irrelc,""-rint to tiio funtlarnental
doc: t , ri rre crf l l uddhi sm expounrl ed i n t l ne Sai t gi t i -
' puruaue.
or t he f )i f l , rt na-. skanrl ha. The l oka-praj f i , -
apl i , w-hi cl i i s want i ng i n t he Chi nose t rarrsl at i t t n,
expounds t he genesi s a, rrd dest ruct i on of t he wori d
i n 1, l re same rn&nndr as i n t l i e Aggaf t . f l a Sut t art t o
of tb)n Digha St)l:tiva. lllis
"osttiirgotr-' ,*
of the
l oka-pra. i r-"ct pt j i s a cl evel opnt enl of t hat expounded
i n t l re Cl ri neso l , ol : q, -t t t , st hd, na, -sf t t ra of t he Di rgh, a
- l eat na, wi r i cl r r l r : scr i bes t he wor i ds of t he gods,
l i ul ua, n bei ngs. t l crrrons i . t nt l so f ort h. SLrch a t l reory
i s a poprrl ar creed u-l i i r. i r i ra, s not hi ng t o do wi t h t ho
t r-' ri rrru, rr'
<l ol t ri no of l i t rddhi sm, Yet t he Pra; j i apt i ,
l i k+. : t l ro, \ unqt t i -i t nryuya and. Ll rc l )/ . t ", : zrrrn-sko, ndha,
dr. i rvs nrrt , l rori t , . l . f ' rrl ru t l re t ext s of t i rc i qama *rrl
exJrl ai ns t , hei rn or t l rrarrges and urri f i es t l i em. I n
t l t i s rospecl , t host r t l rree Abhi dharrna books of bhe
t , rarl v peri od havc, t i re s*rne ci raract er.
I J. Al t hi . dharnt a, of t h e mi ddl e per, i od. . f n t he
oa, rl y ' \ bl ri rl harrnrr, t l n: vrl ri orrs schooi s, i f we ci osei v
ext i mi no t , honr, l rad si i rno secbt rri an charact er of
t hei r ov' n, brrt , rrs a rri rol e t he Abt ri rl i rarr)& school s
r-, f t he enrl v peri r. rri had urucl r si mi l a, ri t y wi t h ono
srr<; t her.
' I horo
rn' u, s i i t t l e t hnt cl earl v di st i ngui si red
ouch schocri . i n t he Abl : i dl i arma of t he ] nrddl e
poriotl, hodevor, lve firrd characteristics which
t l i st i ngui sl i t l ronl f rom e&cl i of her. Lot us exami ne
L}le l' i,j fil'rna
lcd, y a
i us tra and the I ) hd,t t t.
k d47 a
i a.s t r a,
whicir are Abhidh&rrn& books of t,ho Ss,rv6,stivdda
echool of t he mi ddl e peri od.
The Vijnana-haya eloarly, expressed for tlro
f i rst t i rne t ho t hougt rt of " t he real exi st ence of
phenr: mena i n t ho t hree st at es of t i rne ". I b was
irr eontrast to the propasrtion of l!audgalv5,5' 11n*
(whc bel onged t o srroLher school and was prosu-
mabl y r of t he l i l uddt i a' s f amous ri i st : rpl e of t he seme
;rame) that whab exists at lire prescrnt moment
re&lly exists, but tlrat the existence of 1:be frrture
and the past is a,n appoarance arr<i not i.], realifSt, e,
view that wos ovidettly held by the -\Iahdsanghilia
school and l a, t er on al so by t t re Saut rdnt i ka
schooi .
' I l i e
Sarva. st i vi da phi l osophers cn t he
, -rt her
hand mai nt ai ned t l rat rrot onl y t he presont ,
l , i rt t he past End f ut urs phenornena al so have roal
exi sl ence (es dn ent i t y) t hroughout t he t hreo
slates of time. Tho Vijiiarto-kd,ya cleariy &sserrod
the reai exiet.ertce of phenomona in the three
st -8t er of t i me. Yet . t t re i dea of t he everl asbi ng
exrsrence of ent rt y wa-q nob so cl earl y essort ed.
Thi s rdea *' as expresseci i n det ai l rn t he Jf i d, na-
l trosthuttct,
an -\bhi .dharna l rook of tl i o l aber pr-.ri t.rti ,
r.rnd i ts col nmenr&ry, ti re Il qhati hha,-A' stl stra,.
IJr.ri . i n orcl er to a,r-i rni t, Li re real exi stence of' pherro-
men& i rr tho tl rree states of trme, the real exi stence
ot entrt.y ni ust l te presul l l x)sed rr.s i bs l ogi cal basi s.
Therefbre, we musL tako for grtrnted that, the i tl eer,
crf enti uy had beerr
l rresurneri
i n the l ' i .j fi una-kaua
though we {i nd no such term or i doa u,s
' evr:pl u,sti ng
enti i ]'
i n i t. ]Ioreover, ti re asserti on oIthe Ptrti gu,l u,-
vaci i ns of the \-ti tsi pr.rtri ,va scrhool that l l rere
exi sts ptrd,gal a,, rvl i i cl r keel rs ki i ,rrni l , gr;i rrg {)n. i :t.
i n tl re T' i -i i tdna-ki ua, contrasterl rv' i th t,he Sarvi Ls-
t i uadi ns' non- ego t l l eor v t i r at t i r er e exi st . s r r o such
t hi r r g t r , s
l t t r , Jr / t zi r t .
I ni r . smr t l i r i l s t he r t l al ( r xi sl t l t r : t r
i rl renomenal
i rr the thrce statos ri f ti rne anrl
ani trna-' "*' 7d,c (non-ego thoorl ' ) consti tute the car-
di nal poi nt s of t he Sar vast i vr i da r l oct r i r r e, t i r e
I' i j i rd,na-kd37a, whi ch emphasi serl these trvo poi nts.
l ai cl tho theoreti crl l foun<l a,ti on of the st,:hool . Of
course. ti re argu.ments arl drrcecl were sLi l l so pri mi
t i ve t hat t hev' had t o be cl evel oped f ur t her and
expat,ratecl i n i etai l i rr the l ater Abi i dharma books.
In adtl i ti on to tl rese argumerrts, we fi nd the four
theory desci'ibecl in t,his book.
p ret
o ( cond if i ons
are lwtu ( direct c&use or subject
pr a,t t
ay a, dl cnt h e rua ( oltj ec t
y a, s a t no, n e,'ntar o
(i nrmecl i ate)
pratuaya atd ad,hi pal z. (addi ti onal or
-prutl l uue.
The book was tho fi rst to
cl escri be t,hi s thc.ory.
' l he
Dhdtrt-kaya i s corrcerned wi th menbai attri -
t-rutes, u' hi l e the subj ect-m&tter of the Vi j rl .una-
kaya w&s the mind itseif. Dhi.ttt here rnsnus
el ernenl ,s rvhi ch consti tuto the attri butos of ths
nrind. Kd,ya mo&ns glorrp. Tlierofore, Dhd.tu-
kd,ya rmeans ri
of attributes which consLitut€g
tlre mind itself. Ilental attribrrte i.g ealled,ko
(or cai tta) i n Buddhi st termi nol ogr,- Though
tho word or concept of cai tasi ko (Pal i
: cei usi ka)
rvas founrl in the early Abhrdharma books, it had
not been systemati cai l y di scrrssed. In the Dhri tu-
kdua, howover. parti Ni ve acbi ons of the mi ncl are
classified &s foliows : ten ntahd,blvirnika dhurrna,,
tsr kleiq-tnalodbh{rntika dha.rnta, ten u,pakl,ela
bhumika dhurnta, live kleia,, fr.vo d,rsti, frvo d,harnw,
stx a ij fiana,- lcd.y u, aix spari a
a' eix a edand
stx sarnjioa-kdya, six and six tfp?a-
kriua. Of theso groups, thoso which follow the,fivo
kle,|a, wero already mentioned rn the Aqal,r,n ( |l i kdy al .
But i n thi s book they are expl ai ned moro rni nut*l l y
and each group is clearly defintd. Tlie mothod
of delinition is tho one devsiopod from tha,t, of the
earl y Abl ri dtrarma. On the other }i and, t,he ten
rna itd.b I t tt m.i lc a,
dlwr ma., t, ho ton kI e 6 a
m,a,lt d
b hfi.mi ka
d.ha,nriq. and tho ten upa,kleia-d,harnta appear for the
first, tirno in ihis book. This classifi.carion w&sl &
forerunner nf later cla,ssific{rtions of caitssikaa.
Of course, not all caitasikos &ro comprised in it,
nor i e the cl assi fi cati on eompl ete. And no &ttempt
has been matle in tiris booi< to discrrss caitasikas
as a wlrole. tr'or r,so find aix uijfidna-kd,qa included
here, whieh. from the later point of vieiv, ought. to
be consi rl orocl as mi nd i tsel f.
C. Abhid.ha,rma of the lote period. The Pralcarana-
idstra. and the,etlfrna-iastro belong
to the Abhidharme of late poriod. Chineso tradi-
tion rn&kes Yasrrmitre the author of both the
Dhatukaya (FqffiEffF$.tra'ft
of the middlo
Abhidharina end ,rra t:rqrcarar1n (
ft$frFFIilE**fr )
of t , he l rr, i , e peri od. I Jrrt . l : et , w-ei . rn t , l t es' . r t wo bocks
we f i nr l
goni c
t r i r l es of r i c. , el r r l ) r n{ ! f l l ar r ci ci i t i . nl r ,
' f l re
. qr, rr1€ pl ohl l rl rns i rr' () t rei l l {)(l rl rf ' l ' er. nl l r.
' I ' l rt '
f ) l t i t t t ' l ; , . t t i t r i nf r or i t t ct ' r l t l r o
i l r ol , l er r r s
: r , I I cl gi i l ' t '
roi t -r11 ki t rri r. rf
g, rl t t t i ort .
' l ' I i e
Pru! r' rt rat t , t r*' -r-rs: , t , nl i nr)rl
1! 1r - , 11r r 11r r i g! 11- c or l r { ' r s<t l t t t , i ot t r i . Tl r i s wl r . ' . ' t r I } r - [ r ?r ' ' i r -
i r-. aki r-rE rl i : vel opi ncnL. F r-. r i rt sLai rr: , : , i : \ f i l s i rr
: i r n J' r r t kar at t t t , t , l r r r . ' b exi st i ng t i r i t r gs ! l or q { j r - t
gr ui r l i c( l i nt O hvc r l ut r : i i r ; r i t : s : r i . l t t t ( l t l i r t f . er i , r i i f l r l
i r ni r f i l ) , , ' , t i t , t . t i L' u ( r r r t : t r t r i l at t ' r " i t t r r t r ' : r ) , ci t l r t . , : i pr r t : t ul ; t r . t
1' r ! , r i oui l : r r ui s uf
1: or ver
vr ' l r i , , r i t mo\ - ( ) r nt t i t l r i , l t t l
r rrat t er) *t 1( I , r. ! a{}rt , t l , rl rs ( grrq}i rl rr gct rl t l B. rrri corl di t i one d).
\ \ ' n rnrrJ- Frrl ' l , l rt rt t l re r*t , i on*l i st i cr upprol ci r,
uni r l t € l o t he Al r l r i t l hr t r mr r , l t egnt t wl l i r t l r i s l i v t : -
. ' r r , . r - r t t r er ci : i s s i f i t : nt r or i . l - l i r her t o, e{ i st i r l q i , hi ngs
r i ' i ' r ' r ' Ll r t ssi i i cr l i r r t o t l r o l i ve sl , : r ut t l l ' r t , l r vel ve 1i ) l i ! t r . 1
t t , ( . 1.
, . : 1i t r . r - l r r ! l ui t , r
( ) r
f ' or ; r st n, r t i T, r ost . t t at t ct , , l . ' l ; cso
, r ; i : i : ; r i i l Jr r i i i ns l l r t ( l l i t ' t - n
' i r t
r t : qe 1t ' r , i l n i i r e 1i nr r : of '
t ' : j ur u, l I { r r i i i l } i i sr n.
' l ' ht l
f l l r i ' t l vi r . s t o , : i r . t : si i J
: . t i l i i r r i : s i r r s t r , ' l r i r \ r ' t V r t s t o
1r t - r t ' t ] i ve
l i r c i r l i l ) i ) er -
r r i : i l t { , i t ( ' { - , r l r i sr r t i sf : t r l t , or i r l es. i .
l r u, i r . f r - r i nr ' ; S
t t t t cl t t t ) t t -
. . : : r
t l l ' . u i t l i t l ' r r r
l i t r l ) ( ' l so
of t t . al r i evi n; l { he . [ i r t t l dhr st
' , , r
i r : f l ! i r vi i r . l l . Hr t t ; I l r ese ui , 1 cl as; i f i cat i ol r g i 4' er e
r . , , . l e r : l r n l e 1 o e ' r ; t r r t i r t * i t l l t . h r r r g J l i s i t r v l t r t i e , o l r . j e c -
. . . r l . r . ar . r r , . l r at i r : f f i f l l f ' . I t r ' , ' l t s
o t - ( ' l l ( t vt r f i r i s di : l - t . ct
- 1, , r .
t ' l r o f i r r e- nr r . nr l l r ' r , l r yr ur ur t 1! ' ag l r r i Ll ci or vn
j n
' " . -
l t 7q1l ; t 17t 11. r t L. I l r r l cl ussi f i r ' r l i , i on i r l scl l f ' r r t l i r n
1. r f i r l !
i l ni !
nf t he hr r ol i nt t r ] r +; r ci t t t r t r r l t l t er i s f r r i l l '
. . : i t , l l l i r r i . . ( i , ' f l r r , . n, ( . r or l ( l er ni r l g
t , i r e t { ' n i ( ; r nt s t - r f
, , . l ; 11r . ; n1, t her r el at i on of <i i st r i l - r r r t i ot : . r r r r i st r bt , r , i i -
: .
' '
i or r of t l r r : ol c l cl as si f i c: r t i l r ns
( i nt o i i ve sl ' ' , r ndl t ' i ,
", i ' ei r-e i rl ui rs, na and ei ght ecr. dl i . ut t t , ct c. ) wi t , i r one
; . ' ot her r s expkl i nt : t l . Next comes t l : e di sct r s. t i ot r
: t l re i i ems f rorn t ert ?nehdhhi l mi l ca' rl h"anna t o t he
i , r r, edrt n, i -kdyo, , wl r i ch wef e di sensserl i n t he
r' l ; f i ! 111; f i i 1rt .
ri nd t l i e f i ve sl ; an. rl hi ?. t wel vo dynl at t n
. : .
l ei r i r t ean r l h' 1t u. . I n t ho l ) hdt ukd4t d t l i e mt ' nt al
r. : ri l . rui es w€rs cl *ssi f i eet i nt rl l , cn na. l r' i i bl t i i , ni l ' : a-
; ; . t rrt 4.
t , en l . . I ei a-mah. d, bht l ni ku, -dl t a, rnt u t ul d t en
" , . : ' - , : ; . i ehl i i i nt i ka- dl t ar ma : t , l i i r i ' v i n ai i . r r ne\ s
= a: - si i i r . r i t , i el t . I n t hc f ' r r t knr t t . r t r : . t i r e cl o- csi f i cai r ( ) n
' . , -, c
i l r-t . f t er exps, nded &1(l t f i R t , en A: u. crrl anal i . f l l t l i , f t -
' i : * t l l t drrrLd vref e a, l , l cd t o rnnk<-' f ort v
g, t f . ri t t ut es
: , -. rgei , her. Moreover, a, l l t l re st rbj eet s, f rorrr one
: -l rrl ' l n f n f , en cl hnrrna. whi ci r werr, t reat ed i n t he
; .
. . t i ! t ' -I t aryri . qn
nre rl e, rl t r+' i t h mor6, f ul l y en' : l t , ho
: i , r ! . f r or n Ll i e { i ve pr ec' e1r t s t o t ho t wol ve l i t i ks
' -
ri Li c&t i orr. {, f e cot l si (l cr(}(l nl ore deepl v. And
. . , t , 1. , r 1 * neI kl ei a nr o { : l &ssi f i od r nt , o ni net y- ei gh!
' r l , s.
Thi n cor ! $t i t ul ei a now el assi f i eat i on.
. -; : nr: nri ri ze, i n Ll t a Pral : ara, na t ha doet ri nos
" : . , , i r . ed i n t l i e Abhi r . l l t sr ma
booksr of t ho ear l y
t t , i i ; ! r l i e por i nds ar e n, l 1 l r r ouqht t o3et her and
, . . ' r ; , ' . , 1
i i i r t l r t - . r t nt ( l i t ${ ) f t r t f
( : our pl ct i , l r r . TLr i s
- t r . gl i
f o have | ; 6r t n r onsr r l er er i t l t e r n( ) st
: . . ' . : 1, r r r t uf t t i e f Lt t r , l at nent nl , 1 i r l r i r l l r al ma, books
- 1. .
: i { . \ i r * t i r ' ar l n sr l l r Ool .
' I ' } r cr e
ar o t wo com-
' . . r *
r r l t l r r r l r onk sr : er r l s t . o l r avi : l ) eea usecl r l g
: i . *! i i r. t r, \ t . I rr t hn ol cl est
l hi nese 1' ersi orrs
i l r f r r r i El . l l e r : l ' t he seconcl c ont ur y A. C. ,
. i r i , nL l l r r ee r : l r apt , er s Eef e sel ar at el y t , r ans-
; i 1, t . . : ; ' t r vo ar e : , t i l l est , ant
A cor nnr ent f t r y
. -
i : : ri
(' l r, rnt {. r
l vl rs wri i t . el by L}i rarnrat ri t a
, r r t l r ( ' r r nt r r r v
. r . r r r l t r ansl eLer l i nLo Cl r i nese
: t
, =. . , - ,
. - ,
rrr.' .Estra, t,i rc J ri, treati ng
- - : , : 1. ; , l i r ar m&
t opi cs as a w- t r ol e. i s c* l l ed t , he
k45r ; - i , 1st r , i
( t i r i : i r l - l nk- t r ei ) , t i se) , r l ' hr l o t , i r e oLi r er
pr €. , . t , l 1i ng f i ' , r ; . l r : l t r oat t i : cnr par t i ai i y i i nr l f l f e
' ' r r i i r : ' ' i i l t e
f ) Lt i i e- . \ ds: r a
( t he
i r . ni b- t r eai i s" . s) . I n t , i i i e
i r , - , , r k. i r ] i t i r o l oI i . : s
r i i scr r sser i ur t i hr l Sar vr i st i vi i , r , l a
s, , i r , , ' r l i r r o t i eat r d i ; us a u' ] 1, - r l e. r : r t i . e ei r t i r ! chet r t er : t
( , ! kt i , r ! : . a1, - r r ( t r ) t r CCl l i i l t . - ) . , 1; i r i , . t i . i . i t i L! r t i . t i ef s l .
j i i Gi t . , L,
i r r ' r s' l r : m) ,
! : , r ; t , , , i &' t i ur t t , ; t ' r t hd! ' huf a r t r - l : i r
ei c I n()rl t s ot ' ma. t . t or ).
t r i rl r i . t ] Q { c
(l I 1' .
rol l r rl q pn l . L(l i p l t -! i .
sart t t i , l l t i (rn*--cl i t , at i t -rn t ant i ci -. , 1i i
. . ' i ' ; rs).
Ti re dr. ' c'
t ri t t r. s expourl r-l eri
so i l xt remFi J' t er: ! rni t : : i i i i l rrj
r: r-rrrci sr. t . i l l , t , 1. l t ev i r, re v*r' J, ' , l i t t i cri l t t o i i o l l t t rl t rri i )(i {i
h1- i . l ros, : r1-l l o i rre nrJt \ ' ' ' t l l i
. '
orsei i i i r t , he , j ocrr: . l og
i rnr-l i t l ro rrref i ror, i s ol r l ro -{l rLri cj . i rarnra. l f i re rl rrrl rt g*'
r n€nt of i . i i c ei gi : t ci r t pt , <- ' r s t l nd i hc t l i vi si or r r nt o
J)ar' rrrl ral , i i . {
i rr r. n. r' i r ch€rI , t er i ack t l ni r' -v , l n<l
q\ ' . $t r ) r ni l . t i l r
t l r t - l uql r t .
( - l r - r nsecl uer t t l - r ' ,
t i t er o 14- aS
r l r f i ' er ' r , nr ' c of i nl , er pr et , r r t i on al r r , ) r i F pr ol essor i al
t l : i r r L- r ' r - . t i r r r t i * l r t he i : r r ok r vas hi ghLr . est eemei l r s
i . r l i l i ni i l ; l e t r . xl i , cui ; f ci ' r t uel eni . : ; t - . f
I r hi l , osopi r l ' .
' I ' i , r' , *t .
, l i r t ' rt , r i 11l r-1ppe{. 4f , i c, l s l vt , t ' e l a1. . et r"r' rl l eei ; t i .
i n t i rt r f i i t i t ous t , r. rt rt . , 1en1, ; : . t r' . t , i rn . ' t ! ahi t i l t h. ri . . si i -sl i r' l ' ' r' r.
; i . 1' J-{ i i r{ ^ I l I PLl ' I ' Jt . \
-. \ l l
i I I i ) I i , { R-\ I . \
A S' f R. \
e r r s t i on l.r'
n ri L,lii nr' -"c t r,,r lat ir r:i (trf
# f{ lfl&;,fi i.
' l ' l r e
. cl r or l l t o u- l r r r l l i i l i , r l r . r i l ge, l i : r Ll I l kno\ ' . ' n.
\ ol i g t . l r er c t r r i . r - . r ut ! t r r r r r i r : t . r " l r i i i t
j l : l
r ^qf l , r ( i l nq l t , s
o: . r gi r i . N, r gar . l r i n. l i r t t l ' j i - r t l t er ; t l - , , ' i l t t l r t l r shi p Of
1] 1j g { nl t i o a
\ - i r i . ; i i r i r t : i I l r r i t - l l r ai l i t i i ' l i i r at n I - l s' . , an-
t : { r l . ng
t } uLt ; i
' r . l i , r i
j er i t
, i
i } ; e Sr r 1I l l nj f i 1' 61 sr - : hcol .
\ -f l t si l rr. r
t : -& ] i r, : -, . rl i ; r, \ ' r rrl
rl v i r. V i r t si u Lt t ri ' "' rr, , l -rr. rt , t l t e
par 1, 1, 1! r 1- i ' r f i 4
( i ' gr - r - r . i or , ' t ; " i t r e' ) . g' l r i 1h
u' as oi l egot l l v
t , he l r i i si r : r \ l ( ' \ 1' of t l i e i , , r t si pl l t r i vi r s<: l t , . r ol . i * t r ot
t : x; r , r r ur i l ed i l r t i r i q l ' ' , t r t l i . T' l i t r o i ; ; i t , st at cnl el l t l n
( j l ' r i r r esp
l Jr i r l r l i r i sl l r gr r l t I
l i l
- i f f i i l H ( l hl : aar r -
t sn" r r g- ehi . ' ' hi , r ' ol . JI Lt , r i ' t hc r . i l r [ . t ' si x' l l t c] ent Ll r l , r ,
l vl t ere \ rht si put ra i s regarrl l ' ri &s a
of r, l i o
| ' [ a] i 1r. 5; i f ; qi ri ka school . I t i s l t cl i rr*: Drr' ri rahl p l . ] rut
Vrrt sri out ra wi t S &nof , hrrr n&rnc f or t l ' ' o ] l rl i l rrsal i -
ghi k: f scl r r i ol , beeause t . l r e : \ I r i i r l r sni i gi ' i i a11 s1' 11; . r ol
- , vas
f i l ' st - . f or r nded b] ' Vr t t : l r pt l r ' i & i l ) a! i : \ ' . r j
i i pr ' - l t . t a)
monks. Al so. wo f i nd r nc. r nt i oner l i t r ui i r s i l ouk t l t e
doet r i i r e of " ' . ho i nnat o pr r r i t v oi t r r enl a, l nn. t r l r o
and: u: qrri red cont arni rl a, f i o{r ' f evi l , : l +' si res " 11nr, i t , i rc
eJoet ri no of t he nuro at ant . ' ; l crt as
(uncrrnci i t ronod).
bot l i of whi ch are sai d t o he ri re vi ew oi t , i re
l \ l ahi i sangl r. i krr, . l l orect ' €' r, t be doct ri nos o[ ' ri r+ S; . r, nr
mi t i - va school &r o not l eel i knowr l - I t t t l r o I i at h, , t '
aa, t l l t u. , t weni l ' -t wo vi e$' s are mert t i ot t t ' , -i as t ' hoso ot '
i i ; o Sarnrni t i -r' * *"l ql r-rl .
' I ' ht : ro
i s t )o
f )/ )rl Ll vt )
cr-.rit,rarir cti
)rr. betv/een t l resq t, rvon ti'
Llvo v' i e rvs iin,l
i nogo wl r i ct r : r r e' i l sser t e( l i n t l i i s book. I t r bot l l e
I l oi t l l S.
t heso t u' o l rrl oks a4rr-' t ' w' i t l l ea, l r , : t i rerr.
l - r - r r oxampl , : , i n bot l i t ex\ s t : i j f i dFt t " { r . xl r r r : ssr ' . r i
f oree). adj f t apt i
(t rnt ' xpresso, l f r>i ' r: r-' ) , rt i l , , i l ' t
( t r el r n, vi our . i Lsci J- r l i r t n) ar t l i r i r : l r t r l od i n r r r T; : r t t r ) l t t r \ r ) .
I n t hi s r e. spect . v' e { i nd t } r at t i l j s l ext r , ' r r r . sr ' nr c I l r * - r
vi ewg of
' Uot h
Szr ' t nmi t i r - , t s : t , nr l f l . i l i t r ; oi , : ; , i kns.
Pr obal l l y, an. : \ l r hi r i i r r t , i ni a r ; i ' , r . . r t J. i r l sr ; l r - i ee ; c, i t l r r l
l j ar nmi i i v. r sr : hocl
gsl pt '
{ . o i - ' r . I r nl e, i r i ' i r i r } i ; l l r r t -
sar r gl r i ka t t ' i t r i * t n, r i t ' s. L" t - , " r - i t e ) ar nnl i t i r l i scl r ool
wAq \ ' 9r 1'
r ^ l i r ( ' t i { ' ,
' f i : e ' 1 , i r i : , , t l r , t - r t i t i t i , J i : , i r ' t i t l ' !
1 , 1 r , 7 e ' l n t a l n s . i r : i
i { , er : pe i r t r i . si r r r i " i ; , r ' k, l t , ' , t r l r . r l l t l r e e( ) r 1t , onr , s
oi t . l , e sr f \ : er i . { l r } r i ' 1: r . r r r r l r r } - , t t r i i r s
I t } i a Sar vas t i '
vi , r . l r r r s: r , t i , l . c' i P, t l t I l r t r l r i i r i r r n.
( - t r t r ser l t i el t t l - \ , ' ,
i t
<: ont i l r ns m: l t er t . r i s r ' ; i r r , ' l r br ' l ( ) ng t r - l o, i l bi r r r - . e
I , r er i ocl . - q.
t i r c. eur i i ' . i l ' e r r , i r l i l i c ar r { l 1l ) " i at . e. } l t r t . t he book
i - - gei r ci . r , l i v si mpi er r r , nd ! " nor o pr r mi t i vo t i r * n
t hose o1' r . , t i r er sel r ooi s. I L consi st s af { br r r
I i a: ' t s :
-. . : ' : '
. : -Lh, -' 7a (see' t i on deal i r' g wi t h , qrresi i ons),
t,.i ;: | | d
b ltau u (ll,c non
q r rest,ior r soetiorr
.ca,nor a hn
, ' t t , . : 1l rr; 1. )qa-bl t ri gu, (sel Li on on assi rrri l : r+. i on
an, { ri cs: }ci rr, t i on! nnt l
Tt rt , st hdnrt . -Lt hd, ga
' i )
{sect i , on
on orrgi ns).
' t ' ho
B$ser4 bhaga bel onqs
r, o
t hc
earl i ' nr' ri r' rcl anct t ho f i rst t o l ho mi <l <i l o ponod,
*. | u i r. t i ro bt i i rri a, nri f r. i i rrt h . se, . : r; i ; . ' rn bel orrg
' t o
t l re
: : . , ' ri ud f rom t l re mi dci l e t o t l re l u, t , e Abhi , j harrna.
f i : t s*ce, ncl seret , i on, nrt -pra, i na-bl t i ea, i -o si rni l ar t o
sncl cr;rresrponds witir tha I' ra.j iiopti, Lhe Eoitl1iti-
pa,ryaya nnd the Dhurrn<i,-ekarudha.1astrq, t_rf tho
San' ast i vi t cl a school . Tho seci , i on whi ch rl eseri bes
variorrs d,ltd.tu, karrno, ynt.dgaia and jfi.d.n.a
poncls fo the Prajfi,n,pti-iustra,, anil that w-hich deaj.q
with ptd,galu, cort' esponCs r,o r,ho \>ali Puggala-
Ttctit' iiaitd.
' Ilrc
Nid,<iruct-r)arge, Lr;e ,eimrt,iytras:tluina.-u
' '
the Sanr,tlcthprohdna,-u.", tho Rrl.rt,lr,i4tadtr,-a.". tho
l )hyana-t . ", t l t o Mdrg4-xr. on t , hen l i l , ei (r. ?; .
and ot her
Vargas of the seconrl parl rkra,l
' rvit.jr
sun, t t t pdd, u
(ci rai n
of causes) ari ri e. , ' i l el esi res, r{' ' : . . i rr
tlre same ma,nner a,s in tIrc l)ltann.aslcan,d,in-,ia,sira
and t he Sai gi , t i paryaya-i i i st ra. Hero t t i o t exi
reseml : )l es nl so t i re Pal i T' i bhai ga. f ri s] rort . i n
tlrc no-prainu-ithir1a, as in tho Abhidharrna of other
schcrols, quotations from tho Ayama (l/,i:ko-.r1o) are
ro-arrangecl nnd interpreted.
' l' he
challters rrf
lattor half of tire ft.' urLh soction. tbo pra.stliina-
hluiga, may be rogartlerJ. as beionging trr the early
Bt age.
In the first part,
are e,xplainod
irnportant Buddhist doctrines euch a,s the five
al cundha, t he t rvel ve d, 71at ana, t i re oi gbt ean i l , I uJt t t ,
t ho f our 6dht a, t he t went 3, ' -t rvo
, i nrl r' i ua,
t , ho
ee von horih,t1a,fioa, the tlirne kufu,Ia-mdla,, the
t hreo al *i ul a-nt i l , a, t he f i rur mahabl i ut t t &c.
And t he expl anal : i ol i s f ol l owet i l i . y a
t horough oxa, mi nat i on of ea, , -, h i t , em, t o cl ari {. , ' i t s
Bcopo and range. Thi s met t i ocl oi expoei ri ri n i s
.pa' fihu,-pucch,a
(y' ra,in,aprc,cha)
ancl consti-
t ut es ono of t he ehe, ra(: t eri st , i cs of t , ho rni ddl e
Abhi dharma. I he Sa, rvi rst i va, da, school adopt od
t i ri g rnet hoci i n t hei r Prukaro. n, u-i nst ra whi l e t he
Pai i Abl ri cl hamnra di cl t i i e' samo i n i t s l "i hhari go-
The t hi rd part , sa. i . qrahn
-sof t t , pra?t oga-bhd. go,
deseri bos t , he i nci usi ve cl assi i l eat i on of nl l t hi ncs and
t ho associ a, t i on of rnori t l . l at t ri but es. Thi s met hod
is adoptod in the Dhiitticuya and tho Pro,kan'
Cdst ra of t he . Sarv6, st i vacl i rrs. A si mrl ar rnet hod
ean be f ound i : r t ho Dhot ukat hd, of Pcl i Bt rdcl hi snr.
I t , bel ongs t o t ho Abhi dharma of t ho peri od i l , t or
t han
_t he
mi dcl l er peri od. Last l y, t he f ourt h part ,
prasthrirta-bhdga,, deals with tho ten pratyaya- and
t he t en h. ehr, i n t l ro f i rst hal f whi l e t ho l at t er hal f
bel ongs t o t he earl y peri od. Thi ssect i onresembl es
tbe Pafthnna of Pali Buddirisrn which treats of tire
t wont y-f our
1)ec. (' o: Jn
(prat ya, ya, eondi t i ons).
C,' ).\l l IENI' Al tInS AND I\IANUALS. A. ?he
c.,.,.t,i l ati on nf th.e hIa,hdri bhAsd,-6d.stra
Thi s book
s i .:.], i ,. a ccrnmentary of the Sarvdsti v6da school i s
to ha' .' s beon compi l ed i n tho rei grr of
;^:,; K_ani ska, i .e,, fi rst, or seconci crxtur.y' A. C.,
or a little lator. Betweon the estabiishment
cf fundamental Ai rhi dharma books and the produe-
tion of this commenta,ry, there was a, considerable
spaee of timo, during which tho Abhidharma
doetri ne oi thi s school made great proppess.
' Ihe
res:;:s of t,he Drogress wor€ ombodi ed i n the eom-
rrentary. The Mah.adbhdyl-,lastra givoa us rhe
dr;c0rine of tirs v&rious Budtlhist echools, headed bY
ttre SarvEsf.ivida school' in north-wset India, tiil
ahout the eocontl eontury. Ihi s book eyrgte now
ontv in a Lrhiness tranelation {FdIREE^ftHi}=rfr}
and arnong phiicsopherg montionod rn rt l,frer {irst
is Kdtya;,rrrriprbr$. author of the Jfi\ncTtrusthdna-
Iristra. Ochers mentionecl inc-lrrde P6rir-a, who
fi o' tri shed i n the peri od of the cornpi l eti on of the
great coniment,ery, and the fbur groat ohilosopl_rers
of th' .: ti ure : \' asri rni l ra
(rl i fferent
frorn ti re &unhor
of the Pralcs.ranto), Dharma,trrita (different
from tho
a,ntl ror of tho Samytt,kta-qhh' i d.har;nq,"hrdarta-i dstra
oi ' tho 4tl r cenburl ' ), Sri gi rosaka and Bu<l di racl eve.
Er.'en if these authors wel'e rrot dircctilz concernod
wi ti r the compi l afi i on of tho comrnontrl !' ]' , s,s tradi -
tion sa;'s. their vies's hrr,d grcri,t inliu{Jtl(:o upon
i t and they &re frr:quontl y i i uotecl . A bove al l ,
\:nsruni tra' s vi ews wel .e most hi ghl v esteemed &sr
they represenbed tho orthodoov of KaSrnira. We
find in this book the follou'ing appellations : the
I{a^6mira philosop}rers, the
wostern terr,chere,
G..undha,ra teachers, the forei grr ma$tors,
the old d,bhirlharrnikas B,rxl the now (present,)
6bhidharmil<as. l'hese local and chronolosical
designatione show thai the SarrS,stivade school
had sprerNl f'ar and wido clrronologicailv as well
&s grrcrgra,phicaliy. I3esicles those rnentioned al_rovo,
&m.)ng other phi l osopl rers whosovi ews&re represerr-
f,ed in this book, aro Buddharaksa, Ghosa-r'arman,
Vdrna,labdha,, ,Iivaia, Sanghavasu, Ksernadatta,
Pfirna,yasas, Vai,pa. I]]raradatta, a,nd Dharrna-
nandi n. l |,' hev wr)re, perhups, the phi l osopherc
tbe Sarvasti vada sehool . The pl ace and ti me of
their activities, howevor, €lre unknown. Protrr,blv
Bom6 of them flourinhed at, tho time of th'e
compilation. Rut rnoet of them lived eariier and
thoir works had survivod or they wero quoted
in some other books. Besides tho sovon fundamen-
tal Abhicih&rm$ books, the works diroctly quobed
i n
' chi s
booh are thc Acqui red,wi sdom-Ai stra and
the fnnate-wiadom-ifr.stra] The lattsr is soicl tc,
havo been written by Srighosako, but is not extant
today. At any rate, from tho nrrmbor of these
philosophers zurd the oxtensiveness of phiiosophios,
ws c&n soe how gr-aa,tly the Abhidharma study of
tho Sarvdstivada sehool llourished in north.wost
India about the beginning of the Christi&n er&.
The various viervs on Abhidh&rrna philosophy
quoted in the Great Commentary include
thoeo of the Ytrktav6dins, De,rsta,ntika, Vibhajya-
vddi ns, Eka-ci tta-eant6na-v6di ns,
southern Y;ca-
cd,ra, northern Yogd,cdrs, urriworsal Yog6ed,ra a]rd
so forth. Other schools aro also mentioned, o.8.,
tho Dharrnaguptaka. Mahi66,saka, Mahd"sa,llghiko,
Vatsiputriya, Ka6yapiya, Sthavirev6dins,
rdntika and others. Furthor. echoois ouiside
Buddhism, such a,s the Sabdavddins, S6nkhya,
Vaiiesika, Hetuvidya, Anya-tirthaka and oth-srs
aro also montioned togefhor with thoir doctrinee.
Of thoso, the Yuktavidins represent tho sbandpoint
of tho Sarvd,stir'6dins, a,nd the Vibhajyavidins
bel ong to tho Sthavi ravi da group or to-a cortai n
branch of the llIohd,sanehika whoso views &ro
opposed to thoso of the Sarvd,stivddins. The Drirs-
ie of Sautrdntika deseent and repreeentsthe
old Sautrdntika school. Ths founder of the Ddrstan-
tika was Kum6,ral6ta. Ib is said that he had
originally bel:ngod to the Sarvdstivd,dins, but
dis:onting on grounds i,hat th- echool wes devi&ting
from tirc E.ftrg (Agama), and t,hat, too much
emphasit w&B heing laid or1 the Airhidh&rm&,
he established the Sautrdntika, which ms,de
tl re sr-rtra the cri teri on of speeul ati ons. Some of
t'ho EnrvdetivEda eehsiars. sueh as lluddhadeva,
l rad vi ewa very el onol y ei mi l ar to those of the
I)rlrsl antika.
E. Tht-. Production of ][atzttals I T]io Great
Comrnent,B,ry w&s voluminous and conbained &s
m&ny &s one hundred thousand verses
three million and two hundred thousand syllables).
