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4-H Teen Leadership Se~-I~prove~ent Study Guides

Lessons: 1-14

The Role of the 4-H Teen Leader

Lesson 1

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 1

The Role Of The 4-H Teen Leader

"What" or "Who" is a 4-H Teen Leader?

4-H Teen Leaders are older, more experienced 4-H'ers, usually at least 13 years old, with some 4-H experience. 4-H Teen Leaders encourage younger 4-H'ers to assume leadership responsibilities, assist with projects, and help plan and conduct local and county 4-H programs. 4-H Teen Leaders work under the guidance of local adult advisors and/or the County Extension Agent. 4-H Teen Leaders usually begin with relatively easy and familiar tasks, and over a period of time, graduate to more difficult roles.

Who Can Be A 4-H Teen Leader?

The general qualifications for 4-H Teen Leadership deal with age and experience. In addition, a 4-H'er who wishes to become a 4-H Teen Leader must:

* be willing to accept responsibility

* exhibit consistent behavior time after time in different situations

* maintain positive relationships with others

* be willing to learn more about leadership

* be cooperative

* be willing to share

The job of 4-H Teen Leadership is not a simple one. Think about the points listed above and other qualifications you think are important. As you can see, being a 4-H Teen Leader involves relating to and being considerate of other people.

Who is Involved in the Job of Teen Leadership?

There are at least three kinds of people involved in 4-H Teen Leadership at the local level:

1. You - The 4-H Teen Leader

2. The Local Advisor

3. The 4-H'ers

If there is more than one 4-H Teen Leader in the local group, then you could add a fourth element:

4. Other 4-H Teen Leaders

Think about your relationships with these "others". This may give you some clues as to your role as a 4-H Teen Leader.

You and the Advisor

How did you become a 4-H Teen Leader? It would be interesting to ask this question of all the 4-H Teen Leaders. Most would probably say their local advisor urged them to become a 4-H Teen Leader for one of two reasons:

1. The job of advising the local 4-H Club is a big one. and advisors need help.

2. The advisor sees you as a potential leader, and thus is providing you with some possibilities for developing and practicing basic leadership skills.

In any case, you and the advisor with whom you work need to think about the many jobs involved in advising and leading a 4~Hgroup. Then you can decide together who will do what. First. list all the jobs, and discuss each one. You and your advisor need to consider several things in deciding who will do which tasks ...

If you are a new 4-H Teen Leader, choose simple tasks for the first year. This allows you to build up your confidence as a leader. More complex jobs can be selected in future years. Your interests and abilities should also be considered. If a job is interesting to you, it will make it seem easier.

Final! y, consider the needs and interests of the others with whom you will be working. What can you do as a Teen Leader to be of the most assistance?

You and Other4-H Teen Leaders

Many 4-H clubs have more than one older member eligible for 4-H Teen Leadership. If you have listed and discussed the many leadership jobs in the 10ca14-H group, you know there are more than enough to go around. When you have more than one 4-H Teen Leader in the group, the same procedure for determining 4-H Teen Leader responsibilities should be followed, List the jobs to be done and then mutually agree who is to do what, based on interests. past experiences, and abilities of those concerned.

You and Younger A-H'ers

In reality we practice our leadership skills on younger members. Usually this involves helping younger 4-H'ers do something you have already experienced, and feel comfortable in teaching, telling or showing. As you work with younger 4-H'ers, you will notice that all do not respond in the same way. Some methods of doing things do not always apply to the total group. Some members learn more quickly than others. Some can master manual skills with a greater degree of ease than their friends of the same age. You will find yourself repeating explanations and demonstrations. You must be patient. What does all of this mean?

You could spend the next year studying and analyzing facts about boys and girls. and how they grow and develop, but you probably don't have time to do this. One basic fact that will help guide your relationship with younger members is that each one is different. Therefore, you have to treat them differently. Try to treat each person as he or she wants to be treated.

This will make the job of working with younger 4~H'ers easier. It will also help guarantee success, provide satisfaction to you as a Teen Leader and thereby promote your own personal growth and development.

Your Extension Agents and the County Teen Leadership Club

Normally the County Extension Agent, 4~H, a volunteer key leader, or a special 4~H advisor is responsible for most aspects of Teen Leadership in the county. This includes the countywide 4-H Teen Leadership Club. In some counties, such groups are known as 4-H Junior Leadership Clubs, 4-H Teen Corps, 4-H Teen Councils, or by other names. Regardless of the name, all the programs offer teens long-term opportunities and experiences to develop real leadership knowledge, attitudes, skills, and aspirations through a variety of fun social, service, and educational activities.

You mayor may not have already had an invitation to join the county club or group. Perhaps you are already a member. However, some counties require prospective new members to complete a series of lessons, preparatory meetings, or a series of these Leadership Self-Impravement Study Guides before qualifying for membership.

The County Teen Leadership Club has three important functions:

1. Self Improvement / Education

Teen leaders find that most of their leadership knowledge, attitudes, skills, and aspirations is developed naturally through the many "learn by doing" experiences available through 4-H. In addition a variety of interesting and fun workshops on personal development and self-improvement are offered. Sessions can deal with almost anything ranging from current problems of teens; the role of teens in today's society; and how you can exercise leadership to make your club, community, country, and world better; to etiquette tips, stress management, hair styling, etc.

2. Service

Each County Teen Leadership Group also works to improve their clubs, communities, country, and world. Countywide Teen Leader training sessions are provided on the various "service" opportunities and responsibilities.

3. Social/Pun and FeUowship

The countywide club brings together Teen Leaders from allover the county. generally on a one meeting a month basis. You get to know others through the social activity that is traditionally a part of each meeting.

Three key words that summarize the purposes of countywide Teen Leadership groups are Service, Self, and Social. These three words serve as guideposts for program content as already indicated.

Your local Extension Agents and Teen Leadership Advisors are key people in guiding this group, assisting with programs and providing the necessary training for you to fulfill your Teen Leader responsibility, and to develop personally as a future leader and citizen of your community. These adult advisors are also available to assist Teen Leaders in 4-H - determining leadership tasks tailored to your needs, and assisting in establishing personal goals for succeeding years in Teen Leadership.

In Conclusion

This unit outlined the basic ideas of Teen Leadership, including the qualification for participation, and how prospective Teen Leaders can and should relate to "others" in the 4-H Leadership picture. Also included was a brief description of the nature of the countywide Teen Leadership Club, its relation to Teen Leaders, and the role of your Extension Agents.

P.S. Not an Afterthought - But, Just Between Us!

As a Teen Leader you must work under the guidance of the advisor. Being identified with an adult advisor is one of the important ways in which you will learn your role as a Teen Leader. It is in this setting that you assume an "adult like" role in helping younger 4-H'ers. This is also the time when you will want guidance from adults - a supportive type of guidance to help you in establishing correct habits in the role of leadership.

This may be your first opportunity to work with adults at the leadership level. Now is the time to check your attitudes toward adults. Generally you react to other adults in the same way that you react to your parents. What does this tell you about any changes that you need to make in your attitude before establishing a relationship with your advisor?

Adults may be slower in reacting to problems and it may frustrate you that they don't show your youthful enthusiasm toward all suggestions. However. you need to remember that they have more experience with which to judge each problem or situation and they also have a wider range of results from their past experiences. Show respect for your advisors' opinion and remember to ask for their opinion. Oneof the best ways to develop a good relationship with your advisor is to ask for their advice. You will find that they like to be helpful- give them a chance.

As a 4-H Teen Leader you probably have more opportunity for making your own decisions than at other times in your life to date- don't abuse this privilege. Check "home base" when in doubt. After all, you are participating in leadership tasks specifically designed for you and your benefit. Let's make the most of it! Be a leadership team member, not a "loner". Remember, leadership is developed with and through positive relationships with people.


Clair W. Young. Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Reviss;d By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent. 4-H Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4~H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio Stale University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap. age, disability,or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 1 Worksheet

The Role Of The 4-H Teen Leader

After you have read the study guide, please complete the form using the back of the page if necessary.

Look up any answers you are unsure of, or ask your advisor or Extension Agent for help.

1. What are the qualifications for 4-H Teen Leadership in your county? In your opinion, are these qualifications too difficult to attain or are they too easy to attain? Why?

2. List at least five leadership tasks in your local 4-H Club that you could do with ease.

3. List three leadership tasks at the countywide level for which you want to be considered. What influenced your choice of these three?

4. List three major things you hope to gain from association with and/or membership in the countywide Teen Leadership Club.

5a. If there is more than one Teen Leader in your local group, how were the leadership tasks distributed among the Teen Leaders? Do you agree with the distribution? If not, how would you have done it?

5b. If the leadership tasks in your group are yet to be distributed, how would you suggest that it be accomplished?

6. List any comments, questions or suggestions you have about this lesson,

Name: _


Leadership Concepts:

How They Relate to 4-H Teen Leadership

Lesson 2

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 2

Leadership Concepts:

How They Relate to 4-H Teen Leadership

Leadership is acquired or learned in different ways.

It may be acquired as a result of holding a certain elected position such as president of the local 4-H Club. This is called "Position Leadership".

Leadership may also grow out of a long time relationship with people. This is called "Earned Leadership," and is the kind of leadership that a 4-H'er might enjoy after serving successfully as a Teen Leader in the local club.

-As a Teen Leader you may be an "Appointed Leader" in the group. Even though you may have been a successful member of the group for two or three years with some earned leadership, this will in itself not guarantee you success in your new situation. You must attempt to become a leader in fact, not just a name on the book or a title conferred on certain older members with a combination of age and other minimum criteria for Teen Leadership.

If you haven't already realized this through some initial experience as a 4-H Teen Leader, then let's set the record straight before we proceed to discuss leadership:

Leadership is not conferred on you with the title, "Teen Leader." Neither your personality or your past achievements make you a "leader". Leadership is not a title conferred, ability possessed, or a combination of traits with which a person is born. Leadership is what an individual does while a member of the group, not what a person is!

Some Leadership Concepts

Leadership is Learned

4-H Leadership skills and understandings are "learned" skills and therefore can be taught. 4-H'ers can Jearn to participate effectively and to assume leadership appropriate to their interests and abilities, Part of your leadership learning experience is the local s-H Club with certain "assigned or commonly agreed to" leadership situations designed specifically for your benefit. For example, you may be a Teen Leader responsible for helping younger members with a certain project in the local club. Another leadership learning experience is the countywide Teen Leader Club. In this setting, you receive training in leadership skills such as bow to teach other members to give demonstrations or how to lead recreation. These situations provide you with the means for learning leadership skills. It is through practicing these skills with younger members and your peers that you learn to be a leader.

Leadership is a Helping Process

In days gone by a common concept of leadership was exemplified by the fellow who assumed a position in front of the group, cried out, "follow me," and the group dutifully followed through thick and thin. This early emphasis on "action or personality" factors has given way to a "helping or enabling" process. "Helping" here refers to helping the various individuals in the group fulfill their separate responsibilities necessary for achieving the group project, activity, or goal. Today's leader directs attention to the achievement of the group rather than to his own glory. The modem leadership situation emerges with greater value to "we did it" than to "I did it." Your rewards for successful group leadership must be shared with the members of the group.

Leadership is Shared

Leadership is both a helping process, and a shared responsibility. If you are now a Teen Leader in a local 4-H group, then you are an example of the divisibility of leadership. The multiple leadership opportunities in 4-H work, both at the local and county level, make it possible to divide and distribute leadership jobs to many people. You, the Teen Leader can select the "tailor made" leadership situations for your own personal development from among multiple 4-H leadership tasks.

Different people have different leadership capacities. Sharing the total job allows us to select the best person available for a specific phase of the job to be done. The success of your group, local or countywide, depends on your ability to share and distribute leadership jobs, and avoid centralization of authority in one or two people.

Leadership is a Relationship Between People

It has been inferred on several occasions that leadership development depends on people. A group is necessary - at least more than one person! Leadership is a manner of interacting with others. Leadership of this kind calls for a genuine sensitivity to others in the group. The kind of relationship that you establish with the group may be more important than leadership skills possessed. Knowing how to do something does not guarantee that you can teach others and/or serve in a leadership position. The group must accept you. A good example might be a highly skilled recreation leader who is "tuned out" because he did not establish a positive relationship with the group. Possession of all the skill in the world will be to no avail if you are rejected by your group for some reason. You must be accepted by other members of the group. It is not enough that you have "know how" - your fellow members must recognize that you have "know how."

Leadership is Ftilfillment of Purpose

Instead of saying purpose, we could also say "goals." Generally, there are two levels of purpose or goals involved in Teen Leadership. One, selfishly. is your own personal goal of being a better leader. It could be said that leadership is fulfillment of your personal goals through the act or the process of discharging your many duties as a Teen Leader. In doing so, you grow personally. You can pick and choose those leadership skills that tend to strengthen your weak areas of leadership. Of perhaps greater importance, however, are group goals and your relationship to them as a leader of the group. As group leader> you must not only have a clear notion of group goals, but in addition, be able to formulate ways and means of the group arriving at or achieving these goals. This calls for skills in program planning, group organization, discussion techniques. and other related talents. Again, these are "learned" skills that you will recognize as a part of the training that is provided to you on a county and area basis to help you become a better leader. Lessons 4 and 5 include teaching tools and techniques and program planning procedures.

What Kinds oj People Make Good Leaders?

If these ideas are sound - make sense to you - and have some application to the big job of Teen Leadership, then perhaps the next question is "what kind of people make good leaders?"

Generally these people make good leaders: - responsible people

- responsive people

- reliable people

- those willing to learn

- team workers

- those with "vision"

- those finding more satisfaction from giving than receiving

- those believing in the democratic process

Do these particular points have any relevance to the concepts of leadership as outlined above?

The Democratic Process and Leadership Style

There are many different models of leadership which categorize leaders into various types. Three types of leadership frequently mentioned are:

Autocratic Leader (BOSS)

Autocratic leaders are "take charge and get the job done" leaders. They're important in situations where the task to he done is more important than the feelings of the people involved. Getting people out of a burning building is a situation where autocratic leadership if often needed.

Laissez-faire Leader (HANDS OFF)

Laissez-faire leaders work well in situations where the group is getting along well and the task is being accomplished effectively and efficiently. For example, when your group is having a good time building a parade float, you may prefer your chairperson to be fairly "hands off' in approach and let the group work creatively together.

Democratic Leader

As leader of the group you try to see that the group as a whole makes many of the decisions about what is to be done. Democratic leaders encourage members to contribute ideas and help keep group discussions going. They try to develop teamwork so that the members work together smoothly, and don't expect them to check with the leader on every detail. Democratic leaders regard themselves as just another member of the group, with the responsibility to help the group make decisions about what to do and how to do it.

Choosing a Style

Each of these represents a "leadership style." Which would you choose? Or perhaps you have already functioned in one of the styles depicted. Different styles of leadership are needed in different situations. In most 4-H groups, most of the time, democratic leadership works best for Teen Leaders.

In Conclusion

We have seen that leadership is learned, can and should be shared, and evolves, in part, from a positive relationship with people. We could also note that leadership is a fulfillment of purpose - not only group purpose but our own purpose or personal goal as a leader. As we work at the job of leadership in 4-H situations, and at the same time strive for personal goals, we are demonstrating leadership "style". We must be aware of the fact that leadership styles differ, some are more desirable than others, and that our style may affect our relationship with people,

Some Additional Reading is Helpful

Due to the fact that there are so many texts on leadership, no one text is recommended. It is suggested that you go to the library and ask the librarian to recommend a text on leadership that has been written for teens. An additional reading assignment might be to ask one or more people (minister, teacher. agent) to recommend their favorite text or selected reading on leadership.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D, Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 2 Worksheet

Leadership Concepts:

How They Relate To 4-H Teen Leadership

After you have read the study guide, please complete the form using the back of the page if necessary.

Look up any answers you are unsure of, or ask your advisor or Extension Agent for help.

1. These categories of leadership "styles" or "types" were discussed in this lesson. For each of the categories, cite an example from history or from your own personal experience, of a situation where such a style was used. Give your opinion of each situation.

Category 1:

Category 2:

Category 3:

2. List five strengths you would like to develop as a leader.

3. Give a personal example from your 4-H experience to verify the following statements about leadership.

Leadership is learned:

Leadership is a helping process:

Leadership is shared:

4. List any comments, questions, or suggestions you have concerning this lesson.



; ~- < ., " • , •• ; v • " <

The Structure of the 4-H Teen Leader Experience

Lesson 3

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 3

The Structure of the 4-H Teen Leader Experience

What We Have Learned So Far

The following "beliefs" summarize the content of the first two Leadership Self-Improvement Study Guides and also provide the basis for discussion on "The Structure of the 4-H Teen Leader Experience," the topic of this lesson.

Beliefs About 4~H Teen Leadership

1. Being a 4-H Teen Leader is an honor, a responsibility, and an opportunity.

2. 4-H Teen Leadership is valuable training for future 4-H advisors. Organizational planning. project teaching, and activity planning are important leadership experiences.

3. Leadership skills are learned skills. 4-H Teen Leaders have a right to expect training for their job and must be willing to take such training.

4. Several people usually share the leadership functions of a 4-H Club. The different members of the leadership team (advisors, teen leaders, officers, parents, etc.) must cooperate with one another as they plan and conduct their local club program.

5. Advisor(s) should discuss and approve plans for the 4-H Teen Leader with whom they will be working in local clubs. Agents or 4-H Teen Leadership Club Advisors should discuss and approve plans of 4-H Teen Leaders who will have county responsibilities.

6. Completion of 4-H Teen Leadership project experiences should be based on planning, record of work done and evaluation. Grades are not appropriate for leadership skills, but every 4-H Teen Leader should know how he has progressed in regard to his planned goals.

7. 4-H Teen Leadership is an enriching project for regularly enrolled 4-H'ers. 4-H Teen Leaders frequently carry leadership responsibilities in a different club from where they are members.

8. Leadership development is progressive. New 4-H Teen Leaders need information which is not repeated each year for an 4-H Teen Leaders. Local group experiences should precede county responsibilities.

9. A county 4-H Teen Leadership club provides opportunity for self improvement, social activities and service to 4-H. Membership is desirable for personal growth but not a requirement for project completion.

10. 4-H Teen Leaders deserve recognition that is significant to them. New incentives are necessary each year.

The Progression of Leadership in 4-H

4-H Teen Leaders should start with known and easy tasks. Also, as you grow older and accumulate more experience in 4-H, you should select more difficult tasks as a challenge. 4-H leadership is H divisible, .. meaning that it is possibletodivide the many multiple leadership tasks and roles at the local and county level. These multiple leadership tasks vary in degree of complexity ranging from "easy" to "complex." OUf challenge in 4-H work is to identify leadership tasks, categorize them as to degree of complexity, and then match them up to 4-H Teen Leaders. In the process we must give consideration to the age, interests, abilities, and personal goals of the 4-H Teen Leader. Another way of showing this is to develop a 4-H leadership scale that lists tasks, ranging from ,. easy It to It complex," and indicate the years of 4-H experience that one should have to accomplish these tasks. The suggested scale and few selected examples might look like this:



- give demonstrations

- be a club officer

- committee chairman

- big brother or sister to

younger member - visit parents

- assist with displays

- make out enrollment






- project teaching

- assist club officers

- recruit new members

- plan and organize


- assist with demonstrations

- organize health and safety activities

- plan exhibits



- awareness teams

- fair superintendent

~ camp counselor - narrate revues

~ committee chairman - discussion leader

- officer training

- 4-H week activities

- advisors recognition

- conduct tour

- serve on advisory

committee (more)

What Does This Mean to You as 'a Teen Leader?

The above chart listing selected and categorized leadership tasks tends to clarify "belief' number 8 - "leadership is progressive." Understanding this progression of leadership is basic to the next step - that of showing how we put this belief or idea into practice in structuring a 4-H Teen Leader experience for each and every member.

The chart on the following page was designed to help you see the total structure of the 4-H Teen Leader experience available to you over a period of several years. Study it carefully and let it be your guide in developing a planned present and future leadership program in 4-H.

The Structure of the 4-H Teen Leadership Experience

Individual Leadership


Plan leadership on a "one to one" basis with younger members and other selected tasks that are easy and known by you. Some of these functions can be continuous throughout your 4-H Teen Leader career.

Club Leadership


Project Leader: Be responsible for a group of members in a project to include teaching, planning, exhibiting, etc.

Organization Leader: Assume responsibility for assisting officers in all aspects of club organization to include meetings, committees, and program planning.

Activity Leader: Develop one or more activities in health, safety, recreation, community service, etc. to include planning, organizing, and conducting. It is suggested that you can work a minimum of two years in this. This experience does not need to be in the same club of which you are a member.

Club and County Leadership

4th, 5th

Continue responsibilities and in addition, develop a plan to assist in one or more county activities. Participate in a career exploration activity. County activity responsibility to be determined in consultation with the Extension Agent in charge. Examples are: fair, camp, member training, awareness teams, etc.

In Conclusion

The progression of leadership as discussed and outlined in the previous pages of this lesson would be incomplete if we did not examine the impact of this experience on your future aspirations. Let's look at some possibilities for you to think about:

Teen Leadership

This is a new concept for advanced 4-H Teen Leaders that provides the more ambitious individuals an opportunity to enrich their present leadership experience. This can be done by accepting the challenge of leading a small group of youngsters, not necessarily 4-H. Leadership opportunities in this area can be found in low income, or underprivileged situations in addition to starting a small group of 4-H' ers in your own locale. It is recommended that 4-H Teen Leader programs be

discussed and planned with adults, generally advisors and/or Extension Agents.

4-H Teen Leaders can and do work in pairs under a buddy system, and should have an adult advisor to oversee efforts and be accessible for consultation as need arises. The 4-H Teen Leader program may be especially relevant for older 4-H' ers who are in college and can only participate in short term group situations during the summer months.

Assistant Advisors

The advanced 4-H Teen Leader may remain in his present club situation and serve as an apprentice or assistant advisor, assisting with special projects and events at peak load periods such as fair, and judging.

4-H Advisor

All 4-H Teen Leadership experiences completely qualify an older 4-H'er for the eventual responsibility of leading a 4-H group. Many present day advisors came up through the ranks of 4-H Teen Leadership. There is no better trainings and orientation for a 4-H advisor than to have been a 4-H Teen Leader.

Leadership Beyond 4-H

The leadership skills learned and experienced in 4-H work can and do apply to other life situations. Your training in 4-H will stand you in good stead for any leadership challenges in school, college, or other organizations. One of the important goals in 4-H work is to help prepare young men and women to be future leaders and citizens, so they may go forth into life prepared to serve in this capacity with a high degree of confidence. Armed with your 4-H leadership experiences and training, you should have a built in guarantee of success!


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revise{! By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


What I Want to do in 4-H Teen Leadership

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 3 Worksheet

The Structure of the 4-H Teen Leader Experience

Note: It is suggested that you discuss this sheet with older Teen Leaders, your advisor, and County Extension Agent prior to completion.

Please be as specific as possible in listing the 4·H Teen Leadership experiences you wish to complete.

Year Year Year
-~ -- -- Nrune: __


Teaching Tools & Techniques for Teen Leaders

Lesson 4

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 4

Teaching Tools and Techniques

Keys to Working with Members

The success of any 4-H Club depends upon its leadership. As a 4-H Teen Leader you have an opportunity to help your 4-H advisor provide learning experiences, encourage active participation by all members, and help younger boys and girls work toward the overall 4-H objectives. Successful leaders are aware of and use certain keys or tools to assist them in understanding and working with boys and girls. Listed below are a few of these keys to successful leadership. You no doubt will find others and use them effectively as you work with younger 4-H members.

EACH 4.-H MEMBER IS DIFFERENT. You need to accept them for who they are and where they are. It is also important to know that, as younger members" grow up, " their attitudes and beliefs change. As a result you need to change your methods of working with them. You are helping them ~ grow up" .

YOU NEED TO HAVE A SINCERE INTEREST IN PEOPLE. Learn all you can about those with whom you are working. Let them know you are interested in them. Guard against being a "goodygoody". If you aren't sincerely interested in them, they will recognize you as a phony. Remember, the most beautiful diamonds come from the most unlikely rocks.

EVERY PERSON HAS SOME GOOD QUALITIES. Recognize these and praise the individual for them. Build upon these qualities as you work with him/her. You need to believe in the dignity and worth of every individual.

LISTEN TO THOSE WITH WHOM YOU ARE WORKING. Give them a chance to express what they feel and think. We all have certain beliefs about any SUbject. Respect the member's rights and opinions even though they are sometimes different from ours.

HELP MEMBERS DEVEWP CONFIDENCE IN YOU. Let them know they can count on you any time. Be confidential about secrets or other matters which members share with you.

PRAISE AND RECOGNIZE YOUR MEMBERS WHEN THEY MAKE PROGRESS. Personal comments such as "good job" or "nice work" are as important, or at.times more so, than any blue ribbon or trophy. Younger members need this kind of attention and recognition often since their interest span is shorter than yours.

SET A GOOD EXAMPLE. Remember "actions" sometimes speak louder than "words." Younger members watch you, even if you don't think so, and will often imitate you.

CHALLENGE MEMBERS TO "BEAT THEIR OWN RECORD", OR TO IIMAKE TIlE BEST BETTER. II Help them to set high, but attainable, personal goals in 4-H.

BE DEMOCRATIC. Give members an opportunity to suggest ideas, help plan and carry out different parts of the 4-H program. Ask them for their help. Make them feel they are a part of 4-H, and that their contributions are important for a successful 4-H Club. Don't be a "know-it -all." Recognize your abilities and limitations. Don't be afraid to ask and seek help from others.

You Are a Teacher

Did you know that as a 4-H Teen Leader you are a teacher? At least you can and should be, if you are to function effectively as a leader.

Being a teacher has many rewards. but perhaps the biggest is seeing boys and girls under your leadership grow and develop. Theknowledge and evidence that you have been an effective teacher and guide will bring you many satisfactions, and the respect of people in your community.

As a teacher you have a need for materials, information, and ideas to help younger members grow and mature. You will be searching for new ways to increase the learning experiences of younger 4-H members.

Learn by Doing

Every good teacher needs to keep in mind the educational principle that learning increases as members progress from a listening situation, to a seeing situation to a doing situation, in which they actually jump right in and actively participate.