This work, which was origirrally a cc:nroentary on
the Jfi dnaprasthdna, comments on the ei ght chap-
ters of the idstra, ono bv one. The eight cha,pt€rs,
howover, have no doctri nal connecti on vri th ono
another. The samo appl i es to the secti ons of each
ehapter. Accordinglf, ev€rr if tho ehapters and
secti onq are annotated, the i heorei ;i eal system i s
not clarified. lloroover, digressions from the main
subj eei . often i nserted i n the comments, produce
complication and confusion. I'he Great Commen-
tary, compri si ng al l the doctri nes and theori es of
the timo in grea,t detaii, is very rich in source
rnaterials. But it has no unity whatever as a wholo.
Thero i s no eoherent svetem, It i s of great
use to
specialista alroad5r versecl in the various doctrines,
but r.ery hard for beginners to understand. To
remove t,he drawbaek, tirere arose & movement to
abbrevi ate i t and another to gi ve i t a doetri nal
Evstem. As a result. ma,n)' ablidgement,s and
manual s were produeed. And the pi ri l osophy of the
Sarvastivti<iins wa,s greatlv advanced by those
ms.nuals. Tho following is tho list of such rnrnnuals
exi sti ng i n Chi nose transl ati on: The Abhi dharrno-
hrdaya-la.stra (FrJilt&,L,f6sa) 4 vols. bv Dharma-,iri
the Abh.irlharma-hrdaua-sitra (FIIHjJ_&,L.ffi)
li r.'ols.
hv LTpasanta : the Se'muu.kta-abh,.id,harma,-hrda,va-
l d*tro
(#F-ol i i i l &,' ].;frt
I I vol s. bv Dharmatr:rta :
tlre Abhi.d,h,trm.rt-ko.4Q,-ld.stru (F-l[;iHffffiifl*iftt
v cr l s. l-ry Vas uband hu
t he A hh.t rl,hun rr a t t t
ri,,1 a n r i stlr a -
(FEffitr,ElllfliE$|ift) 80 vols. by Sarigha-
l ,haci ra : t,l ttr' A b 11' 1,1!. | 6 t r rna
koi a. sarn rs,tl a
pr udi pi l ;a
.1ri.ctra (F{iriiEffitffitri,*;ft) 40 r'ols. h}' Sanqha-
bhadr a.
Tl re Abhi rl harnta,-l trdu' ua-l ri stra wa,s
Jrro<l ucc,d
about 200 A.C. The others fol l owed i t' ci rrono-
l ogi cal l v and the Ko.4a-i dstra w&s produeed i n
350 A. C. whi l e t he Nydu, 1l , t t st 7r a- i d. *t r a was of a l at er
d rl to.
Tho conterrts of the Great Crrmnrentarv i rrrt ci on-
r l enser i i nt o 250 ver se3 i n t l r e Abhi cl har ma- hr daya-
!d.stra. Dha,rmasri hi rnse,l f gi vos si mpl e expl anati ons
of these vorses. Tht,' book \\,as very ct nei so and
raanv exposi tory works *' ere wri tten on i t. The
Abhi rJharnta-h.rd,al to-sti ,tra and the Samqttkta-
ab hi dh,arma
h,r d a,u a
i iisl ra u'ero s,mong them. Besides
ti i ese. m&nv others v' hi ch &re no l onger extant &re
bel i eved to have been u.ri tten. Tl rc -l bl ti d.h,arrno'
i ' r t l aua- si l t r a i s, as i t n' er e, an - l bhi dhar n, u- hr d, aya'
i i ,' t,rt to wl ri ch 350 r' erses more were adcl ed and
expl anat i ons gi ven of t hem. Tt ' e book l r as con-
si derabl e rrni ty and seems to have been studi ed
extensi vel v both i n Indi a and Chi na. The P' i -
t ' an-t sung (mf &*),
t i re Chi nose Abhi dharme
sect, w&s estabiisiteC mainly on the rloct,rines
of tht S ant y u lcttt
h7 cl,cy a
6 d,st r a.
' fhe
three books sbove-rnen' "irrnsd are almost
i dent ' i cal i n t i rei r const i t ut i on, except t hat t he l ast .
ment i onod booi < I ras onc chapt er i nse. rt ed ns B, -l p-
pl ement . Yet i n t he det ai l s of rl oct ri rre t . l l ere i e
eomo di f f ereneo and dovol c, prnonL B, rnorrg rhr: rn. I n
sorne points tliey disagree v' ich the Gretr,t
(--' ommerr-
t rr,rv. Io surrl up, tlto Abhitlllar rna
rrlatl a-s<?slrn rrnii
the A b hidiiarnut
-krdaya, -
stJtrct,, n of adtrerin
to t,l re
ort hodox Sarv[ st , i vr1da, bo] oni rod t o t he Srr, rr' l st i vi r-
tirr of,rr-r in tlrorvest and ,gornetirnes rr,dopted
t he doct ri nes of t he Saut rd. nt i ka nnd t he Dharrna-
guptaka sclr.ool. The A' apryr t,k ta
ubhirl ltar mn
lur d.ay a
idstra, on the otirer tro,nd, shows rronsiderable
t5r with ths crthodox schools and hss a groat doal
irr common rrith the Grea,t Cornnrontarv.
' Ihis
book i s sai ri t o havo been wri t t en near Puskar&vat i
i n Gandh: rru.
-1 o r n y u kta.
r fihid.ha.rma
i t d.ay a,
d. c t r a, eoho
rent in its dor,trinal systorn ilntl rather elabora,to in
i t s expl anat i on, hrrl been eor: si dered ve. r. r' uset ul
as a t uxt book of t he . \ bhi t l h&rrn$. l }rt , i t s avst , ern
i mi t at ed t hat of ' LI rc , l bhi d, harma-hrdo, rya-Jri st ra ond
its arrangernent was far from complete.
' 1' o
t hese clra w.b ack s. \iasubandhrr wrote t he Ab liid,Jlu,r m a
koi a-i [ i st ra, . a t reat i se rvi t h a compl et o svst , om"
."' asubarrclh.r
secr*s to havc usod tfro ,Jo,m.uu,kia-
abhid,harma-hrdaya.,4d,stra as a model. But, he wroto
600 onf,irely now verries (lcdri,ka) qrrito independont
of the 600 verses of the ,Sarnyukta-abltirlh,q.rmo.
h,rd,aqn-.4dstro, and gave explil,nations of tirem.
f' omparing tho contents of thei two books chapter
l rv chrupt er, wo have t he f ol l owi ng rosul t :
S u r n,y uk ttt
ab lt id hut nuo
. h;rrlaya-6dstra
(5l l i i
vers, rel
Abhidh,ar t t t a
1i i 00
vol sos,l
f r i . . Di t 6t u 11
Kar ma
-\ nrl st t va
Purl ga, l a-n. ' argt r
t -
l \ sr. l dral {&
[ n(l ?' t \ ' n
\ 7i ei n' a, r ?)
of t i oi a-
, : asl ra'a 74
Lol <a 99
i:t . , Ka,rrna, l3 I
60. . Anr r Sava 69
5. 1 . . Pu<l gal n- mr r r qr l , 93
5 1 . . J f r i r n a 6 t
43. . Srrmapal ,ti 39
i n
6t )
. 5 1
7 l
I ' uAdai a'
vi ni s6ava
Sast r , r
' !
: 6
Thc abor c t abl e si rows t har t he . I (o, {a-, (t i , gt ra <: on-
sol i dat ed t he syqt ern of t i re . 9amyukt a-abhi d, l t arma.
hrdaya-i dst ra Bt i l l f urt her and dof i ned t he
doctrrnai system of the SarvS,st,ivdda school. The
syatorn is ri€ follows :
I. ill;fi,*.' tfr:1 Eu.b$f,snit.: o.f nil thi:rpp {five eka:rdhh,-l
i-,reir' e iilt*tnn*, oightee:r. clhi"-.:) l-
' ),,
Iruirui;t ,' ths I' rtuctlop rrf ail rhirrgr ilwenr,y-iwo I
;rilri1' a, six causes, forir co,rtiitioriii. dLe.)
1. l -ai . : rt , ' u: t , i i &l r-ori rl
-sai , t v: r-l c' rki
i serrt i gnt l ; ei ngsi
irrri hhaj arra-lokn (ptr1 r;ir:nl r' ;rrici)
. ! .
Ka: rnc, i epFr()?i m*, i l r {' *r: Fe
q, l ' l . i i s
aet i l al wcri d--l
F.rrd, €' ir!! .itq,irr.a l-
5. Anz- 4uuc, , ' auxr i i a: " y r : +l cl i t i ci r g oi l he anl ut i l i
wsrlri-_' lrrrrrru..r.!
6, Pui , i t aht ' nwr1\ u. ' i ri e; ri rvi , i ri d-.
-; l f -\ i ' l ri
paf hs *n, ^j -
J fi,6tts, .' bhe earuii.:r ai tiiv idr.' .rl wrirt.l-^..o' ir-.J:)ru
Earrt ri ; t at i ' i . ' [ rl 1-! : i i ri : ri i ' : : ri nrj i t i orr; t i
' ri l t i
i de sl
rrygrl r, l
. rnr. rl t t . l r i t rn
P' iulgeirt-vi:t,i ,J,:tt:.1* . tii,; r,i' loor.!' ,.,i- rri;rr"t go
f n t t i t i rrg t hs Koi t t
-i d. st rt r, \ t ni i rl i randh' l ri i ri
not ai r. ; avs edopt t , ho ort ' l i ' rt l oxy cf t i re l i i rrvi l s'
tivd.rl:, or iialn-lrra. ,i{e r:arno itcm t}{irrdiirlra lrnd wrrs
ttrji c,f crit,i,-' ei spirit' . llc w;r;i,e s' hrri. iitr
ho right. ]Io himsoH snys ho ariltere' -i t,-r orthctio-xJ*,
httt ofton enough hrt crit,ic' read til.-, Sari lst' ivFrciins
frorn the striniiE,oini; oi thei u' ttsf' crrt :*:!' colq,
especi al l y t he Snut rf , i i t i ke-'
?{i e cri t i ci sm i nvi t ' eri
(: t l t t i t t et ' r-: ri t i t ri srn i ' rorrr t t re
ortfio(io-.e schol&rs ot' liai-lrnira. Sarigir*' -i' tra' -ira
vrote i,tie AbkirJhcrruq,' ft' t!' .j"(c:r,tt' -\' irrt' ' iJsii' q
r.efut,ed t,ho irs:;er' ,iong ct' tirq:' .{' ;.1;i s' i,;ii' a. Tiio
doct ri nes oi t , i ro Sa. rrt ri n' "i k& repr' evt l Lrr{j i rr i }i i e
i ; ook aro t l rt r. i t >f -\ ri l l f a
". : rd
i {. i r: ' rgt . Sr' , t l i . l ant i kt
t n&si , ors oi - t l re t t i rl e.
' i
i rai r
' , ' i ows
1"' ' 1; ", : s+' nt t l i o
ni uch t l er, ei Er-l r' d ri r; et ri r-t c of Li rt l l rrt er Saut r6. nt i kt r
l qhi eh i s f ound nei t i i or i n t , l : . ' Grerr, l ; Ll omrri e' l rt ery
nor i n t , l t F f {t , rc rrl si ra. Si i i "Ei i rt i . ri rri Ll i t i ' s i , r-' ol < gi qes
more rl et ai l t r, : i e{r)r-)si i i ort i i l , i t t t ' i r i , }re / i ' , sq' (l i ' {l r' J'
snd i * ot ro of t hg i i : , l si ' i rnl l +ri u; i t 1sl er1. "1i l r
i rockr
for the srrrd' ,' of
f,li.r -\1011-[51ir,r1-;cla
ri,nii rire Sauii' iiri'
t i ka doct ri n*l i . But bot i r. i rr t hi s woi ' i r al rri t i i e ot l t r"rr
bc ok. t l; e Abh idha?' m{r
}: o i o
s d I n aU a
p r (td ;' it' i
i; ii
:i ri' :t lr t t,
Srr,ilghabhadra l:as clc,sel' ,' ioilo-*' r:tl Llr{-r ri.r"' stLlrn of tiro
nci woil. rr-a.r pr' ::d-ttccd' irr the
Sarvdel i vada
qr, hool
t o st l rLl &ss i rl s Ac' a-: dst ra.
)l ort rrl '
t i : e l at er- 1v(rrks were i ngre com: net rLrrt -r' , 3
on t ho Rri a-, 4ri si ro. Guna, mr' . t i , ' Jl i . Li rrunl i t i .
rritiil,, I), Yasomitra, lttlrnavarrihe,rra rnoy
be rnenbi onod among schol ers who x' ere al sr. i i "l m-
mt rri . &t crg of t ho / i oi ri -si i . rl rc. Gt t i rei r works'
Yaior-rri-"ra' g Sanskiit comment,&rv alcns 811r"
' .
i . . -eci . rvl rrl e *
cf St t ri rnni st i s sesl s; 9r-+
r: ssy.
irr?nr.&r\. rerrla!:rs in r. t-lhiriese tr-anslat,iori' T]r+se
r, , -, '
-i r' . omi t ra.
] Ji gr, aga and Pi l t : ' ; , ; rv: l rdi i ang rrre
oi i . r r r r
l n i i ; c Ti r r ot ai i t ' r ' angl al l , ' n. Jt r i i ar ] ' be
-. ; ' ni rc, I i pri ] rere i l i at , ri r+r Kusa soct , of Chrucso aod
Jat a: , se Rrroi l i ri sur {t he Ci ri i -e}r6-t surrg or }' ust re'
e, . :
' i =t j , l r ' ; : +s
esLr . i bi i sher l on t , l i e i i oct r i ne, r i '
i . . e : : i -: 1r i ' r. rndar: i ont *l ; {i l hi ri hq1g16 }, -rr-rks and t he
Great ' L' i urnri i : i rl r(, ' , wi t h t ho Koi a' i 6' : t ro t ' . 3 i t B
: ^ - - - : ' l : .
I[. ]i ngati ' za
:' ofutat,i cn
of tire,t
( i r er cl i e)
We hal c f i r&i l t ; & Frr. i r\ -oy of t i re dei ct ri no and t ho
iiter:rt!-rro r-rf tha Sarvirsiite.iirr*. as ibrriring tho
m&i n , -i i rrarrt ,
of l l uddhi srn of t ho i i me. Bogi deg
tho tqorks rnt:nt,ionetl &i)rlvrt, ihoro rl' *rr alsi-r the
Ahl t i dharmdt : ot drl l b. , ' Shani hi kl , Sanghabhadrs' s
teaelier. He is sai,l Lo hri,v{l a,l,so
& corn.
rnentat.v ori tirs ltr' tkarii.ttg-iaslra. l)hrrrnratrata,
flr,rtiirri' ; r
tir o,\ o, ti, y uk I a
s,l;h,ir! h
n a
lt r dau a,,i ustr a
i;q-}ol,e t}i.e l' aitr;rt,tt:tttr-t:' ibltdari, tr corns.rentary cn the
f usr r , , 1[ 1g1r f er
r , i ' t , l i c l : Tl kr r yi i t t t t . i i , +t r a. l i kanCh. l , r . ' s
Abhii,h,-zirndrytta:a r:splaius pi' onornena in the
orricr oi tiio tivo skandhr*g, Ife refused to adrnib the
at ant i l i a; . rrt of t he Grei rt Cornrnent ary &s bei ng
f{r,: esteeirrr.rl rrrther tlre sosrrn firnrla-
ment ai Abnrdl i arrna booi rs. t )f t he
$' orks of t he
S. i , rvast . i vArl i r sci ro<; 1, prodi rr; ed ui rout t h. g t i me of
the Grrrrrt, {,' ornrrron-u&r;,, Srighos.:tka' s A*trtarasrt-
.idsi,ra (^1 -1"
i t' tr,t,,,k, t,' t,-lu,-tuei-i,tt,tt
Fqnt&fffi $,{<;ft )
&irrI Yasrlmitrd,' * 3q7uo4trtiie,{u-uyuiut-ccrJera-i,j,str&
(I -pu-t srrng
hrn. l i rn
R; $R+$f f i f t )
sr, nd a f ew ot hers
lia' ,' c l-.c, trg.rrslatod lnlo Chinose. Thers are
Lrn€J' f j Lrr: t ar, i i nrl t hree Chi nese t ransl a+"i ons ot
t i : i . , 5i t t t rat l : t l t ht ri ri -t -t c1f i . l zu-ca| ; ?' <t . Bosi des i hose t ve
have i rr {-l i ri r: esl c t rrr, nsi ri t i on a si rni l ar di sl coursq
hoi ; k . ' r . t , i l l cr 1
t I e l | spn- p' r ^t - h. si i - r ni - p' q- sa- so- chi -
i'tn (#tE,ry Hffi
.lry,t l:a'.srttttitailcdhi-
. srt l t t : t t -. : t t , t t c! ! , a-sast r*t .
-f t i ese 56st ras, hei ng
ci -rre. ni ci eg ; . i f t ho rl i f t ' erent i a, t i on of t ho vari , ' )ri g
col l ool s rl nd col l ect i . >ns of t hei r cl i t Terent i ' i t +ws.
belorrg to i,he sarne cl{lss as the Kadfult:tttthrl r:f l;iie
I' ali Abhicihr,lmrrra. 1' hoiefore- for the si' -rrly of
' uhe
vari ous ci oi : t Li nes, t l l a Sr, mugct -bh, cd, a-uyf r, ha-cakra-
i,isiro occrrpies as $ ret' erence rlook
the same placc
&s t hat oecupi ed h; r t l i s G-roat Commont ar)' , t , i re
Koia-idllra snci tbe Nu..1itiltztt,s ra-,$dstra.
C. T' he. l.lrlnuols of tl' "e oi' hr,r -9chooJs .' In tlre
precedi i rg sect i on. l he Abhi t l hrl rrn& rn&nual s of t he
Ssrvi.stii' d,tifurs rvere tho r;onrral fn this
sect i on, t hoge of t ha ot her school s wi l l be deal t
-cri t h-
11' e shel l begi n wi t h t i re Sammi t i ya school ,
whi cl : seems t o ha, ve f l euri shed i n c, ont ral I ndi a.
Urifortrrnatelv, ilut much information has eome
rl own t o ug abi "; l , t hi g school . Oi i t s t , ert ' s onl ' , '
\ l )
t i , uhl : i vt
-sat ya
i r r ut
h cf soi r r : , r ,
(2\ . ' : rr, r; udi t uu, -i i t t ! ! a
(l , rut l r of t he
(3) nirocilr :.
tia!! ii
i l r uLi r cf t : - . <t i r r e-
t i +n)
i. Ouiiine of
the doetrine
:" Dstai i ed
e-xposi ti on of
tho cl ocl ri no
I . I ' oqi t i vs
ti on of
vl ow
3 .
' r
md: gr;- stt.i
J t t r ubi r
of l
; ; r t h)
r i o: : l r i r r l 1i BLl r - l r i ] 1, s1si
t he Sommi t t , ya"ni kaLt *-sri st ra (San-mi -bi -pu-h' n
hns been translated into t)hinose. IJut
the txrok is of lrttle va.lrre. A Sri,nskrit, manuscrip' , of
lhr: Abftid,harrn&-*amuece,ua of biris echool hns uorv
6, --err di s. . rovereri at r, l pt t bi i shert {q. . ' . ).
We h*ve a
tr&nsl&f,irrn of the Srttrtucid-
d, hi -i ri , t t ra {l ' h' 6ng. : hrh-l un
. t *' H; di )
i n l S voi umos
whi , , h rrro t l re m&nrr{r, l s of t he i ' i erut , ranLi ka . qchool .
Tho 6nlryasirJrlh,i-ici,stra, wir.s lvritt€n bl. Harivnrma.n
of tlio
riescent, ng lirrrn*irrr,ldtrr, retrorted to be
t he f surrder of t he sch. . rol . I n t hi s book, ' Aryadova' s
ear. ' t i r-i et qkt z {t ho i reat , i se i n f aur ht t n' : l rot l st anzas) i s
m$nti(rncd tr_1. rrerne. Tliis book \irag tr*nBl&ted into
(l l rrneeo
l : y Kuurf l raj i va i n t he earl y f i f i h cr: r-rt , t rry,
Frnm t,hose fsuls lre m&y iirfer that it, s' e.e probably
wr i t t er i bet , ween 50 and 350 A. C. Now, i r r t he
gonealogy of t,he Ssrvir.gti' ' ' ir.,lll scItrtol, fiarivnrrnan
was rr:garrl€d &s a pat,riurch wlto r*-es ls,ter ths,n
Nri gerj rrrra at rrl A-ryed, : t ' * but pri or t o Vasuhnndhu.
' l ' l ro
Vosut rrrnrl hrr nf t hi s geneal ogy i s cel l ed t he
scni or Vnsl rl r&ncl hrr
" rvi , cl l i ved l ong bef r: re t ho
l ' nsrl l : nndhrl of t , hei Kof i a-f ri . ct ra. ' I heref rrre, t he
SaQasirlr!,hi-i,lstrri, rnust be corrsir.lerably olrler than
t l re A-o, {' z=, f , I , sJra. Prol : rl bl y, i ! v"as proCrrcod about
300 A. C. Tl re Snut rrj nbi ki r doct ri ne, reprcsent ed i n
t hi r+ H ri k, i s ea; l i er t hnn t hnt , quot nrl i n t h' , Koi a-
instra and ttie Nydlld.nusdro-,irlstru, and
ef f i ni t v wi t h t he doet ri ne of t be l }l rst i rnt i kn, whi eh
i a rnont , i oned i n t he Gre*t Cornment , nr-v *s bel ongi ng
t o t he okl Snrt t rErrt i kt .
Ar: , ' errr. l i rrg t o t radi t i on l Tari varman st udi ed
tlre Etrven frrndarnontol Abhidherma books, the
of the ' Snrv5,sbiv&clins Bnd,
I l et l rnps{,
Fj t t rt rEnt i kt l doet ri ne. He st . udi ed al so
t t rn rl cr: t ri ne o[ t he f i ve ec] roel s
(i ncl rrdi ng t he . Sk hi r-
ri *i rgt ri l rn) a, nrl nt , her rl o, : : t , ri nesl , r*ngi ng f rom t he
Mni i nvi rna l , r: nt : hi rrg o{ NEgnrj Lrna ana Aryadeva
t o t f rc
l rhi l or+ol i t rre, r
of l , he Fi ankhve, t l re Vai i esi ka
nnrl ot l rerl r.
' l ' ho
st rrrl y of t hi s t rool i rvas 8r-) provt i l ont
rn {l i ri rrn of t }ro ai xt h cent ' t t r-v t hat , & sect based on
t . hi e book rx' ng eet at rl i shsd i rr t i re count ry, At t hat
t i rrre t he book wrrg ci ai med t o be a MahB5' 6na
book. whi ei r el *i m, hoq' ov^r, s' as l t rt or l ej ect od.
J-hn heok consi st g r; f 2f l ! chapt , ers ond di ger. rssog
t l re l ort r . qa. t Ua
(rrr\ 7l hs)
of soErt , w. i t , s enrrsei s, i t , s
ext i net i on a, nrl t he rrat h,
i : r t hst order, I n i hn
l nt r. orl rl rt i orr, t l re t l i verl 4errt vi ews of t ho vani ous
Hrrl rl i ri et s, el rool s, c{rnrr: rni ng t hr: Abhi d}. rarml t , are
r, nr: rnr. rnt erl . Al l di i rcLrssi on proceeds i n t ho f orm
of rl uost i orr ri *nrl ni r: {wer, The o1: nonont -quest i oners
, , *pi e, t s rnni rr! 1' t , l i e vrer*' g of t he St r, rvrrst i vddi ns-
Ti t oref ore. t ho i . r' rr: k i g rr vu, l rral rl e rt -' f et enee work
l l r t t rn st rri l y of t . he di f f erence bot ween t hs Sar-
*' 11*1i vf r 1i ; r rl nd i - ! I ci f i nrrt r&nt , i l r *
l i exl , . 1ve l rt l ve S. ; u-t i -i ri n
rEf f i i f r),
t , ht t i g,
' 1
l rrj f ' o! rr v{, 1, , : nrt r t rc, ' l rf , r: : r: on t i re ! ' c: t t t sot yc rn C}ri neee
t l ' * nsl l t , t i on, wi r i i - ' l t r ' l " st ' r t l t t : s vt r r i ui r s vi r : r vs of t ho
] l r r d, i l r i gt , sc! r r , , oi s on t l r c f or t r scr l i / a' . Tt s sut hor ancl
t ho echool t r
r , r - l r i r : h ; t hel onge, i ar e unknoq- n.
I ' 1rn }rrgr-i , ci i rn r; r: l rri ri l t oo rrLt , eml rt ed t o
gvnt hesi so
t l rc r. i t : r: t ri nog rrt ' t ' t rn Survi i si , i vi (l i t
g, nrl
Ll l € Sat t t ri rn-
i ri i n f f , ; rrr t l re l I al i &vi i na st rr, r-rrl 1t ot nt , . r\ s rnent roned
t i r l r r r r : . i l r i r + si t : l r r r ol t i i sn l t &( l Bevor al mt l r r r r ol s wt t l t
t i t l r : c i x' ! ' r r i r r i r t g ui t , i t t he
g. ' r i r t l ' i l i l r i , l har nt a.
\ ' . The Abhi dharma ot Sout hern Buddhi srn'
l f i rgt v. ' e rrt i l l sc)i l t l rerl r l l t rt i dhi sm i s t i re Buddhi sm
oi ' t l ro . st huvi ravri de (I ' i reravada) sei rool , wi t h
Coylon &s its centre. Alnosi ail the meterials
concerning its Abhidhamm& irave been presorved
to tiris da.r' in the Pali language. There &r..e sevsn
fundamental Abhidhamma books in southorn
Buddhigm and as later literature thero exieit the
Visu.rhl,hinwgga end comrnentaiioe on ths 6€ven
Abhidhamma u'orke, &c. Tl"'ese
tJaa Visu,l,d,himagga ero ascribed to Buddhaghosa
of the first h&lf of the fifrh cent,ur;'. liis sonior
cc'ntomporory, Buddhedatta, also wrois manualg,
errch as Lhe Abhidhommiuatriro. Thon the Stha-
vir*varla school of Ceylon wont througtr a period
of oclipso for srveral hundrerl years. But', during
this p.,riotl, too, tr few simple menual$ were writton.
Tir,' rer.'ival of ;\bhidhamma studies besan
in atiorrt the twoifbh centrrrv. fn particular
Arrrrrtrddha's*,galw was to tho
Sthaviravdda school whst ths Koi$-sd^gtra wag to
the SarvEstivrrda. Leter, Abhidhamma studies pro-
ceeded mostly frorn this book and rnany cominen-
tarics and oxposifrons of it wero msde. Stion after-
warde, tho l ontre of Ahhi dl ,smma study moved
to Btrrrna. In Iilurma mueh develop-
ment has since treon ma,de. There evcn today,
the study of tho -Abhidhamms is enthusiestically
prrsued. It constitutos tho ossonoo of Brrddhiet
letrrriing, anrl the atuciy of Budclhism is itsslf l erl Abhi ri hamma.
It r,r' orri d be r onveni ent Lo di ..' i de the couree of
devei opment of Abhi dharuma i n
' Iheravdda
i nto
thre.r Bteges as w&s dono in
cerro of northern
l) the s6ven fundarnental Abhidhamme
l rookg, (2) the comment&ri es on tho eovon booke
and menrrnl s, (3) thei r sub-commentari es. Consi -
deration crf tho sub-commentariee will, howover.
be omi ttod from th,-r present descri pti on,
MENTAL ARIIIDHAI\IIIA ; 1' he abhi dhamma
l i t,ernture of Pal i Ruci dhi ' rm pri or to the com'
pilation of tho soven books has already been die'
crrsrsad. 1'lie Pali books of filndamontel Abhidhemma
are custc.rmarily group+-'d in the tbllowing ordor :
I i amt nas a r'i tJ dr.ti, I' i t,.t t oig it,, Dhdhtk athd, P uggalo
parliiutti, Kothdt:ottlr'tt, Yorrnlco on6
Mohu' t.pakarono.
An mentiorre,tl befcrre, trtldition attributes these
boeks to the lJu.ddha himself' B'tt, Bs a matter
of fact, they must, liave besn producod during a
period of two or t'hroe hundrod yo&r's, beginning
i"rom tire eecond or third century after ths Buddha'x
death. The l-tooks rrrrny bo considered in thmo
groups eccord;.nq to their tirne of cornpilation :
oa"l1i, middle and lrto grorrps. Tlio Vi'bha'itga,
L)hant.masahoalt,i a,n<i Itu4r1,tl,u-pait,itatti helorrg to
1|1s first, perio.1. Tho Dhd,tukutlvi *nrl, t'ht Karhn'
t-,cttthu bel ong to t,i re rrri tl cl l e perrod, and the
1' antal co arrcl tho Pal thd,na to tl rt: i ato peri otl .
^r\, l [' he Earl yt Books : l tt si i ]rte !,i i rts of the
I ) hont i nqser t qor t r . ar r r l t i r e J' 1l , l 6i i qo ar r r l t hr or l gh-
oLrt the Pi tggu!a-rtttti i totti , cl uotti [i onrr frorn the
\i ki ,vas &re
' -' x,i rl ,ri ne,l anci expat,i ared. These
i er t s. i i i , - r r . f nr i r . i , . . , ! m t ( ) i r el ong t o t l i e ear i y per i ot i .
I t r g t r r r e i i t r r t r i r e r : r et l i i - r r l of st udv f ound i n t he
rnri l di er
i )r-' rr
,(I i -i n, Ioptel l i r;. sorrre pa,rtg of the
pj y171r71111.csti rJrtrtt
artri tl i e l ' i bhati .ga, trut the
r.i rrrrnctcri .i t l c:; {-)i the otl rl l ' per:i ofl &ro moro prr-rval ent
i n ti rase boe.ks. So' ,vtr muy safel y regarJ thom as
bel ongi ng to tl re earl Y peri otl .
7. S, P. C. 97010
The Dhammasanga4,i eongtiiutes the nueleug
of the severr books. It givcs detailed descripbiona
of dtto-eetasika,-rlhamzna
(mind and mnntal attri-
hrutes) and rtTpa-d.hanttna (physical elements),
preeodotl by o list, of torms callnd mrlliltd, (the matrix
of di ar:uesi orr)-' I' he ci tta-cetasi ka and r{tpa-d,harnma
are baeic themes of tho Abhidhamma. In the
f)hemm.asahgar,td thege roalities are treated from
the ethi c$l or
*' ksrmi cal
" etandpoi nt. The
enrrmeration of eighty-nine citta-dhamma (the mind
itaelf; and eettzsika (nttribrrtos or coneomiiants of
tlre mind) aesoeiated with oach rnind-consr.iousness
aho$'e evidently that the book shoulel belong to
the rnirldle perid of the Atrhitlhamm*, judging
from the etanrlard of ther Sarv,istivdda nncl other
s;choole- Flut the methotl tif definition snd exple-
nation adopted in this book bears the cheraeteristice
of the early period. It gonorally procoods analyti-
cally, dissecting oxistenco into its ultimate consti-
tuents, which &ro bare impersonal phonornena.
It was probably because of if,s importanee and
basic naturo that the book cemo to be placod first
in the list. This book may bo compared to t'ho
Vijfi,rina-kaya a,nd lhe Dfuitu-kd.11a-6,istra in regard
to its eontents. The differr:nce botweon tho two
was that tho Sarvdstivdda Abhidharrna dovoloped
theories not only orl cittcr a\d cetasika, but also on
riipa-d,ha,rrna, evil desires, training and other
topics, while the Pali Abhidhamma set omphasis
on the montal field and showod a special a.nd
characteristic development along that line. Tho
difference in the modes of approach of the two
sehools is remarkablo.
Sarvd,stivddins may be
described as philosophic and motaphysical, while
tha Pali Buddhism is scisntific and psychological.
Tho Vibh,ariga, like the Dlw,nna-skand'ha-4dstro
of tho Sarr'6,stiv6.da, oxplains important items of
Buddhist doetrino, such as tho five kharvilha, tlao
twol ve d y atana, the ei ghteo n dhi tu, the four s acca, t,he
twont'y-two indriya, the twolve pa(icca-samuppad,a,
the four sati-patthrJna, the fo:ur samm.a'ppadlrino,,
the seven bojjhanga, bhe arftla-a,lth,un.gikama,gga,
kilesa, &e. IJut while the Dhar'maskund,ha-
6d.stra adopted tho method of the early Abhi-
dharma, quoting ari<l explaining the texts of tho
Agama, this book. besides using tho method of
eutta explanation (suttanta-bhajaniya) adopts the
moihod of explaining itoms indopendent of the
eu'tta in tho Abhidhamma m&nner (abhid,hunma-
blfi,j aniy a,) o,nd t}r'e pafi,hapuccha explanation through
a hundred and twonty-two matrieos of discussion
(md,tikd,). Theso met,hocls belong to the middle
period. The work eonsists of a series of l8 troatises
(Vibhnhga), all eomplete in thomsolves, and
indopendent of each other. Each Vi,bhanga, a,s a
rul e, eonsi sts of 3 parts, the sutta expl anati on,
the abhidhamma explanation ancf a cateehotic
secti on by way of questi ons and &nsv' ers. I{an1'
of the passages of Vibh.ahga are also found in
the Patisambltidd.magga, to n'hich it has a great
resemblance, in contents trs well as in arrangement.
The Puggala-pafi,fi,atti is tho smallest of the seven
books of the Pal i Abhi dhamma. therro are i n
Pali Budclhism six paii,fiatti : khandha-, d,uatana,-,
dhatu-, saea-, indriyta- anl pullgala-pufifi.atti
(desitrnation of hr.rman types). fn the Prajfi,apti-
sdstro of t,he Sarvdstivadins, the throo kinds
of l ol :a-hetu and karma-p,raj fi apti aro descri bod,
as mentioned before. This book troats with the
only. In faet, it appears some-
what out of plaee in the Abhidhamma, beeause ono
of tlro main characteristics of Abhidhamma is
that it does not ornplo5r convontional terms liks
individual,' (pu;;11r; but deale only with ultimates.
This book, howev',.r.', is
in tho eonventional
ianguage of the suttas, and most of its contents
have literal parallels in lhe Ahsutta,ra Nikd,ya
and the Sangeti Suttq, of bhe Digha Nilcaya. Ihe
Buttrrs from the Nikaya aro quoted and explainod
corrcerning the various types of pugga,Ia. Thie
book evidently belongs to the early Abhidhamma.
chapter of the Na-praina,-hltd,ga af
tho Sariptfira,-abhid,harma-iastra oorresDonds to
tlta Pu
q g ata " pafr fi,atti.
B. The Boolcs oJ the Miild,le Period,. We havo
the Dhfrtukathi, as a book of this period. The
Ka,thd,uatti.tu, will be also resardod &s a book
bel ongi ng to the mi ddl o peri od.'
T}ra Dh,itukathd riescribes in 14 chapters the
relation of all phenomena to groups (khanfl,ha),
bases (futatanL'.) and elernents (dhatu'1 and all intor-
association of mind and mental attributes (citta-
cetasika\ rvith ,rne another. This dialectic method
of strrdy, involving hundreds of quostions and
&nswers, is one of the characteristicg of the middle
poriod. The s&m6 method is adopted in the
Dhd,tuk1,ya and the Prakarq,na-dd,stra of tho
Sarvdsti v6da school ,
The Kathn,aatthu, is tr&ditionallv ascribed to
Moggaliprrttatissa, president of tfre Council of
Palaliputta. Two hr:ndred and nineteen different
doctrinal items of the various sehools a,ro onumer-
ated in 23 chapters and rofuted accorrlingly. The
book seems to have grown gradually and most of
the heretical views discrrssod are ascribed to varioue
schools. Borno of which &ro lator than otherg.
The text itself makos no montion of the namos of
the schools. This is suppliod by tho commentory.
In this book manv toxts
from tho Sutta-
pitalca givo authority to the orgrrmont. As far as
tlio torminologl' used and the theories set forth
are concerrrod, this book seems to bolong towards
tho late poriod. Some scholars egree lqith tradi-
tion and accept the book as bolonging to the latest
period. Others make tho Pat{lfi,na tho latest
book of all. Tlie var.ious herotical views ropresentod
in this book, the commentary says, include those
of the Vajjiputtaka, the Sammitiya, the Sab-
batthivS,da, the llfahS.sanghika, tho Kassapiya,
the Andhaka, the Pubbaseliya, the Aparaseliya,
the R,njagirika,, tho Siddhatthika, the Gokulika,
the Bhadday6nika, tho Mahimsdsaka, tho Utta-
rdpathaka, the lJetuv6"da, the Vetulyaka (Mah6-
sufrflavada). &e. Somo of theso &re northern
schools knov'n to the Samaya,bheda-ayilha-ca,kra-
idstra, and tho Mq,ltd.tibhasd,-id,stra. Some are
southern sehools unknown to northern Buddhism.
The doctrines of the various schools could be better
understood by studying this book in association
with texts belonging to northern sehools.
C. The Late Books. During tho eerly period,
the various schools resembled one another in that
the oarly Abhidhammat-rooks defined and explained
the texts of the Nikdtta, (Aqarna) in the Abhidhemma
monner, while the booke of the niddle period
.lealt with problome of classification, deseription
anrl i nter.subordi nati on of thi ngs and the i ntor-
eesociation of mind and mental s,ttributes. But
wi t,h regard to tl ro books of the l *te peri od, vari ous
i el rool s es,me f,o cl i ffer i n t,hoi r rnethods of studv and
:how littls resembla,nt:e to one arrother- Thus, we fincl liitle alralogy between the late books of the
Pal i Abhi el harnma and tl rose of othor sehool s,
' Ii re
l ' -antrl ka rl i scrrsses fl re probl ems of sangaho
arrd subordina,tion) and uppdda,-
,tirod,ha, (appea,rancei and disappearanr:e) of' all
rhings. discusserl pair by pair in a cateehismal form.