It has been said that people remember:

.. 20% of what they are told

.. 30% of what they see

.. 70 % of what they say

.. 90% of what they actually do and think

As a 4-H Teen Leader teacher, you need to offer much opportunity for doing and thinking.

Teaching Techniques

4-H Teen Leaders should try to see how many of the senses they can use in teaching 4-H members. Using a variety of teaching methods will stimulate interest and imagination. This will keep things moving, hold attention, and create a positive attitude toward learning. Here are some methods of teaching which can be used very successfully with 4-H members.

Individual Studies

This is a technique that helps build a member's confidence in his ability. It offers the members an opportunity to explore and learn things on their own. The teacher needs to guide and encourage members when using this technique. Homework for the next meeting can be a form of individual study.

Tours and Home Visits

Tours and home visits are very helpful for projects that can not be transported. A forthcoming 4~H garden tour or home visit will kill more weeds than today's modern herbicides. Tours can also be enriching and not related to project work, such as a tour of a museum or park. Being "where the action is" adds excitement to the learning process.


Exhibits may be educational to the member while he/she is preparing the exhibit. It can also be used to teach subject matter over a long period of time to the members, as well as to the general public at fairs and other types of activities.

Work Sessions

Many 4-H Clubs have work sessions either at each local club meeting, or at a special meeting where the members work only on their projects. The work session gives members a chance to "learn by doing" . When using this technique, you will need to give considerable guidance and direction to the club members. Since work sessions are a "doing" or involvement activity, it is fun and interesting for the members, but quite challenging for the 4-H Teen Leader.

Project Records

Project books can and should be used as teaching and learning tools. 4-H Teen Leaders may want to assume this area as one of their responsibilities in the local club. Members should be encouraged to use their project books for subject-matter information, and also to record what they have completed in their project.

Other Ideas

This certainly is not a complete list of all the techniques which can be used in working with 4-H Club members. You can probably think of many more unique ideas that can be used. Just knowing what techniques are available won't help unless you decide what needs to be done, and how you can best do it with the members.


In a lecture, the teacher speaks alone; this enables him to present his ideas to large numbers of people. Since the lecture makes use of only our ears, members retain only a small portion of the information presented. Attention and interest is difficult to hold since the members do not become involved, nor are they always required to think.

The lecture is useful in presenting facts and information, hut has limited value in developing skills, attitudes, and the kind of understanding which is necessary for members to put the knowledge and facts to work in their situation. The lecture should seldom be used in the 4~H Club work by itself, but is often effective when combined with other techniques.

Illustrated Talks

The illustrated talk is the use of drawings, charts, models, actual articles, etc., with a lecture. This technique is a very good one to use with younger members. Illustrated talks make use of the eyes as well as the ears, resulting in more learning taking place. Use every opportunity you can to "show and tell" as you help club members develop skills and knowledge in their projects and related activities.


There are two types of discussion techniques. The first type occurs when members of the club respond back and forth with the leader, but not among themselves. This is fine for giving out information, directing questions and answers, but it doesn't provide an opportunity for exchanging ideas of learning from members of the group.

In the second type of discussion, the leader gets things going, keeps the conversation on the subject, and makes sure everyone gets a chance to speak. Talk goes back and forth, in and out, and around and about sparking new ideas, confirming established ones, and providing new and varied thoughts about the subject being discussed. This type of discussion technique must have some leadership and direction or it may become nothing more thana «visit."


The demonstration is probably the most effective technique that a leader can use in 4-H Club work, short of actual participation by the members. Demonstrations can be given by advisors, teen leaders, and the members themselves, thus everyone can get involved in observing or giving them.

The demonstration makes use of all our senses - the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and hands. An example would be a demonstration on baking a cherry pie. You can see it made, hear how it is made, and you can even make one yourself. While it is baking you can smell it, and of course, in the end you can taste it.

Selecting a Technique

There are a number of factors you should consider when selecting a technique and working with members. You can probably think of more, but some of these might include:

L The size of the dub or the number of members you will be teaching.

2. Subject matter to be taught.

3. Complexity of subject to be taught.

4. Facilities and equipment available and/or needed.

5. Age and interest span of members. ..

6. Teaching objective - are you teaching a skill, increasing knowledge, or just creating an awareness?

In Conclusion

This unit outlined some basic keys on how to work with 4-H members. You as a Teen Leader, can become more effective by utilizing various techniques of teaching that involve member participation. Greater learning and retention takes place when the 4-H member can "learn by doing."

Additional Reading

A 4-H Advisor's Handbook, and a Demonstration Guide are available from your County Extension Office. Other resources are also available there and at your local library.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox. Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 4 Worksheet

Teaching Tools and Techniques

After you have read the study guide, please complete the form using the back of the page if necessary.

Look up any answers you are unsure of, or ask your advisor or Extension Agent for help.

1. What do you think are the two most important traits for a Teen Leader to have to be an effective teacher?

a. b.

2. Think of the best teacher you have ever had. List three reasons why he or she was effective:

3. List a lesson you might teach as a Teen Leader. Tell which techniques you might use to teach this lesson, and why you selected those you did. Use the back of this page for this question.

4. List any comments, questions, or suggestions concerning this lesson.



Program Development and the Teen Leader

Lesson 5

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 5

Program Development and the Teen Leader

Why Plan Programs?

The 4-H Club program offers members in your club many projects, activities, and experiences. These opportunities require the club and each individual club member to make many choices as to which projects, activities, and experiences will be undertaken during the 4-H Club year.

Program planning provides a way for each individual member and the club as a whole, to evaluate and select those experiences, activities, and projects which will be most valuable in the local club situation. Program planning provides the opportunity for thinking through and making choices at least once a year .

The democratic process of program planning is important to those who give leadership to the club; you, the Teen Leader; and your 4-H adult advisors. Your leadership jobs are not easy, but a sense of purpose and direction can help to lighten the load. Time spent in exploring ideas, considering possibilities, and making sound program decisions will help make your job easier, and provide additional satisfaction and pride in working with younger boys and girls.

Let's Look at Your Club Program

The program of the 4-H Club can be barren, shallow, and a very uninteresting experience for a boy or girl. If this is the case with your club program, there is a chance some of the members will either drop out, or not return to 4-H next year.

However, your club program can be stimulating, excmng, educational, and result in a satisfying experience for the members. They stand an excellent chance of completing and returning to 4-H again next year. This certainly should be your goal.

A well-balanced, and pre-planned program provides a solid foundation for a successful 4-H club. It is just like a road map in that it shows you where you have to go, and offers many methods and routes for getting there.

The local 4-H program should reflect the interests and needs of all members in the club. Members are more inclined to participate in, and support a program or activity if they have had a part in helping to plan that program or activity.

How Does Your Club Measure Up?

Member's Opportunities

You no doubt recognize that the program planning and development experience itself presents many worthwhile opportunities to each club member participating. Below are six opportunities. You can probably think of others.

1. GROUP PARTICIPATION - All members of the club should have some part in the planning and development of the program. Pride of authorship and responsibility for the program on the part of each member> helps to assure the success of the club program.

2. EVALUATE, SET GOALS AND PLAN - This training helps develop attitudes which will be of value to the individual all through life.

3. MAKE DECISIONS - Program planning helps club members learn the necessity of making choices, and gives training in doing so. It helps them to realize that they must "give" and "take" and not always have their own way.

4. GROUP WYALTY - As in other club endeavors, members learn to make decisions as a group, and to abide by the will of the majority.

5. SELF EXPRESSION - Program planning is an activity in which all members of the club have opinions and an opportunity to express them.

6. LEARN STANDARDS - Program planning encourages members to set high goals, and maintain high standards in striving to reach them.

Leader's Responsibilities in Program Development

You, as a Teen Leader, in cooperation with your 4-H advisors, should help your members recognize and enjoy their opportunities in program planning and development. Some ways in which you can do this are:

1. Provide the Opportunity tor Planning. You can help them choose the methods best adapted to their age and experience. Younger members will need more help and guidance, however, your responsibility is only to help them, rather than to do it for them.

2. Set Standards. Your club members' accomplishments reflect the standards you help them set. As they plan the details of the club program, you can help challenge them to set worthwhile goals within their ability.

3. Provide Resource Materials. You can help provide the members with ideas, county and state programs and activities, bulletins, lists of slides, and other program references. The younger members in particular will look to you for these helps.

4. Encourage Participation. I1's important that every member of the club have some part in helping to develop the club program.

5. Provide Inspiration and Guidance. Be an enthusiastic example for the members or planning committee as they do their program planning and development of the club program.

How is a Program Planned?

There are a number of ways, or methods that 4-H Club programs can be planned and developed. You as a leader, will want to use those methods that work best for you. Following is a suggested step by step procedure that may serve as a guide to you, and your club members for planning and developing the local program. Use the "4-H Club Program Planning Guide" and "Individual Meeting Guide Sheet" at the end of this section to summarize your planning with members.

Step I: "Brainstorming"

A. List what your club did last year.

B. Evaluate what your club did last year.

C. Discuss and list program possibilities for this year's club program.

Very early in your club's 4-H year arrange for a meeting of all members in the club, old and new, for the purpose of looking at what the club did last year, evaluating what was done last year, and getting ideas forthe new year's club program. You will want to use group discussions, and brainstorming sessions to accomplish these purposes.

The enclosed "4-H Club Program Planning Guide" gives examples of major areas of programs your club might wish to consider. These major areas can be listed on large sheets of newsprint, brown wrapping or table cover paper, along with what your club did last year in each of these areas, to assist in the planning process. Step I would involve the sections of the guidesheet entitled "What we did last year?" "Evaluate," and "What we would like to do this year. "

It is important for each member in thec1ub to have an opportunity to give his/her suggestions and comments. As members make suggestions, have someone list them on the guidesheets under the appropriate heading. Any suggestion for programs should be listed no matter how "trite" or outrageous it may seem. This is not the time to evaluate the suggestions for programs.

Let this process go on for a reasonable length of time, or until members "run out" of ideas. This whole process is important to allow each member to develop the feeling from the beginning of the club year that he/she had a part in helping to plan the year's dub program. If members have this opportunity, and feeling, they will be more likely to support the program they helped to develop. After members "run out" of ideas, you as a Teen Leader, and your 4-H advisor might suggest some things that members might have overlooked. Members will probably suggest more ideas than be used.

Step II: II Explortng"

A. Discuss and evaluate program suggestions listed in Step I.

B. Determine how those ideas finally selected can be accomplished.

C. Determine tentative time for programs, and who might assist, or be in charge of certain parts of the programs.

The methods used to accomplish Step II will depend to some extent upon the number of members enrolled in the club. If the club is small, all members may continue to take part in the program planning and development process. If the membership of the club is large, then the President would need to appoint a program committee to meet with Teen Leaders and advisors to work out the specific details of the program from this point on in the planning process.

The committee needs to take the program suggestions developed by the club membership in Step I, and evaluate them for possible programs for this year. A question the committee needs to ask itself is: What do we want to accomplish in 4-H this year?

Setting sights (goals) that will best challenge the club are important. You might want to include some of the goals in your club program this year.

1. Every member give a project talk or demonstration.

2. Every member gain leadership experience by serving on at least one committee.

3. The club to complete at least one community service project.

4. All members complete their projects.

These along with others the committee develops will help in evaluating and selecting those program suggestions that will be most meaningful to the club.

Once the committee has selected those programs which they feel will best meet the goals of the club, they will need to determine how they might be be accomplished and carried out.

The committee also needs to select tentative times or dates for the programs and tentative resource people that will help conduct, or be responsible for certain parts of the program.

It is important that the program committee select the specific items from each phase of the local club program that will result in the "best 4-H Club program possible. "

Step III: "Buildlng and Balancing"

A. Taking information and program ideas in Step II, build a rough draft of a program.

B. Evaluate for balance of Head, Heart, Hands, and Health phases.

C. Check for logical distribution or chronological time order.

D. Re-work, delete, or add items as necessary.

The committee needs to take the ideas and information on who, when, and what as determined in Step II, and build a rough draft of the program.

This program should outline the meeting dates and time; place meeting is to be held; the meeting topics; activities and assignments; who is responsible; how special items in the program will be carried out; as well as other information your club desires, such as county activity dates. Each meeting might want to be set up on a single page like the one enclosed in this lesson entitled "Individual Meeting Guide Sheet"

Once the draft of the program has been completed, it should be evaluated to make sure it gives some balance to the four phases of club work - Head, Heart, Hands, and Health.

The program also needs to be evaluated to make sure that meetings occur in a logical or chronological time order.

If necessary, re-work the program deleting or adding ideas that will strengthen the total club program.

Step IV:

11 Approving"

Once the program has been set up to the satisfaction of the program committee, it should be presented to the entire club membership for their approval. Some minor changes may be suggested by the club membership, but basically what the program committee presents will be the club's program for the year.

Step V:

"Printing and Distribution"

The approved program, with any changes suggested by the membership, should be reproduced so each member. advisor, parent, or other interested person in the community may have a copy. It would also be a good idea to send the County Extension Office a copy of the program.

Each Teen Leader, as wen as the Club Secretary, should put a copy of the printed program in

his or her workbook in the appropriate place. .

Your club has now planned its work, and is therefore, ready to work its plan.