It tri ee to gi ve a l ogi cnl el ari fi cnti on and del i mi tati on
of a,ll the doctrinal eoncepts ag to their range and
concepts. It m&y bo described Bs a, work of
" appl i ed l ogi c ", but much of the pl ay upon words
appe&rs rather strange. Tho method, it may be
said, somewhat resembles the catechism of tho
Vednlla in tho na.uangq,,sa,na, (or Vedalla Sutta,
mentioned). But the catechism of the
|'a.maka ig so reconrlite that it is alrnost unintelli.
grble to beginners without deep knowledge of the
Abhidhamma drrctrine. In this point, tIrc Yarnaka
resembles the Jfi,o,na-prasthdrur,, a late book of the
Sarvfr,stivedins, which again is too profosaional for
beginnere. Its name (The Pa,irs) is probably to be
attributed to tiro dual grouping, of a question and
its eorrverse formula,tion, strictly adhered to from
beginning to end.
Pat(ltrina reclut:es all phenomanal reltrtions
i nto twonty-four paccaua (causati vo eondi ti ons)
ilnd considor.s all phonomena from every angle
n' i th the ai cl of these condi ti ons. The twenty-
7:aceu' !l o
&te:' ._( I) hetu-
(root-causo) paccal Ja,,
i !) ri rutnrnana- (obj oct)
F' ,
(3) adhi pati -
, dor ni r r ance)
p' , ( 4) ano, nt ar a- ( cont i gui t y) p", ( 5)
sanndnantctro- (i mmodi ato eonti qrri ty) po, (6) aaha-
.i al a-
F' ,
(7) ai tfi amafi i ta- (r' eci p-
roci ty) po, (8) ni sse,Ja- (dependence)
ttTtrt,ttissaya- (errfficing effieiencv) p', (10) purejd,ta-
i antecorl ence) p'
(l l ) paccfuJj ri ta- (consoquence)
p' , (I2) d,seurt,na- (recurrence) p' , (13) l ;amma,-
l karma) Fo,
(L4) ai pdka- (resul t) p' , (15) dh.rtra-
or nrrtri rrrent)
(16) i ndri yo- (eontrol )
( 17) j har t , a- ( necl i t , at ' i on) p' , ( 18) muggt -
(means) p"
(19) satnpu,ttutta- (associ ati on)
' ui ppa' yuttu-
(di ssoci ati on) p' ' , (21) atthi ,-
])o ,
(22) na.ttl r,i - (absence)
f)' ,
r:i gctta- (abcyanco)
l ,' ,
(21) aai oata- (conti nuance)
Somo of these po,ccul/o had already been
tliscussed both in t,lte Putisarnbhiddtn,tgga ancl the
Knthd,ug,tthu. But thi s book was the fi rst to
group them into a body of trvonty- fo:ur
Br:i rrq a bool i of tho l ate
peri od,
i t, i ras sorne resem-
trlancrr to the Sariputra-abh,id,h,anna-iustra. in which
ten conditions s,rt-. discussccl a,rrd to tLre ,I iidna-
prasthd,na-l d,stra, i n whi ch si x ca,uses are di -qcussed.
The ten condi ti ons of the Sari ptttro,-abhi dl r,arma
general l y agree wi th some of tho 94 condi ti ons
of the Pal i book. As thi s book i s the most rocon-
cl i te and vohrrni nous of the seven books, i t i s
Forneti mos cal l ed the Great T)i seortrse Book (Maha-
pakaraq,a). l,ilie tho Yamaka, this book is very
difficult t'o understand. It has, therefore, been
said that he who ma,sters this book masters all the
dci c' tri nes of the Abhi dhaurma.
MANI I ALS : A. I ' he
(' ot nment ari e. s
of t he ceuen
. Ft ; nd. ament a] Abhi dhant rrt a Bcoks. Tho st vl e of t he
seven -{bhirlhamrna }rooks n' as
conr:iso and
somet i mes so f ormri i t f raL t l rel -seemerl drv anri uni n-
t erest i ng. I t was harri t o underst ancl t , he t rt re
meani ng wi t h t hei r hel p al ono. Such bei ng t he
case, besi des t he books t , hemsel ves, conrrnent ari es,
expl ai ni ng t ho meani ng of t he books. rnrrst ht rve
been handed dowrr a,rnonlJ the str.rt.lents of tlre
Abhi dl ra, mma. The cont ent s of t he source books
probabl y remai nod unal t ered, whi l o t he commen-
taries gradually grew in size rvith tho progress of
st udy and t he devel opn-rent of t he doct ri ns.
' I here-
foro, it was only ntrtural tlurt v:r,riorrs
commerrtarios should have a,ppeared as the rosult
of t,ho differentiaLion of trilrlition a,nd gonealogy.
The ext ant eomment rTi cs of t i ro . . \ bhi dhammaare' al l
ascri bed t o l Juddhu, ghosa who I i verd i n t he l i rst hal f
of t he f i f t h eent urv. I b i s sai <i t hat he consrrl t ed
many olcl Sinhalose eonlntorrt.rr.rics in order to *' rite
hi s own bool i s. The ol cl corrrrnorrt nri es ho consul t ed
are mcnt i onocl t -r, s f ol l on' s: (a) t l i e XI t t l a-at t hakut f uj
( Ii undarrr errt al Ctt nrrr re ri i.ilrv t or tho M u I r,ti
It akathd,
(Great f ' omrnent arr' ), u-ri t t en i n Si nhal ese ani i
preserverl i n t l re Jl ar, havi i raru (Great
-f ornpl e)
Anrrrl rl hapunr, t i i e t rrci ent , ct r, pi t u, l of Ceyl on : (b)
i I c' ornrnent a, rt ' t h, rt r! ' rrs
i n i , i ro Ut , t ara-
vi hara (\ -ort h Tompl t r, l of t he s&mo ci t y, and
cal l ed t ho Ut t arot ' , i hara-nt t hakot l t ct , ; (c)
t ho XI al w-
paccari , -ot t l vaket ha sai d t o have br: en wri t t en on
boarcl n raf t ; (d) t ho ^-l nrLhaka-at t l t akat hd, presorved
at KAi i ci pura i n
, , Andhra"
on t he I ncl i an mai nl and;
(e) t l re Kur' undt
-at t hakat hl i , yrreserverl
i l t I i urun<l t r-
vel u t empl e i n Ceryl on; (/ ) t i re San, kl oe, pa-at t l t aku, t hd,
(Conci se Comnt ent ary), & short cornmont ary,
probably preserverl in south lndia.
I n adcl i i i on t o t l rt -. *I bovo l i st , t i roro seems t o
have been a, comrnent ary al l t rded t . o a, s t ho Pordnd
al t l nkat hd, (, \ nci ent ,
(l omrnerrt arv)
or t l ' t a I ' ort | 4t t .
(Anci ent Mast ors). * Moreover. Budcl haghosa
quotes not only frorn the I' cttisa.utbh,id,amoqqu and.
Ni rl dc, sa wl ri ch shorv r\ bl ri dl ri r, uma t endeni : i os but ,
also from lbe fuIil' indr.r,-paitha and tho NettiTtakarana,
&c., whieh aplteateid later than the funrlarnontal
Abhi dharnrna. Tl i i s shows t , hat t ho st ud-v of t ho
Abhi dharnma hacl devei opecl consi cl erat , i y oven
bef ore Brrddhaghosa.
B. TIte Xlahaui,hdra, sect ancl the Ablmqagiri-
t ; i h, ara, scr: i . Tl re si x anci ent eomment ari eg rnent i oned
a,bovo were not tlre monopolv of tho I' Iah5,r' ihd,re
sect . At t hat t i rne, t l i ere rvere t hreo sect s of t he
Ceyl on Thorar' 5d: r sehool , wl ri ch f ol l orvod t he
t eaehi rrg of Pal i cn, non. Thort wers t he Al ; i t avagi ri -
vi hErt r-vdsi ns (q. r' . , i r, l so knorvn as l )harnrnrrruci ko).
t he }l al i dvi hi rra-vasi ns and t l re Jel avanovi hd, ra.
vasi ns ( al so eal l ed Si gal i vr r , ) . The monks of t ho
Abhayagi ri vi ht r, ra anrl . t l i e Jl rri ravi hl r€I l sero compet -
i ng wi t h eaeh ot her f or l eacl ershi p bot h i n l earni ng
and i n monast i c act i vi t l ' . l he f l rl havi hi rra soct
r*-&s conservat i ve anrl
l , ruri t ani c.
s' hi l o t ho Abhavu, ,
gi ri vi hdra sect r{' &s
l )rogressl ve
and l i berol .
The Mahi vi l i ara excei l ed i t r observi ng t he
l l uddho' s precel rt s ond f ai t hf ul l y prcservi i rg t ho
sacred t ext s t oget i rer wi t h t hei r comment ari es.
On t hi s Boe E. y. POR^I , T4. -G. P. M.
Tlra Atrhayagirivih6rs sect evidently was more
ecti vo i n monaeti c duti ee. Thi s has been confi rmed
nat onl;'r by t:ooke dealinq with the history of
Ceyion, l:rrt aleo try the travel booke of Chirreso
lDonkg, like !'e-lteien and Hsiirrn-tsang. Ths
fact thnt the eaerud trooks whir:h were tri,lren from
feylon and translated into
hinoso rr,fter ths third
eentury, o,g., the I)hrunrno,Ttadu. Attha,kauagga
of the Su.ttuniputa., l"he V'inu.ttimarga. &c,, probably
bolonged to the Atrhaya,giri st:ct and not to tho
Mrrh6,r,ih5rft ssct, prpl'es the vast influonee of the
Abhayagirivdsins. llhe sect scrnms to havo flourished
on tho Indian rnainland as rvell as in Ce1'L-rn.
C. Buddhaghosa, the great comrnentatr>r
Aceordinq fo tradition. Buddhaghosa
near Buddhagayi on the Indian rnainland and
was ordnined at the }lahabodhi-r'ihirra there. as a
mernbor of tho Abhayagiri sect. There he strrdied
the Pal i Ti pi taka,, but, comi ug &crosJ m:rny
obscuritios, went over to Ceylon for fr,rrthor study.
He is said to have writton the Atthasdlini, tlrc
cornmentery on
I)ha,mma,sangaqti., in his lndian
days. Ho evidently studied the Iii,rnuttimagga,
which w&s s manual of tho Abhayagirivihara
Arri vi ng i n Coy' l on,.he.pereei veri that the
Mah5,vih6,ra sect waE srrperior in point of ler.rrning
and that the commontaries of the sect wero
orthoclox. The echolars of the )fahdvihirra'wished
to test his scholar€hip and, giving him a certain
verue in the Nikiya, requested his interpretation
of the vers€. Thereupon, it is said, I3uddhaghosa
wrote tho Vi.sudd,himagga. which systematised
the doctrine of the }fah6,r'ihdra sect. Satisfied
wi th hi s schol arsl i i p, the schol ar,g of the sect provi ded
all the meterials needed bv him a,nd asked hirn t,o
wri te commenteri os on i he I' i pi taka. Anci ho.
convi nced of the orbhodoxl ' of tho Mahdvi har* vi ew.
el oarl l ' cl eel ared i n hi s eommentari e.; tl i at the vrowsr
represented thoro u'oro those of the ltahavihira
sect and asreed with the oriirodox doctrirra of tho
Buddha. Hi s wcrks deal i ng wi th tho Atrhi dhnrnma
aro tlro l-isudd,himagga an<l tho commerntaries on
tho soven fundamentu,l Abhi ri l ' amma texts-
Vi.s,ddhimagga w&s, rlcoording to tradition.
the first work v'ritbon bv Rucirlhachosa aftor his
ani val i n Co;' l on. In Pal i Brrddhi sm, thi s book
cont.ains rhe bcrsr oxplanations of the doctrine of
the Abhi dhamma, gi ven mi nutel ;' and cohorentl y.
fn s' ri ti ng thi s book, the author soorns to have
follor+'ed tho manner of' lrvstematisation of tho
l l i mutti magga of tho Abhnl zagi ri vi hAra sect.
Buddha,ghosa's approach resembles that of Va,srrban-
dhu of the rsarvEgti v5da school . who uonsul ted Dhar-
matrita's Sumuttftlcr-ubhirlh.arnta,-|i.rdaya-.ld,\i.rz,
in rvritirrg lris" l(oJa- id,stra. The Vimztttirnagga,
tl re Pal i ori gi nal of wi ri sh i s now l ost, has
boon trunsi ated i nto Chi nese (Chi eh-t' o-tao-l rrn
outhor. Upatissa, soems to have
been aborrt a hunrl recl ve&r.l pri or to Brrddha,ghosa.
llimutt'irnaggq w&s Upatissa's v'ork *lntt
bei orrgerl to ti re Abhayagi nvi hi ,ra soct i s monti oned
i n the ti ki r
i .e.. Dhammapi l a' s
Para,rrttrttlta-mafiju.+d) of the Visuddhimagoa.
Tho following is rt, comprlrison of tho arrangemerrt
and contents of the Vimutl,iruaggo and the
lTisudrlhi.ntaggo :
V imuttimagga (12 chopters)
l. NidS,na
3. Silapariceheda
3. Dhutariga
4. Kei ydnami tta-sevand
6. Bh&r'an{-pariccheda (?)
6. Karnmaf,phina-pariccheda
7. Kammatth6na or Bhi vani mukha (?)
9. Paflea-abhiifrA
10. Paiit6-pariccheda
I !. Paf,ca-rrp6y6
12. Sacca-pari ceheds
Visudd,himagga (23 r:hapters
J' Ni danakat hd
2. Dhur"anga
3. I(ammat{hi na-gaha4a
4. Pabhsvi-kasina
5. Sesa-kasi na
6. Asubha-kammefihdna
7. Cha-anussnti
8. Anussati-ksmmatthdna
L Brshma-r'ihira
l C. Ar uppa
l i . Sami dhi
f ru.
j r 5.
r 6.
i 7.
t e.
I 20.
1 sr .
| 23.
12. I ddhi - vi dha
Indri ya-sacca
Di gt hi - vi suddhi
K an kh Er,
itaran a
Enadassana-v isu ddh
I]at i pada-fl dnadassana.-vi srrd rl l i i
N irnadassana-visuddhi
Pafr ii 6bhavnn irn i sam sa
Thi* cornps,rison shows that, bot,h bonks doecribe
the procees of rea.crhing the goal of omarrcipation
tlrroirgh tr.r,irring, in t'hs order of sila
earnddh,i (mrrlitat,ion) end pariftu. (wisdonr,l. The
boske coi nei do wrth ea.r:h other i n outl i ne. but
t,le l'i,sutkl,* dealg with topit's moro exten-
nrvel y. Thei r tl octri nal contents al so eoi nci de i n
but thore is eomo
(lirtir,greemeni tln points
of detai l .
Tlre folkrwing three conttnenta,riog on the
futrirrrlentrrl Abiridhamm& books ero ascribed tc
Errdclhaghos* : (a) lfhe Atth&sdlini'.' tlris is the
commerrt*ry on the l)ltn,mmasarigani. Buddha-
ghoea herl writ't,err the Atth'asrilinE before he went
to feylon. Probably tho origrnal rva,g not the
c&ur€ t€xt &3
havo no*'. Iiven tho existing
texi slrqwg sorne difference betrreon the Attlnsal.ini.
*nd tlre Visudd,him,agytra, and rtrs other commen-
teries of Rudeih*ghosa,
rrr,rkos possible the
eupposition thnt tho book wos originally written
on ths Indian mainland nnd luter rovised to some
extent, but thnt it etill retained some signs of tho
influenco of tho Abhayagirivihd,ra in its etylo and
cont€nts. In this book aro found certain intorpro-
tations of doctrino which a,re not found in the other
commentaries. This ftr<:t makos thq book indis-
ponsable for a t'horough strrdy <;f the Abhidlramrna.
The Sammolwainodani.' lthis commenta,rv on
tb,a Vibh,a,ng@ agroes in most of its contents with tho
V'isuddhimaggo. (c) The Paittap'palcqra?a.-'
atthakathd (tho commentary on the {ivs books) :
I'he commontaries of the remaining fivo books of
the fundarnental Abhidharrnri havo been collected
into one volumo, whicir enables ono to get
eoneroto intorprotations of tho doctrine-
It should bo added hero that, though not con-
eidere(l Buddhaghosa's work, the commontaries
on the Patisantbh'id.dnlqgga, arrd tho NifuIesu
also bo oonsulted rn the study of tho Abhidhamma.
Considering that the viows contained in these
commentaries egroe alrnost entirely with ono
anothor whether they &ro bhe works of othor
authors or of Buddhaghosa. it would appea,r that
whon Buddhaghos& w'roto his r.,ommentaries he
withheld his own opinions,and took all his msterials
from the Sinhaleso commentaries. In this rospect
ho ws,s differont from Vasutrancltru, the author of
tlre Koria-rfd,stra. He rather rest'mblod the author
of the -ilI ahd-r:ibhd,pr7-ia,stra.
D. Tlte other Munuals oJ t!rc Doctrine. Bucldha.
ghosa's books r!'ere too volunrinous and difficrrjt
for beginners. So there aroso {t need for manunls
of simplor and moro coneise f,orm.
moob the
need sevoral ma.nuals of t,he .Atlhirllrrr,rnrn& woro
produeerl i n the cotl rse of fi r' e or si x hrrnri red ve&rg
after }Juddhnghosa's time, n'hich period wa-c the
Cark age for the Tl-reravdda scliool. At a later
peri od the fol l owi ng rri rre l j ooks e&mo to bo
regarded in Burnra &s tho representative rnanuals
of Abiridlrommo stud;': the Abh'idh,annnduutdra, t,he
R fi p' ar fi p u
a i hhri
r t,. t lre 5-a cccr
s an k I * p u., t lte III olut vic
cherl unl , the NInurri tprt-serttti sct, the Abhi rl l tant-
mattl wsangaha, l he. Pararnattha-xi rti cL:h,ayu, t,he
i\ ri rnar fi
par ic ched. o, a.nrl t lro )l fu n d,cdr a
clipa ka -
i fhe fi rst, two l rooks u' ero u' ri t,i .en b,v Brrddhadatta,
1r contemporary of .Butl<iiur,ghosa. Hs wrote
several rn&nua,l s of t,he Abl ri dhanrrre and the
\-insys, btr,sed on Buddhaghosa's c<.rmmentarios,
His ettitude \,vanr not eo conservaLive as }Judtlba-
ghosa's, and he e>:pressed hig owrr opinions freely.
The firsl book, tho Abhi^ihann'nt,luq,lura. is &n
abri dgement of t,he l ' i sul dhi naggd; wri tten i n
vsrse it wtrs troa,gured and studied as the bost of
its kind unt,il, later, ttro Abhi"d.hanmwtlhosahgaha
eocond book, the Rupariipu-
ui,bltdga, in prose, wa-c intenderl fr>r t,he use of loss
experioncod troginnors. In thrxo booke of Rudrlha,-
datt*r reality is elassifiocl into fbur groups :
ci,tta. cetasiku, rilyta and rr,ibbina; concepts &B
pror.i si onal phcnorrronn whi r:h are cal l ed pafi rtaUi
are classifiecl anct oxplained. Rftpa and cetasika
a,ro frrrther strbdivided.
tlioory cnrl theso
classifir:rr,t,ion,q were an innovation and did not oxist
even in Budrlhaghosa's works. Tlre final form
was given to thern later irr. the Abhid,hqtnmatths-
Tlre tirird b<.roh, t'lte Suuca-aonklrcpa, has
nttribubod to l)hammap6,la. To distinguistr him
from MahA. Dhamrnaprila, the greatest commen-
tator atter Budtihngtrosa, ttre profix
is added
to his n&mo. IIo seorns to have becrr :r lil,tle iater thrm
Mahri DhamrnapS,Li. Ihis book. which is o small
text in prose, is srrit.ii,trle for ireginnors a,nd r:ontains
no new docbrinal rieveloprnenta or chtlre,r:teristics.
Mahi Dh*mmupd,la, besides writing commonbarioe
on soverul suttas o{' the Khudd,akn, '\ikduo, ig eaid
to have writ,ton Lhe Pa,rornattlw-rtwiijn^rrl, a rrrb-
commerrtary (1i,koJ on Budcliraglrose'e Visudd,hi-
|no,gga, ancl tho .Para.maitlnppalcdtini,a eub.commen
tary on Buddhaghosa'e corrrmsntsrios on ths
Bovon books of tho Ablridhomma. His work is
verv useful for thoso who wish to studv the
Viuddhimagga, in dotail. Mahd Dhamrnapala, too,
thus rendored great sorvice in the olucidatiorr of
the Abhi dha,mm{L-
frrurt'lr book, the lllohnuiccherlant,, is e work
by a Sinhalese writor named l(assapa. The lifth
book, t,lre', is also called the
Khem.a-po,kara,lta (Khema's treatise).
poriod of these authors is urrknown, but, they wero
probably contemporary with Cfrla-Dhtrmmap6la.
These &re emall books meant for beginner.i and
show no originalitl'.
The thres books (from the si xth to ttro ei ghtl r
in tho list) r*'oro u'ritten by Anuruddha.
period of his lit,erar.r' activit5' ie also unknown.
Judging from the frr,ct that ther lonfiuage. of theso
tgxts contains Sarrsl<ritisod Ptli wordg ancl also
1,he fact that sub-cornrnentu,ries to these texts wore
wri i ten i n tho l atter hnl f of' the twel ftl r centtrrv, i t
may bo sa,id that thexr t,hree books wei'e prorlrreed
duri ng tho el eventh centri rv or the fi rst h' 1l f of ths
twel fth conturl ' , when 1-he Prrl i l i rnguoge bogan to
be i nfl uencod by Srui skri t.
' t|rct
l $l l i tl htttnnattha-
sai gaha i s ti re mcst arrrhori tati vo of these throo
texts. In thi s sl rort rnauual . ri re Al -rhi ti harnrna
doct.ri ne r.rf ti re }Iahar i hi ra sect i s verv cl everl v
condensed. Ihe book i s i rv i tsrl f too t:onci se anl .
di ffi cul t for thoso rvho l rtrve had' no sl reci nl trai ni ng.
Rut, r' ari ous comrnt-ntari t' s huve been rrri tten on i t.
fn the sl rrdl ' of r ho Pal i Abhi dhamma of l ator
ti mcs, thi s book ancl i ts commontari os have beon
i rrdi spensabl e grri des to thi s dav.
' fhe
wtrol e l rook
is, colterent an(l systurnatic. The cia:gsi{ir:at,ion and
enrrmerati on of cetasi kcr, (mental attri bui es) rrrrrt
r' ?t:n (mat€ri al thi ngs). tho expl anati on of perfi ,rtai l i
i eonc€p[B)i &c., ]rave been fi rtal i sed i u t]ri s book.
' l ' h+r
l .rook nray be rl ni d to represcnt tho hi ghest
rrerrk of the docbri nu,l rl evel ol rment of -4bhi dhamma.
i l ' he
pos,ti crn of ttri s book i s arral ogous to that <l f' the
Kasu-itistru in tho Sarvietiv6da school, The
mrlgt, famoug comrnents,rv on thrs book is tlie
Abhidtwm tn attha-vibhduarfi' try liurnarisa Ia of aboub
tho eleverrth or twelfth century-
u,nrl the ei ghth books of the l i st, both wri bton i n
verao, \,v'ore irlLerrded fr-rr beginners, but wero nob
rcgard€d m lrighly as tlre Abhidlwmmattha-sangaha.
The ni nt,h book i s ths work of l Jaddh:rrnrn&-
;r' i ti pi l x,
e Hrrrrrr€l i e rrronk- IIi s Brrrrnese n&me w&s
{l huptrJo, He werrl tp
(Jeyl orr
l or etucl y towards
the close of tlro tr,r'elfth century and received ordi-
nati on there.* Chapada i ntroduced tho Si nhal ese
Order i nto Bunna. At bhat t,i mo the }fal i avi hS,ro
soct, nr'a,s irr full powor both in the study of doctrino
anrl i n morrasbi c acti vi ty. After a stay i n Ceyl on
of ten yea,rs, Ohapada roturnccl to Burma, bringing
wi th hi m Si nh&l ese Burl t.l hi srn ond va,ri ous l i t.orary
rxrateri ol s connected wi th i t.
' fhus
the foundati on
of tl re ' \i rhi dl rtmrnar strtti .y was i ai d i n Burma.
Besidos t}:re Nc7,tnacdra-d,ipako", Chapada wroLo also
tho lli.suddhimagga-ganth,ipa'da, which gives oxpla-
nntions on difficult worcls of ther l'isu.ddhimu,gga, ,\c.
tho seat of Abliidhamma stuciy moved
fnom Ceyl on to Brrrrna nnd conti nuos so to thi s day.
KdceN Mr zuxo.
a Si i sbr t r ( t cxt )
(Tfl ,i sh6, No. 1545, i 0() fasr:i l rrl es) cornpi l ed by i 00
Elclers of north Inciia, and trtrnsisted into Chinoss
by l Tsi rnrr-tsang of tl ro T' ang dynasty
i t i s sorrl e-
times sirrrplifierl as Mahdaibfuisd <tr l/ihhd.st7. It
bel ongs to Lhel thesaurus of di scussi orrc (i rr whi ch
the Snrvast,ivacla, school o1' Iluridhiam relioct. B.v
interpreting on a vory broad scalo tho meanings of
all dharmas anrl b
bhoroughlv exhibiting the
theorit:s of vu,rioug sehools thern existing, this
$ilstrtr lurnishos dotailed cornrnerrtrtrics ()n
J fidt t altr u,s thctna, written by K S,tyeyan ipu t,ra.
Jfidna'prastltdno is tho basic canon of ths Sarvds-
tivdda, one of the twcnty schools of Theravd,tla
wiuh the Sang|,tiparydrlu,
tlro Dlmrmaskandlua, tho Pra.jitopti, tho lrijild-
nrikdya, Llne Pral:utana-pado, and the l)hatukciac, it
ma,kos up tirt: scverr principll sisbr&s of the Sarvirs.
biv&dins. In tho 1*6 1'ascicule
orl the Abhid,harma-koia, written by P'u-kuang
there is this pa^ssage :
of theso S5,stras,
ths J ivinepra,ttllfi,na stancls foremost for its compro-
hensive doctrinos. This Lc why the 6astra-writers of
succooding ages s&y tha"l tho other six Sflsbras aro
legs whilo Jfrdnaprasthdno constitutes the body
itself. " -Evidentlythiss6stra, v/&s generally regarded
of old as the representative rvork expounding the
Sarvdsti vd.da doctri nes. Conci nuous studi os wero
rnadei on it, by the Sarvfr.stivd,cla scholars who held
i eai i i ng posi ti ons i n tho ci rcl e <.,f thi nkors of north
fnci i ,r i r.t ti rat ti mo, eaoh propoundi nq hi s own wei l -
foundeci i<lea^s antl broadly disseminating them. and
l,rr a date of three centuries later stiggest€d for him,
sco -\ . P. Buddt radat i a Thera i n UCR. I X, L, pp. 09 f f .
: . ; € r l so s. r , CEAPPATA. - G. P, U.
[hs Mahiuibhd,;d is t]ro colossai enc.r'ciopiledic work
enconrpassing all these differont cornmontaries on
Jfidnaprastlwna.. The titlt, ]Ialnrzbhd,sd implies
thretr noti ons, i .o., comprohensi venosg, excel i ence
and variety of explarrtr,Lions. As is remarked in
tlre I'olc.r on tlte .\bltidhq,rmrt-koia-.4dstrer,
ii :
" It i s sai rl to be comprohensi ve because i b coverg
the vast rlifferontiation of tenets
to bo oxcellsnt
because i t, al l br, l s excoi l ont treatnrent on al l sorrs
of thoories
to bo various becauso it trroserrts
clill-erent views conceived by tho 50r) arhots on
t,he Jfidnaprasthanu,. On account of theso throo
noti orre, i t i s fi t to preservo
the Sanskri t ri amo bv
Lrarrsl i [oral .i orr.' ' I' hi .-l show' s ti ri ]t thi s Sti sLra *
hel d as B r:&noni ,.al trcasuro of the Sl ,rr,.i sbi vi i rl i ns.
' Ihe
carrso a,nd ci rcrrmstarrce for tho compi l ati on
of this 6ristru,, as is monti<lnod l-ry I{sir:r,n-tsang in
lns The Recorrl of ll-cstern Cortntries oJ the Greot
T' ort11 l )y1nastt1
,l ' asc.
i i i , rnay i rt-r tl rrrs suruured up :
About four htrndred y('ari afrer the Bucldha's
Ni rvdr.ra, Kani ska. l i i ng of Gandhi i ra. i rocarns an
ardsnt Bupporter ot' l 3uddl i i sm. l ,erpl oxed at tho
divereity of schoois and diffnronces of opinions
within tho tJuclcihist community, ho consulted
with Pdr(va, on whose aclv'ii:o he built a rnon&srerv
i n KaSmi ra ancl convokeci a corrnci l of i i 00 wol l -
known aritrlts, with Vasumitra as the presiciont, to
u rtl crtul (e tho work of cornpi l urg the Tri pi faka.
Fi rsb rrf al l , tl re
(l pade.i a-i ,i ofrc
wss compose<I of
100,{)0() $l ol rag to i rrterpret the r\ti tru-p' i to,ka;
next, tlro Vinuuo-aiblt,isa,, a comment,ary on tho
1"iyy61t1ct-pitako, wtts composed of anothor 100,000
i:lokas; and lastly, the Abltid,, n
commerriary ori ther AblidlLornta.p'itraka, was also
cornposorl of 100,000 iloka,s. Aftor the works wore
cornploted. thoy woro inscribed on copp€t platos
and de6rosi ted i n a sttrpa for presorvati on.
Tl re cornrnonta,ry of 100,000 6l okas on the
,lbltidl;.arnta-|itnku, rnentione<l hore denotos the
,4hhi,lharrnarnaltd.uiblud.,sd,, and the Abh,icllrartna-
T,i taka
on rvhi ch the cornrnenLary i s wri tton donotes
lhe Jfidltuprasthdtta. Agir,irr, in his epiloguei to tho
Chirrous vorsion of the Itahd,aibhrisd, Ilsiiarr-tseng
writes :
r\bout, four hrrndred
aftor tho
Btrddha' s Ni rvana, Kani ska, rul i ng over Jambu-
dvipa, callod together 500 ariru,ts in KaSmira to
writo comrnontaries on the
Of those
commentarios rro havo obtained the Abhidhormrz-
uibhd.,^d., which is ciulv translated horo." Mereover,
tho Ti betan reeord
of thi s ovent (Tri ri nJ,tha' s
Historu of Ind,i,u,n BuLldhism,, chaptor ll)) agroos
with llsurln-tstr,ng in general, excopt to say that,
in adrlition to tho 500 arhats, 500 bodhisottvas
and 500 pandits also participatori in the assembly.
Tlris camo to be calied tho Third Council. Sinco
thon, tiri.s 6dstra tras been rocognised as a compile-
ti on by Vasumi tra arrd the 500 arhats i n Ka"(rni ra at
tlre time of I(anislia.
Ilut,, rocont investigr.r,bions by modem sciroisrs
havo shown that i rr rhi s Sa^ctrrl thero are such
words Bs : " In tho past, at the t,ime of l{a,niska,
ki ng of Gaurl hAra,. . " (ta"sc. 11.4), ari d such
namation &s; "
In the past, thero n'r:re two 3[stra.
masters of this school, ono narned Divira and trho
Ghosavarman " (i-asc. 199). Tirese
.Beholars hsvc inJ' errerl tlru.t Pirsva, Vasurnitra,
Dhil,rrrrtr,tr;1tu,, Ghosu, arrrl fJtrrlcliraclovtr do not seem to
have purt i ci gra, t e<l i n t hr: cornpi l nt i on personal l y
Jiol,withEt&oclurg the fact th;r,i their opinions havo
boen frerluenbly referred tr; suntl sriti*,ised. These
sehol{r,rs hq,ve frl tlier rnairrtoined that this 66.stra
was eorupiled ioug after Kaniska arrd Vasumiira,
Eorr. rc t i nre i n t l ro i nd cent ury . \ . C. , as a col l ect i vo
proriuction of th6 S*rvi,sbivadirrs centoring eround
t he arl hcrcnt r of I i ri Lyi l ya, ni l rut ra. Thi e opi ni on
ngrsr:s rvith the st&ternsrt mads in the lVlafui-
prujft,i,ltd,ranzitti-itistru, fasr' . !, which runs thus :
" Iiritlnyaniputra, a Britrrrrana.,
com;roeed tlrc J fi,inuprasthrTrta in eiqht granthas
, An l i rne went on, hi s di sci pl es t hought
t hot t he er: ht gr*nt has mi ght not be underst andabl e
Iu all ls,ter leo,r' nere, whereuporr they compilod
the Vibhitsd." It olgo s,greolr with ll' ao-shan' s
prt.t' ru:e to tho eerlier Chinose versiorl. of the
Abitidhurnta,-xibhcl.sri., in wlrierh he sBys,
hundrcql r: dcl
)' enrs
af l er t he Li gt rt of $; i l i yamuni
w&s removeel f rom us, 5t )0 arhat . q of rrort h I nrl i e
r' omFlog{rd t lrt: I iblujsu ttt rectify t.lrn divergent
t l i srrri sg, "
' I horof bre,
t her exact f i rne of t i rs compi -
lstion ol this *aetra siill rornii,ins a, eubject to be
rnvest rgat ecl .
Nevert hei ess, Lho cornrri l i r. t ron oI ' t hi s Sast ra
<l ef i ni t el y prorl rrcecl a g, rof t run, l and st i urul a, t i ng
effect on tho sptr$ro of Indian lJucldhisrn and
. ont r i but er l
mucl r t o pr or not o t he posi t i on of t he
Sarvnst i vi cl i ns' t h()rrght s a, t t hat t i mo.
' I he
ni l me
Vni bhi si k** Ll nrs
f {rvon t o t }rerrr t est i f i r: s t he
ri rgrrrl i cori t : rcl at i on beLween t hi s , (ast ra and t hei r
cchool of Errrl <l i rrsm. Ami ei st t ho s€noral l i ux of
i n{eresl , f ur t t ri i *i i , st rt . t l t ero i t -rDe, r. re, [ + number oi '
wri i i ngs arrri rvcl l -l i nown s{. h()l l i nl i n t , i ri u corurexi on.
L-or i!1,' jtitil.(:(1.
' l' oti-arr
EA ,;
<tf- tire llast-tsin
pcrir:tl in his
bo Lho V"ibhri,sri s$ys : "
' Ihero
1! ' er{} t l rrcu l rl i n! . . i ni l r. i t ecl l i rt i r, nani . I )l i a"si and
\ -i =l i r, -rrr, rvl t o rvrrl t o orr t hrr l ' i hl ut su' r, vi t h oxt ensi l . o
nl l ur i c r r s t . o t l r o l l r i l l ' St ' r i pt r l r os . . Dha-
gi ' g , w' cr i r
i : i i r r cl r r sr r t ' t r ur , t oo mt t c: h gi ven r o
I ni nut cl -r{: ss, t l ri r, t of Vi l l -ni i s corrci se Lrrrt ri r, b}rcr t oo
l r i ' i , ' t ' , r vi r i l e t l r r r , t oI Hi t nr r i i ni i s t , i r o t i est nr l i t r st cr l
t o r l r i r puf pu* f . " ( Vi r L: '
, A- Ff i ; ; f f f i
( ' oLi ecr i on
aJ t hc I t ercrd. s
Tnt rt xl ul t t ' rt , ' ; u. l t l w
' I ' ri pi t ul crt ,
l i r, se - I | ). ) . : \ rnong t i rc- rvurks corrrposed u. i t h
rrrrrl , t : ri *i s rl nl rvn f rom t ho Vi . l , l t ai ai t , t i rcrc are l )har-
rrrcl I t grri i . ! r AbJt t dl Lurt t t n-l l da; 1ct , and Dl ri l rrn&t r6, t a' . 9
Eary11ukt <i bi , ' i t l Jt ort t t ct l t rt ht . rl rt . I Jc. si dcs, l ' ; r, si rLrandhu
l i rri i i rrt ' erl
i ri * f i r. i r. rr-rus -. I bl t i t l l r, urt t t rt , -koi u bhi s, / u t ry
t i s rrrs1ri r4rt i p11, l i rr, ri gl ui , bi ri . r. c. i ru, ' s Abi t i dhurnru-
tLU(i4.Zrt,ttt;iir' (t An!l ;Il tlt,itjltut' rttu-ti&ilLaVuprutli,piku
wef € ; r, i xo \ vrrt t {l r rvrf }r u vi crv t {r i t i rrpl i f J*i ng t l ro
rl i ; ct , ri t rc' . : t ' orrvr: . 1' ed i n t he T-i bl ui sd. i . l rese sre Ll re
rvel l =l i rrri t ' n u' orks rrorv t ' : rt ant ,
j rr
re' l at i crn rvi t h t i ri s
i rl st ni , .
' l ' t r g
c, r i gr r i ni $&nskr i i ! r ' xt of t l r i s Ser ^: t r a i l
i {}, r, Ul l (t J; l i rki rs u, ' &s rcqt l ersei i nt o & cornpl sl o
{- i rrrrese versi orr b3' I [ si rarr-t srl n. I . \ l ri rat u' ei spr' al i
, ' f ns t l i r: I I u, l ri rri l l d. . s, ? t orl u, -r' gencral l l ' ref ers t o
t l r i u , r , , r sr un. l JuL l r t : f i r nr t l r *
' f
i l ng . l vr i al sr v t i r er e
rrr-rr' t r i t rl Ff rt , . l . r &l i rl . rri rl ged r' , ' r$i , ur l r1' Su, r)gl rabhut i
t i r r r i r r g t l i e l . ' r r Li l r ' i r i (
4. I # )
r ci gr r , nr r r l r l nr : t her
rncornpi et o r-ersi on bv l j uddhn\ . &rma. n nnd' I ao-t ' oi
E#' l
rrri ng t he nl rt horn Li ang rei gu.
L The Fu-ch' i n versi orr, enti tl od Yi bti
i qstru i n 11
fctsci cul es
(' l ' ai sh<i , No. 1547), wB$
t r ansr l at . . r l i n t l i e I gt r r yoar t : f t he Ohi en- vr i an
( 87t r
pur i ocl ( 3S3 , \ . ( 1. ) of r ho Fu Ch' i n r ei gn,
on thc re(pesL of Cha,o Ci reng (
ftdE ),
of the i rnperi a,l
secretari at. Ti i o ori gi nal text wss
Si tapAni ' s abri dged copy of ths -Vahaui bl td,si i ,
transmi tted oral l y by Sanghabhuti of KaSmi ra.
A group of 6rarrrar.ras organised under ths
participntecl in the work.
.F irst, tho text was recited by Sanghabhrlti and
takerr down in Sanskrit by Dharmanandi, anoChor
forcigrr Srarnana
tiretn it w&s transla,ted into
Chineso ortr,lly by Buddharaksa, taken dowrr ancl
coml )osod i rrto Chi nese l i tera.ry form by tho Fu-ch,i n
Sra,mar.ra, .Iliu-chiir (
f,llff ) ; and it was finally
edibed by
himsell'. In his prefa,ce, Tao-an
sa,ys: "' l ho ori gi nal toxt contai ns much more.
Owi ng to the obl i vi on of the reci tor onl y 40
iterns which constitute the fundamentals of tho ton
methods of tho Abhiclharrna a,re preserrted hore.
Fifteen iterns a,ro grouped together and shiftod to
tho forepart {rri
the smal l er porti on' , whi l e
twenty-fivo iterns are put to the re&r as
l *rger porti on' . I3oth these porti ons &re compl ete
two iterns a,ttachod ab t,he cn:t are
fragrnents gatirered and i:earra.nged {rom }rie
mernory. "
' fhe
i i rrty i tt:rns rnenbi oncd earl i er,
togethor wi th ths two i ast fragrnentary ones,
mai i i ng r-rp l hc whol o content of 42 i Li :rns. onl v
(' ovcr
the seconcl Gri l nths ((l ranth.a on tl te Bond,s)
of tlro T'ang version of the AtLlddhanno-mahd-
ui bl tti stT: tho so-c*l l ed Srnal l er Porti on of 15 i tems
roughl y corresponds to tho fasci cul es 46-51) of that
versi on, thaL i s, the fi rst l ral f of tho Vargo (chrr,ptor)
orL Bud tr'actors (
$-gffi,rJ, ),
Vargu. I of the
Grantho r;n tlte Bond,s; a.nri tho so-crr,lled Largor
Portion of 25 itorns corrt:sponds to f'asciculos
7l -$0, tl rat i s, the fi rsb h.r,l f of the Vargo on the
Metltotls (
+f|ftn,H. ),
Vafga IV of the
sB,me Grantha. Obvi ousl y, thi s vorsi on represenbs
orrly a verv sru:lll part of tiro comple|o !'iblr,usu.
reasons fbr tho incomplotenoss of this vorsion
a,re giverr in the I3iogruplry oJ Sanglw,rleua in tho
(tlictgraphies of l,)mirtent X[onlc.s) as t]rese:
" $ai rghabhl ti renci erorl the cnormous thcsi s of the
Abhid,honnauibhdsi at & tinro of trrmult, ca,usocl
l.ry the insurrec:tion of tho },Iu-.vung (
ffi6 )
I3esi ri es, ti ro i ntorprebers i n too greu,E & l rrrste
wero urr&ble to exhibit all the details anci thui
tho mcani ngs, i mpl i cati ons. styi o, &c., werrr not
srrl l i ci enti y shoryn. I' urtherrnore, the deach ol
whicir took place shortly aitor, lefi tho
wor , : r r nr or t i f i ed. "
2. The versi on of l rorthern Li ang, enti tl ed
Abl ri ' l hartnac' i bh,a.c,r i n 60
Jcwci cul es
( I ai sl r<i , No.
l 5. 1t i ) . wi l s t r a, nsi at e i bv l r ot i r $11
, l r l | 1; i v11, paen
and f . i , o- t ' ar . Tl i c or i si ni l i Sar i skr r ' . t ext of 100. 000
si okr us r vi L. * Lr r onqt i t t o t l r e ki r r g, l ' ; r n of Li ang f r om
ti ro Western I' i esi orrs i ..,r' Tao-t ai tr,t the ti me rvhen
. Fl ut i r l i r avar nl i l r r f r i : ( . ) r i r r r *. 1 t i ! t l i e Li ang capi t a, l .
Ori ti re rccl Li cst oi l i rrr ki ng, tl i el - l ;oth commetr<:etl
the tnrnsl a.ti on s' ,rrk a,t the Hsi err-yti
pai aco
t Ffi i ftH I
ur ri re rrri dri i o of the fourth rnoon of
t l r e 1- cl r ' ou \ ' ( ' ar , .
Li 14, 425
A. C. ) . About t hr ee
i rrrrrrl red rri trl rarl &s, i ncl udi ng Chi h-sung (€fffi
iAf,fi ,1
arrcl others, wero sumrnoned to
assi st i n sysm.i ni rrg ti ro i anguago and {r,scerbei ni ng
rha roeeni-rrgs. Irr the treginninq of the sev'enth
rrrcei n r:f tl re Ti rrg=mi xr year (
Ttfl $,
427 A.C")
-rh* rrorli wrrfr r-:orrpiett:d ln IUU farscicules.
L-nfort rrriately. the rnnnuscrlpt,$ wero sctrtterecl and
:,poiled iri r,ha conrljeJ of u mrrtint that everr&Ir
rlit: Lialrg cfl,pittli. ParLs of tlrern were later
rrr-riloc:ted r*gnirr arrcl put, duwn irr 6ti fascicules,
thc iilsrra bcplun to xJrreru,d sor.tbhws,rd int,o
the torri torv of tl rr ea.ri i or S' rng <i ynasty. Ti ri -c
er-:eorrnt is mtr,rln a,r:cordirri4 tu
ro tlre Abhidha,rrna-uibhd,s,i. Hut accorcling
ths Collectien of tite .llecoruls aJ Trntala,i'iltrt, o.f
the ll'r'i7ii[uku,, {.:,ec- i. t,he tre.rLslatbn w&s
irr tlrei 4tlt rnoon of fhg
Tl L+,
3? A.(1.), an.-i was compi etod i n
t he Tt l r r r i o{ ) n ot ' t ht t Ci , i - mu, o yeg, r , ( E, t l +, 439
A,C.), Al l l ater recnr.l ers rn goncral acr:ept tl i oso
dates. I'his is the 60-faseicrrlc's text now r.xtant'.
Tho contents, hov;ever,
cf <lnly (l) tho
Grantlru on, Mircellaneous Categories,
t}io Grstrtha
on the AnLLiayo and (3) tlrc Grantha on tile Jit'1nae
they sitrply correspond respectivoly fo tire lirst
threo Grzurthas (i .o., the Granthas on tho Mi scol -
l &neorrs Categori es, the Ronds and tho Ji i [nas) of
the T'arrg vorsion (fascicules i-iii;. Tho transiation
itself rea:is n oro conci*.1 an,i fl'.renf, than tho
T'ang vorsion, but is not so &cclrrai,o as ttrat one,
witir which it agrees in ths nl&in, rvitlt occ&,sion&l
differonces in cxpression an,l a,rrangement.
Tho accermplisiurrent of the Chinese translation
of ths Maltrtuiblu.r,sri in its comploto fcrrm of 90tJ
fascicuJos has to bo attributed Lc }:lsiiau-tsang,
whose worl< stands t,o-day as the fullest and most
a,ccur&te version of this 6iistr-a in Chinese. The
Sanskrit' text used hero was brougirt back by
Hsiian-tsang himsclf from India. !'oliowin.q tho
corrrpletion of the transiations of the Ablui'lharma-
s arnalJ d pr a d t pikri an, I tho Abhi dh or ma,
ny d y,7 r z t t., i,r a,
both belonging to the \/ibhdi,d, s;rstom, and of the
Abhidhertr;a-koia, a rvork in closo connexion with
this 65.stra, drrring the Yung-hui period (
tf..'# ,
650-655 A.C.), I{si i an-tsang commeneed the
translation of ]Iah,iuibhrisd, on tho 27th day of tho
soventh l noon of ti re l sr year of the Hsi en-ch' i ng
( t r f f
per i od { 656 A. C. ) at t he Gr eat Tz' u- 6n
morl&story (
^*,8.+ )
of Chang-an. Tho Srama4as
I #id: ),
frFffi )
and Ta-ch'6ng-kuang
*-*Jt )
wrote down
the rl i ctati ons; Sh6n-ch' a (
m+F ,1
and Pi en-t' ung
Ffffi )
put t}-ern clor.rn na rvritten rer-'ords ;
Hsi -hsi i an (
H!tr ),
tl hi ng-mai (
ffi ,$ ),
Hui -l i
ancl Hsi i au-ts6
gFi l
trc&t,rses ;
rl l i ng-chu ( gE*
l Jrri -kuei
i Hf; I,
Fo-hsi a,ng (
,*i f# ),
Ifui -chng (Hfr
Sh€n-t' ai
f,S* ),
P' u-i rsi en ( gtr
ancl l i han-i u
#* t
ascertairleci the meanings; and I-pao (
*6 )
Hsri an-vi ng
tgffi ) d;d tho ori hographrc wci k.
thrt 3rc[ <lay of tkre 1f,]r mool <if the 4,rh year of
ti re H.;i ei r-ci r' i ng
peucri l (659 A.C.), ti te trausl ati c,n
rr-i ri corupl etecl ar" the Hsi -rrri ng mona,\rety (EEBE+).
Ti,e rl'irc,iu work of :li.t0 fascicules, divided rnto
e:i l ,i {l rant}ras (secti <' rns or parts) each of w}ri ch i -s
:' t:
-ri .".-i ,-i eC
i ntr,; a nr;nrber <,"r Vargas (chapters),'
f:sr.:i:i a conrpreirensive and ciet:riled corrimentnr3i
tl .-' J i i nonr,;.st|i .Cti a v' i th i rs oi ght secbi ons
.u -i i ,,,1;1
1r1,--.. ci ru.pi .ers : antl ,
i n i :r., l ci i ti on, by
c:l 3:i a:,:rl \-8rr(-,Ll s ri l OOri es
expoundrng the
c,.:rrl ' i ..i tr: owri oFrri i ons, l t torms, as l t wei .e, arl
o!€i :L r,i rhc ri cctrrnes of the Sg,r..' Asti ve.da sehool .
thi s
strrpenrl ous Si .stra. Hsi i an
-t,sa,ng' s
crtrnsl u,ti on
remai rrs to-ci ey the sol e wel l -preserved vorsi on.
The ori gi l l ai Sanskri t text of thi s Sa.stra i n Indi a
aeerns to hervo l reen l ost si -rortl v aftcr the producti on
of i t.s t)i ti rreso transl ati on. Evt,n i n Ti bet, whi cl r i s
ver.v nes.r: tu Ktr"tmira. nr-r Tibetan version has
ever l .reen prorl ucrrd. Iri 1944 A.C., Sra,nrnr.rrr,
{ *:&.;
began to t'rausltlto it irit,c;
Tibetun fronr tho Chi-rrese versicrr of I:Isiion-tsang.
Tho n'ork wiis couipleted in i348. and is trorv
aq'ait inq publ icariorr.
Tho confents of thi s 6[stra. i ts <l i r.' i si orrs arrd
sub-divisions <.rf
anrl. \'argtr.s, are atrarrged
in er,,:o "with t,he J fian.uprastluina, rl,s is
stti,tecl in tho Prc,logue : " Sepacate trqtttisos iiro
conrposed irr ther forrn of Val,rga.s, whi<rh are agairr
groriped urrder distinct
The difl-eront,
concepti<-rns concerning vari,ttts predicaments a,ro
collecterl rrndt--r tho Grcnttlm ctL lll i,sc'ell'a,neuus
Categories; t,hoso
('oncernirrg the problerns of tho
Bonds are incorporated ilr tho A runth,u on the
Borcds; and sirnilarly those conc('r'nirrg the problems
ol the Jiri.lnas, tho Karmas, the }Iahd,bhrltas,
tho Indriyas, the Samdrihis an,l tire Dyslis aro
collected and incorporate.l in reslnctive Granthas."
The marn clesign consists of tr series of exhrrustive
diecussioils on til6 probiorus cl*ssified in tiro above
according lro the prrnciple of
refuting the opinions of oth,rr schools and upholding
the doctrinos of ono'g own echool. Ths logical
Boquonco of the eiglit Granthas begins with tho
Qrarrtho on lliacelluneaus Aatu{lories and it ie
definod in tlis 9nd fascicule of this iEstra &s
f ol l ows:
lVhereby c&n oner's coprritions of the
b€ froed from imprtrity,
obscurity, &c. ? T'he answer is : By breaking
through the Bonds. Ilence foilows the ?nd
Grantha, tlie Grantii,rt, on the Bonds. Wheroby
c&n one realize the broakirrg through of tiro
Bonds ? Ttre &nswsr is : By Jfld,nas. Hence tho
Srci Grantlra, tho Glranthq on Jfldnos. Who is
capablo c,f achioving itro Jiiirnas requisito tbr
brsaking tiuorrgh the Bontls ? The answor ie:
Tho Ptr<igalc that is free fru'rn Kar:rnic hind-
r& llcuce the 4th Granthtr, t'ho
Katrnas (rictions). Wherefronr do tho Karmes
ciiiefly arise ? Tlie arrgw-er iu : Frcm tire -L'our
Ilahiirlfilas (elcments). Iienr:.r tlre 5oh Granltha,
tha &rarr,tha ctn the lt'ou,r :llaitrii:ldttus. Of all the
innrtmerorrs composibi':ns of tir.r llahS.irtrtltas,
what ranks the highest ? I'lie anss'er is : ?ho
In,Jrryas (c;rgrrns). llen,:<i tire 6t'h Gr:r.nt,lra, ttre
Granttta on tite In,4ritltr,s. Bv wirat power can the
Indriyas bo purifiod ? I'lir &nswer is : By the
power of S*miirlhi. FIen,:,e tiio ?th Grantha, the
Granthq an Sam,iChfs. As i,llr-,rt: hare' i-ieen peoJlltl
wi i o, havi ng achi tveti t.l re Sa,ri i i i i l t,, vci u,re i ed
into various evii f ie\-r's anii dest itrat i.r.trrs b.-v
€rroneous ustri ra,ti ons, tl terefol tr a fi nal Gra,nti ttr,
the Eth
(i rant,ha,
i s devoteJ to ti re di scussi on o:r
D;1ti s (vrew-s) wi th a pui ' f|' .rse tc bri ng ti bori t ths
readi er e\ti ncti on oi the Vi j r16nar,s. "
The ft-rll<.,w irrg is s li;t of thr: bopics of the ergirt,
Granthns anti thei r sub-di vi si ons oi Vargas, rvi th
numerals irr L,rackets clonoting rire numbering of
ti re fbsci ,:ul es tl rey cover :
Miecelluneous Categories (l- 45)
I . Varg* {rn the Leuki}cigta-d}rarma (rhe
hi ghest of the rnuni furn* i i hanoa,s) (I-g). l l . \i arga
or Ji EnH,B (9 :3). l l , Vs.rga orr Il udgol ns (33-29;.
\'arga on Aftection an':l Reverenco (!9 34).
5. Var.qe on Shnnrelessn{:Be and Non-baehfulnesg
(3.1 :fB)- 6. Varga on Il henumena (38 39). 7.
Varga on the l{eaniugioss Prfirtices (39-49). 8.
Vrl rpJa on tho Cetani l (thi nki ng)
$2-45i .
LI. I' he Grcnti ut on th,e Eonrl -,
t. Vl rg*l orr l l s,rl l l l i rfor.: L4{i .-;i i i ). l . Vi r.Tg;r, on
Ek8,v*r,,-:ariakrr (r,reelrng t,ho dhnrrnh,s in s,rt:ceJsion)
(5l i -6:1). 3. Vr.r,rg* orr Serrti enb Br:i ngs (63--70).
4. l ' argu, on t,ho
' l ' cn
IIe' thocl s (7t-{):1.
1l I ,
' I ' he
Gr ant l w on Jf i dnas ( 93 l l l t
1. Varg*
{' rfr
t,}i e []ranc]res of Stud.v (33 97).
:J. Ynrgn otr tfrn l .' i vrr l l oi nts (97 1i {}), i i . \' *r"gl r, on
the frars,r:i ttaj i ri rr* (rrrtrri tr"' e l i nc.rrvi edge of ci tl l ers'
ti rorrght;r) (l l 9 l {)i r).
. tr' arga on tho
(l ul ti vati ri rr
Jrl i ,no* (l ()S
=I0Sl .
5. Vu.rg* t;n ti ro Ssvori -{&,i ri ts
( l { t g 1 1 1 ; ,
fV. Ttre*ha on Kurmas (l l 2- 126)
I . Vsr gn or r l l . ; i l Act i <r r i s ( l l S l l 6) . 2. \ / a, r gt r . on
Evi l Sl - , eecLt e ( l l { i l l B) . i 3. Var ga on t } r o Cr i me
of l - i f r : =t ; i ki ng ( l l $ l 9l
) .
4. Va. r gr l , ei n t he } f ani f est ed
anrd tTui ' neri i f' esterl Ar:ti ons ( l :U
I l +). 5. \rargrr c' n
One' s {J-srri ,-4.,:t i trrl s ( i :14 I
g{;i .
V. T' ho Urantl vt on tl te l l ,tl tdb' h&i ua (1117-14l r
L l rurgi l oi r Ll e
(l rent,i vo
.rtr.ti vi ti ee of i ho
Mahtabhut$s (l g7--l :f l ). ?. \-a,rgrt orr tho I' r*tyavaa
i eonci i Lr or r r r r g
r : nr ; sr . e) ( i i l l 134) . 3. \ - ar gr on t he
Reei i sat i ons uf eor r cct Vr ews ( 13{ I 37) . 4. Vr uga
t : n I mpr osxi cr r s
{ 137-
l { 1, 1.
' Il ro
(.l rrnl tho,
ot,, Indri yrts (l .tt- l ;{i )
l . Var gt on[ nd: ' i yae
( 141
l - l { i ) . i } , Var g* on
Bhave ( exr sf er r r r : e)
t l 47
l 4u) . 3. \ ' r i r ga r i n Spar i a
(l ri uch) (l a9 150).
Varga on the Uni vcrsaJ
Mi r i d ( l 5l - l l - r 5) . 5. \ r *r : a , r f l r o { ) ne } I i nC
(I55-l 5i i ). fr. \' arge orr ti rL' t l ' i si r (l Oti l 7. Varg* on
Il e,' tuprri ty*y* (erl uscr) ( I 56i .
Sarr 6,stivtidu doctrinos aggregateC &round tho
axis of tne J r*tandpr(Lctltrint, Resides the orthodox
vie$' s of t,he Sarvdstir.6.dins *' hich e,r€ promulgated
with frrll €tprgrr:, nurntrens ot Civergent tlriories
&re also taken int,o considerar ion &c tlic s&me
t i mo, wi t h & vi erv t o t he ref ut at i on of f *l sehood
ns wel l as t he revel at , i on of r hr. r t nrt h. whi ch i s i n
f ao. t t he mot i vo of compi l i ng t hi s srl st ra. For
instanee. 1' ery often a discourse in €uclr Seci,irrrr
l pens
wi t h such &rt i nt roduet i on :
. '
Qrre. st i en ;
ll' hat is the purpose of this treatise ? Ansrver :
To refute the ciivergent se.lts in order io rel.oal
t i ro ri ght rl oct ri ne. " ^! n, i t herr t he di scrrssi on
i s
cent i nued. The
. ,
cl i vergenb set ' t s
" t o be re: bui t ed.
hero i ndi c$t e)
(. hi of l j '
t he heret i e ci oct ri nes, e. R. ,
t hose of ' t he Srrri kh, vu^s, Vai i osi kas, t he Sab, i avi dv"6.
q' riterr
(the qramrrra.rians),
the belit_:vers of itrs
Vedrr,s, the LOk6vatas, ancl tlio Nirgrantha sehool
{t he.
Jai rri sr. s), &t .
. Cert am
school s' v". i t hi n t }re
t surl dhi st cornuruni t l ' , suci r &s t he f ol l owers of
J)hnrrnagupta. tirc }ftiiriSAeaka. the Kr-usyapiya,
i hr'
-l ' rrl . si prrt ri ya,
t i re. -Mai ui sanghi ka,
t he Vi 6l i si _
J' rrvn(l i I ,
t he Sr. r, r-rt ri rrrt i ka, &c. , are al -"o subj oct t o
corri i rt ut i r, i rr, Even rrri t ers of t l re Sorvi i , st i vt i <l *
scl rool i t scl f ' u' i r<, , l i el d rl evi rr. t i ng opi ni ons, srrcl i
i rs t ho so-c' al l e' rl \ Tt : st ern Tei . t r, l rers, t he G: r, rrdhi r, rri ,
' [ ' r ' r r r : l r cni .
unt l er cn r l l e so- cal l ed Ol d Abhi dhar nr r r u
f )hi l osr, pri t ' rs, 1l rt -
(j l cl
Forei qn Tenchgrs and t i re
C)l t i I i ai nri ri . r 3ro rrot sl rrrr, -. d cri t i c' l grn, be<ru, uso
t l t r. Srrrvi rsl i vi du, rt . i i l i st i c sehool want et l t o
csl rl , l i si r t he pt rrer Sarvi rst i vd"ri rr svst em &s rvl rg
l orrl t ul . i l (' d l 11. t i rt ' l bl l owcrs of l i at yayoni pl i ra
in K a,srr ri ra. t l,o st,
led .\ bhi rllur.r-n rn&
rurt i 1Le Kasrri i ri s, t t ,
l l rornot e
t ho doct ri nes of
l t ' . ! i d t t <t
l t r' t . xl
h, I t t t .
Irr di;scrrssitrq ea,t:h t.-rpie i1 tho .Ii' odnaprasthd,nu,
<; f t t n a
Ferrert l
survev i s f i rst mat l o oi ' t ho vari oug
exi st i rrg t l i et ; ri es &s e{)ncr)rrl t he mnt t or, arrd t hen
ri , <l cei si ve. ri gl rt oorrs i ri dgernerrt , i s nrf l de on t hom.
. \ s
rul t n, t l ; ost r u' l i i r: h t rccord u' i t h t l ro t rut h are
rcconrrnonrl ot l ct rj ect i vel y wi t hout , eny cri t i si srn
of t ho cornpi l ers
u' hi l e t . hoso whi ch do not whol l y
or pilrll,v a,crcord rvith the inrth are irn' ariably
I , rrrrr1g116 t r: cri t i ci sm, rvhi cl r usuai l y begi ns wi t l t
ri (-)rrl u sucl i phrasl os:
, .
f t i s so ss, i d ",
. .
I ho t rut h
i s t hat " , " t r t shr i ui d be
1' ut
t hus" ,
, ,
Our . cr i t i ci sm
vrr.,r'rro Hrantha on,earn,idttir (r;T id(ii
il::lliil';,;;:l;:fi?'i,lf ;;:l;:;1"*,lii;:#ll__;
l . Vr i r go gn f - ) r apt i ( acr l r r i si t i r r n) ( 157 f 62) . of <l i sl r r ssi , - i r r ul ; , i var i es. anr l sor net i nr es i r r ; ch. es
: . 1" Ver ga, t t t t [ ] r : r t , r ' t t * 1.
l snconr l i n' v
enr l sr t ) ( l ' i : l - i 6o) .
t i , . . i r r r Lr o, f Tp11s1i l 1ss1i s agr ( . er ne! 11 i s r er l ui sr t e f r ) r &i l
3, Vargrr o' . , hi r' i t grrr, I rrr (i rrcl rrei ul r) (l t i 6-17: t ). ol ri ni oi r t (; t )o &c(: el ; t t ' <l as t ruf i r. Everr t i i r: r)pi r! i (-r1n
4- Vr r . r gn cn . ' l nl r gr mi ( r ; r t r vcr - r ct r r nr i l r g; ( I 74- l S3) . ot ' t l i r . sr l - cal i i ; d F- our t l r r . nt . \ : ai bi r r l si ka^s, i . e. ,
5. V*rgri ol r JI hi t , r' : -r, t ' : rvs. ka (t rei l t i ng t l ro dhu, rrnaa Vasrrrni i ra, f )l rarmat rat a. I l udt l haci eva, u. rrd
(i hosrr,
t n sul : ci ' i rBi ot r)
{l $l "t -i $f ).
: rre ni ; t i ): \ r. j rnpt {i C f i ' om ref urat , i on (' , ' i t l e l ascs. l t i .
3. +, i 4, l : 17. &c. ), but arr: sonret i rnes er. en crusl i et l
' . t l rc
Gru. *t Jut t , n L)r; l i s (157
j (X))
rvi t l r sur: ] r rern*rks r, us,
. . . I hi s
t roat i . ; e i s . omposecl
l . Va, rgn {}n l {rnrt , 1' rrl rrr, st hri na (ei wel l i ngs of f r-. rr t l re pL; rp()se oi t l oi ng avi ' g. -t ' rvi t }r such t heo-ri es "
renrei nl i r{r. rrcu)
{i l t 7
t {}j i . ! . \ : nrp4a orr l . he
' l ' hree
(r' i rl e
f ri : , c. I
j j {
r. Tl rai . t hi s sri -st ra \ \ ' as ret errt -. i t o
-Fi i ri ds of JJl ri r, va
{, -' xi st urrr: e)
(1gJ 195). i i . \ ' arga <, n by t h, . arr(' i (' n1s H, s
t }re aut }rcrri t at i r-e j udgemont
Sr r i Ji r i l
( i r l r : as) ( 1l ) i l { } { i ) . 4. Var ga ( ) n
Jf r dna of t l r r , r ni r st e! - s
i i l t r st r at es r hc f act r } Lt i t was
( r vi sr i ur r r ) ( l l f l ; i 1f ; 1. . i , \ ' +r , r ga or i 1) r . l i , ( . . ' i ews) cont pi l ecl l r ] - t i r t , Sar r - i i sr i vi dr t schol ar s of t hat
l t i r ! { : , 1{ l ( l ) . t i ms r i enr r i cr nt r c i l l i r ' .
' f Trrrci rr
i s prcsent rt i l : rrr al i -i ncl uci i rrg, poi nt by As f or t h. -, mat eri al s rrsed i n t hi s $dsl , rs, bosi cl es
Ll orrrl
exF(r*i t i un of t l rrr J' i ' i dnaprast l ui na, t he basi c maki ng ext ensi \ e ref erc_-nces t o vari ous common-
c*rron cf thc lj*rvi,stiviie1..r, (u' ith the srle erxception tariee rn the -t ilii,aprusihirw written by seholars
uf t , l ro V*rg; r, of
(' l i t l i ri ' s
rvhi <' h' net , . rl s no e, rpl anat i on), af t er KAt y' i ryani purra, t hi s 66st ra f urt her i rrcor-
-' ct
prlt' lv
u lrterlll
of ths texr,, but
s-n porates
the doctririos of tIrc Praknra,4,<tpddn, the
ell.r' rrrl' r,+eirrs, e:xlral-.tlole r.lcyelopacdi* of ttie
' Ptajiu.rpti,
ttrc l)ldtuld.y(t, the I:ijfianaid,yo, tne
Dnarin*tkq.ndhu *:otl tbv Sangit'iparyriya, in order
L+r arrtend the d;ficiencies fourrrl in the Jfi,anapras-
thdno ilrrrg render the s;,'gf,g111 more su,tist'rLct,ory.
" (Jrrs
borly supportecl by six legs", as lator &ges
put it, is an adcquate rnetaphorieal clescription of
the compilation. It rnay be saicl to have errcompassod
whole r$nge of $s,rvfr.stiviidu, philosophy,
tlxprosged tltrough discussions or1 ruany probloms,
soms eif whir:h irave not, been touched. upon in ths
Jrl.drwprasthdna itself, The cornprehensivenese of
i[e contents, the magnibude of its organisation,
the pror:isenees of its definiti<;ns, and the ovsr-
whehnrng weo,lth of its ruatoriu,ls---all suffico, in
cl rrarrt,i t,y a^c wel l as i rr qrrai i ty, to rni r,ko i t a wonder
to ficholars of succeodirrg ages and win for rt
general recognition &s & ulasfer-work of tire
E&rvi,etiveda school, a schriol thab was Indian
Burldlrisrn pa,r ezeellence in its socrarian age.
Since its Chinese vt'rsion of tho T'ang d.vnasty
w&s produced, consecutivo studies har.e , been
mado of thrs Sdstra by Buddhist scholars of China,
Korea and Japan. According to tho
(A Complete Catalogue o! the Can,onic Pttakas oJ
Varioua Schools) comprled by I-t,'ien (
#|X )
Koroa, thore exi sted at hi s ti rne a number of
commentaries ancl records orr this 66,stra, e.g.,
Hsiian-tse's IEH|J ) t.E&i$ffif!
(Notel on the
MahanibfuJfa) in 9 fescicules, L)hi-t'ai's
ffit )
(.lVolca) in l0 fascicules, -t'en-i's (
A* \ t!
in 1l fascicules, &c. Among the Japanese works
on this Sdstra now extant are Yrldo's (FhH
;[.Egi4r'#{1fiffi @
Iist en Mahuuibhdsd) rn 2
t'asciculos (or I fascicule), Renjio's ($ffi
) iEH"=e
(Jottingcin Read,ing 4 fa.scicules, &c.
I{eo l{u.e.rv-,ru.
Brnl rocnernv : Chi h-shdng (T' ang dynasty) ; .4
Buddhi,et Sacred Books oJ the K'ai-ytian
Period (Taisho, No. 2I54), fasc. 8. Ilsiian-tsang
(T'ang dynasty) : The Record' of lVestern Countriea
oJ the Greot T'ang Dyrwsty ('Iaisho, No. 2087),
fasc. 3. Ki'nrr16, T. (Japa,rr) ; Stud,ies on tloe
Abhidlnrmaidstra, Part fV, fifth edition, Tokyo,
f 943. P' (T'arrg dynasty) : Notes on the
Abhid,h,arma-koia,fasc. I. Sdng-yu (Liang dynasty) :
A Collection of Records oJ Tronslations of the
Tri pi l ,oka (Tai sho, No. 2145). fascs. I0 & 13.
F{fttrffE fffi
p' i
t' an
k an
us ei
restoration of the title of a Chineso trans-
lation of & work by Ghosa of T\rkhara.
Although the name of the translator has not
bsen recorded, tho text has bo'en registorod
as translated under the 1V6i dynasty, A.C. 220-265
(l fanj i o, I978). It conei sts of l 6 chaptors i n 2
fascicules, running into 55 pages. Tho 16 chapters
ci eal *' i th the f<i i l owi ng : (l ) Di na and 6i l a
Forrrs of bi rth
(3) Bei ngs that l i ve on food
t5) Skari dhas; (6) Samski ras; (7) Causes ;
rS' Pure irrdril'a^s
(9) Passions (sarTtyo.iana a,nd
arttl .sal o); (I0) A:rdi ravas; (II) Knowl odge;
Dh1' nnas ;
(13) Mi seel i aneous modi tati ons ;
Thrrtl ' .ser-en st&ges of the hol y
(15) Four
ervaaatvaa orNobl e Truths; and (16) Mi ecel l aneous.
This work is nowlrere indicated as belonging
to the Sarv6.gtiv&dins, excopt that tho entry in the
cataloguos (Tib.-Chin. and Nanjio) is mado among
tho Strrv6stivddins' books. Wassilief gives this
work in tho place of the Prajfraptipddc (one of
the six p6das) without stating his euthority or
the rsason for which he assumes the identity of
tho two n&mos. All that
says is that
from its contsnts this r'ork may well bolong to
t he school ( JPT' 5. 1904- 5, pp. f 39- a0) .
According to L. de la Vall6e Poussin, this treatiso
though small is truly ambrosiel ( amTta-l aud
vory readable in spite of tho entiquity of tho deto
of translation. It is very completo, yet brief
though at trmes detailed eccounts of many things
&Fs found
d,e Va.suband,hu,
Introd. p. xl vi ).
T. R.
a treati se of tho
SarvistivEda school, writton in tho latter half of
tho 4th ceutury A.C. The author of this work waa
Sanghabhadra, & contemporary of Vasubandhu.
Chronoltrgically this treatiso follows tho Abhid'harmo-
koia-6d,stro of Vasubandhu. Irr this book Saigha-
bhadra refutss the assertions of the Abhid,hq'rrtua,koiq,-
iastra. It is an important rel'erence book for tbo
studv of the Sarvd-gtivd<ia and Sautrflntika doctrines.
A-p' 4-t' cr:.-u)1t-
rostored Sanskrit tit,le of a Chinoso
translation by An-Shi-k6o (*EH' A. C. I48-
170) of a work, tho author of which rom&irrs un-
known. It is a compeudium of tho Sarvdstivdda
tenots. This work is mentioned as a Hinay6na
eitra in Ch-tsin. It is not found in Tibetan (Na'njio,
No. 1346 and Boal, Tripiloko C-atologue,
rostored Sanskrit form of the Chung'shi,h'fen-
(ft]$fFF]flt$ffi Nanjio, No. f292)
a^s well a,s of tho A-p'i-ta-ma-pin-lei-tsu-lun
(F{[ttEE*4ffi,8=#, ibid._No. 1277) which aro both
Chineso-tr{rnsiations of an imporba'nt but lost
Sarvddiveda Abhidha'rma tert called t}l'o Prako'
raTtapddo (q.t.).
tho name given in ihe course of rostoration by
the Tibetan-Chinese authorities to Saighabhadre'g
Abhidhar na
s anuty a
p r a rln pik d' 6 d'sf ro ( q. v.
is Julion's restoration into Sanskrit of the title
of & work which is
msntioned by Ilsuan-tsang &s having beon composod
by l6vara, mester of Sdstras, at a cortain sangh6'
rima. Boal, howover' a&ys that this was perheps
the ^lo,7nuukta-abh'id,harnto-hydaya-dd'stra, whieh
Idvara is s$id to h*vo trarrslatecl in 426 A.C.
(I?ecards aJ Lhe Western Worl d, p. 112. n. 102).
;t-7l i -ttr,-rrto-tsarug-l ts' i e,n-tsung-i r+n
(Nanj i o, No.l 266), Sa,nskri i restorati on of tho
tiilo of a, fjhirres€ transletion by Hsiian-ts*ng of a
work t'ry Sarighabhadre. I{e (Pa,pa,mdrt}ra tells us)
w&c an opponent of Vasutrandhu, and was also tlto
er:rupiler of two 66,strns in Avodhytl, ons oncitled
fi i ustrati on of the Srr,rn*y.l
eontai ni ng 10.000
ilok*s, whieh meroly explr,in the doctrrnes of the
L' i bhd,sd, oneccountof whi chtho book i s al so known
ss Abhidharma-koia-ddatra-kd.ri,kd-ribhd,sr7, encl the
r:tlror bearing tire n&rn€
to the
f qdyd,n,tr,sd.ra, in 110,000 6lok&s. Ae Takakusu hag
observod, Nnnjio, who gives a somewhat difforent
interprotution of tho above title, has done so on
tho authori tv of tho Ti b.-Ohi n. restorati on whi ch
reads :
FElflfi#rydffi ffi ffi il!ffi ff'-fi ibffigih #WW VbILi'
dharma-prakaraqt a-i asana-i dstra1.' I' hts tnterpreto-
ti on,.however, ha^s to bo roj ected i n the l i qht of
Parami rtha' s referenco to thi s work as
' Il i usbra-
bion of the Sameya
()f=@qli;fr I(wang-san-
no-yeh-l un).
1'his work eonsists of 9 chapters in 40 fascicuies.
rrtnning into 749 pa,ges, and is only an abstract of
the author' s own Nydyri nusd,ra (q.v.), wi th the
arklition, horvover. of an introductor5r ehapter.
It agreos rvi th tho Ti betan versi on. As ti re author
hi mi el f tel l s us i n hi s i ntroducti on, thi s i s rr, cornpen-
di um of l i i s oarl i or work, Lhe )Jt1ri ,rydnu.sri ro, whi ch i s
too el aborate and abstruse for geneta! stucl ents.
Tho shorter work i s a si rl pl t exposi ti on of the
Vi bl i i ,srr tenets, whi l e the l Erg,' r i s devoterl rnore
to a detai l ed refutati on of the tenets of other
teaclrers. Vasubandhu's
lio,(a-Adrikd' ihself, bcing
rr sul rm&rv of the Vai bhi ,si l ra cl octri nos, was l l ot,
obj ecti onahrl e tcl anv fol l orver of tha,t svstem, tho
onl y obj ecti ori bei rrg tl i rt' cteci to the proso exposi ti on
ol ' t i r e Kct i a, i r r r vl r i ch. come doct r i nes of t he
Saubrrrnti kas arc torrntl i ncorporatecl . Thi s bei ng the
caso, Sanghabhadrtr, ci tes freel v tl i e k,i .ri kr-l s of hi s
opponent, and expl ai ns tl i errt a.cuorcl i ng to the
orLi rorl ox vi el r-s of hi s scl tool . Arrrong ths auuho-
ri ti os rl uoted ti rero are the I(5,6mi ra-vai bhasi kas.
Kdsrni ras, Vi na,ya-r' ai bl ri si kas. Yogaci rrvas, tl ro
Ablt,idh,qrntak.l,va, I)hrt,r nzasl;tt.n,I,hct, Pra.iitaptipd,rla
and the larger text Nyriyanusdra itself.
At the end ol each of the chapters Il -20 antl
3l -40 i t i s stated that, thi s text bel ongs to t,he
Sar vi st i vdda scl r ool
( Ta, kakust r , , l P' J' 5. 1904- 5,
p p . l 3 { 1 3 9 ) .
Tho Ti betan t.rrr,nsl ati ou of thi s work, the
mi on-pahi mdsotl -kyi bstan-bcod-kyi tshi g-l el rur-
byas- paf r i r nam- pa, r b3ad- pa' by Hdus- bzan,
appeal s i n the Mdo-Hgrel (sfrtra) socti on of the
' l i betarr
Tengvur' (Cordi er, III, p. 394
Tl I.
\o. 4091
A. C. Banerj ee, Sarudsti uri do Li terahrre.
1' p.
72 f . ) .