In Conclusion

This unit discussed why program planning is important, member opportunities and leader responsibility in program planning, and provided guidelines by which local club programs could be planned an developed.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era. veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L, Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


4-H Club Program Planning Guide

Major Areas What We Did What We Would How We Will When Who
Last Year Like to do this Year Do It
Community E
Telling Others V
About 4-H
Fund Raising A
Part in County L
Participation U
Health. and
Safety A
Recreation and
Social Events T
Meeting E
Activities Individual Meeting Guide Sheet

Meeting No: __




_ __ Place:


4-H ACTIVITIES Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 5 Worksheet

Program Development and the Teen Leader

After you have read the study guide, please complete the form using the back of the page if necessary.

Look up any answers you are unsure oj. or ask your advisor or Extension Agent for help.

1. Who do you believe should be involved in planning local 4-H Club programs? Why?

2. What type of information do you feel should be included in your local club program?

3. Please list the five best program ideas that you have experienced during your 4-H Club career.






4. How would you go about determining the success of the 4-H program in your club last year?

5. List in this space any comments, questions, or suggestions you have about this lesson.



Individual Leadership

Lesson 6

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 6

Individual Leadership

Looking Back

The 4-H Teen Leader experience provides older 4-H members with the opportunity to learn and apply knowledge, skills, and develop attitudes necessary for effective leadership. beginning with simple and familiar tasks and then progressing to more difficult and challenging ones. The speed at which 4-H Teen Leaders progress and do more difficult assignments is based upon past achievements and success in mastering earlier leadership tasks. In fulfilling your responsibility, you learn that not all 4-H members respond in the same way, and as a result, you must use a variety of teaching methods and leadership styles in teaching and guiding members. It is also evident that successful leadership experiences need to provide a continuing challenge to the 4-H Teen Leader, and create a climate that leads to individual growth.

If a 4-H Teen Leader experience is to provide for this personal growth, then there is a need for the 4-H Teen Leader to know and understand the conditions necessary for individual leadership development. These conditions for growth not only apply to the 4-H Teen Leader and your own personal development. but also to the development of younger members in your charge. In other words, these conditions are not only met for the 4-H Teen Leader, but the you must also be aware of their importance to younger members.

Conditions for Learning and Leadership Growth

CONDITION I - The first condition for learning is motivation - a force within the person. Younger 4-H members do not understand the importance of accurate learning. 4-H Teen Leaders have had the experience the members lack. You also have the desire to help members achieve the things you have in 4-H. This willingness to help is an attitude. Tied to this is a need for the 4-R Teen Leader to gain status, adult approval, and acceptance by a group.

CONDITION II - The second condition for learning is that the 4-H Teen Leader must not be satisfied being a 4-H Teen Leader in name only. You must want to function as a leader, and do things that contribute to leadership development. You must want to help members by seeing it as a part of your job as a 4-H Teen Leader.

CONDITION III - A third condition for learning is that the 4-H Teen Leader recognizes the need for help. guidance, and advice in accomplishing his leadership tasks. With the help and guidance of the 4-H advisor, or other adults, the 4-H Teen Leader can work out a plan for successfully completing your leadership responsibilities with younger members.

CONDITION IV - A fourth condition for learning effective leadership is that you must have the opportunity to actually work with and teach 4-H members in a learn-by-doing situation.

CONDITION V - A fifth condition for effective learning by the 4-H Teen Leader is job satisfaction; enjoying the work with younger 4-H members. Gaining satisfaction in knowing that you have helped younger members learn and grow is important to the 4-H Teen Leader. Gaining acceptance from adults and achieving personal standards or goals are also important satisfactions to you as a 4-H Teen Leader.

CONDITION VI ~ The sixth condition for effective learning is for 4-H Teen Leaders to have challenging, but attainable personal goals and leadership tasks.

CONDITION VII - A seventh condition for effective learning is that a 4-H Teen Leader needs to know how you are doing, and what progress you are making. You also need praise, recognition, and guidance from adults.

Am I a Good Leader?

Teen Leaders need to have an understanding of the above seven conditions for learning and strive to meet each one. Each successful leadership experience should be progressive (new and challenging) if you are to function effectively as a leader andlor gain satisfaction from your experience in 4-H.

As a 4-H Teen Leader you need to understand and evaluate your leadership traits. Each Teen Leader is different, and your abilities vary to a degree. If you are to function effectively as a leader, you need to know what your strong and weak leadership attributes are.

A 4-H Leadership Readiness Profile attached to this unit is designed to help you evaluate these strengths and weaknesses. By doing this self-analysis of your leadership experiences, the readiness profile assists you in planning for additional leadership opportunities and future goals. It will also assist you in making a decision to remain in one of the 4-H Teen Leader project units, or to expand into other leadership opportunities either in or outside of 4-H Club work. Complete the Readiness Profile and discuss it with your Advisor or Extension Agent.

If you are a first or second year 4-H Teen Leader, then your "Leadership Readiness Profile" should be used as an indication of what skills you want to fortify or emphasize as you choose selected leadership responsibilities .

If you have had three or more years of 4-H Teen Leader experience, or the equivalent, and your profile indicates that you are "ready" to step into new challenges, then advanced leadership is your next step. The ultimate goal or the end product of your work with young people is to help them grow and mature into well-adjusted adult citizens, who can assume responsibilities, share leadership roles, and take their rightful place in the home and. community.

Expanding Teen Leadership

First or second year 4-H Teen Leaders can study the possibilities of advanced leadership and use this information to establish future goals that include advanced leadership as a continuation of the 4-H Teen Leader experience. 4-H Teen Leaders who are ready to step into advanced leadership roles can consider immediately, the following points of their involvement in advanced leadership.

Advanced Leadership

4-H Teen Leaders who are ready and looking for new experiences in their personal leadership development need new challenges to help them grow. This includes different and unusual opportunities beyond the present boundaries and limits.

You are now looking for challenges in addition to those already accepted. Of course, you can repeat those experiences and sharpen old skills, but if you are a "growing" 4-H Teen Leader, you will be seeking new leadership challenges in addition to those already mastered. Where do you go from here? Let's look at some possibilities.

These new experiences and challenges can be found either in 4-H or we can look outside of 4-H to find places and situations where we can use leadership skills and know-how gained over a few year's experience as a 4-H Teen Leader. Let's consider first the opportunities within the structure of the 4-H program in your county.

Advanced Leadership in 4-H

The 4-H Teen Leader may assume complete leadership responsibility for a group of younger club members.

(a) In your local club:

This group might be a group of younger members who have a specific project in common, and can logically be split off from the group for teaching purposes and for selected activities.

(b) In another 4~H Club or neighborhood:

If no small group of younger members is available in your local club, or if you wish to get away from the local club situation, then explore the possibility of starting a small club in another place.

(c) Look for other club groups with large numbers of younger members, or find a neighborhood or location where there are lots of young boys and girls not being served by any youth agencies. The County Extension Agent or 4-H advisors can be helpful in locating groups needing leadership.

Leadership Out of 4-H

Even though 4-H work has the potential to provide leadership challenges for most older 4-H Teen Leaders, some may want to apply leadership skills learned in 4-H to other groups or situations. In this instance, it is recommended that the prospective Teen Leader look for a small group of youth that may be related to a church, community, or social center, or some other youth serving agency. This could be a group of under-privileged in the inner-city, migrant workers' children, or perhaps a group of youth in an isolated section of your county.

These opportunities are numerous in urban communities. Get in contact with those agencies serving inner-city, and inquire as to possibilities. Look around to see what type of situation would be of the greatest challenge to you, and at the same time would be of value to those being served.

Guidelines for Advanced Leadership

1. The advanced leader teaching role provides opportunity to test skills, and in addition, develops a sense of personal pride resulting from observing younger members develop personally.

2. The advanced leader should have been a 4-H Teen Leader for at least one year.

3. The advanced leader should be permitted to assume an adult-like role in discharging responsibilities related to club projects, activities, and program development.

4. The advanced leader is less likely to be recognized as an "authority" by younger members, and therefore, can communicate more effectively with youngsters than do adults.

5. Advanced leaders organizational and reporting procedures, and responsibil ities should be the same as those established for adults in whatever situation leaders are working.

6. Advanced leaders may recruit other leaders to assist them in working with a group of youngsters.

This team approach has value in that it brings together a diversity of interests and skills for the job to be done.

7. Advanced leaders should seek adult guidance and consultation through Extension Agents, 4-H advisors, ministers, or other capable adults working with youth. Checking with adults, consultants, or advisors is not necessary for everything leaders do, but there should be periodic meetings to evaluate what has happened so far, and to discuss future plans.

In Conclusion

This unit reviewed some of the conditions for optimum learning and leadership growth. Through the use of the 4-H Leadership Readiness Profile, you are able to self-analyze your leadership strengths and weaknesses. With this analysis you will be able to develop a plan for future leadership tasks and opportunities both in and out of 4-H Club work.

Some 4-H Teen Leaders may choose to remain in one of the project units while others may wish to expand leadership responsibilities beyond the present structure through participation in the Advanced Leadership concept.

Commitment to Leadership

Those who say that life begins at a certain age are wrong. A new life begins each day. The night is a curtain between the past and the present. The break of day lifts the curtain on a new life, new opportunity to strive and achieve.

The late Dag Hammarskjold once said, "One should not look back, nor dream about the future. It will neither give you back the past, nor satisfy your daydreams. Your duty, your reward, your destiny, are here and now."

Now is the time for you to commit yourself to action and give freely of your leadership talents.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May g and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 6 Worksheet

Individual Leadership


There may be a danger when evaluating yourself, of either over or under-rating. It is recommended that you seek help and/or consult with leaders and/or Agents in arriving at your profile rating. This also allows this profile to be used as a counseling tool between the advisor, the Teen Leader, andlor the County Agent.

A check in columns one (1) through six (6) indicates you need additional experience for those leadership elements so checked. Success ratings of one (1) or two (2) in any elements checked in these first six columns indicate that you need to repeat the experience and seek help in terms of improving that skill. Success ratings of three (3) for any elements checked in these first six columns indicate favorable progress toward future goals.

Checks in columns seven (7) through ten (to) indicate you are ready to consider moving into a Teen Leadership situation. This decision is based upon the following factors:

1. You must meet experience requirements.

2. Consultations with the County Extension Agent or other adult leaders are necessary to assist you in selecting and structuring a Teen Leader situation.

3. Success ratings must be two's (2) and three's (3) with a total rating value of thirty-five (35) or above for the fourteen leadership elements.

Those of you having success ratings of one (1) in these columns should consult with your County Extension Agent or adult leader concerningthe reinforcement of present leadership responsibilities or the selection of alternate leadership responsibilities that will help you improve in those elements where success ratings were low.

Those scoring high on the success rating scale, but not yet eligible for Advanced Teen Leadership should consult with responsible adult leaders for enriching and challenging experiences above and beyond present selections.





EXPERIENCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2


Do I give members an opportunity to express their ideas?

To the right of the leadership elements is an experience scale ranging from 1 (no experience) to 10 (much experience). Considering each element individually, please select the number that you feel best represents the amount of experience you have had for that element. At the same time, also evaluate the success you have experienced with the leadership element by placing a 1, 2, or 3 in the appropriate box. A number 1 indicates "little success", number 2 indicates "average success", and a number 3 indicates "much success",

The example shows a mark of 7-2 for the first element. This means that the person has had above average experience (7), and would rate the success of that experience as average (2).

Your evaluation of experience and success should be based upon your personal involvement and amount of exposure to each of the elements, and not necessarily upon the number of years you have been a "Teen Leader."

Leadership Elements 1 2 3 4 rs 6 7 8 9 fiO
1. Do I give members an opportunity to express their
2. Do I give each member responsibilities according to his
3. Do I attempt to be impartial with younger members?
4. Do I watch for potential leadership and find' ways of
developing this leadership?
5. Do I recognize effort and achievement in those with
whom I work?
6. Do I call upon qualified resource people in the
community to help give leadership at times?
7. Do I get personal satisfaction out of leading members?
8. Do I give explanations correct, clear, and brief when
9. Do I use a variety of teaching techniques and methods
when teaching members?
10. Do I exhibit some of the good qualities of leadership
when working with members such as: tact, humor,
patience, honesty, enthusiasm, understanding, and
11. Have I had experience in serving as an officer,
committee chairman, or in other individual Ieadership in
or nut of 4-H?
12. Have I assisted in planning club programs?
13. Have I had experience in helping to organize, keep
records, evaluate, and make reports in or out of 4-H?
14. Have I had experience in county leadership roles, such
as camp counseling, helping at the fair, serving on
committees, or helping with programs?
COMPOSITE TOTAL Leadership and SelfAcceptance

Lesson 7

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 7

Leadership and Self Acceptance

Each of us wants to become the best person possible. You want your body to grow to a pleasing size. You want your mind to grow in knowing and understanding. And you want your personality to grow so that you like yourself and are liked by others. These are some of the things that growing up is all about.

Much of your growing seems to take place without your having to do very much about it. If you think about growing a little more carefully, you will realize you have quite a lot to do with it. You choose the foods you eat, and the food is the fuel which keeps your body-building engine going.

Your body depends on you to feed it healthful foods and give it exercise and plenty of rest after it has played or worked hard.

Your mind needs your help, too. Like the body. the mind needs to be fed. You choose the food for it. Mind food includes reading, studying, listening, discussing, and watching. Exercise is also needed; we call it thinking.

Your personality - the part of you that makes you the special person you are - doesn't just happen. You must care for it just as you do your body and your mind.