T , .
one of t he t r vo
l ast r c. s composecl by Asanga t o sunr t t r t r i se i t ,
epi tomi c form t,he essenti al s o{' ti re Abhi ' tl harma
Sutra. It is a discourse on the characteristics of
which are comnron to
all three vohicles (the other id,stra beirrg the,a which is a diseourse on the
charact eri sl i cs of t l i rarmas di st i nct i ve of Mahi y6, na) .
Works of puro Abhidharma are not rere in tho
Srd,vakay6na e&non, but among the Mahdyd,na
works this is the only work specified in this field.
lforeover, to tho Mahd,ydnist an ideal Abhidharmo
should be one complete in four phases : ttp
responding dharma. (the presontation of tho nobls
path leaCing towards the attainment <;f NirvA,na),
the ropeate<l dharma (the
' enumeration
of ths
part i cul ar as wei l as t ho common charact eri st i cs
of dharmas), tho surpassing dhtr,rma, (the argu-
menLat i on t o suppress opponent doct ri nes), and t he
comprehensitrlo dharma (tho interpretation of the
tttro.titrgs of tho text;. (See Chapter on, Dharma-
parllesti in the Mahd' yd' na-siltrd' Iattkdra r E. Ober-
mi l i er, t rsl . Tl t e Hi st ory oJ Buddhi sm by Bu-st on,
Pri rt I , p. 37. ) Tl rc Abhi , Jhcrl nt a. qant uccaya i s j ust
such a l vork i l g u, r: cords v' i t , h t hosc: cri t eri a.
The whol e wor k compr i ses nl r out I , 500 Sl okas
an<l i s cl i vi ded i nt o f i ve part s. Pt rrt f ,
' I ' he
di urn oJ Uharuct eri st t c. s (Lal : san(rsa] t Luccaya), f ot ms
a di scourse orr t i re i ra, si c l i norvl edge oi ' t he cht rrar: t er-
i st i cs of dhr r r mas, ancl i r ence i t i s i i l so ent i l l ed t he
Funcl t r. ment al St ' ct i ort s (Mt t l uuasf u, l . The cont ent ' s
f al l i nt o f our scci i ons : t he sect i on expl ai ni ng t ho
three tlrirrgs, t' i2., t' be skaruIha, tho ayatanu and
t l rc d, hd, t t t , t he soct i on expi t r. i ni ng t hei r col l oct i on
(sangraha), t he sect i on oxpl t ri ni ng
t hei r uni on
(samprayoga), and t he sect i ' -. n expl ai ni ng t hei r
acqui si t i on
( sant anuugama) . ' I he f i r st soci , i on
ccr. t t ri t
a nri nubo doscri pi i on of t hs nat ure of
t Lrc skandl urzs and t he rest . under ni ne t opi cs : ( l
t he
] ri nds i nt , o u' [ i i c] r ou, ch of t heso dhamt ns i s di vi ded
i l )
t l i e roasol r rvhy onl y t l resc' di vi si ot r. * aro ost ab'
l i sl rot i
(3) t l i o re&s()n rvi ry t l t o t l l r, o' rmas of shandhas
are trlso crrlleil the grr-rspccl .skr-tsttllt' cr,s; (' 1) tlie charac-
t eri st , i c f oat ures of t , hc, so dl urrnt a, s ;
(5) t ho rc&son
cf esbabl i sl r i ng t hese d. i t ar nn. s ;
( 6) t he r eason of
nr r angi ng t her r t i r t st r ch or dor ; ( 7) t he r neani ng
of t l rc ni -l rnos gi ven t o t hese dhart nus
(8) t he
rnet r. ni ng of t l rt i si rni l ' : s ompl ol ' e<l i n t l l e t ext t o
exol rri rr-i l re skondl t us and t he rest
t rnd (1)) ol aborat e
di scri mi nat i ons
rnadc upon si xLy cl , t cgori cs, such
as t l ro real cxi st ernc-e v(rrsus t he f ai so exi st ence,
and so f i t r t i r . Under t he i ust t opi c, each i t enr i s
t reat , od rn a t ri pl o process of present i ng i t s rneani ng,
r t s di vi sr ons and t ho ai m i n maki ng suct r an
exanri nat i on.
The di scri mi nat i on of c: . r' t egori es
i t sel f
r: onst i t ut es t he i nnermost part of t ' he repeat ed
d. hunnas, ancl i t i s here t hat t hi s rvork di spl a' ye
t he spi ri t parf i cr. t l ar t o l l ahi i vi l na. -I n
t he Sri vaka'
r,6n&,^ .q.bhidnarma
worlis the disc' timination i:3
i nat i o v' i t i r a vi er v t o t he est abl i shment of t he
exi st enco oi rJl t ' arnr, (1s ;
bt t t i n t hi s rvork t hero
r uns t hr ough ever 5' i t cl r t t r t r ur t mi st akabl e t r end
i o" ' u" a. r . er i t , unci ni
t he col i cept of t he dhunnaa
&s exi st i ng r et i l i t i i ' s, t l i us l eadi ng t ' owar ds t he
r eal i sat i on of t i , e r - ui dl i ess af dl t ' ar t nus'
The seconcl sect i on
Pt , . I ) cl crnorrst rt -r' t es
t he
col i ect i on of t l i e rl l i arnt ct s a, s vi erved f rom t he angl o of
t . he i rl ent i t i es
i n t l i ei r n&t ure' I l ere are enunl erat ed
el oven ki nds ol ' such i nt er - r el at i ons,
e' 8' ,
- 11' "
l . . . , 11""t i o. , of chnra, ct eri st i cs
arrd t i ro rest ' The
l horuugh i ornprehensi on oI ' t i re. ro rol at i ons rvi l l
+ri abl t =r ot i a t r"r ef f er: L ri rrl i rnorrr-rl r' -u cori (rent r{rt i On
of t l , e r ui nr i i n ont ' sl er r nt , empl . r , l i or i of t l r e ux[ er n<r l
wor i r l .
' i ' he
t ni r cL ser t i on r i om, . r r r st r r r l es t i r o uui on
Ll f Lt rt . dharrnas ars 1-i c11' {; d l rorn ! l rt , i i . ngl a of t , }re
, i ' . l l or r , nceg i t r t l i ei r ni i t ur e. I l er e t l r r r ; r r r l , hor pr +. : cr r t s
Bi r t orl ri -q wi t , l r whi r: h t o i i l t rst rat o t , hr. s. r:
"rl at i o. , u,
n. 9, , t l t +i r i rt : +t : l ri i ri r, l ; i l i l , . y rrrr. l t l rc resf . . Tht i si grri f i -
u*nce of t i re rrrut rrnl rr. ' sl l orrrri vcri el s i s pa. rt i cui rrrl y
r r ot i r : snt i l t r i n t , he r t r r i t y of t l r e r . ; r r i ot r s r nent al
dhuri n. u urr, I t , l rercf i rro t he t t i orrrr: Ah cornprohort rri orr
r ; l Ll r * sr . r i , Jr Lr i ol ) n r r ' i l l er r i r l . , l , - . , r , , ( , 1, , r l r r r l cr . r r - anct
tile iit(r(rf-1,' f hat r(:dl)r-rtlst,:J tlepr:trci!ng rrpolr thg
Jnr r r r l r r l dl t anna l t i l r t ) t r o r er r l i t ; ' of t l r oi r <; w' r r . The
f ut rrt l r ser: Li orr (rxpound$
t he rnei r, ni nH of t i re
*er-l rri st l , i on ot ' t i re dl t , urt nu rrl r vrewo(l i ' rr, nr t l ro
i t rrt rqt l ri o or t l *-rcrcf i , i t e wl ri eh i n l i kel v t o ocet t r i t t
t he cc)urse of t i rei r eont i nuous dovol opruent .
Here t he urrt i ror enumert l , t es t l rroo ki nds of
" aequi si t i cr r " . sucl r &s t hose <; 1' t hs
' .
soods "
(udra) and so f , . rrl t r.
' I ' hs
i . l rorougt r cori qrrei rensi on
of t hoso rel at i crrs q' i l l
r. nahl c one t o rel rai n f rom
reg&rdi ng as doci si ve t he ri se and decl i rre of u' t . rrl dl y
dherrnas. Unl i ko t t re Sri l v' ukavri na Abhi dharrna
t , ho i l ree rl c; gnras
rel at r. d ri , Lrove (t he col l ect i c' n,
t ho t t ri i on anri t i re &cqui si t i oi r) . rre hero appl i ed
chi ef l v t o l rerl p t her comproi rei rsi on of t i ro voi d
nat ure of dharDt us. These {bur rnrri n sect i ons
correspond t o t ho reprrot ed t l harnt a, s i n t he
Abhi rt hgrni a.
Parr I I , 7' he . l st ert qi nnt ent
{ui ni hert l t nl
r, ! l f rut h
( sut ya) ,
expounds t he f our t l ogr r r r r s i n det r r i l . The
ci <. rgrna of suf f eri ng t l eal s rvi t h t ho ani rnat ed worl d
and t he physi cal wr. >rl d; t he dc. gt nt l of i t ecumt rl at i on
rvi t i r t ho evi l s (kl e. dcr) and t he kt rrnas enhaneed
b. v t heru
t ho dogrrra of t l ost ruet i on u' i t h t ho
ext , i nct i on of t ho
i ' l euky
dhar r nas " on gr ounds
of t l roi r ul t i mat -o reui i t y
and t he dogrna c)f t ho
nobl o pat h u' rt h t l i e ef f rrct i voness of t he f i vs
t d' &ys,
r' i 2, . t ' hg pro-. ' i si ons and ot hers, t o st op t ho
accumul at i on anci t o l r r i r r g about t he r l ost r uct i on.
Tho noxt part , Pt . I t I , Th. e Ascert ai nrnent oJ t l t e
I ' aw (dharnao),
present s a cl ot ni l ed a<: eorrnt of t ho
ni eani ng of ' t he I -Jrrddl ri "t , t eru, chi ng cl n t ht r [ ra: ] i s of
t ho t r vol ve di vi si ons of t hs Canon. Pt . I V, The
Ascert ai nrnent oJ At l t t i t t ni en. t (prdpt i ), i s a di scot rrso
r, rn t l re vari ous l i i nds of peopl e
\ pndoal a)
capabl e
of r: t rl t i va, bi ng
and l ho vari . ' orrs t . ' l et r rl nrl erst a, ndi ngs
l cbl t i srnnaya)
t o be cul t i . , -at . a, i , Of t he rl bove
r nor l r , i onecl , t l r o t r u' . hs ar e, t i l e pr obl ems t , hat
i l rt ct cl i ri srn ai rns t r, r soh' o, t he l au- i s t l i e t encl ri ng
t , i r*' , l l t rci di ri srn sot s l ort h t o sol vt t t hern, and t l i o
at t t r i nmor r t i s t he r esr r l i of t , he nr act i ce i n r ccor cl ance
rvi l i r t i re t eachi ng. Pi rb t , ogert hel r *l s i l *, l i ol c, t i rci es
c: orrospnnd t t t t he pi rrr of t ho resporrdi n13 rl l : arn: a-
oI t ] ro Abhi d] rarnra.
Last l y, Part V, 7' t t , e Ascerk' , i rt . t rt , ert t o. f Argurrren-
t at ' r' on
(snri l co, t l oya),
expl Lri ns t ' i re -ci x' i ' ol ci nret l rot l of
r ' xpounci r ng t ho t enet s oi ' sr l t r as, e. 9. , t l i eor et i r : al
exposi t i r . , n, and so f or t h, and, i n connect i L\ n $' i t h
! he f t , rrns of rrr. rki ng argument s, provi des di f f orent
nt e. l nS t o br i r i g cl c- * ' n t i r i t opponent i n r l el - r i l t e,
Tl , i s as, : er t ai r r r ner , t cor r esponda t o t he pa, r t s of
s' , i . r i . r i s: ng t l i i ar mt and conr pr ei r . r r si bl e cl har r n* of
t i . :
- \ t , i . r , l r i ar nr 3. Hai ' r ng t l i us f ul f i l l ed t he f <l ur
l r i l r ct i t - , ns , - , f r i r e Al r i r i di r ar ma i n i t s l i vo
par r t s.
t hi s
work is rightly ontitiedto be calloci a fully piannod
Il urthormorrr, thore i s another poi nt
nor , i ci ng. Ti r o or i gi nul t ext of t ho' Abhi dl nnna
,!titra,, which w&s one of tho most important basic
texts of the Yogicdra.' scirool of llilhi,ydna
fl uddhi sm, has l ong beon krst and, wh*t i s worse,
hrid nr:L been translated intir x111y linorun
Iang' Ihe fulahd,ydnusaigraha, a,lthougtr
having t,tikon tliis srf tra for its basis, furnishes only
a parti ai represtrrrtati on of i ts contonts. rr,s thi s
6[st.r' a was i ntended to i nterprot onl y one chapter
<rf tl re wl rol *: sutra. It i s onl v i n i l ro Abl t,i dhurma-
sarttu,(aqlJe tl[rt we find ir complete compendiunr,
rirat is, * conrprehensive surnnlu.r-r' of tlre positions
rl tl van<;ed i n the l ost si rtrt. u' i tl rorrt l ea,vi ng out
a si ngl e poi nt ti ru,t cl omuds extr,rni nati on and
frorn tlto cllscourses eontaineci
i n thi s si i strr' ,, especi al l y frorn tl toso posi ti ons that
are rrt vari anco wi th those prosonted i n tho
I'cgtlcilrabhilr,ti, iL is possil-,le for rts to draw a
gr,rphi c outl i ee of tho Ahl ti dhanna Sdtra' i n i ts
enti roty, tr,nd l rerei n l i es tho si gni ti cance of the
The crri gi nal toxt of tho Abhi dharnl cl sentTtccdl l ct
in In<ii,r. is lost (I,-rrr,6;mc.nts in fi&nshrit rvore di.q-
r,overt'rl by }Lahula Sankrityayana in
l 9:]4. The ma,uu$cri pt i g a producti on of the earl y
l l th centrtry, compri si ng ebout tw' o-fi fths of tho
wholo work. These fragments wero colloted and
publ i shod i n 1950 through tho effort of P, Pradhan,
v' also restorod the missing portiorrs by ro-
trarrslati<,rns trom tho Chinese a,nci'Iibetan versions.
Thi s i s tho modorn edi ti on of tho Abhi d,horrno-
sanl uccayq of Aoahga : Vi sua-Bharati Studi es, 12.)
After Asanga composed tho Abhi d.harma-
aoi l tuccayq. a comm€ntary (bhdsyo) n' as wri tten by
hi s di sci pl e IJutl dhasi rpha, rvho adcl od numerouE
euppl ernc' nts to i b. Later, Sthi ramati i ncorporatod
the contents of both tho 66stro-text and i ts corn-
rnerrtary into an integral Eork, ttre Abhid,hurma-
Ea,ntuccaAct-ut1dkht1,i , v-hoge Sanskri t text eti l l
exi gti r i rr Ti l rot. Resi des. there rvrr.s tnothor com.
mentary by Suddhri ctrl rdra, but the ori gi na,l toxt
i .r l ost.
Tlrc Abhidharntas<tntuccaua
was trenslated into
Chi neso i n t he 3r r 1 year
df Yt r ng- hui ( 652 A. C. )
of t,he
' l "tug
ti ynasty
by Hsi run-tsang, enti tl ed
t ho Tu"cl i 6n17- a- 4i i - i u- nb- t hi - t un ( ' I ' ai shO, No.
I ti 05) i n 7 f"asci t' ul es. Ti re conterl ts are thus
arranged acr:ordi ng to the openi ng suurmory
,(ttdti dnu.)
of ti ro l i f.sLra : tho fi rst part
*l on€r f<-rrrng tl tc Porti on, oJ tr' unrl ttri tental Secl i ona,
r+' i ti i i ts four socti orus otr ti re tl i reo thi ngs. tho
r : ol l ect i oi l , t , l t e r r ni or t and t he acqui si t i or r , st andi ng
for tho forrr respecti ve ci rapters
' *-hi l e
tho other
f<i rrr pi rrts f<rm four <:l ri rr,nd aro categori sed
togother as the Porti on oJ A*.:ertatrnnents. As for
S tlr irrrmrrt i',t A bh,i tllt ar t t t e I e t t t.7t cc e u a
y dichy d, i b u'ae
a,l retrl l . transl atcd si s
.r' ei i rs
eari i e.r, i .e., i rr the 20th
; ' r ' l , r
( l l r i r n- I <r r u. n
( 646 A. U. ) , r n t he f or m of a
$epi r r i l t e r vor k or r t i t l er i I t ] r e 7, . . t - ch' 6r t g- u. - p' i - l , z- nt o-
t sa- cl t i - l ut t ( ' f i r i si 16. l i o. I 606) i n l 6 f a, sci ct r l es.
Tl i e cor r t ent s i i , r n sr r bst ur r t i al l y i dent i cal wi t h
thoso of the transl ati on of the Abhi d,harmo-
Ea?nuccayct wi th tho two prtrfi ons sub-di vi ded
into clrapt,ers. Iforeover, &a the forrn of rt,s
comF()Bi ti on i s eomswhet si mi l ar
to ttrat of the
'la.myuktdbhidharmahrdaya. whieh is & sep&rate
devoloped from the Abhod,harmehniaya,
its Clriness version takes the title of L'.cq-clii-
lun. meoning Ea\nyuktobh'id,harmaeantucca,ga.
work afterwsrris beeamo one of
the ten authori toti vo i i strae of the Yogi cl rra
s,:hool irr pl*ce of bhe Abh,id.harmasdrruceayct
i tsel f, arrcl hence rv*l s hi ghl y esteemed by i ht
foliowers of llsu;rn.ts$,n9, arrd a largo nurul"rer of
eqrnrnentari es w.,re wri tten by them. The eri sti ng
oaee &re K' uei -chi ' s rVoJes om the Tsq,-ch' i -l ur
in l0 faseieules *rrrri }Jsrian-f*n's Comm,,ry
i n I0 fasci eul es
whi l o other works, o.g., Li ng-
chi i n' s Cornmenta,ru i n l 6 ftrsci cul es. Chi h-j tn' s
in 5 fasciculos, Sh6ng-chuang's
Comm,entary i n I: fasci crrl es, Yti an-hsi ao' e
Contmentary i n 5 frrsci cul es and T' ai -hsi en' s
Record, of Ancient Traces in 4 fascicules aro now
al l l ost .
Besidos theso, bhe Abhidharnt.o.santu('.caya has a
Ti botan versi on i rr 5 fusci cul es. di vi ded i ni o
5 ehapters antl onti tl ed the Chos-rnri on,-pa kun-Ias
btus-pta, translatod by Jinrr,mitra together with
Si l errcl raborl hi ancl Yes-Ses stl e. A <:ommontarv has
al so bs<rn transl ated i nto
' I' i betan,
enti tl eri the
C ho s
a, k u n
t i b.4u,cl
p a ( 5 c irapters
i n l 0 fasci trul es) u' hi ch was attri buted to Ji naputra
and translaterd by the samo translat,ors as of th$
precoding work. The Tibotan version of a work
that ineornorates toxts frorn both the 66stra
und i ts cornrnontary i s onti tl ed ti re Choe-nmon-pa
kun-|,u.* btus-pahi rnqnr-pet biad-pa, translated
Ji rr.r,mi tra snd Ye-i es sde. and tho col l ati on work
rras clono b;r Si-rna rgyoi-rntshan dpal trzan-po.
Ji nnmi tra, t,hs trntrsl ator <.rf tho nbr.rvo-monti onerd
wnrks. i E"a,,q {r rl i s,:i l rl s of Sthi rrr.matr' s di sei pl o l l nd
thua hi s t,rrr.rrsrni e*i on of thi g 6[strn, ]rtr,d i ts l raco'
*bl e ori gi n, I' rom hi m, i t r+' &s trtnsrr:i tteci to tl re
transl ator Yes-i ce sde, Ni rgadhvaj a,, &c,, and thug
tho traci i ti orr rvorrt on wi therrrt i nterrupti on to
l 3rreton, Chos-kyi cl p*l -ba, *rrd Teori -ki ra-pa. To
tl ri s da.v i t conti nues to be regarded i n tho t:dttca,*
ti onel systom of the Dge.hrga-p{r scet rr,e n, ftrnrl a-
m*nts,l tsxb nf the Abhi rthi l rma,. a work of equal
*rrtl rori ty wi i l r the Abhi d.harmakoi o-bhdsya, Many
r^rr:rtrlrRontntori*l workg havo boon written by
' Fi hntnn
nchnl nrs. Of theso tho best knowrr oneg
i !,r6 -Brr.gton' s e hoa-rnnon-pa kun-Iq,s btus-pahi ,
rrutrit=b.4arl, it'i-nr,a,h,i hod.zcr nrrd Rgyal-tshob's
lln,nm.-pn hiad, Ieq.g-par hiad-pahi ehoa-mnon
r q q u
t t r tshr:h i tt ri in
Lt i Cr r ' r cl t c.
Il i nLrorl nerrrv : Gok[6]o, 1r. V., Fragmen,ts
th,a AbhirlhnrmrrrtltmlrlL'qlo of Asanoa' JBEAS.
It{II. Prg,rlhatr, P,, Abhid,harme$elnuc(:t1'tltf, o!
slas,ftqa, l'.B15, 11, Introd, Ou.yang Chien z PrcJace
to tlte AbhiilhnrntflsarnTrc(ayq, eollectctl in tho
Frefac'r,t ta lhe Pordort of Stistro*. ItmTnrtant .lcri?'
tu,res oJ tlr* TriiitnL:4, }irlrrking, l{'130. Preface, to tln
Hnrht1t1.fo1al1fuiJlt,e,rfitas&m.1.1,ccilyil, colltictod in tho
I'rt:.facea to th,e Sdxtrw ol thc. I)hanna,lak,Sana School.
Chi ang- chi n, 1941.
and t he
Abhidlinrm,cr,Le&ni trceaga- xyd khy,l are the Sanskrit titles
of Ewo l' rbeta.n Cransiations of an r:riginal
commentary on the Abhid,li.arnw.sarnuccayn
Asdrga, As Corciior roct:lds it, t,hig commoritarv was
originally co-mposed b.v I{" g;,'ril
b ah
srer,s (.I i uap ri Lra
or ligyal-pohi sra.: (Rrijaput:' *)
q' as
none oilrer
t han Y a6orn i t.ra h i rrrseil. 1'tio .j tt h, i,'! l,,en r t r.. s a rn uc. u :.
t tE
hliagya w' as tr:arisl&ted into
Tibc,i:l:r i:i-tr J;rl*rt.rrr& arrd
Si l endri nl -rc-rdhi -l ' i l di *. , ari ri Ye-. , ; es si e i t . ' orci ! r-: r, I I I .
384 ; TI I - No.
, { t r 5l i ) .
rl coni pl rt e ni al rl scr: pt , , i f t hrs eoi nrnent ary r, r, as,
i rowo; er, t brt u' i at , ei y di l rcor-t . r, -. d i n Ti l : ei ; bv l i , a6r_ri a
Sa,nkril,va,ya,na. Lt is leuor.decl ll1' him- lrs t.he:
,\d,nhttlryn,-t,in_ii,:uy,t li' crrr tirc:l J J, itiititr t;ru..-' uttil.icilu' !/u-
bhasy, z r; f ' Y*$orrri t ra (JI i t l RS.
X-\ i . p. i i j r)"
On exa.rn.i.rriiton of ttre rrranusi:ripu l,raiirad
has fourrci. blrtlt tiris is a corriplr.te conrrnent,ary
ol t,lie
Abhidharnn"e(r.rtr' uc(e!/{i anri tha,t oniy t}ie fifilr
chapter is r-' alied tbe S ah kat h u a ull r,.i i <:a y ci.
Furi l i er. act ; ordi r-' g t o I ' : . rdhs, n (Abhi . dh, a, rm, u.
a utnri c cG
u, p. b
ti te XI u hd r
dr :.r' ib h, i d. I t u rn t u
t amy ul; t a
sai gi l i , -, t t i , st ru, rn' l ri cl r, i s a l t t rnmcnt , l , ry
cri t he
Mahd gu ruibhtd.lrurntit
-sat' l11iti,-ldstr,z
of' -.\sanga. is a
Chi nesc t r onsl at t r ; n l f t l r e, 4. bi t , i dh. ur nt u. \ enl l r ccaue-
bha, 1t a. l l nnj i o. hor veve: . . r t ' cor i l s t l i r r t t l r i s cor r r r n; n.
t rl r5.
. ' l ' r1n
conrpi l cri b1' St i i i rarni rt i rr, nrl t r[ nsi at ei i
i nco {. 1}i i ri ose b1- }l si rl , n-t sang i n 646 A. 0. }I e
al so says t hat i i r i s
' * ' or k
i s want i r r g i n I ' i bet an.
Thus. if the JIa,hCyd,rtribh,idh,ctrnto,-sa,ngit,i-
i ust ru i s a Ohi rrese t ra, nsl aLi c, u ot ' Ll rc Al t hi d, i t urrnu-
sa,??tut)ceAq,, !l' e a,re uonfi' onicd i,l' rfh two divergenb
t radi t i ons &s t o t he aut horshi p
. ; f
t ho ori gl nnl
commerrt ary' : t he ol r$ rel )rci j ent r: <i by t he Ti bot un
rr orks v' hich nltriliuto this ii,ut,horsiri;: to Yu,Somiiru.
and t ho ot hsl : preserved i u t -i re Chi neso Ll ansl at i orr
rvhich rittrihrrtes rt to ljf,hirarrrati.
T. I T.
ABHIDHAR mAsAl l t uccA
i s t ho t rt l e as r. esi , orecl i nt o Fi a. nskri t
l rorn ru
' Jl i bct ari
translrt,tion, t,tre, Chos tnnon-9su
rnorrl- pa,r biu,,J' pa
\shes-bga-ba) of 1,iie
orr Asang:r"-s Abittdfutr.itLu$atnucceA&.
llhe authrir
of this c_om;nentd,ry w {ry tt g;' al
ba}:i sras ( J inrip trtra
al i us l l gyal -pol : i srrl s (RAj aput ra),
who warr
ovi rl ont l y none ot her t han YaSri i ni t ra (()orci i er,
I f I ,
384 ;
Tl I . No, 4054). I i ri s w, rri i was renr. l ereci i nt o
Ti bet an by Ji rrami t rn of I ndi a al d Ye-Scs sde
( J fr t.lnascnu
auspices of' Circx skl on
ba ii i
rni dt rari phyug (I )hami a, l i rrl anareSvara)-
ui . t ho
monast ery crt I )pul
' I ' l i ur-p_ri ,
gi rri . Tl rrs
' , ' r' r. . , on
l us
srrbsequerrt l -v revi scrl b1' Ni -rna rg; ' ai -rrrt sl rt ru. ci pal
b z,rri
rr-r ( $
adh vtr.j rrSri lrhi:rira
I i egardi ng r. he rrr. l t h<. ri si : rp of t l re crrgl rl rrl
corl l mei l Lj rr-\ , ' arrr-i t I SccoI ] . 1 i ri rnsi at i on, see
AI JTI I D I I AI Ti I AS' 1 } I L- C I . . \ \ - A. BHASYA.
T. l i , _
ABHI DHARMA SAI I YUKTA, namo of a r r or r .
exi st ent t ert or cl e^*; of t ext s i n
' *hi ch
t l t o Karrnat i -
bl ut i ga hi rt l l . rcerr i rrcl uded bv sorno school s (FI 1*S.
I I , p . 5 I ) .
ABHI DHARMA-sA*cI t l -penyAYA, one of t hs
E€v€n books
tlre Abhidharrna df the Sarvdeti-
vi el i rrs. fl i s u, col l ecti on of tr.rchni cal terms arranged
i[ nluncri*tt,l
from one t,o elevern in exactly
thq s*ime fitonncr ac thc Eangiti, Sfr.tra of the Di.rgha
Agermn (ep, Digha Ni.kaya). Ihe defiritions and ex-
pr:sitions in t,he Suitgtt'i-purVd!!o ore rrrore elaborate
rflrcrse of r,lre Sari,giti, Suttanta n,rrcl whst are
termetl Abhi ri hrrrrna rl efi ni ti orrs hnve been adopted
i n thi s tr,,xt,.
' [' ]r:
i l t.;ns r:r.rnt;ri nctl i n thc Fangi ti
Iaaryd.yq, a,re ai so rnore i n l rrrrnl rer tl rarr those of the
Sahg1l,'i r.1fr.i.t'u,.
Aeeorcl i ng Lo Ci ri nese tratl i ti orr the authorahi p
of t l r i s hl ok i s nt L. i but e, ! t , o $t l r i nut r a, t he r ( cr l -
gl l i 8utro, r-rl t,l rt. I)i rgl za Agama on-u' i ri ch t,hi s text
.i e baHt.rl br.i ng al ,;rr nttri butcd to Seri putra. Iht:
ti auskri t and Tr l r, rt rl rr trrr,tl i t,i r.rrr s, l i or,' "' c vcr, l r t t ri l l u Le
i t t o Mal r Ekaul , l l i i l a ( I f nl r r i Ko! 1i r i l r r , ) .
Tlro J bldditarrna.-su'tigiti-parydga is extarrt, in
L]l ri rrt:so trl nrrl utrorr orrl r'
(A-1t' i
I.q.m.o-thi .-i ^,rynti 1L-
tsu-Iuru Ii unj i tt. No. 1;!' i 6).
' Il i e
Sansl <ri L or$i nti
i e l ost .
A fragment ol ' thi s text
di scovered i n Bdrni t' rrn
362) .
is said to liave beien
(L' I nde Cl assi gt t s, I I ,
L . d e Z.
ABHI DHARMA- SARA, or t he " - Essence of t he
Ahhi dharrna ", t l t ' t t , er kn<; wn uncl er 1, he t i t l s
Abhi dl nrt hu-h, rdagt t -i u$ru vf i r. s, rrs t hc t i t i e i ndi -
cat es, a synopsi s of t , he Abhi cl l rarrna of t he Sarva-
st i vddi ns l -i ased probabl y on t i re Gandhnra, branch
of t hi s schooi . Thi s worl i has been
presen' cd
t o us
i n t hree Chi neso t rarrsl nt i on s (i I nde Cl u. ssi rl uc,
Sect i on 2134; cp. Nanj i o, Nos. 1287. 12, ! 8, i 294, 1.
Tho Sanskri t reconr; i or)s on whi ch l . huso versi t -rns
s' cre baserl are attributr,d to J)harma.(ri, Up,r-
6[ , nt a, ant l I )harma, t rh, ! a rr)spect i t ' el y. At ' cordi ng t o
t ho Chi neso sourcol i t he l i rst , j f t hcso aut l rol s ri ' <l ui d
havo l i ve<l i n t hr: 3rd cent ury, and Dl rnrrnat rat u,
i n t he bogi ni r i ng of t he 4t h cent ur - v. See AI JHI -
ABHI DHARI I I A- 6ASf ne, gener al l l - ct i , l l ed l l i e
Jfi d.naprct.<tho,na (q.v.), i s the r;ther rnucl i l ater and
mttch shorter transl ati on i ry Hsuan-trj turg of the
Jfrdttaprasthana-s&tra of Katyayani putra. l t con-
si sts ol 20 fasci cul es i n 8 di vi si ons and 4.1 cl i arrters
ancl runs i nto 382 pages. Thi ' s i s the pri nci l ' ral i ork
upon whi ch the Sarvd,sti vadi ns (who thus l i rl l
i nt o t l i e Ta- r i ki - ki 6 cat egor y) base t hei r t heor i es
( Nanj i o, No. 1275, cp. No. l J73; JPT, \ . pr . t i 2 f . ;
A. C. Banerj ee : rSrrradst' i uai l a Li terature. p,. 55
\' .
Sogerr : Sysl eri i s of Buddhi sti c' I' l rcught, p. 4).
i -t at t -pa-chi ert , -t u-l . un. , generu, l l y Known as
t he A, sl agr ant ha. , i s t l v, ' r cst or ed. Sanskr i t t i t l e
of a
(l hrnese
t ransl at i on l rv t he Kd3rni ra monk
( - ' dui
nm& Sar i shader . i l i r l ong u' i t h Ku- l ' o-
rrren. r: r A. L' . 383, of ' t l i e J i ul nuprasl l t ' rn{l St l t . ra
Ll . \ ' . ol Kat l - i i 1 ani pi r t r a. \ anj i o, who r ender s t ho
title of this work &s " Abhidharrnisfakhegda-
56*ctra" " eays that the Aslctgranth@ agrees with the
Tibetan. Eut, according to Banerjee. who states
that of the Abhidharma treatises the Prajiiapti"#aa-
tra only exists in Tibetan, this work does not exist
at all in Trbetan. Consisting of 30 faseicules in I
sections covering 44 chapters, and running into
554 pagos, this version is much larger than the
later translation of llsiian-ts&ng.1
restore<l Sans-
kri t fornr of the Chi rres,r Ju-a
-p' i -ta-mo-l un
(Na,nj i o
No. I29l ), v' hi cl i i s a transl ati on by l {si l an-t,snng
of a treat.i se on Abhi dharma aseri l red vari ousl y
to Skandharata (Il eai , pr. 83), Srrgrr,ndha,ra (Nan-
j i o,
No. I 2{ ) l ) or Skand} r i l t r ( Moc. p. I 42l ) . The
ori gi l ru"l tres,ti se wti ch i s
l ,restrnrecl
bo l l r,,ve been
i n Sanskr i t i s r r o*' i ost "
Tlre Chrnesc translation consists of eight, soetions
{ive of rvhich eorrr}rinc to forrn f,he five
aggrr:gates of existenr:e
v'frile the
rest consti tut,o the threc. uncondi ti oned ol ements
(tryasarTsl;rlos). T'rikon in their proper order t,hess
sectiorrs are &s follou-s : r'tTpu, uedana, safi,jfid,
sar.nskdra, rijfidna, dhdstt, pratisahlclnta-nirodh.a,
and ap r at i sariklryd,-nirodlta
Nanjio str.rtt.:s tha,t the above work is rvanting in
Ti bet an, but Cor : di cr ( I I I , 398, Nos. 5, 4) ment i ons
two texts cc.rntai ncrl i n tl re )![do-Hgrol (Srl trn) of
t he' f i bot an l l cngl ' ur ' , t l r o nr unes ol r vhi ch he has
restorerd into Sa,n.;krit as Ablridtr.,rnnd.vat,d,ra
przr,I<aranir-nurna rrrrri lja,rasrtrmurr(j{tyil-nArna a}rhi-
dl i arrnrrrratura-{i kfr, rr:spccti vcrl y. These narnos &ro
founi l i n t,ho T<thoku r:u,ta,l oguo a,s v' t;i l {Nos. 4097,
' Il i e
second i s ori l y & comrrl entar.y on the
forrner s' hi ch. i n turn, i s perha,ps i denti cal i rr sub-
stnnr:e *' i th tl re ext.rni , Cl ri nese reoel rsl on.
H. S ,
( ; .
ABHI DARMA- VI BHASA- SASTRA, A- 7t ' i - r ' t ur , - 7t ' i -
j, o-,,1,,t-iit ri.
is the Sanskrit res-
torer,tion of the t,rt.le ot a L.jhrneso
liucltlhavarman (#:(iffi)ittffi) ancl lao-tai (ff#
A. C. 437-439 :
' Iakakusu
suggests A.C. 425-42i ),
o1' a
' w' ol k
by Kdtl ' Lyani putra. It conpi sted
or.i gi nal l v of 8 books and 44 seeti ons i n 100
fasci crrl es. l )ut rl ' as l ost duri ng the v' ar betweon
t he r r or t her n Li ang and Wei , A. C. 439. The hooks
v' ere col l octed afterwards, but onl y l J bool <s i n
Iti secci ons wsre found ar:d rnado i nto 8:l fasci eul es
rnnni nq i nto 400 pages (Nanj i o, No. I2b4. cp.
' l ' akakusu
i n JI ' 7' 5. I 904- 5, p. i 26. Al so cp. Nnnj i o.
No. I 263: Abl ddharmom,ah;i vi bhasa
i astro).
ABHI DHARMA- VI Jf r Axe- f AyA- PADA, or ?e o1'
l ,he seven l l ooks of th+ ALrhi di rarma of the Sarvd,s-
ti vadi ns. Lho Chi nesc, Ii betan and Sanskri t,
tradi ti ons agree i n attri l :' uti ng the authorshi p ol
thi s hook to DevaSarman who l i ved i n the l i rst
centrrrv after tho l l rrci di ra' s pari ni bb6n.r (Kusha-
ron-ki of Pu-i i uanC I). Accordi ng to l l sri an.tsang
thi s book i s sai d to have been *' ri tten by Deva-
Sarman i n a templ e i n -\yocl hl ' a i n mi ddl e Indi a
1 l i anj i o No. 1273; cf . No. 1275; cf . cl so JP?' , S 1904- 5;
pp. 82 t f . : 82 n. 2 est abl j shes t he t i t l e as
grant ha' ; -{. C.
Barrerjce : Sarua.*iuid.a literaturt. pp. 54 f.
(Ti -l hl i i -si -vrr-r:hi
of Hsi i an-tsr.r,ng, V). f i i s, t]rere-
Ibre. presumed tha,t it was produced bcforo the
Srtrvi sti vi da school spread to Itrti i a.
The Sanskrit original of this book is lost. It, is
howover preservc-d in Chineso translation in t,]ie
Chineso Tripil,aka, as A-p'i-tan-mo-shih-she,n-tsu-
Iun, Tlts Chineso text rrrns int,o sixtt-t'rt volurnt:rs
Ul l ot . I ,
53) ,
AEHI DH A R MI KA, sonretknss wri[ton a,s ab I oitlhar
rni krt-' l ' l "ri s n' orrl skrurrnod from Abhi cl harma ancl
mei tns l i torrrl l l '
"orro who i s wol l vorsocl i n -\bhi -
dharmtt, litclrature a.rrd who has &n anrr,lvtic
untk' rstantl i nq of t,hs vari ous
l rrobl oms of
' the
Abl ri dharm&." In Cl ri nose tra,nsl ati on (i .o,, l un-shi h
lit., sPecia,list in Abhirllra,rrna) its Eeng6
br:,comi l * wi rl er. ancl u' c ctm di r.' i el e i i i nt,,r t,hreo
gr ouFr c:
( l
r , r r s r r ho dovot es l r i r nsoi f t o t , i r o st ucl y
of AtrhidlrrLrtr'tr!, rt,ncl is
versod in Abhicl]rarma
lit€rlluro, (11) one r+'ho rnot,e on :\1_rhidharma snd
dovolopo<l llucldhism-o later rneaning, (3) ;r
devoteo of llalrrlv[na l]uddhisrn. T]ro torur is
comrnonly applio.i tr-, tho schoois or teachers of
Abti i dharma l i teraturo, rncl uded i n nos. (I) and (:).
ISeside.,s theso thxro meaninss tho worri w&s
eometimes appliecl b $Ekvarnuni liirnself. Thus
in tlre (rreu')
Chinoso translation of f,Ialuj-uibluis,.i-
ddstrur. it is explainod as follows :
In ancient
times Abhidhnrmikas alwirys used to improvo thoir
studies according to the wey of Abhiclharma.
When theSr havo improved, they would at oneo
absndon thoir formor studios. Now Sdkv&munr
beeamo & supremo Abhirtharmika
s<-r *o hLvu r,,
bottor way of Abhidlrarm& than that given hy
him. Therofore we ca,n corrtontedly follow lris way
of Abhiclhama."
b. n. V. Ifurti has tl efi ned i t t,s fol l ows.
earlior, realistic and pltrralistic Pitaso comprising
tho I{inavdna sehools--'Iheravrida orrd Vaibhlrsika
(Sorvi rsti vdda).
Thi s can be eal l ed tho Abhi dher-
mika systom. Tho Sautri,ntika seh<,ol is a partirrl
modification of this ciogmatic realisnr. " (Central
Philosoph,y of Budd,hisn, p. 4.)
tsut this defurition should also inr:ludo various
othor trrr,ditional anrl eonservativo schoois such
as Dharrnottariya, Ilitrrdrayd,niya, Sammitiya,
ancl so on. The following quotation from the
Vinaya of Sarvdstiv6da School "2 shows the
word in a broador sonse.
Lun-shih (:Abtridtrar-
mikas) tlo their research als'avs in consultation
v/ith Athiclhdrmikas and not with others. In the
case of I' a-tzu8, too, i t i s tho s&mo. "
Fa-hsien wrote in his itinerary (kao-s6ng fa-hsien-
about the pra_etice of
Abhidharrruktr,s, (ctrap. on }lathura), tliat Abhidhir.
mikos rnaks offorings beforo tho_ shrino of Abhi-
tlhanna stfrpa. In this c&so Abhidhirmika is
not used nB a name of some soecial school but as
a general term for the spoculators in Abhidharma.
In rhe most namow sanso this wor<l was nndorst,ood
a, g unof , l rt -r n&rne of t he, Sarvi st i vdda, sel ronl .
i rr t he ol cl Chi nescr t ransl at i on of t i t e ] I ohdui bl wsi i -
i i i st ro. (Tai sho, vo1. ?S, p. i J? c), -i \ bhi d. hf r, rrni ' krr
wa, s l ncrl t i orred i u r-i no of t ho i 9 school s r. rrurnr: r' rl l r: d
i n t l rrrt t t r. xb. I t i sr rr: prei s€. nt ed i rr Chi nese chararrt ere
asf { EH&l ' ( A- pi - t ai r - j en) . I r i t } i e uew t r ansl a. f i on
of t,l ri s tcxt. i t i g reprosl ,nred as
F{ffi trtr-fi .
(.\-pi -
t i -r, m6-chi ). 4
These bhj kst rs of vari orrs
' f Lera, r-i ri i l
sel rot ' rl s
i n t , he seeond or t hi rrl cent rl n' of l rrdi a, v' ho ri ro
general l y r, ri l l ed Abhi di , ern, rkas. engageci i n
produci -nq rnal l v vol umi norrs At rl ri rl l rt l rma v-or"ks,
becarrse of sot t , l t ' d condrt , i orrs. ro(i rl i Db of eont ri -
bul i ons ar r , : i i l r o Dr ot e( , t i on of t ht r r r : h as wel l as
t hose i n porvt , r. Li boral ec, nt , ri br. rt i rl ns i n easl r ancl
ri onat . i ons oi l a, rrr, l
(f arrn.
f orel ; t , or sorrrcl ; i rl r(, ' s i I
whol o vi l l ago) v' ero mi r, de t o t i rei r t erupl os.
' l ' l roso
t cmpl es \ t ' er e oxer nl , t od l r or n al l ki nr l s of t r r , xl r i or , ,
and ol l l ci al s of t l re ri r, j i r i l ' ert l prohi bi t erl i rors
ontering therio ostatos. The corilributions in *ish
wero invosted irl the eo-orreirirtivs assoeiation rrs
a provi cl ont f unt l of t hoi r t ernpi t . *. anrl t i ro i nt r, rrei gt
l vhi eh t l i ese r, "i el i l crl wrrs apnl i ccl f or t , ] ro gerrrr. ral
oxpeni t i t ure of t l i e t smpl r)s. i l l rl reover, at t i rat
t i rno t here appearct l some r. i r: f r bl i i ksrrs who l r*rl u
numbcr of est al es as t hei r oi vrr pi rssr-rssi on. .
Sevt ' l l r i r - ol r t r ni t r ot r s Al r l r i dh; r r m& u, or ks bol nnsor l
t o t l r o Sl r ' , ' ast i r - i r r l a, . chool and ot l r or scl r r i r i l s.
€. 9. , -' l i , l t i t . l l rurt rt u-t nuhari bh. i su-i &, t t ra, Those \ r' ere
produer' rl b5' t 1rua" bl ri t ri susl rvho woro suppt , rt ed
by a stai.rle Llconomy.
A rrot ervort hv poi nt reqarri i nq t ho ' \ bhi dh6, rrni kus
rvhi ch l ras not hi t hort o recoi vt ' cl our al t ont i on i s
i haL t , hey arei consi st ent l y ret ' crred t o i n t i ro vi t ri r>us
works of l l al i ayanu as gent -. rol sl xl cl l l at ors and
not as sper;ialists of Abhidhan:ra. In ol,hor s' ,)rcls,
we havs Ah,hiOharmikas both in llinayflna rirrd
lfair5,yJ,n,r,. In Chirreso tradition, wo hirve nc' trrtrler
orarnpl o' ; t hat t hi g rvord wag used i n i t ot h scl rt -rol g.
f n t radi t i onal ari d conservat i vo l Jut l dhi snr t l re
ibtrr scholars Dharrnatrfr,ta (Fa,-ehiu
cent . ), Ghosaka (I f i ao-yrn
t 0. *),
\ usrrrrri t r&
(Shi h-you
Ef , ),
anrl Buddhedeva (Cl i i ao-t i on
wero cal l ed
t he f oLrr great , -, i bhi dhri nni kag
i n t he Vai bhi srka sci rool . "
f n l f a] ri ryi r, na, t oo, we havei si mi l ur exami rl es.
- { i vaqhoqa
( \ I a- mi ng, F; €) .
Ni gi r j pna
( f , r r nr r - shu
E€f f i | t ,
Ar1' ot l cva (1l i "po
anrl Kurni i rrr, l i . t a
(' f ung-shou_
t t t ),
f or i nst , anee, are ea, l l eci t he
four groat Abr irrl lrd.rrnikas in r\{ahirydna B rrrld h isrn.
l "ol l owi ng aro t ho t en gre. ; r, t Ab}' i <i hermi kas i n t l re
Vi j i t dr r avl ul a sehool , who wr ot e t he ar r t l r or i t r i t i ve
cc;mmon t:rries on Va-.r tl.randh' .r' l Trl zit.s; i l: Li t' i
i 17
t i :
Gunama, t i ( I 0- l i ui
1H* .
t .
, t l 0- 50o
. \ . ( ' . ) ,
St l r i r r r , mat i ( ^- \ n- hui
4f f ,
c. 170- i ) t t t ) - { . f - ) . ) ,
Nr r nr l i t ( Nr r n- t o
l i i . " : Z
, 4j u- 530 - \ . C. ) , l ) i r i r r r r r t r , pf r . i a
/ Hr r - f a
FFt l .
c. r . i r ' - 561 A, C. ) , I Jandhu3r i i ( l hi n-
i 2#\ ,
( ' i t l sf l 6nn
i Huo- pi ep
^. f l t ) ,
Suddhacar, dra (Ci re. nq. r' uel : . i , rl
\ / i 3esa, mi t ra,
l' fa-pi.po-she-lun ()tfitrJ,iR)
chap. 105,
I Yo-pu-pi-no-ya
chap. 13.
E:F tit., ron of rllrarrua, dlnrmika (?).
by I l sri an-t sang, 4 I ' ai sho, vol . ! i , p, 5(l b. . {l so see
on t he Abl t i di rarrna Lrt erat ure cf
( i n J aP: r r , ese) ,
l l " Wat anabe : St udi es
Sarvl st i vi da I Jrrrl dhi snr
i l I . - \ akanr ur a: Eeonomi cai Et hi cg i n Ear l y Br . l , l dhi sm.
i n J: r t nnesc. ( " : hLt - sr r " .
\ t r v. - I ) ec. l 9: ; 3) . Al go 1, . Tonr oul r Lsr r :
St udi es oo t he l , conomi ci rl
' l ' houeht s
i n l Juddhi srn
(i u
15i r i r i , . 1- r
L, i E) ,
Ji nal : ut r * i ShFng- t zr r
W7; ,
and Ji ; -t nrrc$nLh' & (Cl rrh-yl i eh
f f Jj ; .
-{,s the abovei ciuotations s}ro\xi us, tho rnotrnings
cf Al.thitlh:lrmilca *re various. fi;s origir. wtts itr
t i re a, ge of ' Sakyarri l t ni ;
i *t crr l t c&mo rl o*-rr -t o Lho
peri orl of I {al i i yi na l l uddhi srn. Here ! 1' o
()i l , n
conf i denl l y col rcl u{l c t l rat : \ bhi <i l i armi l i a i s
e generel rralne csi .ltucldhi":t l-;r:ecnlators
engegerl i n rcsr. : +rr: l t l t t r, l t t ct t l rrt rt t i t e t cn, chi ng of
Budi l i ri sur.
' . I .
l , r: i r pr; si t i r. , i r i l t i rr: i i i st or' ; g of I ri di . ; n
rcscrtrlilr-' "- tir.*t
ti:e Scholastir:s in
rire hisiory ol;roi' o
-furd as irr
at t,lrc Scltq;l"lslies Llrt:;' w$rr} abt:,rrbed in
t . l re r: urn1-, ri i crrt . r. . r. , , i 1: t eci ri ; i t i orrs, rrhi cLi
Ll ave
t,(i sr, rrew lr' rcvelnnrlt u1 Ii*irly6ua. Soe al,so
Au u Tultitll,\ll K .tt., AIJI{IDH:\1IMA.
s. I i .
ABHI DI I YA, uove' , ou$rJe. ss, uno of i i rc t . i t rt : e ui ; t i , si t l , t
l cert t ut l t ut ht L. ol '
' i l i e
rrri ncl
i . Ui . uu.
i , . t 0i :
j l oi .
3l ; '
ABHI JANA SUTTA, a t i t $, c. . ri t t ' sL' szt i t i t . . r i , . t 1-i 1 i t t . rt , , ! t
prc' acl i e: cl by t hr: Brrdei l i a al 5ar l t chi
i 5.
xsi i " : Z' i ). i l
declares that r.xre cunnot
put .u} eu,l to
suf f cri rt g wi t hout , i <ri owi ng, curnprei rer^di ng, l i eurg
dat *ci ret l l rorn and aban. I oni rrg ot i cl r of t ho l i vt l
a, ggregt rt l : s of exi st ancu : nuurcl y, rni i t cri t i f orm
\ rf i pu 7,
I i : cl i ngs (ueduru), pt rcept s (sat t i t ci
l ,
rnent al
I act ore
(-sunkt cura)
arr{ ron1; ct ousne-{s (t : i i t i r, una' ).
l l ut ' i f one knov' s t i rern. cot nprehert ri s t l rt >t n. rg
dot acl i crci f rom t , l re' rrr &rri l obarrdons, t l t , l t t t , ono
ct t n
\ bl ri l t boj
gi l t r ri t l r. i i si rf f el i ng.
B; ' t he t cr r l s
' l i r r or r ut g'
an. j
' coi npr ci i er r t l i ng
*hat i s l f l eurt r, i s t l r: rt each of t he aggrugi i h; s rnust
be tlrriroughly exarnirl:d er seaiched in orclc' r tllat
t hi s rnay
rrxl )()sc i t s ut t er i nsrrbst ant i al i t 3' t rrrd t hus
nrvakcn oue l . u t i i c f t l ct t hri t , each ci f t , hem i s
sorrci"v-li' t:ugirt, (dukkh,ul,
*i , nd soul l css
\ 6t Lqt t a).
-t l avi ng t i rus ol t et rt at ed ono' s
. ral ues,
t l re DexL l i i urg t . ) t i o rl ' oui <, . i be
t "o
i bsi er
{r sclrbe ol tiei.aolrlnertL tll&t \r' oulri gr:r.,,iurlliv lea' d
t r - r ' r ! i e
r j ( ) r npi eLu : l bu. i t cl oumer r t ' of eat ' i r ; . r f t i i t l
uggreg*t es.
Accorr-l i ng t o t l re cornul e{i t sr. v
1S' 1
. l I ' : J04) t h. l
substrince c-ii tliis sutttl ooncgl' 115 l,1it-r thatic klro\vr' .
i edges gi t so. part i t ri d) whi ch consi st t rt rhe krrow'
l cdge t hut t hc si r l r j t : ct i t as beer r kt I , r " t t i or un' l l ei r '
sLr.rcrci (fidta-pitt it ireZ), tiru Lirc, rvierige that il iras
bc.err rigirtiy o,dJutlged
(liruna-Tturiit' it' ti),
krrorvl erl ge t hrt t rt l i as beerr rbart rJonerl (' pul t ut t t t '
pari i t f i al . Tl i er t ' ot nruerrt ar. y al so . , rbserves t i r. rt ri rt -r
l i rst oi t hese i s denot ed by t i re t erm
krt o* t t rg
1ub\ i i j uzi ant ),
t he secc, rrd by t l i e t erur
(t ot l t l )rel rt : rrt l ui g
i po, rt 1urut ry, ),
u' hi i e i he t hi rd i s denot cd l , ' r' t i rt ; t wi l
expressi ons
bei ng det act i ed f rct t n'
l ui ru; uyury1
' ri , ba. ndoni ng
i paj uhuqn).
I n f orrn, t hi s sut t a rnay be corrt pared wi l i r t ht l t
o{' ilre two i' arijan* Eutta.s tilso ot' t!v: SuTryutta
)i i ku' ga. (xrxv. t l i , 27) rvl ri ch rnent i on t "t ' t i t l l
l sa, bburnl
t , hat or). o must l i kewi se knou' , cot nprei rend, be
det acl recl f rorn and abandon. i n order t o rl l rt ke i ur
en, -j , o{' suf f eri ng.
' I ' hi s
" &l i " i ' s sai , -i t o i nci rrri e ul l
t he si x $ense
t i i ei r corresport r. l i nq obj ect s,
t l . er r pof ui t s of
r : , r t r t act . t i r e r csul t i r i q cor l sci ol r st r esg
dei -,endi ng un thq part,i eul ar sense i ml -.ressi on croaterl
and thi ngs ccgni sabi e t;v each such songci ousnes,;.
H. S. C.
ABI TI JAPPAI { A o, t } r ei " cast i ng of spel l s
\{' As cl assi hsd i :r,' tho
l Juddha &E a l ow art,
(.tz' t"ucthana-ui ;j J71i 1i c[
i :r ,i uch i h wu,s ri :cogni scrl as
r-l nc el ' t,l r;i rvrorr{ rrrr}a!rs
l i vel i l i ocl d (I;. I, i i . di ,t).
In ths Ilrahmajdta Eulta of the Digha Ntka.g,a
the l l ucj rl hri rneuti ont; i ,n' o si rnr:i i j c tbrms oi casbi ug
spel l s u-i i ert sl .tesi i i rrq <.rf ti ro uti nor detai l s of mere,
rnor*i i l y" of v' ]i i ci t ti re urcr.l nverte,i man mi ght"
r:Deak wl i ctr pri l i si ng tho Tl ri ,th&g*ta,. Tt.ey- aro
lwtthabhi;rtppantr l.a'id ka4'najapDariu, both of vr'hich
aro tioscriheri in
comrtrerrt,a:-'r' irr flrt. foiiorvirrli
nxan rrer
.f) A. I, $7
: I t
qtt lra
b u,7t p't,rr. u is t|e' c{rst i1g
of a spel i for tl re
Furl roso
r,f t,u' i sr"i ng tho hanci s.
!V hcn rlirs spcli is rl:ui;t.:r,.l,.i
a, rang$ {:rf
se./eri fer-rc I' rom &
Irr' rson,
l re ti vi sts and
' bl rrusts
Ii i s i i arrds. Ii apnqupp,' r?l ,o l s;t nrngi t i ncanl ;ai ,i r:n i o
scurrcls frorli beirrg .ltetrrd. ]Vhen & pcr-$on,
ha'r'ing cast' ulris spell, s5re:rks a,s it, suits hi:nseif ia
a corirr of' .liru', his opponent, l,reing ttnal'rlo to hea,r
rl rat i s s.rrj . r;u,nnot rnako a,,1 &dequAto repl y.
lSudcllia, as
as liis disciples refra,in frorn
strcl r i orv arts.
T. II-
ABHIJATI, a thot>r' ,r hel d by certa,i rr corttemporari es
,lf tire ]Juddha <rf species oI boirigs or cla.s.sog of
rrul ri l i i nd. a t;uunbcr-t,heorv i o l ' ,' hi ch has al so
Lvt' i r l i ,rruul ati :,,t by the l j ui i .l i ri s,ts uncl er tbe ssrne
desrgnu,cic;n. Sr-.o CIIAITAIJHI
ABHIJIT (11, nreani ng ti ro
Vi c-rori ous One ", i s
the name cri ' a fornrer l i athi i gata,, occurri ng i n tho
Ilchubtitlclhu t\i1tra (Sutra, oi' tho llany }3uddhasl
of ti re ;\Ial Lduu.stu,
l i i 6. J3
al so 14, l v1tu"" ttr*
toxt rcads " Abhi j i
It n' as sai cL by the Sage
of tire Siit;.ans to Ananrla tira,t the TaLh6,gata,
$:1lir prociairnod (r'ya-1irlr.s r,/
tho'Iatlrdgata r\bhij rt,
rviro, in tris turn, proclai.rnod ihn
varui tama,.
(2), n nronk, a forrnt' r i ncarnati on of Saky,i -
rnuni . As i n ti re case o1' the rnonk Abi ri va. i t was
prophesied b1- tho llxalted Sarvdbhibhl ihat he
t'onicl in the future, in rr. irunclrorl thousand rvolid
ages (hai p&s), bocorne
Ta,rhl g&t&: an Arhan, a
per t bt : L Br r do! r a, sal l exi . Sdkyamunr
i Mhuu. I ,
2. 3. 5) .
ABHIJIT (3), narne of one of t,Ii e sevcn corrstel l &ti ons
rn the western qur.irter, whjcl:. s'ere invoked by f,|s
Iluddha to guard the merchauts Trapuqa tund
shcruld tirey happen to go on .ilry brisir:ess
to tl re western quarter (]Ihuu.
III. 3t)8.3 ; ttbhe
usti ti l rc bhi j i cca
Jones trsl . III. l l l i i : " Il hi j i ").
T. I i .
ABHIJJHA, covotou$ness, monti onod as the l *s!
irom in a long llct of 100 s-t'nr:nyms of lust, (Iobho :
1t159), tho root of all ovil (okrunaLumfr.Io),
although n&ny items of this list are mor€ descriptive
than svnonymous, o.g., that rrhioh errllnaroe (jol,ini).
l rat , l v' l ri , ' h l caci s t r. r ronot ved oxi ! l t {, -nca (bh. ar. t ane' ct i , ),
r t l r i l t , r oLl r ur i t , el r r s r r n, r n{ l r e
} I oner l r l
t f r n, r r syr r l r : i ( i c, c. . j . ,
. r' f t r' i uF (r7, sri ).
t l i i rsL
l t u. nl ul ),
hi nrl rarrr: ' -r (ni uaruqr, a),
l r l l ot ' r : r ' l r i el r i nr : i r r i J o many i i t l u' r k i l r , l s i i r i t r r i f r or n
i , i : \ a r l ( : i I r ; r ) e - i g .
, l l , l 1i " ) . l l r , 7 l r i &11 i nl r ' l i si l i r nr i or r of ' l ) r l r r t l ng l t i - r
. 1
l ; t t qt . s l 2) , t : { J ns ur ni i r . t 1. r f i i i , l l I l LI i i ' ! v( I ! ' t I r I ' { ) ui i l r i ( , r i gr r ; , g;
' r i t l r r l l t gl i ,
r : 1. r , t r t oLr i . r i l al l . r , - . t l r n. ; r - r Hl r 1, l i r : Sr i r us: l i r i t
' r t r r t r t r i t l t i r l l t , l l t r n( 1,
i f , i s i l , yi ' i 1' 1' , 1
f r or n r r . l - r hi
- ; cl hvr i ,
i . c. ,
t r ' t r t t
r l l t . , i t i
l nl t ,
l t t sr ' ; Li ' c i t f , l r ' .
t , , . i l t ut r b { r f f er ' .
\ \ ' l r r . r i r . r ' r ' r " f l r , ' t ( l r ' r r ' r i q et l r l ; r i r l nr l , f r eql r cr r t , i t '
r f r , c l ; i i r r r i l y , r r l t - r i r 1r , ' , r . , i r . l i l r r F, t i r - r ns r r . r ' c i ot i nr l i ' or
, t l t hi j . j l , i | . r ' r i l t . t , , t i : . r r i i . , .
i 11111 ! at l 1l t 11,
i l r r
{ } i i { r ' . ; 1. . / ) h, r .
i t 3l ' i l , r i l l r t : i ! J l ) . r r l r r ' r r l l r i . r \ ! ! ) t r ' f r l t s i Lr r r i r . l cnt i cal l , r '
, l oscri l rc"l
rt ' s grcet l (i r-' l ; , t ' , r1, 1rr. , \ l ubl . t i t ort , r' ; , I ' t ; L-
I rrl ness
ubt l t i t t dt t ), i nf rri 1 rat i ' . )11 (s, 7rd, 7o
t ' cel i ng of
rrr i rrt r r
r rt i r-rn
( si i r rt j j rnu|
, \ .
p l t ssi r) ni ) t , o
I rrL. l
)orsessi un
arTraj . i i t t t t t rt ), <' or-ut , , . rrrsr)cs: J (rLl l l l . / J/ rrZ). t i ro rc)or.
' r, ' i i (, r, f
i z. sgl o, t i t ul , t l ,
13r r t ' , al t I r r t r r gl r t i r , - ' <] , ; r , - r i Tr t i ons &r o i t l ont i r : o] .
r t r vi l l l r o, . , . ' , . , , 1. 11; , 1, l r r sr
( ! , ' i , 11q11
i . , 1 gr : oup( ) ( l \ sr f r l r
t r vo ol l r t ' r <: t l r r * r ' s r i l ' cvi l i r t husal t , i t ut t t ) , vi z. , l r abo
1t / , r. t t ) t nd rrl )t l l s( n(\ i qn
\ i t nl t , a;
rrhrrea. s cov' cl ousni )-qg
(ahhi "j j l t , 7) i s grc, rrpr' , 1 i rs a bodi l S: t , i o (kdyagq, nt ho)
t r . r get l r t ' r r vi t l r i i l - r vi i l , ( r
t , 7i t l da, ) ,
t l r , . r r ont i l qi cr r t c- r f
r i t r r r i l i sr r r
( . si I q, l ) l ] , t l , t - p, 1vr i
1, 1i i . su) : r nr l i . ] r e i ncl i nat i r - t r r
t o t l ogr r r nt i se i . sucr r i t t hi n- i t ' egi t ; I ) l s. S\ q | { , ) ; 9 * nt l I I J} { i ) .
- l ' 1, r r s
i t ' onr ' i s i r r t t , r r t or : , { i I - f er er i t
i t r i , i r i n, ono r ni { i r b
sn. t ' t l rat , l ubh, t i s; grt t ' . i
, : rrrrsi , l nrr' , 1
as rr, r: i l r. t qr: f rorn
rrl i i ei r f t rrt l rcr cvi l , 1pi 5r)S, t t ' l rr. rr; : usl abl t , rj j l ul i : r
coi ct { ) l r r . r i r , ' ss c( ) ngi ( l i ) r ' , ; , i l r i r r n i r r l i cr i t or l t er r t l oncv.
l ' or , t l i , r r . : l assi f . r ' l r r g t cr r r i : br - r cl i l r r i e ( l cayagont l w)
i s cxpl a, i ner l as t i r al r vi r i l l r I r i nr i s t , o gt ] r ysi ca, l e] i i st onco
i n r epe: r t t - r l r or r t r r L. ; o[
' l r i t i h,
b_1' r voy of bi r i l i l no
ci en, t h ( DhsA. pi r .
. 11t ,
377) .
f )o\ -et ousl l ess (, l , l rl r ryl l rl ) rvoul t l oppear t o be a
r1()r' t ) &dvt ncet l sl rl t . e oi -
greLrd (l . obha\ , f or vi n aro
t ol r l t hat " ccr vt t t ousr i r - , ss nl ' ] &ns co\ i el i nq : { r pr nc{ } si
of i ncl i ni ng t c) $- a, r ( l s l . l l ot t r er ' s pr opar f v wl l en
c()nf ront ed rvi t h i t , . 1t l ras t , he cl rri , t r, r. ct , ori sbi c mrrk
of t i r i nki ng,
' Al r
q' or r kl
t hi s wor c r ni ne |
ofirnco it is srnall
()r grr-rir.t,. as in tho
of thefr,.
I i s t ' . 1' o ooust i hucnt , f a, , : t ors aro : i rnot , hor' s propert y,
ori t i i , l i e bendi ng ovor of , onesol f . Tl rouql i greod f or
; rn ohj cct , rvhi ch i s anot her' s proport . , , ' i ras ari sen
\ l oLl i , e l rppqnne), i t ; i t roog nob rec€i rvo t , he di st i nct i on
, r f ' bt ' i ng
a, f ui l eor r r so oi ' a. r ' t , i on so l ong as one t l o, r s
not bend
()vL. r i l , sai i i nq.
Al i . rvoul t l t l i i s rvere rni no I "
t l ' ) h. : ; , 4. I 0l ) . I r i s t i r us t l i e bont l r r g o1' { r r of onosel f
, at t at l o
pur t n, l t t t anr . r ) u' l r i , : l l gi r - es t o gr eed
l t obl w)
ri rr-' f ri l l grol vn ' Ji at t ' of co! ' ot , ousf ress (abh. t -i j ho).
, \ nrLi re obvi ous r, , rrt l l cl coi : i rl i r+ rl ri l ' ' r' n bqf rveen
; , , .
sr' . )f rps l obha-rl asa. ni ' t hrt and. al ; hi j . j t ul -t , yt i pi da-
, , ' i rchudi ! t h, i ,
ryhcre hot l r sot s &re i rni r, i (' rgor. rs wi t i ]
' . i , r <
si i ght di f f er ence, t hat i he l obha- doso- t r t oh. a
-' rrrl ri rrari on
&ppeB, rs t o t rer morc general : greed
. , ; , i
-' 1, 1i
rrs agai nsb l vst ,
(a, bhi j j l l i )
: ht rt e (dosoi as
: - <, r i ; >t t i \ - er sl on ( r t i r ) ped1r \
: del usi on
Qnoh, ai
. J. ' . i l : r rvri i f t $ r, ' i ews (t rt i i ci wdi t t ^a).
' i ! rrrs
covot , or. l s-
: . .
' j , ' t t l t , -i . i i t ", i ' )
i s rnore spt : r: i i i ed, l nors i nt ensi i i ed,
r . , . J , .
, i eci si ve
di s1. , i ri c, t i , : n bet u' er. i l gree<l (l ot , ho) an, J
{ , , \ ' . . i . \ r r , qnecc ( abhi j j ha, ) i s f ar r nt l i n t h. : Sar r cr nt i -
i r: l l i Srrt l a.
g' here
cove[ ousnoss rs ment i onc. . r. l &3
, . r nski i l ' { r bhi _i j ha
aku. sul ai m) and gr eed a. s t he. ; ' or r t
' . : ' ' r r ns k i l i
r l ohl t , , ' t <t l ; ' u. s , t l ar r t f t l om: 7I . I . 47r .
' t ' t , . '
* ' . , 11- l i r r , r r i . r r l , n; l of ' t r i , f ) { \ i l , t , , } { l Sr r t l t r , on t ho
f " t r r r r r r i i r i i r t r r s r . , f ' ] [ i r l l f ' Lr i r i , , g;
i Nt t t i Ti , t r t l r , i r o, z
, \ ' r t t t u, :
I ). 1 I . )' . . )( ) ) . rvi t h i t s t i t r rrf rt l r l rl i r ) l h(){ l ef corrt r. rnpl t r, t i nq
t l i o l r l , l ) ' , i i r el i ngs, consci t ' r t r , r ness r i r r r I r nr ' nt l , l obi cr : t s,
, l ost r . pi I y1' ' ; sr . t r l l r ; l t t Or r t cr npl a, t i l ' o t nor r l <, r , t , r r , l nn. t ,
t , 1, . : i i r l ) ' r ' or r r l t r ' . l r r ' r l r l i nq
r r , r t r l r r r i r r , l f j r t , l r t r , vi r t g ovor -
i ' ( ) l n{ r i r r t , } r i s r v, r r l r l ccvut ( ) r l sr ) i ' t s { [ n, l <l i sbr oss
i n,r
., 1,, /
a l, t i,' e r sfi | 1 i.i
t,,,1, -tle
r t t.' t rt, t s.rrz ril.
' f l r r r , t
i r r t l t i . r , ' , ' i i r l t i r r at i un
: vi t ] r t t bh, i , j . 7Lr 7 r v, t t i r r d
Sr )
l t ( 1r : l st r . ' l r t
i v l l
1' p1. f l ' p1. 1pr , 1r
t . Jf / ! , 1) ! t 1, ( 1ne. . 9. { ( 2,
O\ ' of
( } t , hef
t r - ; r e. s al - r l , i i : ! ; i t . t r . i s sr gni t i , : , r , r r t , * i r , l r r l t l r o : r p, r , : i f i t i t , . v[ ) o
oF r ni r t ' t t i t , i
( ' 1) l l i i l { ' 1,
r r , - ; , l i . st f t } : r ( r i r . r r r i Jl , o. 9. 9( r . l si l l r l . ; i t s
l r t r r : l r l i &r l r gl t t 6r i , 1l t l , , , . 1i i t , i i r r
1- r l t r t i ' r ' t l t y- : r .
i e i qt t l t , r t . ,
t f t o r nor Lt gr . ' t r - r i r l . qt ' t , ' , i - y : 11 t i t r r l r nr t r r r t
' f
i r i s i . ; r r , l l t h, r r r r , ) r L- r I . or ni t el i . r l r L. ' , i l s t l r or O &r o or r l v
t i v, ) t ncr r l r r , l st i r t r . i r r ' l r i t r l r i l r r ) t r . r : ct _l r npar r r r ] , j by
rl i sf ress (, 1; t t t Lu, i t , L. r, t t r, -sri l 1r111117, , 1.
; t n(I t , hoy i t , ro.
r uer - r or t l i ng Lr , r i , l r e . \ l r l r i t l i r i l r nl n: r vr cw, r or r t or l i r r or
i l - qsogi l , t r r r . t t vi t . l t , ; ! r ' nr si r ) 1
l pi t t i yl t u- sg4t . p, Lt l ut t q
l r i . s.
r t
4l l r ) .
' f
l r Li s. w' i r t n covet ( ) usness
( ohh, , j j h, , 1\
i s r nent i onor l
i r r t , l i t r sr l t . t i r s si r l o i . r r - si r l o \ &' i 11t r i i st , r ess ( r l ont o, t t o. ssu\ ,
i t rvoul cl rr, J)pei rr i l s i t ' t i rol . 1, r t i rci r: sFrcci t i r: f i ol ds
( r ) \ ' r ' r
t i r r ) si l r r r ( J gr our r t l . ; r i r { r ooi l ( l , obl r , r t . ) i t nd l r * l t , r
: l l osr t ' 1 r r . ' s[ ) oct . i vol l ' do i r r i L r l , ) r ' o
[ { t ] ! r or i l l
\ ! ' ay.
' l ' i re
t ri rsrrt l co of c{i \ -f ' t , oi I SneBS (t : i qat qbhi . i j h, l l
i s t he
i rei l r: , rf rrl
si l rt e ct
y1' 1 i 11' l rei l ui r. : rl i i rr & l nonk
wi 1, t , 1f i , . r l r i s r <t ' . r nr : l oi ' i r l r r r s- gr r t , i i t ' r i 1g. l r t s
got l bod
i l i r nsel i ' i r . t , Lh+r f oot oI i ! r r e{ \ t o et r qi r ge l i i msol f i r - r
r ni ndf ui ness ( ^U. I l I . 3) . , \ r r t i r vi t , I r t l i i s, wo
geot n
t o
r r r r i ve ul t . l ; r r r nor &i i r npl r ca, t ' i t r n of covet ousness
. r s a. n t t : ( , of covet i r r g, u' i r i l l t ' ho phi l osophi c i r npl i "
crr, t i on : i s l ,
l Tel reral
root o{' evi l i s rosorvoi l f br groed
( l ol t i r . n) : "
. . \ l t i i ough ol i r er s r t t ' t y bo covebi ng. r vo wi l l
n()f c<-rvt , , t ,
' '
(Jt u, a
ahhi -j . i dl i l ' bi t q, ui ssant i , nut ycl t n
cttha a twt h I r i.'i j &1, 0 b hou is sr7 r rt o : lI. I, 42)'
Col eLr >r t sness i r nt r . t t t i t r nt l t l &s t t r e f i r sf i r r a
ser i cs of t i vt t r vl r r r : l r . i n , l , l . r - l ' t , i ct n. i ncl L. ' l es ar - er si cn
1y, 1' 1. 1
i t r { a\ , sl ot l i r , r r r l 1 t r r por ( t h t . na
- r r t t dci l i a) , exci t e'
r rlen t, i ulll \\'o r r-\- !. t t'cl t l, h,n cca,
k u' lck u cc d
iurLl perp iex i t Y
t t " i ci ki cch, d) . r vi t l r t l r t - i r l er i t , i , ' al f ' , ' r r uLt l ; r : " Put t i ng
a\ r / &v cr ) vet ot t r i r l t l ss f , , i l t , l i o x' ot ' 1. 1. i r , ' l Lr - es r vi t h *
i i oar i t l t at ' l i t r , nl <t - . r s not , . i l t t r l
l l r t r r i i . ' s
hi ' ; mi nd
9f cov( : t ( ) t t r , i r l css
" i . . r . ) , 11, 11 i i , t i , t r ; ; . ! ' t ke pahr , t yo
, : i gat dbhi j j hen' a cet . L, s; i
t i . t t , t r' t t t .
, f t 1111. j j l vt i t l , t , ct t t am
pi t ri ' socl het i t D. I , i i : . \ 7' ' 71' 1 i t i o-phul t t ' f i ut t o)'
: '
B5r get , t i ng r i ci cf
. . i r esr r
t i l e hi ndr ancer - \ ' i I i ch
. l ef i i e l rrrnd ant l rve, , , kct t l nt t ri ri vc rl ' i sdom--al oof
f i ' om pl t , r , si t r es t t f 1f 1r ' 5r 111: ; +, ' S, r r i ocl t f r om unski l f ul
r: t , &r, os; f - l ni nt l . i t rnonk ent r. l rs on an(l abi des i n t he
l i r gL st , t r qt cl ' r r r ent al et bsor pt i on . . . " ( M' I , p. l 8l '
Ci l al t , t t t h, i
pr t r l opama Su. t t u^ No. J7l .
This series of five, in which the term covetousnogs
(abhi,jjha) is irequontly roplaced by tho iclentical
een;rrrrl Lusb (kd,maccltanrJa : M. I, 60), is collectivell.
referrr:el to as the five hinclranaes (,tct,fi,co, n-auo,rarv3,ni7,
for t,l rcv pl e\/enl tl i e ari si r.rg of good thought,s by
wey of obstrur:ting rnenbol ahsorpt,ion
I' he i rrterchar:genbi l i ty of covetousness (abhi j j ha\
ind ne:rrsua,l hrst, (kfitftaccharrdo)
brings into further.
relief tlrtr spcr:ifie diffcr,:nce of covetousr rcss (o,lthijjhtt)
from t,hr-r ni oro general greed (Iobha).' l ' hrrs we fi nd
i ust merrti onr.' (l i l .i ;:, fi ,-ttcr (su.m,yoj ana:
S. V, 6I),
brrt grc-.ecl n$ u, deiilsmant (lcile-*a) wlri{ih is moro
tl rrm rl cpeci fi c obstnrci i on, End whi ch
apTrcers l'i,s silrcll orrly rn th+-l lutcr canonical bool,s
(i ?i i ,r, g 15.18).
As a spcri l i c ar:! srf i mrnora,l i t,v we fi nd covetous-
fl Lrr-ri s ru<-:rrti orrrr.l Arrl t.rng tl rr ten unski l ful wrr,ys of
i rcbi ng (Iasu aktt^val ukurnnte.pal h.A): threo i rodi l r-
er,i l acti ons : ki l l i ng, stci r,i i rrg, turc.Jntrol l trrl stl xual
tbur c,ral e'rii actionri : lics. slirndr,rr'.
harsh speeoir a,nd gossip
tlrree ment,al evil ruci,ions :
covetousrress (abhi j j hA). avcrsi on (.-11ri 1tut.l u.1 rl ntl
wrong r.i ervs
(.ni ccJtq,
di tthi l . These ten aro ven'
freqri entl v rt:J' errtrrl to rncrcl .v as the ten unski l fr.rl
actioris (drt,srr, aku.salani\, lr'liore*s t,ho aListilrenc(.)s
tlierefronr are the tcn skilflrl a,ctions.