Your challenge in this project is to discover what is special about YOU and work to make yourself and even better YOU. You will be asked to look at some things you want to improve and then make a plan to work on making those better. But most important, you will be asked to work on accepting yourself as the worthwhile person that you are.

In Leadership & Self Acceptance you will learn some important things about yourself such as:

• what you like about yourself

• what you think family members like about you

• what you think friends {ike about you

• what you think other adults like about you

• what you think other adults like about you

You'll be asked to think about things you don't like about yourself and to list what you think ....

.. .. your family likes least about you · ... your friends like least about you .... other adults like least about you

Then you'Il be asked to think about the things you'd like to change about you and some ways you might be able to make these changes. You will also be directed to list things about yourself you can't change even if you wanted to very much.

Since being a friend and having friends is important, you will think about what kind of friend you are to others and how you might become a better friend.

Last, but most important, you will think about yourself as a special, worthwhile person.

To Complete This Unit on Self Acceptance

1. Read and study this study guide. Be sure to complete all of the exercises.

2. Study any (or all) of the reference materials. Ask your leader or 4-H Youth Agent for copies of suggested materials. Check at your library for other books or magazines.

3. Complete at least one of the THINGS TO DO at the end of each section. Do them all if you like.

All of your experiences have gone together to make you a special individual. Your parents have passed characteristics on to you from each of them and from grandparents and great grandparents. Each of the people you've known has added something to today's YOU. What you do with this heritage is up to you. How have you done so far?

There's No One In The World Like Me

There's No One in the World Like Me

Oh, there's no one in the world just like me.

Oh, there's no one in the world like me.

Tho, I'm not perfect in every way, I can positively say,

There's no one I'd rather be than me.

Reprinted by 5pecial permission of American Guidance Service, Inc., from Developing Understanding of Self and Others. Lyricist and Composer: Dorothy Chapman.

Describe your appearance. Write your answers in the blank spaces.

Hair Color:

Eye Color:

Height: Short



Build: Thin


Heavy __

Fair Skin

Dark Skin

The one thing which I would like most to change about the way I look is:

I could change this myself by _

As I grow older this will probably change. Yes No

Time will cause a change by _

I can't change this about myself ----

The one thing which I like best about the way I look is ...,._----------

My health is very good __ OK __ poor __

If you checked that your health is poor, you might want to talk with your parents about this. A visit to the family doctor for a check-up could be a good thing to do next.

Ask yoursel f these questions too:

Do I eat a balanced diet each day? Yes agent can help you decide this one.)


(Your mom, leader, or 4-H youth

Do I sleep at least 8 to 10 hours each night? Yes No

Do I get enough exercise each day? Yes __ No

Things to Do

1. Give a visual presentation to your club on one important thing you learned about grooming.

2. Make an appointment at a beauty or barber shop to have your hair cut and styled. (Be sure to talk this over with your mother or father and get approval since they will probably pay for it.) While you're there, ask the beautician some questions about how one becomes a hair stylist, what kind of training is required, and how enjoyable the job is. Tell your club members about a career as a hair stylist.

3, Enroll in a 4-H Health project.

4. Enroll in a 4-H Foods and Nutrition project.

Check the Answers That Describe You!

I learn things quickly __ . I learn things slowly __ '

I read a lot __ . I sometimes like to read __ . I rarely ever like to read __ ' When I read, I really enjoy reading: popular magazines __ ; novels __ ; comics __ ; sports stories __ ; stories about famous people __ ; stories about far away places __ ; mystery stories __ ; science fiction stories __ ; adventure stories __ ; stories about people my own age __ ; stories about how things were long ago __ .

I like to write: letters to friends in other places __ ; poems __ ; stories __ ; riddles and jokes __ . I don't like to write __ .

In school I mostly make these kinds of grades because '-- _

I study about the right amount __ . I need to study more __ ._. I know how to study well __ ' I need to learn better study habits __ '

The things I like to think about most are: my friends __ ; my family __ ; my pets __ ; playing a sport well __ ; how I look __ ; what people think of me __ ; how I feel __ ; what I'd like to buy __ ; places I'd like to go __ ; what rn be when [grow up __ .

Things to Do

1. Read a book that your teacher or school librarian recommends. Tell a friend just enough about the book that he or she will want to read it, too.

2. Write a thank-you note to someone who has done something nice for you or who has given you a gift Mail it to the person.

3. Each day during one six-week period write on a sheet of paper what your homework assignment is in each subject. Be sure to include page numbers and problem numbers, too. Spend 10 extra minutes in studying each day for one six-week period.

Now say three times as if you truly believe it:

Different people you know might give different reasons for agreeing that you're a good person. Let's just begin with the person who knows you best of all ~ YOU. List three things which you especially like about yourself.

"I am a good person." "I am a good person. " "I am a good person. "

l. 2. 3.

Did you find it hard to put on paper what you like about yourself? A lot of people find that hard to do, too. They may have learned that it's not good to brag about yourself. But bragging is not good if you brag about yourself. Bragging is not what we're talking about here. Each of us has good qualities, and we need to know what they are. List three of your good qualities.

1. 2. 3.

Sometimes other people don't see things exactly the same way. And that's not so bad. It would be a dull world if everybody were just alike in every way. If that were true, no one would be special and unique, and we've already agreed that each of us is different and special.

Parents are different from kids, don't you agree? With that in mind write three or more things you think your parents would say they like best about you.

1. 2. 3.

Brothers and sisters in the same family are all different, too. "Boy, are mine different," I bet you're thinking! What would your brothers or sisters, if you have any, say are the nicest things about you? List what you think they would say:

1. 2. 3.

Friends come in a lot of different kinds of packages. There are boy-type friends and girl-type friends in many different shapes, sizes, and varieties. Variety makes life fun, doesn't it! It's possible that your friends know you in a little different way from what your family does. Write three or more things a best friend would say were the nicest things about you.

t. 2. 3.

There are probably a lot of grown-ups you know, besides parents, who think you're pretty special. It may be your grandparents, aunts, or uncles, a neighbor, or a teacher. Think and then write what some adults you know would list as the nicest things about you.

1. 2. 3.

Let's face it, there are things about each of us we don't like. It's not as easy to look at our not-sogood characteristics as it is to look at our good qualities. It is an important thing to do in this business of getting to know YOU. So grit your teeth, take a pencil in hand, and list some things you like least about yourself. These might include the way you do some things, things you feel you don't do well, or maybe it is something about the way you look or act.

1. 2. 3.

Do you sometimes behave in ways that annoy your parents? What do you think they would list as the things they like least about you?

1. 2. 3.

Why don't you ask your parents if they would make any changes in the list you made, and then ask how they would change it.

If you have brothers and sisters, what would they say they like least about you? Write the things you think they would list:

1. 2. 3.

What about your friends - what kind of list would they make if they were asked to list some things they liked least about you? Write what you think they would say:

1. 2. 3.

Your teachers or adult relatives might think of some things about you they like less than some other things. Write what an adult might say were his/her least favorite things about you,

1. 2. 3.

You've just taken a big step toward making you a better YOU by thinking about some things you don't like so well. Congratulations! It takes courage. It's also the first step toward becoming the kind of person you' d like to be.

Things to Do

1. Make a list of each person in your family. Without telling him/her that you're doing it, for a month each time you notice something that you like about a family member, write the "nice" things on on his/her list. At the end of the month give each person's "nice list" to them.

2. Write how you think each member of your family felt about his "nice list" you made.

Changing Me

You've looked at some things you and others especially like about YOU and some things you don't consider quite so likeable. Would you change any of those not-so-likeable qualities if you could? Would you try to change just the ones you don't like about yourself or would you work on those you think others would like to see you change? If you could only change three things about you, write the ones you would change:

1. 2. 3.

Make a chart with all the things you'd like to change about yourself in the first column. Then place a check in the second column if you think: you could change it or check the last column if it's something you don't think you can do anything about.

Now think about how you would go about changing YOU. Write down a few different ways you might go about making a change. Place a star beside the one you feel would get the best results. _

Have you ever read the "Serenity Prayer?" It says something about what we're discussing. Think about what it says :

God grant me the serenity

to accept tbe things I cannot change, The courage to change the things I can, And the wisdom to know the difference. (Anonymous)

With that in mind, are there things about you which you cannot change and must accept? What are they? Write beside each one why that one must be accepted rather than changed.

There may be things which you accept or maybe even like about YOU but others might wish you to change. What do you do? Do you change to please them? Is it important enough to you to stay just like you are even if someone you know would like you to change? Part of the secret to deciding about that is how much you care about the person who wants you to change and also how important to you is the quality you want to keep.

Things to Do

1. Take one of the things you would like to change about yourself. "Brainstorm" some good ways for making the change.

Me as I Relate to Others

Friends are nice things to have around. They make sharing an ice cream cone more fun, and a

ball game is not the same without friends on your team. A friend is one who will sometimes play the game you want to play even if he/she would rather play something else. And a friend does it just because he/she likes you. Friends are friends even when you're not feeling very friendly. You can depend on them. Friends come in all shapes and sizes.

Everybody Needs a Friend

To walk with when you feel like walkin' To talk with when you feel like talkin'

Everybody needs a friend Everybody needs a friend

To listen to what you say,

To play with when it's time to play,

Everybody needs a friend Everybody needs a friend

And when you're lonesome

A friend will call you on the phone, A friend will understand,

There are times you want to be alone.

Everybody needs a Friend!

Reprinted by special permission of American Guidance Service, Inc., from Developing Understanding of Self and Others. Lyricist and Composer: Dorothy Chapman

Is your best friend a ( ) girl, ( ) boy, ( ) dog, ( ) fish, () horse, ( ) cow, ( ) cat, ( ) bird? Check which one.

What kind of friend are you? Write a few sentences that tell what makes you a friend to someone (or something) :

It's pretty easy to be friendly toward those who are friendly in return (your friends), but what about those sometimes irritating members of your own family? Is it sometimes hard to be a friend to them? Yes __ No __ Write one thing you could do today for each member of your family that would make you a friend to them. For example: My mother - pick up my clothes.

Now it's your turn. List your family members and tell how you could be a friend to each one today.

Things to Do

1. Try to make at least two new friends during the next year. Make sure one of these new friends is near your age and one is a grownup (maybe a senior citizen - someone near the age of your grandparents).

Some suggestions for making a new friend your own age might be to:

a. Smile and speak to this person each time you see him or her.

b. Invite the person to come with you to a movie or ballgame.

c. Invite the person to the next 4-H club meeting.

d. Include the person in games that you and other classmates are playing.

e. Don't give up right away if it doesn't seem to be working. The person may just be shy and may need more time.

Some suggestions for making a new adult friend:

a. Talk over your plan with your 4-H Adult Leader and again with your parents. They'll probably be very pleased with your idea. They also may have ideas about some older person who would love to have a young friend like you.

b. If there's someone on your block who doesn't get out much and who doesn't seem to have many visitors, you could stop by some time and tell the older person who you are and where you live and that you'd like to come by and talk from time to time. Find out when is a good time of day.

c. Visit your older friend once a week and talk with him/her about hobbies, What kinds of games used to be the most fun to him/her, Tell your friend what kinds of things you do in 4-H.

d. If there's a person in your 4-H club who has lived in your town for a short time, talk with him or her about how it feels to be a new kid in town.

e. Talk with your club about an "Adopt a Grandparent" project for the entire club to do.

Accepting Me

Isn't it great that even though you're not absolutely perfect, you are still absolutely worthwhile! Write that three times - "I am absolutely worthwile!"

1. I am absolutely _

2. I am


3. 1 __

That means that even though you sometimes make mistakes and there are people who can do some things better than you, it's okay. There are also some special things about you, and you can do some other things better than anyone else. You are YOU. That's what matters!

Although you have finished Leadership and Self Acceptance, you never really finish the job of Personal Development. Keep working to make you the best possible YOU.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age; disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status. furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May g and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Hey Leader!

The Real You Is Showingy

Lesson 8

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 8

Hey Leader! The Real You Is Showing

Welcome aboard for a trip of self-exploration. This guide will help you know the "real" you better. It will discuss things you may have thought about and would like to know more about. Maybe it will bring up questions you hadn't considered before. And it might even help you work on some areas that will make other people want to know more about the "real" you, too.

There are a lot of things which make up one's "personal development." Skills such as learning to make wise decisions, developing a philosophy of life, relating in a meaningful way to friends and family, setting worthwhile goals, selecting a career, and developing a positive self-concept are all a part of the personal development package.

Personal development is a collection of characteristics, attitudes, accomplishments, and relationships with others. Ralph Waldo Emerson, the writer, summarized the idea of personal development when he said, "What you are speaks so loud I cannot hear what you say. H

Grooming, social skills, and an introduction to the development of values have been selected for emphasis in this publication. There will be lots more in the future on the other areas of personal development which may interest you. Let's work toward making the REAL you, the best possible YOU.

Being well groomed from head to toe is very important for success in life. First impressions, good or bad, seem to have a way of hanging around. Do you make the kind of impression you want? Do

you turn others on or off because of your grooming? You can find your answer by rating your wardrobe and its care, your skin, hair, teeth, hands, feet, posture, and appearance.