What apl re&rs to bo a, mero corrupti on of tradi ti on
occufs i n thc substi tuti orr of at,i duu.. i gnora,nct..
for ti i o l rsl ral abh,i cl tl d, cor-etousne"", i rt i t" Sanskri t,
f or r n ( XI ht ' u, . I I , 99, 5- l : ) . I n t ho conr pl et o ser i es ot
tcn, i guoranc:o i s, of eorrrs,,.. rrl rerrtl v ri rprosentcrd by
wrong vi eq' s (nti ccl td di l thi ), an(l ono rnav wturder
whether the si mi l ari ty of scund (abhi dhvu-avi dya)
w'&s the causo of ths substitution a,t a timo when
tradition lvas still not committed to rwiting.
The absence of covr:tousness (anabhi.jjltu) togethor
with good-wlll (a,uyupatla), right attcntion (sam.mri-
ocrfo) and right concentration (.sam,ntd,-surnudhi) art
cal l ed col l ecti vel y the ftrur bascg of the Dhamm,r
(cattrl ri dhumnn,paddni ,: D. LII, 229
A. l I, 29),
" reckoned as ancient, of long star:.clfurg, traditional,
primeval, pure and unadulterated now as then,
nerther confouncl ed, nor despi sod." In thi s context.
dhamtna should be taken to stancl for rooral
righteousness rather than doctrine, {br the factors
consti tuti ng i t are the opposi tes of the evi l root,r
of greed
\l obha),
ha,te (doea) and del usi or (moha).
How covetousness ari ses from the si ght of
spl endour and weal th i s tol d b1- the ,Brrcl dha i n
tl i e Brahmaq.a-dhommi ka Sutto
II, 7), when
descri bi ng thr: sel f-control l cd i i ves of ti re br$hmans
of ol d : Ij ut.r
" tfi en corruptron carnc. l l i t by bi t, ti i ey saw
the monarcl r' s spl endour, worrren ri chl y di gi rt,
st ecds yoked t o cl ur r i ot s, qay
cover k' t s,
bt i ! t el ) ' al l odes, and cl r i l r nber ' d pal aces,
gi rt rouud rvi t h cr<-rwded byres, and graced wi t h t roops
of *omen f i ri r t o vi erv ; -vast rnundane weal t h
t l rrrsc brahuri rrs E&w, arrd seei ng, covet ed. "
l ' i " . )1\ ' n experi e, ngo 1hr l j uddha rel at ed t o
" Ti l - t . .
r . i . t i r t ' br 6l r mt r , n, how wi t hout covet ousness
e' , ' . : r
' : ' . 1, , ' r e
] r i s enl i ght cnment ho used t o dwel l i n
l : : : " . - , ' I . a. , r - s i n f or esb r r , r r d j unql e
' ,
br aced wi t h
- - r ; e. i : . : : r . . . . r ' , ' ' ' i l i t .
g' i t i r
f ai l en hai . r z pal l onr a, ,
: i . * r : i . : i . , - , i t t . e hai r s t an<i i ngup i r r f ea, r : t r I . \ Li ) ,
whereas recluses who taker to a life of solitudo in
the wilds s'ith Btrong p&ssiona,to
desiros and
covetousncss, ca,lJ upon thornselves but, fear and
Covetousness indeed is brecl I:;r the evil clisposition
of the hc5,r' f, hi dcj en i t
l rho
pl easures
of tho aenses
a.nd tho pfrrceptl Dn thoreof, be i t here and now, or
i n some after.l i l b- ft hampers progress but con bs
ovetcorno by coneentrat,iorr of thought,, r*'hen
thlough alvarencss it ean bo proventod
frorn arising
(M, 11, 262 Anailja.sappdia Sutta).
f I . G. A. vax Zevsr .
ABHI Jf r A. I l i gl i er or supt mor nr al know| : cl ge
Ll uough i - nsi gi r t or i r r t ur t , i on. - Se, : AI JI t I NNA.
ABHI JNA- Jf f ANABHI BHU, t he name of an
err,rl i ur Ii rrrl dhrr,, ruentronetl i -u tho Sarl tl hanna-
form of lhe r]s,mo. horvever. is
usr,' rl on l v
-i n
r erse ( I57 . I I
whercas t he
forrn rcacls }lahu,biri j f, 6j iianrrbh iblnr ( I i6. I ff.
. , l i s
r yho has t he f i r , ef ol r l l i i ghor
lbr his bir,nner ", a bodhisaibva
ment,ionctl in & list of nilrnes of boclhisrr.ttva.s
( Gu1t u. 3. l B) .
ABHIMANA, obvi ousl y an i ntensi fi cati on of md,na,
(q.r..) pri tl e, whi ch i s
,,L-,ri verl
frorn maneti , to
horrour' , t,o ti ri nh hi ghl ;r of
; and tho prr,' fi x sl i l ?,
out, over, al l -rcrunrl . Ahl t i ntdnl t, t,horel bro, i s an
al l - r ounr i l r i gh opi ni on of onc; ' s sel f .
^\i rl ri rLrgi r the Cul l ani ddesa (505) gi ves
terr rroups of torrns
|ui dhu)
of pri de (nrJnr-i ), i ar:h
fror.l ])
g,-rri si sti npl
of one ki nd of
l .rri de
morc ttrau the
pr evi ous gr ouLi , br i ogi r r g t i r e t ot al t o I S ki nds
(i ncl uci i l g, hou' over, Srrvcr' &l repcti ti orrs i n di ffrl rt--rrr
thc Lerrn a,bl ti nui i na does nob occur
thcre . It rvoul rl not bo ci i l l i cul t, of course, to i d.err-
ti fy thi .s t,c,rur u' i ti r ono of ti rosr:, rnost of rvhi cl r
msl r:l y i ncl i cate, cerLai u degrees of i rrtcr.rsi ty. l l ore-
ovc-r, t,he prel i x abhi i s sorri ct,i rrl r:s tal <en for tl i e
1;rcfl x
rti i , a,s tn ubhi kkanl a antl sti kkurl ta.
Tlre terro ati.nwna is ver.\' fretltieribly usotl with
other corri l torrnds ot' t nd.rn,, ati rrt dn a, nt di ti t i n' tr7n<t,,
o t t tu t u t. atl l t i t t tu n a, u sr rt it tt.r t t,u.tttz., tt r i cchdrn ri rra. Other
comtri ni r.l .i orrsr such as kodh.dti ntana, uunnuti nti i na,
saggtTttrnana, anati .mdna, occur, l ,rut ti i scu,s,srng
tl rt:se berrns v' oul <i not serve anv purf)ose here,
unl ess tl rt: i r.rtercharrgo of abhi - rrnd crl 1.- i s i bml y
est al - , l i sLr cd.
' Il re
s-ord i s found, however, rn post-canoni eal
' I' l i us
tl ro word abhi ua.dati , uscd i n ths
Pafi ,cattotya S' utto (II .If, !3:' , 102) when someone
d,ecl are,s i t as hi s i dea that Ni bbl na i s u rnero bene-
fi ci al or useful mo.l o of progress (ni bbunar-n sap-
euo patilt,tdsm ablittaciati,), hir.s been pera-
plrrtr,secl in tire Papofi,casfidand (IV, 27) &s
speaks of i t n.i th a,rrog&nco " (abhi md,nena
upauodati ). In l Jucl dhi st Hybri tl Sanskl i t the torm
occuls &s &n ricijecuive in tho Sodd,harnwputpdarlka
(380. l ), meani ng proud, concei ted (a,bhi mdni .ka),
whsrss,s Lloe Lari,kA,aalfi,ra-ctina (l-16. 13) uses the
aemo atljective in l,he meaning of holding an erro.
rleoug view. Aa & rloun it is found irr the Gunrla-
' uyi l ho
(5?7. l 0), i ndi cati ng pri cl e of bi rtl .:. (j atyo-
bhi mani ka),
Finally, the terrn occurs twir-o in r,Ita . bhid.ha-
nappadi pi ka, a di cti onary of Pal i sJmonyms, whero
w€, r l r o gi ven ( i t cr n l 7l ) t he f ol l owi ng equi va, l ent s:
pri el e, &rrog,rnce, eel f,concei t (gabbu, abh,i md,na,
ahonkdra\ and pride of wealth, insolenr:e, perlantry
p e p ofi fi.ay d\n ab lLim.dnn : i bid, I 60
H. G. A, . v. Z.
ABHIIUUKHI, (" ti l ce to f&e€, ";
" turnocl torvard ")
ttrr: nrrrne
gi vr-.n to thg 6t.h of tho ten bodhi sattva
hi ri rni s .,r-sta.ges of progres*i vo rel i gi ous dovcl op-
mci r of bodhi sattvas
(Da4abhi i nti ka Si l ,tra, 5
Mhvr l ut . 31. 6
Df umg. a. t +) . ' I ho S, Jt r r i l q, hl cdr o,
sxnls,ins tliat this t hirmi ig Bo callerd beeause
thi brrcl hi sa,ftvrr,, procLi si rrg the perfecti on of
wisclom, now st&nds face to f'ar:e with both $lms6,ra
(t1l l ns41i gnl Lory i l xi sLence) tncl Ni rvi -l na (Ii berl rti on)
(r:f. l l ' ha l tartl Li sutt,uo, Dactri ne, I{. D*ynl al , 2Sg).
fl ut {i i randr*l i i rt,i s:rys that t}ri s }:humi i s c*l l ecl
Ablrirnukiri bccause ilercli.rr oRo eornproherrcls that
tl i e uatura ot' thi ugs i s l l ke unto a refl e,:t,i on "
becartse "
the hor-l l ri sattvas of tha si xth strl qr: are
supporbed on tho path l ry truth "
and J)rr-i ]ri se
tl ri s stage i s di rcctoei t,owards tho essencc of the
perfcct l]ucldhas" (Xlatlhgamakduoturo, Ler IIuseort,
. ) 7
t \
' I hi s
et ngo of hi s progressi ve rel i gi ous rl evel opment
i s arri vcd at by t i rer bori l , i snt t v* wherr i r. e' l urci cr-
et anrl s t l re t err &sl l ecl g r-rf t l i e equal i t rr €l rt rl Barnenoss
of nl l t , l ri rrgs and phouornena
{d, harmasamat a),
vi z, , t ' i rat , al l t hi rrgs and phennmenn, t rro si gnl ess
(ani nt i t t al rrncl l ri l vo no del i ni l e cl ri . r, ract eri st i cs
\ ul uk. i anul ;
i i ! ' e not prodr. reuJ (arru. t parl a) and. not
rrri Hi rrt r. t r: t l (u. j dt al
i &re t t nrcl ut cr{ (t : i ui kt o) t t nri
&l scr srl *o"t rrpt , ri q[ : ri nt : o t ho bt : gi nni ng (udi ai surl t l hi )
ort r i rr ; r st af o ot ' l ' ret +t l urs f ronr at : t i vi Lv (rt i . 11t ra1ni t cn)i
i . Lr€ rrf i i l , l rcr ncl rni t t , r, r, l t ror rej cct t l rl (ari i t ' , 1t 1h. , | ni . r-
ul l uhal
f l , r o l i ke i r r i r t : t r r n, r t n opt i r l r , i i l l r r si ' r n
f i r r ceho, t , l r o t l i - qr : ei f t . l r c r nuon seer r i n Ll r e r vat er , nr r
l r l agr ; r nr l : r r r r i r qi L: i r . l l . . - r : r r i r t et l unr ' er r l ol i . i cgf
( r | | i,t
ri.aTlrat i.l-tli,r.Ltuprnf iSruthorJakaean' lraprati,[:i-
ut . l t nt drrrt i nul ;
; l , rrt l t , l ri l ! t l r{l }. aro l reo f ron' r
r 1r r , r l r t r r l i t r ' of cxi st t r t r eo at r d non- exi st et r t : t : ( bl u7t , d. -
t t l ul au) . i I l r r - , r r u, br " r t l l i i , * i r , f Lvi r , l ook. + r r por r al l t l r i ngs
l i I , l ul r vl . r , . , l r e xceJui r cH 11 r l Lt l t f or t ni r l : l c i nt l l l cct l r r r i l
r,.c{-.1-,1, i 1,' it
(antiln mik:r7k:;' lrtti.J . }l e.
rn}) r' (' l l
i l r c f or r r r r r l u, r r f cl . * Jr el r r I e; r r t - or i gi r r t r , t i on ( pr at t t yr t -
i . i r : ul l i t i Jt l , ' ) , I l o r t . i l l i scs 1, 1r nt , r r , l l si nn nt t t l er r or s
' ' l
1, r ' nr - i -
{ 11 t ho t ni nr l . I I o i t t t t l t ' r s t ar t r i s t i r nt ; : l l
t hr ngs ; r , r c ul t t pt f i - t r I d r I t i . . t r { l ct or l ess. l I e i s r r bscr l l r l , t ' 1. 1'
i ; , , e l ' r ' i , r u { l { . . . . ! i r ' &. I I f i
gr r t s r i i l . r { ' l ho nr r t i or r s of
' I '
r r t , - l
i l t l l r - r r ' ,
I Jut ' r
i r , nr l
' l i l t or ' l ' r : r ' . ' Hxi f t ( ' r t r ' , - , '
i : r i r i
Jun- t : xi : i t r : nr : r )
t .
I { , r sever $ nl l cet r t t cr i on
r - r i t f r t I r .
r : l r r i Jr i r pl r l er l
ui c, mCnt S Af t cl exper i t t nr t cs
n1i l i l 1' s; i mi - r r l i r r n $' l i i r ' l r r r r c r el f i , t , ecl t , o t i r o
l r r i r l ci pi t l
, - i
r , r r r r i i r r r r , s: i
( i unqut dJ, I { i s t houSht s ar e n- ow
: . r f , ' r i i r - f i r ' r n. s t { i i r ( l y , pr r r , r f ouncl &ncl
} r ur r } ;
and he
l . - sl i r r t , . l . r '
r r : t s l r i s f ace t owar ds I Jr r d. l l r a- knowl odge.
: {, . cspr: i : i ; rl h' r: rrl . l i r. at , ns t , i ro pc, ' f cret i on cf rvi scl orn
l r aj i i , J- p4r ant i l . i 1,
r vi t l r or r t . of <; or t r se. ncgl oct i ng
: - - c r J i i r er s t ep. I ) usul ) l t t i t ni k a
gi t r a, 47- i r 4) .
1: opa: ai i on t r ' wer - ( l s t he r eal i sat i on of t hi s st 8, go
of progressi ve rel i gi ous der-ei oprnenr i s twel vefol d,
vi z,, the accomp.l i shmenL ttf the si x perfecti ons
(prapi l rarya),
of muni fi cence (ddna), of good conduct
( i i l a) , of pat i enc; e ( kpamo) ,
of cxer t i on ( u' t r ya) ,
rnedi tati on (dhgana), and of
.wi sdom
(praj fi dl ;
t he get t i ng r i d of t he desi r es of Sr Evakas and of
ti ro di ssi pati on of the fear
ari si ng out of the thougi rt of the i nsubstanti al i ty
of nature (wablfi,adnupa.larnbhottrd,satittasya
j anena),' the abol i ti on of the ti roughb of restri eti on
toward-" boggars
tlre crsdication of despcndency
i n renounci ng al l bol ongi nes
and the supprossi on
of the thought of refusal towards beggars. though
onosolf poor (Abhisomaydlarikdraloka, GOS. LXII,
p . e 7 ) .
ft i g to bo noted, however, that aecordi ng to
lho Mahduailu the hame of the 6blr bhumi ie
Firlpavati (' Boautiful
Ilaving form
Mhuu. I, 76). As the bodhi sattva passes from
tho 5th to the 6th bhumi , ho roal i ses that thi s
whirlpool " of the world is exceodingly painful,
and yi el ds l i ttl e j oy and sati sfacti on (i bi d. l 2t).
Tirere aro two ways irr which bodhisottvas, who
have vowed to rvi n enl i gtti enmc.nt i n ti re 6th
bhfrmi , Iapse and fai l to reach the 7th bhri mi ,
namel y, b-v envyi ng thoso who Jrave rvon cessat,i on
of perccpti on and. feel i ng, and at the very ti me
that there &re consummate tsutl dl ras i n t,hs worl d,
i r 1' not i i st eni n5; r ever ent l v and at t ent i vcl y t o
the di vi ne bei ngs, each decl ari ng,
I aru tho great-
t i ear t eC t r r i nqr ' . r of peace " i i bi d. 127) .
T. R.
ABHI NAMI TA, t ho name of one of many huncl red
t housarrd Gi r, rrdhan' a rnai dons (gondh, aruakanyd)
*' ho had assombled nt Jetavana in Sravasti, when
t he l l Lrddhi r w&a rcsi di ng t l rere, and mont i onod i n
Ed, rct Trr! ct z, y uhu (13 H S. s, r' , ).
ABHI NANDAMANA SUTTA, I ' or r nr l i n t he di vi si on
t - - r r t i t , l cr i l i har ul ha Sur nyut t a ( ^! . I l I . 75) as t he t hi r d
ol ' a ser - i cs of suf t us gr oul r et t t ogot her i n r r chapt or
, : , r, l l cd . -l . rahut t u, l ' ogga.
' 1' t ro
cornposi t i orr of t i reee
st rt Lri s i s i t i ent i ci r, 1. Anrl so urc t he l oul l i t r' , Sl r, r' at t hi
i r r f l r e
1. r ar k,
at t d al s<i t l r t r
l l el s( ) ns
t . r r . ki r i X
Jr t r t
i r r t ho
t l i sct t ssi on, bhe Br r ddl r r l ancl an r r i t i dr , , r r t , i { i ed
l ' hi kl i l r r r who r eque- ) Ls t he l Jr r dcl . ha r espr r t . t f ul l y
t , o t eael i hi r n an aspect of t ho r l oct r i ne ( sui l cl i , i t -
t ene, dl t at t t t nar n) La er t al - , i r . ' i r i r n Lo r ot i r o i n sol i f ude
r r r r r l st r i vc r vi t h zeal f or
J- l , , r r l ecl i on.
' l ' l r er eupon,
t he
JJt r r l dha spoaks conci sel l ' of ont r si n, { l e i r sPt ' ct r vl r i c} r
vari es wi t i r oi rci r srrt t , r. r. Tl i o Lrt ri kl i hu t l ron cxpl ai ns
t l r c sar ne i n mor e r l r r t ai i Lo pr r i vc t i r at he l r r r n gr asp-
ct l t , l r c [ ' r r l l r noani r r g of t l r u l i udr l hr r ' s r vc, r r l s. - \ Vi i h
t ho a. pr1-rroval of t t re I l udcl ho, , t ho mi rrrk
. l el ' rort s
; r r r r l sl r ct r t l y t i r er caf t or , i n snl r t r l de, he l t t u. i r r g t he
suprL)rno goal
t he hol y' I i f e (i t n ut t arat n, brahrnaeari -
yu' pari l l osdt ut t rt ), arrrhi l nt . +l ri 1. r. I he Abi t , i t runrJu.
l ndna, / 5' r{l r(, sl )eoks ot ' t l e' l i gi rt i n t l re f ort nsl of t Le
bot l y' , dr' l i gi rt i rr scnsat i orrs, i rr percept . i ons, i n
i deat , i ons and i n e()t l sci r. )us t i i ougl rt s. I 3y t oki ng
t l ol i t i ht i n t , l i esc f i r. t ' f ol d act i l i t i es of bot l ' , ' and
rni rrcl one l , ecome$ ol rsl u, ved t O ev' i l , yl t -' rsoni f i ed
i ry l \ {ri ra ;
rv}ri i o by rrot t aki ng dr: l i ght t horei n one
t rocomes rr: l eased f rom a, l l t hab i s ovi l (mut t o pd-
pi mat o) .
The oth€r suttae conforming to this general
deal with differerrt &spects : clinging (upd,.
d.itru:t,ana), nnd boasti:rg (ma,r*tfr;zmdna, ,S" III,
73- i +) .
ABHII{AHDAI{A SUTTA. T}ro Bucl <i ha addresses
hi g nonks at S&vatthi ti n t' he subj ect of tuki ng
dalight (ubluirr<tndona) in t,ho .frvr-, oggrt:gates cf
sxis[6lrcu, thcr mnterisl body (t'fi.yto,), sensa,tiorr
perception (safi,fulJ,
merri,;rl firrntations
(sari khar&)
g.nd coi l gci ousness (ti fti tunu,\, On tl i i s
&ccount tho eutta is
in tire lih,andJut. S'urnuu,ttu
l Di vi si on
on tho i gri ' egal oi ; : i i . III. 3J.,1.' i l cre
i,ho five aggregates of body an,rl. rnind r-lrt ali ranked
B,s \1,oe (duklchct). iLnd irerrc,r:
rvhosot)ver takes
dei i ght i n ther bc.rdy, i n stnsu.ti ons, &c", tai <r:s del i ght,
in the conJiict of n' and ig not relea-qercl t]rerefron: ".
Cn tho otl i er harrd, he who doc)s n()t rl r:l i ght, i n the
acbi vi ti es crf l .he body and the mi nri , docJ nor toko
del i ght ei ther i r.r what; i s woe, .rnd i s thus rel eased
' Iwo
suttas of thi s
n{Lrne rvithout t}ro usrral introclurction of pla,io or
persons occul in the Sakigatarw Sarytyutta (S"
IV, 13). They are practi cai l y i cl "enti cal wi th tho
,,inandancr, Suttq, but the five aggregates of
existence, delight in vvhich forursr the subject of
that, sutta, are substituted b'r deiight in the eye,
deliglit in tho tongue and deliglrt in the mind
irr the frrst Abhinartd,ena rS'tr,/ls, and deligtrt
i n tl i r, sl x obj ects, vi z., forms, sounds, smel l s,
tastes, tangibles and ima,geries in the second
Ablti,i,,andenrr, Sutta. Ily trakilg delight ilierein
(abhi,tla.nrierlo), one also delights in oorrow (rluklch,a,t
to vrliich they inevitably lead
brrt by not takirg
delight therein, one is reieased l:om woe.
ABHI{HA JATAKA (No. 27). Tha bodhi safta born
as king Brtr,hrnadtr,tta's minister solves fhe myster-y
of bhe ki ng' s pi ni ng el ephant.
A t:er:l ,ai n dog used fo corne to the stat,e ei ephant' s
sts,ll anrJ. livo on the scraps of food which ib founcl
l,herrr. In courso of
a strorrg lr,ttachment grew
betwoen tho stato elephant and tho dog antl rhey
r:ou.l d nct do v"i thout otl ).er. The dog used to
pi .i v u' i th the el ephant' s trunk, srvi nqi rrg on i t thrs
ancl that.
One da1. a villager Lrought ther tiog frorn t1e
mi i hout.
' l ' i ' o
el epha,nt, rni ssed the dcg so muci r ttrat
therrcefo,rti r he refused to eat, ctri nk or bathe.
\Vi ren the ki ng was i nfr' ,rrned of thi s he di rcctcd hi s
minisier, the bodhisa,tt,rr, to sc>e
14,a,s \!-roug
ni t l i t i r e cl cphar r t .
Ti i e bodhi satta 6&11- that ti ra e l cpl rl nt \r' &s
.l nhappy arrci seei ng rro pl cal ai hrrorrt gucsscd
ti rat t,i re cause of thu uni rul .rpi ness rnust l rc trro
r-:s o{ tt gi ' eu,t fri end, On qttesti oni ng t,i rc roatrout i i o
i r cs tci d of the l ri endshi l l rvrtl r tht: doi l ond i i rrthcr
' ;.:.;
i : rl as not, knol l rr $l rcre t,hr: {ci g l i atl been
i : . r i r - I - .
' i ; . . ,
bodi Li sal La r nf or r net l t he ki ng i r ccor di ngl y
. : r - t , . i i : r cd t i Je' st , i ur za u. hi ci i i bnns t l r e l i * si sof t l r e
, - r - : . ^, . \ \ - l , . ' r i t l l e kr r r g asked l i i m f ur hi s advi co,
bhe bodbi$ir,tta suggestec{ t}rat ii, be announced hy
beat of drum that the person who had taken the
dog would be liai:le to a penalty. This was dono and
the man who bouglit the clog eoon
it loose. And
awrif it ran to Lho stale eiephant,. Tho elophant
took thc dog in liis trurrk. put him on his hereid arrd
wept arrd only a{tr:r the dog atc dici he e&t himself"
Tlrc king br:stou' ecl horr<-rurei olr t,ho bodlrisatt,a
saf i ng t hrrt }rr: kncrv er. ' err t he rni ncj s of
gui mal s.
I' his.ftitaka wus reia,tcd b."' the l3uddha requrdi,:ng
t ho grt : rLf , i i rt i ni u, <: ; z l -, t t woerrr an el rl erl v ruonl < and a
itl,.v riisciprlo lvlio ira,tl ircen lr' ir.:nrls br-,forr-' , !hr-r nronk
; oi r r er {
t l i o r Snngi i n. i : l r i ' r r o, l t r r r hu w; r s or cl r r i ned ho
use, l t o go Li l l ri s i l ' j . f l I rt i ' s i rrl l rrj €' (j vcry' Jri y whcro he
' *' a, s
of i eret l f i ro nri . dt l ay urt , rrl , *t ncl rct urn t <l t ho
rnon&rt ' Lr. cy rvi t h t , l i c f i i r-' nd arrri spend t he whol e day
i n conversrrt i cn wi t h i ri rn t i i l srur$et . Al d when t ho
f ri en<. 1 reLul rrr-rl }i crrnc t l i e bhi khhu v; oul cl {l cconl pr}ny
i i i r n t r r t i l e cr i t y gat e.
' I l l ri s
t ' i errrl sl ri p bocau: o t i rc t . opi c of corrversat i on
a, roong t l re bi rrkkl rus s, nd t , ho JJri dcl ha narrt rt ed. t he
Jitaka, saving t[ai, even in former tirnes bhey had
l:cr-,n great i' rierricls. Ide then ident,ified tbe cliaracters
dopr rvi.r,r,, tlre iu,y disciple, t.ho elepharit, tlre
elderly rnonk, trucl lro iri:msr,,lf $' B,s the kirrg' s mi.oister.
' I' liis
Jritukrr, has beerr narned efter & word
occurri ri g i n t i re $t anza obhul hadas$erl t i
f requeri t
seeing ", refr,rllrg to frequt-ry:i; soeing of the dog by
t l r e el cr pi r ant ' ( J.
L, 188- 190) .
ABHI XI HARA i s deri vecl f rom a vorb mo&ni ns
t o
t nko out ' or
' t r, r
d. i rect t o' . I t r o ci oct ri nal senso ri -hi cl ,
has grcr*' n oLrt , of t hi s l i r, erai rnoani ng t ho Lerrrr
f l eno[ es, i rr t l rr: r; ornrnont ri rl rr l t radi t i on,
{i n i ni t i ul
t rsprrat i orr
t yt ubbuXt at t hanu) or
t i rst resol Yo
(. mf i l a
pun, t dhi rrci , f unt l nrnerrt ul t o rrl I 1rocl hi sat t , as, or
Foekors after enligirterirrrcnt, whethor {t:t Gii,runrii-
gr l mbut i dl i a,
l r i i ccekabLr Ll dhr l
or t i r ul r ar r t ( r l - . 1 . I ,
1 3 5 ; Ap A. l , { 0 ) ^
Jn t l re l JurT, t J! t . cr. t . ' , t mso (F. l )) u' I rerc 1 i ro t r: rl u t rccrrrs i rr
t , hi s ser<: ondarY srl rse, ei ght rrcr: cs. i ury pro-requi srt es
&re rnerri t , i r. -l rrc, i t br & perf i (j l r set , ki rrg compl ebe
onJi ght crrrnen' u t o possoss i f ho i s f , c rnai i o &
success c, f l i i . ; i ri rt i i ul rr, s; ; i rat i on.
' . 1' ho
st al l z&
i ndi cat i ng t Lcs' : , rcacl s as l bi l orvs :
s n LL s s ut t um I iri
as n p a t t i I rc t u s at. t h iir u du.s s a n u. nt,
| t Lputt i ud I t. t l;' it' o c tt c h ar td<ttci
ut I l nd h<t r t t n t usar t od l t dnd ub J t m i : . i t ur o t u t , Li j
i I nt i
' I )rc
Apadano corrrnrent ary expl ui ns t hess as
f ol . i orvs: t l , l J) l . , i rt i r as n hurnal r bei l g &hd &s &
ursl e, (3) t l i e ct i puci t y, i f orro so rci shes, i . o a, t t rl i n
enl i gi rt errrrrcnt a. 6 nn arai rant i n t l re veri - l i f o i n
whrch t l i e us1: i ra, t i , . rrr i s t nade, (4) t h, : good l brt uno of
rnc, eLi ng t -r t cuchcr rub, o i rar: &t t arno(l corupl et o
enl i gi rLr, ' rrmcrrt , (5) rccI useshi l , r, (' j ) rnrt st ery ol er t , he
ei gl rt st at cs of rneni al abs, : rpt i o, r (ai t ! : uaamapat t i )
&n, l t he l i ve superi or epi ri t uai powers (q' t t f i , ca
ct ' i , i f i f i , a)t , (7i drrdi uat i c, n of one' s l i f e t o t he errrl i gl rt -
cned orj , : ss anci (3) an earnest dcsi ro or ef f ori t o
l ' cal i se ouerns obj t -. ct i ve. Thr: sc. , i t i s sai d, ccl mpri so t he
br"r.siu clurilificatiorrs t,irat, erntltle & person to aspire
t o cornpl ct o enl i ghl cnmen1"
{l 3uuA.
9l -92).
l Tlte ApA. however explains gunaso,rnpatti as quali0iss $ucll
as t l rc ac(l ursi gi on of ski l l i n at t ai ni ng menbal abeorpt i ous
( P. t 4t ) ) .
2 Al hi kara i s expl ai neJ i n t )re : 1p, {, as sel f sacri f i cc
i nvol r ' r ng * i i l i ngness e\ : eD o r j sk l l ue' s l i f e ( p. 140) .
1' l rc l Juddl t uuemsa arrd i t . s coui rrreri t i i . ry have
rr: eef r. l t l rl t l re i nst arrr; es r, ' ' l ren t l re bot l l ri sl l , i . t . a wl ro
, l +f er
l x: cnrnt t t l i e ' *i i l l t }' i rl pgrri a, spi red t o I Juddl ra-
hood rurcir:r orcl' r srr' :r:r' ssive. IJudtIha, beginning v' itb
I l ui l dhu l )i prrnkaru und endi ng wi t h l 3uddi rt r
I i assapa.
I Jrrt i n t ho eoso of orrrr r' j pi l i ng t o Lre r; eparat oi l '
enl i ght erreel , r. t , . , r*i a prar: ct , l i ol ruddha, t hn rni ni rnunr
qualilieni,ionu lre siiould pos:re1is at tire rrrorneut }rer
Eo r , . el r i r es i i r cl udo { bur of 1} r o above ( I r i cr s. 1, 2, 7
rl rrrl S) ont l t rn rrrl t i i t i r: nnl
, qrrnl i f i cal . i on,
ri amcl y, t l t e
ergirt crt' riislilrs.iiorruto orr{r:i
wl rrch Ll re r: ornrut =rrrt ru' ] . exgrl i . l , i ns ns : t cnJ)oci t y t o
rueeb suelr urres {ls
s{*urure$arnbudri}ril. rJacceka-
L-i rrddi rrr or ari rl gnt .
And in tlrc t..rreo of thoso l.spiring t,o bo orriinarily
er r l r l ; l r l er r er l ; r . s ar al r ur r Ls or r l y t l vo qui t hf i uul i cl r r s ar e
ne{juHsrrt' ) ,
, a Eerrss r-if sacrilico thaL rr:ay
oveir irrv,.rlve o!t.r' E iife
and o,n
c$rrrf i st , daei ro t o rcu' l i so ono' s goal
\ kut t t t l ; unyut o, )-
I Lrr i ni t i al a, s1: i rut i on must al so be cont i nuous
I r l r , r
. t ' r r st
1u' r . i or l
of ' t i ni c. I n t ho cnso of r , hose
to br=t srr rnrtt:-i:iitnrlltrldlras tliti d uratrtin o1'
Lri I ri , Ht r(rrr l el ; rL l t : u, st (l rc. t t l i rt t t . r
Tt rt r
i ccl rc. t : l erxt ) be f our
I rrr: i rl r-, rri r, t l rl , . ' r
\ t wuf i l ; l t eyya)
and onc: l rurrdrod
t h{. rl l s, ri l ! l i i t ori g! 3 i rr t l r! r-rl s{r of t l t osel os; ri l i rrg t o t -ro
1: r r l l i : ki r l r r r r l i l i r r r g
t , wo . l l t cr r l cr r l abl es and r i no Lundr ed
t , hr l r r st i l l { l r Lr r ( - r ns, 4 r r r i r . l cl f ' t } r ost r i l spr r r nF t o bu
rrri rl rrrnt . s i t vuri t ' s uc: rronl i rrg as t cr u l rc' t l rer t i re
r r syi r r i r l i ur r r u f u be i r c' l r i t ' l r i i sci ; r l e,
\ ugyu. t ut ' uku)
greuL druci pl c (t ral f i s t l t : uka
I { , S. C.
ABHI NI HARA SUTTA ( l ) ur out i or l s I our t ypes of
I Jersons
who rn t hei r mcdi t at i orrs &s -regard$ concen-
trriti<-rrr. of urirrcl (sumt"Lllti) differ from one arrother
t l rrrs : t i re f i rst i s ski l l t : d (Lnt sul uJ onl y i ra concent r&t -
\ samri dh. i ),
t I rc secern, t , onl y i l i rrduci rrg hi s t opi c
<rf rn, . , cl t Lu. t . i rt n (ubl rhi h. ri t r), t l ro bhi rcl rrt n+: i t hcr. t , he
tburth il both.r TIio lasL is thorefc-iro rockonc:d the
l xrst srrd uobl ost of t l roro.
( : ) . TI r e c{ ) nI eI I LS anr l
p&t t ern cri Li ri s . sr. rt t u, (4. -l hdna Sant yut t a, No. 50)
&re tlre sirlne €is tlrr:so of the preco<lilg Abhinihd' ra'
Sut t u, , except t hat t l i o pl rraso
r; orre(: t per{ornt &nce
\ sakkaccakari )
i s subst i t , ubccl f . rr
ski l l i n con-
ci rrr t ra, t i orr
(sunt r. Tri h, i l : t t . t ; al a) .
ABt i I NI MMI T, A, - n0pAnt , vi st r t r l l br ms t hr ough
t l i c rrri l i rcul ous
po' i ver
of yddhi (P. i t l dt t i ).
exri nrpl o i s J' urrri s. l rcct i n t l i c cnso of t ho But l dha
r' , l rt ' 11
dt rri ng hi . s soj ourn i ri t l . re
' I i vat i msa
l t c: aven
t o pt ' t -' *c: h t i re : r, bl ri dl t arnnt a t dr t l , o gods, ho i s
Fi i i ct t (r l ravrr cre&t ed cl rLi l ; ' a, f i gl u() ol l i l s owo
l rk' : rrrss qt t i rt nni t u-I Jut l dha' 1' n-hi ch ho l t ' f t bcl i i nd
bt l c, r c pr c) ceedi r r f { t o Ut t ur akunr f or } r i s ahus.
-\ rrd t i rr: l Jt rddl rt r, f i grrrc s<. r crc: t t erd i s s, t i rl t o have
l , r r t i ci r od
t ho ci oct r r r i e uut i l t l t c I Jut - l dho, ' s r e Lt t r r t
i ) r r r r r hi s ahns r ound ( l t i sm. I I , 391) ;
si r ni l i r , r l l ' , t l r t :
t l rt ' rrr, Cul rr, l , rrrrt t Lal i i i i s sai ci . t r. i l ruvc. ol rce
(: roi rt ed
i I
t , l t ot t . st r nt l - 1bl d l ur r u ol i i i s r . . ' un l i keness ( Dl t pA. I \ ' ,
180 f . ) . A f ' eat sucl l &s t l r er above i s, uecor t l r r r gl y^
t errrrerd t r
cont "t rt i oni ng t hrougi r i rl t l "l i i ' (i dl hri bt i i -
sct nkhar u) , l l ol vs' , ' r - , r , i t i nr oi . . ' t , . r r o r ni r g: i r . i r s
s or nc havo wr . l ngi y st r pposet l ( L' ] ' l t .
I r .
l i 5$) , br r t
i nr pi i cs a capaci t v 1o t ur n or di r ect t i r t , r r r i nci i o LLr { r
crear, t i on o{' r' i srral t brni s, as &nd rvi ' r. n el c' ; i re, i .
Thc crcal i on uf ' i brms, i n s; o 1i 11 a. - : t l i t -rsi r n i s
r. rraci c t , o i t , accorrJi ng t o \ i t e l ): i rTl t rt -' r r' i , r1, , r, i rr, , l i rt l es
t i re t rari s{orrn*1 i orr of t hc cret rt or t rorr: " t r, si r, {i c
per sor i t r - r a r nui t i yl i i t : i t y r . r l . per sci r r s ut r r l r . , f : u/ ; s( ,
l eko
pi l rut r. t t T t t r-t hudhu hot i , f ur. l , udl t d
1t i
/ t t t t t , 7 t l co
hal i : D. i i , t i ?; xi , 4) " ' l - ' i r , ' s i r . nr t , t ox i
( i i ,
: J1 al " t " r
al l ur l cs t o t l r t - r cr eat i un,
( ) ui
of one' r i owr r bt , ci r ' , cJ'
rrncr t I re' r lrotl;- n' I r i r:h is. rnincl
t rLe (n u n rc t n e t
r t 7 4
\u 1
cor l i or L' al ( r i pi r n\ 1! ' i t h t t l l i t s c, l t np0r r t , t r 1, pu| t s and
ri i )rr^. i o orgi i rrs i rrt act (, sabbary1a pe, ccu?' Lg; ?t L uhl t i i ndri -
yurl t ). A. l t , hougl r t her t xpl t ' ssi r, n
t l i sl , l : r5' r, , t i dr1l i
i . .
used t r-r ci escri l -ro t l rr: l ' t rr. ' rncr, t l re sarne i s r. . r-rt , . , ri rl
<. , f t l re l at t er. -l -l r at t , crnpr t r: rt ' cci nci i e t hi s t ur, r; nrrl y
i s l bund, hot vt , r ' er , i r r t l r er l - i sur l r l l Li t nr l gga
l l
I , 3; $ )
u' i r i cl r r eckons t ' r - r - ' i t t l i u l i r t t er r r i : ol { r ol t r , n i vp, ' . r 1l '
t ddl t z
{ r 1. t , . 1.
' I ' i t c
ci t par : l t v t u cf ! . r i r ' l ut ' l r t s t r i r r t bo, t , - qr t r t t ' Cl
or r l l ' : r f t er t l r e at t ar r i r n€r r r . o1' t i r e l : r s! ci J t i r e i : r t : nt ai
gbst -, rpt i r-. , t rs
oi t ht ' spl i t . r' c of f ct : : n, t hi rt i S, n l rerr t . l re
r ui r i d i r as [ r e ceur c f ul l y t . r ; x] ( l ui l i i " cd, cl , - ' . r 11t 1' d,
su1- r 1r l e, ani enabl c anci sLeddt : r st . Under , { uc} r
cundr t r or i s, Li r e nr i r r t l r i l al ' bo Lur r r ed or t i i l ecLet . l
rorr' rrrds t . t re rei l . i i sat i un t -' f t . l i o superi or: t 5' pes o1.
krc-ru' l edge
\ ubl t i t -t nu)
of whi cL t i ro i i l st ,
. cri l l ed
i ddl t i ui dl , , r; i t u7t u, i s i derrt i cal wi t f r t ho crl paci t v
rnt -rrrt i oned u, bol ' e, ai t hough t ha, t c. rl raci t f i s nob
eoul i necl t o t he crcat , i on r, i l ' r' i sual f o: : ms onl t . .
1I . t i . C.
t l r e Sansl i r i f ccl ui val r : nt , of t , he
PaI : ^ abl t t , t t i l t t l rq, u' i t t cl t i s u cl rl t : t ri rrl t . cl rt r rndi -
c&t i ve <l J t l r c l i r st l esol ve or nspi r l r t i or r ol ' l i b, . , r l hi -
sa, t t a, t o ber: ot re enhgl rt enccl . i : eo Ai Jt l . I NI l l ' \ I t ' t .
SUTHA, a t r eat t se r T, ' l r i ch,
t hougi r nob proservecl . i u t l rt ; t . rri gi no, l Sa, rrskri t . , l i es
como do$' rr i n Cl | i rrese t l o, nsl ul i <; ns.
As t ho t i t l e i ndi caLes t i r i s sr l t r a or t r eat i ' ; t - : sl r oul d
<l eal v' i t h t ho depart r. l ro t -, f l Le b<-rcl l ri -"&Lt ' ' i t (pri rrct ,
Si ddhi rrt ha)
f rorr-r ] i omo t o pursuo hi s quesl l br
e, nl i ght enment .
' I hi r, t
t i ro t hent e of t Lo s[ i t rt r u. i t . s;
not , however ' , r esl r i ct ed t c. ' t l r i s sr r bj cct i l l , - ; t t r - r t s
ovi dent f rorn t , ho l ol l owi rrg Ohi nese rl ' orl i s r' , ' l i i cl i ,
even i f t i r e1, l yer o r r ot t r i l nsl i r , t i ot i s of t l r ' - ' or i gi nr - i l
Sanskri b worl i ,
' *' ert t
t t t i ei l st l -t i r. s' , ' r-t oI l t l t o rrl l t l eri al
c ont ai l r cd
t , her ci r r . ' f l r ey i i r o : ( I ) I i u
l r cn- i r sr l r g- ci r i '
cl r i r r g
[ t E. $f t l f t f f i
( Ni ur j i o, No^ { i 60; , - ' r ' l l Lt dr l i r u
pi i r r i l
- ci , t
i i
- i ct ' r t Ur ai l r r - si r t r t r , ' , i .
" . , '
JJ t t dcl i r t r , ci r r i t r l '
l r
Abi ri ni . skl i l , t l l ul . i i r
i : i i rt rn
' "1
i ri s i . s i l uurk t rr
si xt y ci ro, l rt t ' rs, ut t <1 u' i l s t t : t l t rsl i r, t ccl i ry ' I i u, nrr, 5r-rpt a
i .l p,l . p.
l 3|) : "
l i ti .thl hdrutrl t Attttrul a l t' el l hi ,tnapartccl tetkn,a I L es,L i tl ; l teg y u' tr,i ttrtypu*tt,t.:;ohussui cu .
{ P'i c c c k ab wtd ha n a tlt ll t' e a s u ik he y y a tt, i, k a p p a s utu s alt'as so iit: tt
: . t t a or Lr t i a p, t , l t ui t i l r t t p ut t t l ; l ; t uugyu ( . 1pr l . p. 1' t ! ) . I n t l t e c: r st r
. r
, r , - i , r r : t - di sci l r l u i t i r ou€ I nca' l cul abl e aud oue hundr ed
' ,
{ , , . : : f i r , l r coI I s \ ekat l L
r t suhkheyyat l t kappasat at ahassaf t ca)
whi l e i r r Ll r e i : . r ; r : , ; f a g: r e. i t r l i sci pl t : i t i s
j u. i N r t uc i t ui r t l r ed
t bowand acor r s ( i bi r i ' ) .
L. S. Jhdnt t Sar yt ui l t u Xo. 7' Tt t e t : ot r t r nr : nt r i r y- c: t l t l l i I t t $
sanf i i Jhi kusal u r l s r r r t ' uni ng ski l l i u det *r nr i r r i r i g t i t " 111r - r t r t al
f act or s associ at ed *' i t l r uacb of t he i i i dnos
( , J. ' 1' I I ' p. i 5i ) .
E: : . 4i t e i l r i ' nu- l i ' u - Lo,
c. A. C. 587) i n t he Sr r i
r ; _\ r . , : nL_\ . Jl or eovt - ' r , \ A' e knt ] w f r om t he
( . l l r i ncso
r ' i * t , r i egue l i r i r - yr r u, r r
- sl r i h- r : i r i g, o- r nr r - l u ( f f i J j l
f T; ' l l Fl
j Ji )
! i r . r t t he Fr r - pen- hsi ng w&$ t , r ansl aLor l r r r l . o
( i l r r r r eso
f rnrrr l j nnskri t t r' ! ' i l rnonk eu, l l t i d Ll hu-f t -l ri n (t &i f
f dl
sri i ' arl y aB t he el event h yo&r of t ho rei grr of
Yung- pi ng ( l l i ng- t i ) ci f t he l l An dyr r r r st v, i . e. ,
6S ' \ . e. (F3oal
: l l uma, nt i c Leqerul aJ S, 1kua I l , r, l , l h' o.
p. r' i ) . ( 2
I. c h' u
h' i
h irr g
E fr 1? ttt t E fr!
{ 5ur r j i ci ,
No. 509) or
A di f f or ont t nt nsl i , r Lr on
of- l l ro s[tra on the ori ei n or former i ti st,:rv cl f t.l ro
I l or i l r i r at Lva' , i . , r . , Al r l r i r r i skr , r , nl ) u. r i L Si i i r , r ( ?) .
was tranalat€d l,y l\ ir;l'r=tito.ch6n (itffLtil
r i l ' t t r s west er n Tsi n d5' nnst v
( A, ( : ,
t 65 316) , ( 3)
,TIsi u-hei ng-pon-eh' i -cl ttne
(Nl ,nj i o, No.
6ti 4) or
Si tra on the ori gi r. ol '
Il recti Lrt)
(of the
Il nrl i ri s*ttvn)
i .e.,
' Cel ryrl -ni rl i na
Sfi tra' . Tl ri s
rvas transl ated by Chu-ta-[ (l \l nl ri r-l :a,l Lr, ?)
togethor wi th K' ang-rn6ng-hstr,ng
tri ' 8,#
197) of tho eastern IIan dynast,v. l t, i s n l i fo
of Sukyarnuni in soven chapbers. Chapter i is on
mani festi nq a strange (phenomenon)' .
(-)l r.i ,pter
i i
i s on
' Rodi r i sat t v*' s
causi ng hi s spi r i t t o descend'
i .e.. hi s comi ng down I' rom the
' Itrsi ta
heaven to
be born i n ul i i s worl d. Chal .l ter vi i i s on
sub<l tri ng
I I dr r r , ' .
( 4\
T' ai - t z[ - s] r ui - 1. i ng- nen- ei r ' i - t - ' ] r i ng
tT;ffi i ffi #€ffi
' (Narrj i o.
No. ti tj S) of
' ti i tr&
ou Lrro ori grn of the l uoky ful fi l rnent of the Cl rown
Pr i nce' , i . o. ' Kumdr akui al aphal ani dd. r r a Sr r t r a' .
Thi s \i l ' &s transl ated bv Ch' i h-ch' i on (;f
;[i )
t ho \ Vu dynasi y ( A. C. 2Jl - 230) . I t has no dr vi si on
of cliapters and tho narration roaclres only as frrr ae
the conversion of the threo brothers of T{ir"(vn,n:r,.
Ii uo
-chii -hsi
-tsai -yin -kuo -c
U *4, & tr Rffi
(Nanj i o, No. 666) or
Si bra orr tl i e currso a,ud.
ef f ecb of t he past and pr esent
' i . e. ,
' At i t apr at -
yutpanna-hetuphal a-si rtra' . Thi s was trtnsl ated
(l unabhadra,
Ch' i u-na-pa-t' o-l o {=F}l l pf,5,r;ffi r of
t he oar l i er - \ ung d) ' nr r st y ( A. C. 420- +791, ant l t l r e
ni rmi l ti on reaches as far as tho eonvorsi on of l l rrhi -
k.ti l u,pa. ft ends wi th a Jl taka of thr' ' Ruddhr i n
whi r:h he was a ysi namod ShAn-hui (*ffi Sumati )
at ti ro ti me of tho Tathi gata Samantaprabha.
Tl re foi l owi ng i s a, very bri ef anal vsi s of tho
Abl i ni .gkro,Dl ctntr Si ttrrt whi t:h has been tr:rnsl i l tod
i nto Engl i sh as
The Romanti c Legend of Si r,kva
Bur l dha' by S. Beal .
' I ho
cont ent s of t , he si xt y
cbapters of ttri s work l i ave been cl &ssi 6ed h.y
Il ocl ri zuki
(V. 4478) i nto fi ve socti ons. Tho fi rsi
secti on whi ch i s represented b1' ci raptor i forrns
a sort of i ntroducti on tu the enti re work.
' Ihus
the fi rst chapter purports to e-rei te a di sposi ti on
t rr rrouri sh and cheri sh rel i gi ous pri nci pl es. l t cl i i ates
on the statement that,
' onl y
onee i n the rni dst of
corrrrtl oss kal pas does s Buddhri , appe&r' . Sti kya-
nmni ' s aspi rati on to tl i o condi Li on of a, Il uddha i s
rnenti oned, a,nd a l i st of hi s prodecessors i s al so
;i voi bv the Buddha, who recal l s to hi s memory
tne hi story of al l the Il uddhas of bvgono ages
un l r,r whom i re acqui red roots of meri i . f' ho socond
seci r,)n gi ves us a l i st of previ ous Ruddhas
thi s
i -r
ni &ul e.l i l i tho second chapl er *' hi ch rnerol y
r'-r.i -r-rr€S tire enumertrtion l,egrrn in the firsi chapter.
Tr.' :i rrd secti on deal g wi th tho geneal og,v of tho
) i . i ' . - a : amr i 1- , whi ch i s t he subj eot of chapt er i i i .
Tr.e fo-;nh secti on i ncl udes thoso chaptors (i v-
xxx' . i j i whrch speak of tho l i fo of tho Buddha from
hr-. inh up to the time of the first preaching at
tho Deor Park. It mav bo noterl that theso chaptors
most probably formed tho original korncl of the
present work, the title of which seems to support
thi s argument. The l ast seeti on, whi ch covers the
rest of the chapters (xxxvi i i -l x),treat,s of hi s many
di sci pl es and ti rei r previ ou.r l i ves. A l argo porti on
r:f chapter l x i s devoted to srori es pertai ni ng to
the previ orrs bi rtb of Anan,l ,i .
The abovo Chi nese tr:.rnsi ati orrs l i rl ve thrrs trans.
rni tted to us the l i tori rrv trl rdi ri ons per tai ni ng
to ti ro l i f' {r of tl ro l Judtl hrr, as recordod i n i ho
Abhi ni .si ;r,tttLtttcu, Sutru, u' hi ch, i rr al l probabi i i ty.
deal t not onl y wi th tho dr:parturc of pri nco Si d-
dhd,rl l ra l rorn hi s horne, but, even drew on tho
enl i re l egen,' crf $i i l <1-arl rrni , i nci ucl i ng hi s previ ous
&nd sul rsL' quent, hi story. Tho work i J, nrol tover,
repl eto rvi tl r quotat.i ons l rom thei Uddna, tho
butto-I,l'i7takt, tho Buddhncarita of A6va,rhose,
and sorne of tho }lahaydna sfitras.
the legends
thus drawn upon ropresented the traditions of sevoral
gt:l rool s
i s arnpl y i ndi catod by the Fu-pen-hsi ng-
chi -chi ng rvhi ch concl udos wi th s,n i ntorost,i rrg noto
rel ati ng ,:o tho ti tl o of tho w' rk. Ib srys t' at tho
Mahri sanghi kas cal l thi s work ti ro
Ia-Shi h'
the Sarvi ,sti vi di ns cal l i t the
(great maqni fi cence), i .e., Lal i taui strtro,
' "vi tl i
detai l s i n rvhi ch chapters x, xi ond xi i i of tho
prosent wcrk are i denti cai
the I{d^i yapi yas cal l i t
l ' u-Wang.yi n-f i i an (Buddha,' B formor Ni di na
or Avadi n.r)
tho l )l rri rm.r, cal l i t
Shi h-
chi a,-rnu-ni -f,r-pen-hsi ng
(bhe former l ' i rths of
Sikyamuni Budclha)
the lIrr,hrslsakl,s crrll it
' P' i -ni -ts&ng-keu-pon '
(Foundati on of the Vi naya
Pi f aka) .
Abl,,itr,iskramaqto S&tra,, however, upheld tho
poi nt of vi orv of ti re Di rarma,gupras.
A treati so beari ng thc s&tne ti tl s (Ti b.
l l r i cn- 1r r r r - hbyur i - l r al . r i mdo
' )
i s i r l so f our r cl i n
' , he
Ti betan Ii angyur.
' Il ri s
s' as bransl ;r,tsrl i nto
' .Dbetan,
rovi sod, a,nrl edi ted by ti re Incl i an schol i tr Acurya
J)harmai ri bi radra and the groat
Ti i reti l n tri r,trrl ator
I i i n- chen- bz&u- po ( Ol I . No. 967
' l ' I I .
No. 3L\ l ) .
T, R,
ABHINMSA. Al ti rough the torrn i s cl eri ved
from tl ro rnnteri rr,l abodo or houso (ri ue,-a\, i ts
ei gni ti cunr:.r l rri s become r.nti rol y psychol ogi cal i n
ti re se.nse of o tendoncy l br: i ng dorurr i n tho
mi nri , tn rri l l rerr' ,nr:o to &
' ",i er.v,
an i ncl i ni rti cl n to
a bel i el ' .
' f i r us,
v' hen i t i s
gai d
t i r at
' ,
al l Ll r i ncs
orrgl rt rrr;t to he adhoreci to "
(scr0be d,h,atntt,u n' ul o.rn
abhi ni ut , sr T, t d: M. I , ! 51
, S. I \ / . 5r J) t ho cor n16s111*t t
expl ai ns ti i at v' hatsoever bel ongs to tl tei tl rroe
worl cl s of exi stonce i s not to bo adhered to ryi t,h a
menta,l obsessi on. Tho torrn i s thr:n used i n j trxba-
l rosi ti on
Lo pa.rci tnr)sa, * contagi on, and gi ha, a
ment ol possessi on. I t i s, t , l r us, a r nr n' , al t i sr r , t i on
(cetaso adl ti tthcTn<t), a prej url i co and o bi os (abhi ni -
vesd, r uu, saya. ' S. I I , I 7; S. l I I , 135) . f t i s f r oqr . r ent l y
used to descri be ti ro attl r,chmont to tho wrorrg
vi er vs of ot er nai i sr n. anni hi l at i oni sm, &c.
( di l t ht -
saitf,ojanam guho pati,ggaho abhiniue-*o
kumnr.ageo ri ti cchd.path.o , Dhs.
3Sl , 1p03,
1005, l l l 7, &c. ) ; and i t i s by t he de. st r uct i on
and surender of this foof,irold that the mind
becomee ful l y freed (S. III, l 3).
I { . G. A. v. Z.
ABHI NI VESA SUTTA. I ' hor e &r e t wo sut t es of
t i ri s rrarne, bot i r ocr: urri ng t owarri s t , l re verv end of
t l ro ri i vi si on on
f , i re ' \ ggrego. t r. : s
\ Kl wndho
Soml l ul t a :
. 1 . l I I , I E{i ). I -}ro eLl }i rrl ' ncr i s i rr rrrrr-r g' , : rd
oni -r' .
' I ' l rr-'
f i r, : t eut t u de*l g l f i t h t he bon, -i r: rgc of dependi ng
upon t l r * f et t t r of cl i ngi l i g Lo Li r e f i r ' o l i qgr egal es of
cxi st ene: e. Tl ; i s bor r , l r r ga of t i epl nt l i nu upor r t i r e
t' i.rr,f r,.rs (.s,r.r-t t-tujuntTltlt in iuct<.t
is int,ensified
i n l . l i u sul -rj r. rr; t of t hs dr"' , -' <)rrcl sut t a of t l i i s narne by
uI l i t t : l Lr r t t r d 1. o t , ] r l r Ll r r r r l ; r qr - . of doPer r r l i r r g r r pon t l r o
i ' rt , t cr' ; (, sai i f i , oj unri bhi ni vesu-ui ni bardl wj j hosri na).
' I l i e
f t : t . Lt | rs r$f rt rre(] t o l i rl re are, l t of t l t e usual t , en
f' .t,tcls (tlrtxudtrmrlojrtna.\ un tlrr=r broaking of wtrrich
I i i -' l rr-^nds t l t o grt rcl ui r. l prcrgrt : s* on t i re pat h t owurde
ri r"Ll rant si i i l i . I l re f c. t t ers urrder consi cl orat i on i n
t l reqe Lrvo srrt , Lag ure, f t , l Lers of ci i ri gi ng t o t he body
r fr.
t tt
Lrr st rnsat,i u n s (r.: uln noJ, t o
rrr :e1lt,i ons ( s aii fui),
to rrti' rrf,r iI fi:rms,f ion sr (.s
ctnk hdl d.
and to
l L' i i-i tid.nn
Deperrdenc e
t in i u escr,
on t } r osti fert bers
i r a t:nt.Lclri g r: (u i nib uncli o
b u t a,t,tlrr: ir mon L (uj j ho :t ana)
i , u 511. i h l -, orrdl go rnake$ del rveri -i rrce u' erl l -ni gt r a. n
l l xf r{, s. i i [ ] i l i t ] ' , f t , i B t f i e rr-ri l cct i ol t hs. t t hose f i ve
eggrcgl -rt es of ' exi st errce are not
Jt errnanerrL,
t hat t he
rtu' ilrr.' rrnilnont ir nr:t sutrsfact,ory anrl is subjoct to
, l i , ! r n' r . ;
r t , i s l r y ur r l h r r : f l r r ct i on t i r at no bor i Jaqe of
. ri . Tl (: n{i (rn{] o
t hci ri l on eOrJ. &ri Be {rncl uO at t ac}rnrert t f o
; Lt , rl ' r t l (rnd&gc. I l or hi nr wl ro vi ews t , hi rrgs t ht rs t here
i s, ri i so t l re knorvl edge t hab f or l i i rn t her. o rvi i l bo no
I ' ul ' Ll i r r r ' el r i r Lh i n t , l r i s yr n: ser r t
l ; r oces$
of beccl mur g
ri rTparat n i t t hat t a g ut i
i Luj
anat i ).
H. G. t \ . v . Z.
ABHI f f JI KAI mr-. nt i onr-. t l i n t he Su1t l l ut t a Ni . kuyo
, I l , : . ] 04- i i ) as an uncl i sei pi i r r er l r nonk r vho on bci nq
a. i rrrol ri shr, rd by t he f Jr-rt i t l ha. r' t ' pent ecl of hi s i ri psl
. t : r ( i \ r ' t l s r t l , [ ) r l r er l t l y r , ' t Lr r l , ; t . i ,
I {e rvasr & co. r{-rsi (l ent of . \ rrurucl cl ha &nd w. a, s
' . 11g1rgrcl
i n
r' r-, rb&l r: ont , esf u' i t h Bhan{. l t l , i . i , oo.
: ' . . : r(i Lrr)L of Anancl a, .
' f ' ht l y
wero t ryi ng t o out -t t ri k
. . r' i r
ot i rt : r t o {i rrd orrt rvl i i c}r of t hern <. : oul d sl . i cak
: i . e nrore, t i re bet t , er rl nd t i ro l r-rngt r.
Tiir Ihddha rvas inf.rl.Ilrr_' cl c,f tltis by 1\I0,hJ,-
: . . r - . , r ] ) &. \ \ - l i er t t l l o l i i t t i . r r r vt r s i i , sl , cd l - r v t i r o I Jucl dl r a
: . , l l \ e r r r ' ol i gi or r s cl i scour st . r t o t , l ) o r nonks, ho
: 1. , - , ! , \ t . t l l , i r r l ' r ' l ucr t ar t r ; t i l - r v si l f i ng bhat t l r o r nonks
" ' r , - .
of evi l speecl r . unr r r l y. r r i l . ol t - nr , r r t , r r r r d t r ot
. - . - . : , r l l L r c c ci vul g i r r sl r t r <: t , i on, Hc ci 1. cd i . ho i ns t anc r t :
: . -\ t -, i rt i rl i k, , r a, nrl I Jl i l t t cl 11.
knor vl er l go of i nsi t l r t t abhi i f i a\ di spenses wi t h
t he
1>ercept i ve
i i , ncl {i >nnat i ve t \ -})cs of t }rought .
Pcrr. r' 1; t i on (saf rri , i ). er-en i f i t l c' rrcl s t o awarenosg
t t si i r i t unr t ) , r nr ' r . , i r - t t . , l l s us r l - hat t i r i l gs l ool < l i ke
an<1, l : ei . ng f t rrt l t er qui i i eri on r() t , ' onsci ousness by
i de; i t i or r s r ; r r r r cnt al f or r nat i cl ns t , - ' at i khar a) , i t i s
rrecessari l y i nf l uenced by t hoso earl i er acqui red
I enrri ngs. Abhi , i t i uJ, on t ho ot her hancl , i s a ki nd
of di rect krrowl edge whi ch hr, rs l ef t behi ncl l he
ph1' si cal worl d of spaco and t i rne, of percept i on,
of i rl ea, t i on, of ca. usrr, l i by, of l ogi eal reasoni ng, and
i s, t herol brc, psycl i i c i n t he l ul l ost sense. I t i s not
kl o' rvl edgo
of cornposi t es, i t ut i nsi ght i nt o
i t hei r
nat ure. Such a r: ornpl et e knowl edge becomes an
ei xperi enco
whi ch can bri ng about a t ot rr, l t rans-
f onnat i on i rr t he rui a, t i on3hi p bet ween t ho subj eet
anrl obj ecb of t l ri s knorvi edge, I t consi st s ul t i rsat sl y
in seeing things as tliey arc (yaihu bltiltarry,), and
t hat i s rca, l i sat i on (abhi sunt aya).
Real i sat i on c&rr come al ong di f f erent pat hs,
wl i i cl i . hower, ' er, l rave t hi s i n common: t t re srrb-
j ect i on
of t l rc v-anderi ng anr-l di st ract et l rni nd
i r l cor r ct r r i t nr t i cl r r of t i i ouqht ( samadh' i ) .
Vur i ous
rnct hocl s t o aci ri cve t l ri s goal aro orrt l i net l i rr marry
cl i sc: ourses anci i rave been ampl i f i ecl by l at er c: orn61r' 1-1"-
t at ors. i rr part i cul ar
bv Buddhashosa i n t i re Vi sud, -
dl i rt t rt l l ga. ' I n st rort , i f i s t ne *"y t o pei rcr) of mi rrd
(, sant at l t a),
qui eLude of heart and cal mi ng of bt ro
l . l t rssi orrs
by rnr: ans of a process of subl i rnat i on
rvherebv & sLal L-r of t l ance, or ment al absorpt i on
(j l wna, q. v. ), i s i ncl uced. I t i s an at t empt t o bri ng
bot h br. l rl y and mi nd i nt o an i nt ensi ve al ert ness or
s' at cl rf ul ness (sat i pn{l h{i nu) t hrough a puri f i ed
rocept i vi t , y. Througi r rni ndf ul ness (sat i ) i s rca, cherl
rnenbrrl cal m, i nsi gl t t (, zbhi i t f i , a\ , enl i ght cnrnenl . , and
Ni bbi i naz. I t i s i n t hi s st at o of t he t nrl y open mi nd
t i ra, t t l rcre mi qht l . re dovel oped psychi c powors,
whi ch woul t l appcar t o t ho average rna, n as sl l per-
nat ural , bub rr. l ri ch ane 8, s yet onl y supernormol .
' l ' hev
rl re, horrever, onl y t he by-product s of t hat
i nt rri t , i ve unri crst , andi ng t hrough i nsi ght (abhi i t i t u)
rvl i i ch f orms t ho sul . rj t --ct of t hi s presont art i cj e.
Tho acqui si t i on of t l reso i nt ui Li ve
l rowers
i s t , hen
orlo of the airns of concentrati.;n (sorrr,ridhi) tlrrough
t l ro rnani f ol t l met hods of mecl i f at i on (bl uaut nu\
wl ri ch i s, t noro l i t erul l y, ment , a, l devel oprnorrt or
cul l t t r t t . T' i r i s i r i t ui t i or r i t st : l f , hr t r vt ' l ' er , i s r t ot t he
gr, rai . but ono of t ho st e' ps l r: adi ng t o t ho del i vcru, nco
of Ni l r bann.
' I he
essence of t he I Judt l l ra, ' s t ea, cl i i ng i s embcdrl ed
i n t , he Ft r ur \ obl o Tnr t l r s
( cat t dr i
- ar i ua, - su<: c r i t l \
of n' hn, b i s conl l i ct (rl uht ; hu\ . t ho ct u, ; r:
conf l i ci
(Iu k k h r t
ttnt r rtlu g rt\, the so I u1 i orr r>f corrfiic t, (d t t l; 1; 1,,,
r t . i r ot l l t u) anr l t ] t o * . u1' t or vr l r d. s sr t l vi ng t l r c pr ol r l t : r ns
t rf cr-l nf l i ct
r t kl ; I t o-nt rc, dl t a-q 17 nt i nl
p' t t t i
1, t t ri t t ).
I i rese
I " or r r Nobl o - f r r r t l i s r r r o sai r l t o bc r l e, ' i , r r cd bt ' t ho
Bur i dl r t t , er l r r c, ssl y
l ) ecf l ust , t l r er - i l r e pr of i Labl e
( r t t t ha- sat n, l i i f r . r ) . t r ocur r sL) t l r ev l r r l t , r r r q t o t l r e essenco
o1' , . r xi st cnce
\ dl t , , t r t t r nu, - . \ ( r . nLl l i t a) ,
bcca' . r se t l r ey ar e
t hn l bur r dat i or i s of i i l r i r e l i f e
( udi - br aht nacar i uaka\
becaust -' t l i ev arc . : oni u, --i r-" t o compl et o di spri ssi on
(e, kant a-ni bt )i rl a1
t o cessat ron of cl csi res (ni rodha),
t o peacc of mrncl (t t pasana), t o di roct krrorvl ecl go-
i ri si gl rt (ubhi rl ri d! , t o enl i gi rt errrnent (sam, bodha)
l ' -' , ' I Juddl t r, harl t l i erl r bi . ot rgl rt t o l ri s
l t resenco
: . - r , r . i r nor r i sl i eci 1, i r r ' r r r . r \ f t er l i st t : ni ng 1- o hi m.
1- r )
i , Lr r r l i 5ccl
Lo cu. i t i vt r , l o se. l { ' - r csLr ai r r L i n t } i u
HI NNA. Ti r . o nonnal st at o of t or r sci r - i usr r ess
r - . r . t akes
I , r i r r " co
r uosL of or r r t i r i r r ki ng.
l t i anni ng
: . ' . ! : , r r uu{ r r ' i t l r r r r or . r or . l t ' ss i r r cr i t l i t v l r t r . s, l i l i e t } r e
. . i >i , cr r r ur r i
wi t h i t , s l l r r nks of i ni r . L- r , : . d ur r cl
- : - ' . . r l ct , t i r o acl j ui ni ng spher es of i r i l r u- conscl ous
' .
' . -
i , ur r d r i l t , r t - c<. r nsci ous i l si gl r t . ; \ i l t hr ee
r' : ci t t l l -res of t r11' . r11l edge (i i ano), brt t pol cel ).
: - r ' . i i , , . , ! : t ' ' , sar l r i al ut t r , y be- , w- i t hout f ul l cons-
. ; r i : r Lr r e" s ( ui r i i t oqr t r , l , wher cas t he i nt ui t i ve
l Jurut ese )I S. aud f Uhi l j i t a i n t wo Si nhal ese Z S. v, 179.
ABHIfrftA 98 ABHTNi l A
&nr i r l , . l t vt , r &r r r , . t ' ( ni . bbdnu) .
' '
: l bl Li i t ' f i , a i s pl acr d
i n l i r r : ; I ur r r l ul & t ' t ' r var ' , , 1s t l r e \ ' ( ' r v cl nt l . onl v t o bo
l ul i e, r r r : r . t b. y r - ' r r l i gi r l , cr uuer r t , i t sql f , t l r er t L, y r r t di r ' ; r t
i r r ; r i t s i r i gl r
Jl t , r si t , i or i
of i r npor Lr nce.
5i t . t i sf i rr' t i orr art rl l rayrJri t rt : ss (t : e& t . =pnl i l ubl ut sorn, t
t uo; ; st t -l t rt t t l . ul t l Lo) <: i rrt i rc r: bt i ri rrccl t , t ' el r i n r. . orrrl ut ' st ,
of rvt rr, i rs i i (l i rrt t t , cd [ y
"$i rkk*
t l rrr nr] rrr of ' t l rr: g<. , r1si ,
but t l i i l f i s nut ,
( i ondr r ( : i vc
L( ) l ) { : : i } Lr e, t o i r r l r r i ' " i vo
k r r r r r vl cr l ge, t o r * r r l i gi i t er r r r r r . nt , , t o Nl Lr br l r r i r ,
{ nr t
u. Jt usi l t i l f i t t &, ?t i l t t l . t l i I i i f ui t l ri , rt u sarrt l t orl l t i r. l u, n(l
r t ' i bl t , i i Li t / t t t ; r j l l Lt r r l ! u. r t t i , 1. 3 ) t i s , r r r l i ' i l Lr or r gi r
l l i ' i r . ct .
of r ni nt . i t l r i t t r r r t r r i t i ur r c i r n ger r ni r r i r l r , i r " r r t l r l t , r ' , . l ol r
i r r t , o l i r l l r . r r l i gl r t , r ' r r r r r c nf ,
' I l - ' c
F) r t i l ( : { 1
u1' r r t i nd, } r or v-
uv e' r , r l r . ) ul r l l r t u' r . l l r r nd, r r sLr Jor l , l ' ' or Ll r r , l J r r cl dl r i s t
r r spi r i t t r t
( . t 1ogt . l
t , t t t : ur r r , ) t Lr i r , r r i r r t qt r r scl y r l er ' P, sl i i r i -
r . r r i r l i i f i . t . l r cr e i s uo ei i r - i r r r : ; r . r i r r t , r vi i ; l r r vhor n f r r :
t t l i r i c l r l es i r ' t . sy r i r i l . r r r , l r r r . r i or r , i i . . ; r s t l r , - r ot se of t hi ,
( l l r r ' i s l i : L1i
11r 1, ; . 1i cr r i r Lhu Hi r i c l r r v ogr . Hi s s t . r i vr ng
l ' ri r' i r, cl i vi no {: orrsr: i (rr. r: j ncsg or col sst i &l vl i i on
(di bhu. -
cakl ; l r ' u) l . r s i L r nor nr - l nt i r r y sr r i t ; t i t ut i or i e, f l r i s eur t l r l r '
proct : $s of corrsci t -ri . l snesFi i s rrt , r. or i r, rr en(l i n i Lscl f ,
br r L or r l y & r ! r e, i l u: i t . o Spi r i t ur . l l gr er wt , h $r r t l r r : cr r t i i l
cul t ure, t o b() t uscrOrdet i rr, l rLosL i i s s()orl t rs acqui red,
t o prevent i t f rorn t . r, l . ; . i ng roob or f orrni rrg €r sorrrcl r
of at t rr, ci rrnerrt . Even t he f i -r. at i on of t hcxrsht i n
one-poi nt edness of nri nd (ci , t t ' ekayl gut ci ) i s t JeJi r. rbl e
onl y as & r r 1ci l ns t o over como t l r e r l i sl r l r ct i ons of a
wa. nderi ng rni nt . l . -L' or here. l i es a I ' ery i rcl ui l l cl anger
as i n t he t er npor ar y cxt i nct i or r of t ho l i r er s ol ' l usf
( I obha) and avr : r si on ( dosa) t her o i s r nuch opl r or -
t uni t y f or scl f -corupi t rc: crrc)' i n t nent t r, l f i xat i on.
Arr, d t , hat rvorrl d i r' l t , be conduci vo t o f t rrt hcr:
el evel oprnerrrt o[ spi ri Lual cl f ort , as i b woul d t i t r, , rcbv
I eave r oor r r f or st u. gnl Lt i on. I ong i r ef or e t l t o go{ i i i s
i n sr gl i t . f [ r - . gou, l i s a t ot al oxt i nci - i on of t i l osc
f i r es, a con- r pl t ' t c el r r t l i r : r r , t . i on of t hosei r oot s of al l
evi l , t ho l r t t r r , i nr nent of ar al r r r r r t sI i yr and pcr f ect
enl i ght . r : nr ner r t , . r vl i i ci r cannot bc i l t ; hi oved cl ul i ng
an &ct uel st at . e of ' nt r : r r t i l l t r , bsLr r pt i on ( j hdna) .
' l ho
soarci i . l , l i erel brc' . i s t rot f br bl i ssf r: l uni on w. i t i r t he
Onc, but f or t l r e \ - oi r l . l t i s not i n pr : act ' I ul <; or i -
cenf r r i , t i on ( so, r nat l t a) , but i r r t l r e cont empi ut i ot r of
i ns r r l r s t ant i al i t , v ( anut t a) nnr l of <' r r r l r t i r r es s
th&t-tho channsl of omancipatir.irr is opon
( arr atta tt upa.s.s und,
t tTb l t i.rt i L- c s d Im r n u fi,c a t L t i. s r t it, ii,,t,
t d. r t zt pussand nd. nr ct ui nt r t kkl t ant ul i l t um hot i ) , t l vhi ch
f rees t hc mi nd f roi u t he i dea of sr: l i ' , . rn {. , rJo.
or u.
s( ) l t l .
I n t ho sarne t l ' &v a, s t l rcr l r: . rver i t . i rqcs rt f rrrt rrt t rl
al r sor pt i on ( j t r unu) i l r o, \ t el ) s i c, t r . i i l i : l Li t 1l i . r t ' 1- r t r
c onc ent r aLi or r , gr adual l y di sc nr r l i nq t l r c i r i ni i i v l i l ual
cl r u, r r r ct r ) r i st i cs of di scur si vo l i i i r i ki ng ( ui t ol ; ko) .
sust Di r l ud appl i r : a, t , i on of t i r ouf , l r t ( t i t Tr a) . z. l si
( y' i t i ) t . nt ) wcl l - bc. i ng ( . sukha) , su t i r r t var i ous l ' oi r n: , ;
t - , f sl r i r i t uai ur : l r i ovement on r r r ur r r l ano I evcl s ( i okt ya)
i l r c t ( ) l r ( ) consi cl er ed o$ r nor o st eppi ng st or r es [ o t hat
supr i r r r r ur i dano
I r ower
( I okut , i ar a) ,
p' i r i ch,
i r r di s-
, : r r r di ng concenl , r at i or r ( samci dl r , i ) ar r d r nent al at r sor p-
: , r :
( . i hat t o, )
al t oget hr : r . r eaehes out t , r r
I r enct r at i nc
i : , -- i : Jr t l r
l / . r, ssri
rl n
i n bo t t re c: hari t ct r: ri st i cs (I a kkhana
, - . i e. . .
- r i sf r r nc; c, r r amel i ' , i mpor manenco
{ ani cca) ,
- -I . i . , - i l di t kl ; ha), i l nd i rrsi rbst ant i ul i f y (anrt t t d, \ .
I : . .
' . 1
. s i l sr ght al one t , hi l t ca. n soi ve t l t e
i ; r obl er n
of -r: . . ar, L i t s evor r(' . peot ed cycl e of bi rt t r rand
3 I ' . I I I , r x: , P, l . qdr i i l a Sut l o. nl a, p. 137; S. I i , 223.
3 n i I . r-x: . . : : i ' i : l -pa i l a Sut l a. nt u, p. 2E5,
i l a
' . { .
JP f s. i : >{ ,
1. .
. 1j .
r l ci r t l r , i r . ' , ' 11r e t r ; t r r l t i r i ni hi l i r t r r . r r r i ' f i r " i i gr t , r ' t l l l r t l r l t a) ,
ov( r r sl on ( r l . o: : r t )
ur l r l r l t . . l usi r t r r ( t r t t l i u) ,
' l i i l t i . i r , i ur , t i r cnr i or i : , i , r i i s r r i r t ur i l l l v i r i t , , t $ o
r n i r i r r t i i v i . i o r r s , r r r r r r r i l : r r r r . ( l l { . 1 7 n ) ' r r n c i s u l ) l ' i r .
r r l n) ( l . r nr '
( . kt l , ' r t t t ur r t ) .
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