Being "social" means being with people and communicating. Social skills, then, can be described as socially acceptable ways of relating to individuals and groups. It is a set of rules, sometimes called etiquette, which has heen set up to make living together more pleasant.

A value system is a set of values which you select to guide you life. Your value system should include various values which you think are important. Each individual's value system will vary, depending on what is most important to that person.


You can keep an up-to-date wardrobe by having an inventory. A clothing inventory is a list of clothes you must have, plus what you plan to buy. You should divide the list into the four seasons: spring, summer, fan and winter. Follow the inventory in updating the wardrobe each season.


To be well dressed means that you have the perfect appearance without attracting anyone's attention. To be appropriately dressed for each occasion is a way of expressing yourself. How do you rate? Do you like what you're saying about yourself by the way you dress?


... Select and buy clothes and accessories that compliment your face and figure.

... Select accessories such as shoes, flowers, scarves, jewelry, hosiery, blouses, belts, umbrellas,

and perfumes to enhance you and your wardrobe.

... Select clothes suitable for your age, occasion, and season.

... Check your outfit and figure in a full-length mirror.

... Be individual in your choice of clothes - fads don't usually last as long as the garment.

Coordinate color harmony.

... Make your face the center of interest by selecting colors which make your face, eyes, and hair look their very best.

... To look your best in your clothes, practice good posture at all times.


... Make a good investment in yourself by dressing properly for all occasions.

... Clothes need not be the most expensive.

... Be sure your clothes fit properly. Clothes help make or break you.

... Develop good taste in selecting, buying, and matching clothing and accessories.

... In selecting and matching clothes for the day, never use more than one prominent pattern or color.

... Select accessories such as shirt, socks, ties, belts, and shoes to match or harmonize. Be sure that accessories blend or harmonize with the outfit.

... Organize the storage of all clothing and accessories to help you save time when dressing.



... Keep clothes wearable by mending seams, hems, and such.

... Always hang clothes properly after each wear.

... Learn how to care for various fabrics in your wardrobe and use correct washing and ironing


... Keep winter woolens moth-proofed.

... Wear clean underclothing daily.

... Keep all top garments cleaned, brushed, and aired to keep in acceptable condition for


... Keep shoes polished and heels repaired.

... Avoid getting shoes wet. Shoe trees will help to retain the natural shape of the shoes.

... Alternate shoes daily, if possible.

... Wash hose daily.

... Empty purse and discard unnecessary items at least once a week.


... Take good care of clothes by properly hanging them. Care is more important than price tags.

II> Brush and dean clothes regularly.

... Wear clean, well pressed clothes at all times.

II> Clean socks, underwear, shirts, and handkerchiefs are a must.

.. To prevent stretching, always unbutton your coat while seated.

.. Never hang your coat for a period of time by the loop in the neck of the coat.

.. Avoid hanging suits and coats on metal hangers.

.. To prevent stretching, use wooden hangers.

.. Hang a suit straight and flat to prevent its molding into an awkward shape.

.. Protect the finish of new shoes by polishing before wearing.

.. Keep all shoes well polished.

.. Use shoe trees to help shoes hold shape.

.. Keep all worn shoe heels repaired.

.. Keep socks together by rolling them into a neat ball.

.. Keep shoes stored in a bag, rack or box ready for immediate use.



.. Have a storage space for everything and keep everything in place.

.. Keep seldom used clothes, coats, and sweaters in dust-proof bags.


.. Keep good storage space.

.. Store all clothes adequately in closet, leaving breathing room between hangers.

Practice Exercises

Study and practice the suggestions on selection, storage, and care of the wardrobe.

Read one or two additional reference books on wardrobe planning. Pretend that you have $200 to spend for: clothes for the coming season. Plan exactly what you will buy and list reasons each item will be a good buy and will make your wardrobe more useful.

Have a department store buyer discuss his/her career and give hints for clothing selection.


The natural beauty of your skin depends on balanced diet, fresh air, rest, sleep (8-10 hours), exercise, regular elimination, and general health conditions.

The major skin classifications are normal, oily, dry, and a combination of these types. Which type is your skin? If it is normal, you are lucky; but do remember this can change with age.

There is no substitute for soap and water when it comes to cleanliness.

According to the old adage, "Beauty and handsomeness are only skin deep; 11 therefore, beware! Apply these suggestions as often as needed:


.. Smile and avoid frowning and squinting.

.. Take a daily bath and use deodorants and antiperspirants as needed.

.. Use dress shields if needed.

.. Follow these important steps in general skin care: cleanse, lubricate, stimulate, and protect.

Overexposure to the sun causes the skin to look old before its time.

.. Use cosmetics as beauty aids, but avoid using too much makeup. Your eyes may be one of your major assets, but don't pile on too much mascara and eye shadow. Use cosmetics properly to enhance natural coloring of skin, lips, and nails.

Avoid strong perfumes which can be as offensive as bad body odor. Mild fragrance is in good taste.

Use a fragrance which can make you feel more feminine and enhance your charms. Use it in moderate amounts, however. Apply to pulse spots located at the base of the throat, temples, wrists, and behind knees. Select a fragrance by using the skin chemistry test. It is the best way to suit your own body temperaments. Soon after applying it to your skin, sniff the results. Is it pleasing or annoying??

The answer will be your best buying guide.

Select your favorite fragrance by these guides: Perfume is concentrated and lingers longest. Cologne is light; therefore, you can use it more lavishly.

Cream sachet is a light fragrance which is good for daytime.

You can rub perfume oil on the skin or use in bath water. Its fragrance is long lasting.


Be careful with your skin, because it is the largest area of your body. An average man has 15 square feet of skin space. Perspiration is the skin's way of getting rid of waste products. These waste products, if not removed regularl y, cause odors.

.. Take a daily bath and use a deodorant or antiperspirant.

.. Protect your skin.

.. Prevent skin problems. Preventing problems is much easier than curing them.

.. Consult a dermatologist if your skin becomes a problem.

.. Avoid pinching or bruising blemishes and pimples. This practice may cause major problems

from blackheads, whiteheads, and pimples.

... Watch your eating habits.

.. Give your face a special scrubbing to keep it clear and clean.

... Shave daily and use a good, soothing lotion.

.. Massage face to ease tension, renew energy, and aid skin tone.

.. Lubricate dry skin to replace natural oils in face and body.

.. Relieve chapped lips by applying petroleum jelly or lip balm.

Practice Exercises

Practice good skin care daily.

Read at least one reference on skin care and diet relationships.

Invite a cosmetologist to talk to your 4-H Club. Discuss how one becomes a cosmetologist and what the day-to-day routine is like.


... Balance the body weight to support the backbone.

.. Prevent tired muscles by keeping the body balanced.

.. Aid circulation of the blood, heart, lungs, digestive system, and each part of the body to do its work properly by practicing good posture every day.

.. Dress in a pair of slacks and stand in front of a full-length mirror while you check your posture from head to toe. Ask a friend to record and critique your posture scores.

... Hold your head high with chin at right angle to neck.

... Stand erect with the ear straight over the shoulder and the shoulders stretched back and down

with blades flat.

... Keep chest lifted and stomach flat.

... Keep buttocks tucked under and even with pelvic bone.

.. Keep knees slightly relaxed and feet straight ahead.

.. Use correct sitting or studying position by keeping the feet flat on the floor, hips well back in chair with thigh bones supporting the weight of the torso.

... Find a study desk that lets your arms form a right angle when writing because this is the correct height for you.

... Maintain good posture to look and feel your best.

Practice Exercises

Always practice good posture.

Give a visual presentation on sitting posture.

Write a skit or a news article on correct standing and walking posture. Present to your 4-H Club.


Your hands can tell the world many things about you. What they tell depends upon the attention, care, and protection you give them. What does the appearance of your hands say? Maybe these points will help your hands tell a story of good grooming.


.. Every girl talks with her hands - even you. Manicure your nails once a week and use

moisturizer as needed.

,.. Remove old finger nail polish, file nails, and trim hangnails.

... File nails from side to center, following the finger contour.

... Push cuticles back after you soak your hands in warm soapy water.

... Remove dead cuticles and apply cuticle oil.

... Remove cuticle oil, polish nails using only three strokes - one in center and one on each side of center,

.. Avoid touching cuticle with polish and remove hair line of polish from tip of nail to avoid chipping polish.


.. Unkept hands can count you out fast - scrub until clean, and use moisturizer as needed.

• Give nails special attention by clipping or filing when needed. File from side of nail to center. Follow contour of finger.

.. Buff your nails to have a healthy glow.

Practice basic hand care techniques.

Study and read other material pertaining to hands.

Practice Exercises


Your smile rating is only as good as your teeth. What is your smile rating? Is it excellent, good, fair, or poor? Good mouth hygiene is essential. These ideas will help you make improvements to radiate the real you.


~ Smile. It improves your face appeal.

~ Eat a well-balanced diet each day.

~ Brush your teeth after each meal, if possible.

~ Select a toothbrush with a flat surface and medium bristles. Your dentist can recommend a brush. Keep two brushes on hand and alternate use to maintain good tone bristles.

~ Use dental floss to clean bits of food from between teeth.

~ Brush teeth correctly, down on the upper teeth and up on the lower teeth, and scrub across chewing surfaces.

~ Use a good toothpaste to clean teeth. Powdered salt and baking soda (1/3 salt and 2/3 soda) are good if you run out of your regular toothpaste.

,. Visit a dentist every 6 months for a dental checkup.

.. Take care of your teeth and gums in order to keep your teeth for a lifetime.

Practice Exercises

Practice good teeth care by following the basic rules daily. Give a presentation on the importance of good teeth.

Read at least one reference about teeth and mouth hygiene.

Ask a dentist or dental hygienist to speak to your 4-H Club on dental care. Have a question and answer period to find out about a career in dentist care and what are good and bad things about each career.


Put your best foot forward. Prevent tired aching feet, which tend to make you irritable, by practicing these rules.


.. Bathe and exercise feet dail y .

.. Cut toenails straight across.

.. Keep your feet dry.

.. Beware of foot fungus and odor.

.. Use a good foot powder regularly.

.. Practice foot exercises with emphasis on the ankles, arches, and toes.

Ii> Cultivate good standing and walking posture.

II' Wear dean stockings or socks everyday.

~ Alternate shoes daily.

· ,.,.,,. ,.;, -,

.. Change shoes as soon as you reach home.

.. Avoid socks or stockings that are too short.

~ Select and buy proper size, good shoes that support feet for walking and standing.

.. Select good well-fitted shoes, which can prevent corns, callouses, and ingrown toenails.

~ Select and wear shoes suitable for the occasion.

Practice Exercises

Practice good foot care.


Home is where people care about you. Your home, more than any other institution, has influenced your character, social behavior, and attitudes. It is the home and not the house that builds citizens. Use these ideas to strengthen your family ties:


~ Always respect your parents, brothers, and sisters and let them know that you appreciate


~ Respect the privacy of the members of your family.

... Be on time for family meals.

... Do not discuss family affairs with outsiders.

... Always do your share of the family chores.

~ Don't borrow items from your family members without permission. Always return borrowed items promptly.

... Always take care of family property.

... When using the family radio, T.V., newspaper, or stereo, always consider the wishes of other members of the family.

Practice Exercises

Prepare and keep a check list on home manners. Read a reference on good manners.

Plan a club program on home manners; involve parents in this program.


Good table manners, based on neatness and convenience, contribute to gracious living. How gracious are you'? Study and apply these rules to make personal improvements:


... Always look as attractive as possible at the table at home and away from home.

~ Be on time for meals.

.. Sit down and rise from the left side of the chair.

II> Unfold your napkin below the table and put it on your lap half folded. After you complete your meal, put the napkin back on the table beside your plate.

... Do not begin eating until all have been seated - your mother or the hostess will give the signal to eat by beginning first.

... Do not rest your elbows on the table or stretch your feet out under the table.

Ii> Use the silver farthest from plate first. If in doubt, watch the hostess.

• Use your knife to cut meat or spread butter. Place it across the top edge of the plate during the meal.

• When cutting meat, hold the knife in the right hand and the fork in the left, with the tines

down. Never hold the fork in an upright position when cutting meat or other foods.

• Pass food to the right. Reach only for foods that are as near to you as anyone else.

• Eat most foods with the fork. A few foods that are not messy may be eaten with the fingers.

• Use the fingers when eating these foods: crackers, bread, cookies, fresh fruits, sandwiches, corn on the cob, relishes, and some cakes.

• Use a spoon for soups and soft foods. In eating soup, dip the soup away from you and take it from the side of the spoon.

• After stirring your coffee, place the spoon on the saucer at the back of the cup. After stirring a glass of tea, place the spoon on the side of the coaster if a place is provided; if not, place it across the back of the dinner plate in front of the knife.

• Butter and eat only a small piece of bread at a time.

• Enjoy your meal and company - don't rush.

... If you feel a sneeze coming on, cover your mouth with your napkin and turn your head away from the table.

• Place the knife and fork side by side across the center of the plate at the end of the meal.

• If you make a mistake, brush it off lightly; don't let it spoil your evening.

Do Tips

• Guests enter the dining room in an orderly manner.

• In the home, the hostess will direct the seating arrangement.

• Each guest should stand beside or back of his chair until the hostess gives the signal to be

seated by seating herself.

... If chairs must be pulled out from the table to sit, do it quietly.

.. The gentleman seats the lady first, then himself.

.. At the restaurant and a banquet, the lady is seated at the right of her escort.

Never Tips

.. Never use a toothpick at the table or in public.

.. Never leave a spoon standing in your coffee cup or tea glass.

.. Never talk when your mouth is filled with food.

.. Never drink liquids while your mouth is filled with food.

.. Never flll mouth too full of food.

.. Never reach across in front of anyone for food; ask the person nearest to the food to do the passing.

.. Never leave the table until the hostess begins to rise - unless it is an emergency.

Practice Exercises

Role play at least 10 of the Table Manners each week until each one becomes a part of your every day table manners.

Give a formal dinner and invite your friends. Practice what you have learned.

Plan and hold a formal banquet and a formal tea for 4~H club members.


The telephone today is a necessary convenience, but do not monopolize it. Check your personal telephone etiquette by this information:



Be prompt in answering the telephone. Use your most pleasant and alert voice. Use good grammar and clear enunciation.

When calling others, let the telephone ring several times to give the person time to reach the phone.


When answering the phone, use a cheery "Hello".

Let your voice convey the real you to the person on the other end of the line. Make this person feel welcome through your mellow-toned voice.

When the call is for you, you may say, "This is she, " or "This is Jane; It or "This is he," or "This is John," whichever the case may be.

When the caller asks for some other family member, perhaps your mother, you may say, "Yes, just a minute please. I'll call her." If the person asked for is not at home, perhaps your father, you may say, "I'm sorry, sir, he is not at home. You may reach him at the office. That number is

555-6105. "


The telephone in a business office is a necessary and often used tool. Do not call a place of business to kill time or be entertained. (Other people need information.)

Let's take your county Extension office for an example. Suppose your name is Jim Jones and the secretary's name is Mrs. Mary Stewart. You wish to talk to the 4-H Youth Agent, James Brown, about your participation in a district 4-H contest. What do you say? What does she, the secretary, say? How?

Let's use this example as a guide:

Jim Jones dials the county Cooperative Extension telephone number.

The secretary, Mrs. Stewart, answers the telephone, and with a cherry voice she says, "Good morning, this is the Extension Service, Mrs. Stewart speaking. May I help you?"

Jim Jones: "I'm Jim Jones, a member of the Center Grove 4-H Club. I would like to speak to Mr. Brown, the 4-H Youth Agent."

Mrs. Stewart: "Mr. Brown is not in. May I take a message for him?"

Jim Jones: "Please ask him to call 555-3751, and ask for me when he returns to the office. Thank you. Goodbye." If Me Brown is in, you ask the secretary if you may speak to him. The secretary connects you with Mr. Brown. You greet him with a cheery, "Hello, Mr. Brown. This is Jim Jones." Make your business known to him - be brief and to the point.

Practice Exercises

Visit a telephone company.

Observe secretaries in three business offices. Write a list on each of their professional techniques and make a comparison. This is only to make you more conscious of your own telephone techniques.

Make necessary improvements and practice correct telephone etiquette.


Introductions may be classed into three major categories:

Introduction of One Person to a Small Group

To do this, the name of the individual being introduced to the group is called first.

The names of the individuals in the group are called in order of sequence of standing or seating arrangement.

Introduction of Two People or the Same Sex

To do this, call the name of the older or more prominent person first.

If there is no difference in age or rank, it does not matter whose name is called first. "Mr. Jones (college president), may I introduce Jim Smith (a college freshman)."

The college president offers his hand first and the two gentlemen shake hands, each saying, "How do you do."

Men and boys almost always shake hands.

A man shakes hands with a lady only if she offers her hand. Two ladies shake hands only if one decides to do so.

Introduction of Two People of Opposite Sex

To do this, always remember to call the name of the lady first; the only exception would be a person of prominence, such as a State Governor or President of the United States. "Miss Spencer (a speech teacher at your school), may I introduce Jim Smith, who has recently moved to our town." Each would say, "How do you do." If the lady offers her hand, the two shake hands.

Practice Exercises

Introduce a boyfriend and a girlfriend to your mother - to your father - to both parents.

Introduce two people of the same sex: Mrs. Mary Hughes and your friend, 15-year-old Jane Smith. Introduce two people of the opposite sex - Mr. President of a college or university and Jane Smith, age 15.

Practice Other Introductions

Practice the three major introduction techniques until the correct form becomes part of your everyday living.

Plan a special 4-H program around these skills. Involve all club members.


So you have been invited to be a guest. Don't you think it would be a good idea to refresh yourself on your everyday etiquette before you visit? Your behavior should be influenced by the habits and opinions of the host family.

Practice these points:

• Prevent any misunderstanding from either family by having both sets of parents confirm the weekend invitation.

• Behave in someone's home just as you would like for them to act in your home; be a lady or

a gentleman.

• Use your Sunday manners. Your friends are putting on their best hospitality for you.

• Add your part to an interesting conversation, but also be a good listener.

• Assist with the chores, if there is no maid.

• Eat the food, even if it is not your favorite. Don't forget to compliment the cook.

• Expect to be treated like one of the family. If you are a weekend guest, don't expect too many special attentions.

• Be on time for meals.

• Bring your own clothes. Don't expect to wear your friends clothes. Do not ask to borrow the family's belongings.

• It is nice occasionally to take a gift to the hostess. Something for the house or for the small children in the family will be appropriate.

• Write a bread-and-butter note of thanks to your hostess. It may be short but should express your enjoyment.

Practice Exercises

Plan a special 4-H study on writing "bread-and butter" letters and other "thank you" notes. These should be handwritten.

Make and practice improvements where needed.

Develop the art of conversation. Study. learn, and use good grammar. Remember - the very tone of your voice can soothe or irritate another person. You can develop poise and confidence only through practice. What you say. however, cannot be separated from what you really are. Practice these conversation tips each day as you speak to others:

• Consider and respect the other person's opinions and feelings.

• Keep your conversational mood in line with the occasion.

• Learn to lead a conversation without monopolizing it.

• Develop a pleasant voice.

• Be natural, avoid monotony, and develop your own personal mellow tones.

• Learn to really listen to what the other person has to say.

• Record your voice on a tape recorder and play back to make voice improvements. Ask a speech teacher to give constructive criticism. Enroll in speech classes. Participate in 4-H Public Speaking contest.


Dating is a special interest for you, especially if you are in your late teen years. Most early dating begins with several couples planning parties, picnics, and various outings together.

As you grow older, you will begin to narrow the dating friendship list until you choose the person whom you wish to go steady with and perhaps later marry.

The mature person has the ability to look beyond today and make definite plans for tomorrow. The following charms will help you plan your dating techniques:


~ Don't pass up a last-minute date because often the unexpected turns out to be the most fun.

This last minute business should not, however, become a habit with your friend.

~ Dress appropriately for the occasion.

I» Be ready on time; it is not smart always to be late.

~ Introduce your date to your family, if he has not met them. Graciously accept compliments from your date with a pleasant "thank you."

I» Wait for the gentleman to assist you with removing and putting on your coat.

I» Let your date know early in the evening the time you are expected home. It is also up to you to suggest starting for home. He will respect you for keeping your curfew.

I» Lady, give the gentleman an opportunity to walk on the outside of the street when walking on

a sidewalk.

I!> Don't be an over expensive burden to your date. Don't choose the most expensive spots.

I!> When you are out on a date, just tell the fellow the food you wish and let him order for both.

I!> It is your responsibility to establish standards. If you do not wish to smoke or drink.

DON'T! Your date may not admit it, but he will admire you for not doing so.

I!> Don't make your date wait while you chatter with a friend.

I» Do not expect your date to carry your personal possessions like purse, comb, lipstick.

~ Do your grooming touch-up in the powder room, not in public.

I!> Learn to see the bright side of difficult situations.

I!> At the door, if it is still early and your parents are up, and they approve, you may invite the young man in for a snack.

I!> If it is late, say goodnight at the door. He says "thanks" to you. You may say, 1fI enjoyed the evening."

I» Don't give your boyfriend a costly gift at Christmas or on birthdays. An inexpensive gift to show that you have thought of him will be a hit. Talk about your gift giving customs ahead of time so that neither of you is embarrassed or disappointed on gift giving occasions.

I!> Always be well poised and thoughtful of your escort.

I!> Girls, when you make a date, make sure you understand the plans for the special evening, even if you have to ask the boy to repeat. Either accept or reject the date on the spot. Don't stall, hoping that a more handsome guy will come along. Remember the best packages are not always wrapped in the most beautiful wrappers. (Boys, this might also be a lesson for you, too.)


After finding that girl you like, don't be timid; either ask her in person or telephone her for a date.

~ Organize yourself.

I!> Ask the girl early.

.. A last-minute date is poor technique.

II> Make a clear invitation. What should she know?

.. if the girl refuses, avoid a sarcastic retort.

, ' - .. ,. - " .,., ~', ',' ~ ..

~ If the invitation is for a dance or banquet, it is thoughtful to find out the color dress your date

is wearing so your flowers will match. She will appreciate your thoughtfulness.

... Tell her what is on the program so she will know how to dress.

~ If others will join the party, get her stamp of approval.

~ Arrive on time.

~ Call for your date at her door. Horn honking is not in order.

~ Meet or speak to her family, be pleasant: don't act as if they are in your way.

... Open the house and car doors for her.

... If your date looks especially nice, tell her so.

~ Open the door for her when you have reached your destination. Assist her in getting out of

the car.

... Girls need to be home by a certain hour; make your plans accordingly.

~ When escorting two ladies, walk on the outside of the street or nearest the curb.

... Remove your coat before you assist a lady with her coat. Ask her to wait for assistance.

~ Have fun, but maintain high character standards.

... Don't ever leave your date alone at parties where she is not known.

... When leaving an event, you may also put your coat on before assisting the lady. (It is difficult to handle two coats at once.) Be sure to ask her again to wait for your assistance.

~ Make your goodnight short and sweet. This will help you stay in the good graces of her


... Stand, gentlemen, when a lady enters the room and remain standing until she is seated.

... Always be thoughtful of your date.

~ To assist a lady with her coat, stand still and let her walk up to you. She turns her back and drops the coat from her shoulders. Place your hands on each of her shoulders. She drops the coat backward, and you take the neck of the coat. To allow her hands ease, you drop the

coat down away from her. Fold the coat right side out by grasping the middle of the collar with one hand while holding the cuffs with the other. Then place the coat over your left arm.

Why Is Dating Important

It is an opportunity for young people to know each other better. To find a person with the same standards, ideals, and attitudes. To decide upon a lifetime partner.

Practice Exercises

Girls, ask a friend to help you practice getting in and out of a car. Boys, practice assisting a girl in and out of a car.

Boys, practice assisting a lady remove her coat. Plan a 4-H program based around pros and cons of dating and going steady during the early teen years - for late teen years.


Values are rules which you select to guide your life. You choose values because you feel this is what is important for living. Others can see these rules of living in the way you talk and act. The total values you choose may be called your value system. This value system is shaped by many factors such as your home, school, community, church, and friends. What's in your value system and how did it get there? By thinking and talking about your values, it helps you learn about yourself. It also

helps others to understand what makes you tick. If your behavior is a reflection of your values, what does your reflection tell the world about you?

Spend some time thinking and talking about your value system. The exercises on the attached worksheet can help you to look at a few value ideas.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

AIl educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 8 Worksheet

Leadership and Self-Acceptance

Rank in order of' preference 1 to 3, with 1 meaning, "I like that the most, " and 3 meaning, HI like that the least. "

When working on a project do you like to:

__ Lead the Group Follow a Leader

__ Do the work by yourself

Place the following behavior patterns of others in order of how much you dislike the behavior from 1 to 5 with 1 being the one you dislike most and 5 being the one you dislike least.

__ Talking too much __ Being grouchy __ Timidity

__ Bossy


List three important things you did this week.

L 2. 3.

List one job you completed this week.


List one job you did not complete this week.


List the three biggest decisions you made this month.

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

List five things you like to do.

List five things you do not like to do.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is your attitude toward the following situations? (don't like, don't care, like)

Your grandmother living with you and your parents.

Your widowed sister and her two children living with you and your parents. Your old maid aunt lives with you and your parents.

A foster child your own age coming to live with you and your parents. A preacher spends a week in your home each summer.

An item you would like to buy costing $5.00 or more.

An activity you would not have listed on your value list two years ago.

An activity you participated in where risk was a key factor.

An activity you participated in that would have been on your parents' list when they were young.

An activity you participated in that would have been on your grandparents' list when they were young.

List your Valyes:

Five values which have had a good influence on your life.

l. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Now that you have analyzed your values in these areas, perhaps you would like to consider more important phases of living. By asking yourself questions about phases you consider most important,

you can talk about your total value system. Do you like yourself as you are, or do you think: you would like to change some of the values in your present system? Do you really "LIVE" the values you say are most important to you?

Success in life depends on many things and many circumstances. You will find good manners, good grooming, good speech, and good work are four of the most important. If you are able to perfect each of the four, your success is almost certain.

Rate yourself on the ideas emphasized in this bulletin and develop your own definition of a leader's personality.

Check the correct answers under each heading.

When away from home would you

Discuss family affairs with neighbors.

Discuss family affairs only inside the family circle. Discuss family affairs with only your closest friend.

Would a charming weekend guest

Help with the family chores.

Leave all chores for the hostess. Expect to be waited on hand and foot.

Good manners can be

Put on and taken off like a glove. Changed by anyone.

A part of everyday living.

When cutting meat during a meal

Hold the knife in the right hand then the fork in the left with the tines down. Hold the fork in an upright position.

Hold the fork just any old way.

When using the family TV

Always watch the programs which you like.

Consider the wishes of other members of your family. Watch only the programs which your brother likes,

When carrying on a conversation Monopolize the conversation.

Let the other fellow do all of the talking. Learn to participate but do not monopolize.

When eating a meal

Be sure to be the first to begin eating.

At home, wait for your mother to begin; away from home, wait for the hostess to begin.

Wait until the girls begin to eat.

To have beautiful hair

Never shampoo.

Shampoo when needed. Shampoo only occasionally.

When men and boys are introduced

They almost always shake hands. Never shake hands.

Men seldom ever shake hands.

When introducing a lady and a gentleman Call the lady's name first. CaU the lady's name last.

It does not make any difference whose name is called first.

When eating meals at home

Always look as attractive as possible. Your looks do not count.

Look as slouchy as possible.

At the table, food is usually passed To the right.

To the left.

Across the table.

When the telephone rings Take your time.

Be prompt in answering.

Let the phone ring three times before answering.

When grooming yourself

Make your face the center of interest. Make your feet the center of interest.

It does not make any difference about how you groom yourself.

When buying clothes

Make sure they fit.

The fit does not matter.

Buy a size larger than you need.

To wear clothes to their best advantage Good posture is necessary. Posture does not count.

Good posture is not necessary.

· :. c:,.. ~.;~.""." < ,

Recreation as a Part of 4-H

Lesson 9

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 9

Recreation As A Part of 4-H

Recreation is an important factor in having a successful meeting. A variety of fun activities adds enthusiasm and enjoyment to your meetings. Education can be fun and this is a secret to successfully working with youth. Recreation creates a positive atmosphere before a meeting starts, during or after the event. Through recreation many barriers can be broken down for youth and adults. Recreation helps the meeting become more productive and socially enjoyable. Recreation has the potential to help develop the individuals to their fullest extent.

Why Use Recreation?

Recreation activities can increase the productivity of almost any group when properly chosen, properly timed, and properly led.

Recreation activities have great potential for developing the individual. They can help him feel more secure in the group, provide opportunity for recognition, response, and new experience. Recreation is a great aid in getting acquainted and providing opportunity for sociability. It reduces tension and brings relief from boredom and fatigue.

From the group standpoint, recreation can help create a favorable atmosphere, increase participation, facilitate communication, set group standards, and develop leadership.

Recreation can often exert social controls and create group solidarity and identity.

When to Use Recreation

Understanding the purpose of recreation will provide many ideas on when to use it.

In a newly formed group, many people do not know one another. It is important to group participation for members to really get to know each other. Getting acquainted activities are a form of recreation and most important to the success of the group.

Regardless of the age of a group or how well the members know each other. there is sure to be some cliques forming. "Mixers" can easily break up clusters. Some are formal, others are of a pure nonsense nature. Properly used, mixers can contribute much to good group process.

The arrival of the first member and the actual start of the meeting is a critical time. A good recreational program has something planned for the "early arrivals" before the meeting starts.

During the meeting, to shift from a general ~ gab session" to a more structured portion is often difficult. Many times games or stunts perform this function better than a break. Sometimes it is necessary to create interest in a subject or topic to seriously involve the group. Games or stunts often accomplish this better than a formal approach. Quizzes, especially those that contain an element of humor, may be the ideal way to introduce a new subject.

You may need to alleviate the physical, mental, or emotional strain of a meeting. Relaxing games, music, or musical games can afford temporary relief from the project at hand. Large sitting-listening groups usually need such relaxers. If conditions are crowded, it is well if the relaxer chosen produces some physical activity.

Status differentials within a group may result in poor communication, poor identification, and much insecurity. Even marked aggression and hostility may develop. Good leadership anticipates such situations and prevents them. Persons with little status within the group often poses outstanding skills in recreation. Arranging activities so these people can use recreation skills may enhance their status and enable them to become more productive group members. (Example: You may discover a new or younger member has a talent in playing a musical instrument. He may not yet be accepted by the group. By employing this talent, the member may gain acceptance.)

Occasionally, there is a need to relieve a disruptive, tense situation. Often an alert leader can help relieve group tensions by the appropriate use of humor. A recreational break frequently provides an outlet for tension release.

It is best not to end a meeting abruptly after an exciting game. "Signatures" are designed to help people feel relaxed. Refreshments and group singing may conclude the program. You may use a signature such as taps.

A Recreation Plan

Recreation is doing something you like to do and enjoy. Recreation can be by yourself, or with others whose company you enjoy. Recreation is having fun. Good recreation "just does not happen." It must be planned. The biggest job in planning recreation is to keep in mind that every member should be considered and involved. What is fun should be fun for the majority.

Many clubs elect a recreation chairman or recreation committee. This person or small group should be mature and capable people within the club. They should not be the youngest or most inexperienced members. On the other hand, they need not be the last officer or group elected. This person or group should assume the leadership for planning the recreation program. The recreation should plan and should tell (a) what kind of recreation, (b) equipment and supplies needed, (c) who will be the leader, (d) when and how long it will last. The plan should be developed (for a series of meetings) well in advance and those responsible informed in sufficient time to prepare.

Many types of recreation can be enjoyed by 4-H'ers throughout the year. Seasons, holidays, and special events offer a wide variety of opportunities. Singing, active games, quiet games, mixers, homemade games, skits, hobbies, folk dances, and sports are some successful recreation activities enjoyed by Ohio 4-H'ers. In addition to recreation being an important part of each meeting, special meetings or parties devoted entirely to recreation are great!


As 4-H Leaders we have responsibilities in helping the recreation chairman or committee. Initially you may need to guide the committee in planning the recreational program for the year.

It is important that you are continually sensitive to the group's needs, whether it be getting acquainted or relieving tension.

The leader will often be able to assist the recreation chairman in getting everyone involved in the activity.

A few words of encouragement may be all that a younger member needs to get involved.

How to Choose, Prepare, and Lead Games

Following are some guidelines with which you and your recreation chairman might like to become familiar. Remember that the 4-H Circular, "4-H Recreation Leaders," may be of help for your recreation leaders. See your 4-H Agent for more helpful games and information,

Choosing Games

1. Think: carefully about the types of games your particular group would enjoy.

2. Consider primarily games and activities appropriate for their age and interest level.

3. Consider the physical and mental skills required, and he sure they are appropriate for your group.

4. Refresh your collection of games by continued search for new and different activities.

5. Choose games that will be progressive in social value - that is, simple ones for starting and building on to those that are more complex.

6. Remember, choose games that will, sometime during the period, capture the interest of all present at your meeting.

Preparing for the Game Period

1. Plan a variety and he able to switch from one game to the other with ease.

2. Plan an abundance, more than one are necessarily needed. If one game is not accepted enthusiastically, another might be easily started.

3. Study each game thoroughly, learning action involved and calls, if any.

4. Plan a method for teaching the game or dance.

5. Always consider the physical requirements of the game, such as space, accommodations, equipment and comfort of players. Take care of these things before the game period.

6. Practice the instructions and calls, if any.

7. Plan logical sequences in formations for the games. Follow a brief outline to move swiftly from one activity to the next.

Leading the Games

L Get in position so as to be seen and heard by the entire group.

2. Get the undivided attention of the whole group before explaining the activity - wait for natural pauses. Be jovial and pleasant.

3. Inspire group action by genuine enthusiasm of both voice and manner.

4. Get players into formation, if any, before instructions.

5. Instructions should be clear but brief. Demonstrate when possible.

6. Briefly practice or "walk through" the difficult parts of the games or dance activity.

7. Give the participants a chance to ask questions, but not lengthy dull explanations.

8. Direct the game enthusiastically; the joy of leading comes from the ability to share with others.

9. If necessary, stop, make corrections and then begin again. No game is fun unless ALL are having a good time.

10. Make it fun for everyone; play the game yourself whenever possible. The leader MUST direct the joy of the game to the activity itself and not by himself. Stop the game at the height of enthusiasm. Always stop so that they will "ask for more" .

Stunts and Challenges

Recreation can beheld at different times during the 4-H meeting: (1) opening of the meeting, (2) between the business and educational phase of the meeting, (3) at the close of the formal meeting, and (4) foHowingthe meeting. Stunts and challenges are appropriate recreation for any of the four situations and can be fun if not overdone. In selecting stunts or challenges make sure the stunt is appropriate for the occasion (the way people are dressed and for the place where you are meeting). Avoid stunts and challenges that would displease participants, and be selective and use good taste in choosing people to participate.

Jacket Stunt

Two persons wearing large jackets stand face to face, hands in each other's pockets. Try to remove the coats without taking hands from the pockets.

Drinking Straws

One person picks up an inch-square piece of paper; using just the straw. The person must hold it at straw's end with his/her breath. Partner must take it from the person using just a straw and place it on another table at the far end of the room. No hands at any time.

A Stunt For Fun

Select several volunteers to try this. Put two pennies on your elbow, shake them off and try to catch them with the same hand.

Can Someone Do This?

Select one or more pairs of volunteers from the group. Sit back to back on the floor in pairs with arms locked and try to get up. First pair on their feet without unlocking arms is the winner.


L The diameter of a half-dollar,

2. Number of safety matches in a package.

3. How many keys on a piano. White? Black?

4. Size of this room. Height of ceiling.

5. Width of a newspaper column. (Make up a list of your own)

Age Teller

Here is a method by which you can discover a person's birth month and his age. For example, you ask a man whose age is 25, born in March. to compute the following and give you the final figure.

1. Take the month of birth (the third month)

2. Double it (6)

3. Add 5 (11)

4. MUltiply by 50 (550)

5. Add present age (Plus 25 = 575)

6. Subtract 365 (210)

7. Add 115 (325)

The first digit will indicate the month, and the last two the age.

How Dry I Am

Select two people from the group who would have fun doing this. Two people eat two crackers. Then see who can whistle first.

Don't Eat the Peanuts!

Equipment: Drinking glass of the size that is used in serving iced tea and enough peanuts with the shells on to fill the glass.

Game: Each player in tum inverts the glass of peanuts on the table top and slowly lifts it leaving the peanuts in a compact heap. By using the fingers, he removes as many peanuts as is possible without moving any of those in the heap. He is finished when a peanut moves.

Score: 10 points for each peanut successfully moved.


Four Suitcases

Put two suitcases under each arm, then transfer those on the left to the right and vice versa without touching the floor.

Recreation is a most important part in developing a successful 4-H club program. Recreation will increase productivity of almost any group when properly chosen, properly timed, and properly led. Development of a recreational plan will help assure a meaningful recreational program. Recreation is not only fun, it is a very effective educational tool if properly developed and skillfully prepared.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

R~vised By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 9 Worksheet

Recreation as a Part of 4-H

1. List four reasons why recreation should be an important part of the 4-H program.

A. B. c. D.

2. A good recreation plan should tell:

A. B. c.

3. List four occasions when recreation might be used effectively.

A. B. c. D.

4. In determining what kind of recreation to use you should consider:

5. A secret to working with young people is to make education _



Teaching Techniques/or Teen Leaders

Lesson 10

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 10

Teaching Techniques for Teen Leaders

Principles of Learning

One of the most important responsibilities of a Teen Leader is to help youths acquire skills and knowledge in reaching their goals. Some basic principles apply to all learning situations:

1. Young people learn best in an atmosphere of WARMTH AND ACCEPTANCE.

2. Adequate learning requires MOTIVATION. Self-motivation comes from basic needs, personal preferences, and feelings of self-worth and belonging. External motivation, on the other hand, is based on incentives and awards received. Both kinds of motivation (self and external) should be used in your teaching role.

3. In order to learn, members must have clear, SELF-DETERMINED GOALS.

4. Each youth will have DIFFERENT ABILITIES. The same teaching method will not be equally successful with all members.

5. A youth must be ACTIVELY INVOLVED in selecting and carrying out learning activities, if learning is to take place.

6. SELF-EV ALVA TION is the most meaningful kind of evaluation and can be a very successful learning experience.

Ways to Learn

Young people will be more interested and active learners if you use a variety of teaching methods. How much information a learner keeps varies from method to method. Remember, "learning by doing" is a basic concept in 4-H and is often the best way to help young people retain knowledge.

READING: Young people will retain about 10 percent of what they read. Printed project materials and other literature are important ways to share knowledge, but they should be supplemented with other teaching methods.

HEARING: Members will retain about 20 percent of what they hear. Most teachers talk too much.

Give young people a chance to explain and discuss what is presented.

SEEING: Young people will generally retain 30 percent of what they see. Exhibits, posters. and illustrations are big pluses in teaching, especially when the young people prepare materials to share.

HEARING AND SEEING: When the young people see and hear new material, they wil1 retain about 50 percent. Observing demonstrations, seeing movies, slide/tapes, etc., and participating in tours are all ways members can see and hear, and are generally popular teaching methods.

SAYING: Members will retain about 70 percent of what they personally explain. When young people become an active part of the learning process, the amount they learn increases dramatically. Discussion groups and judging experiences are two important ways members can express their ideas.

SAYING AND DOING: When young people are actively involved in saying and doing, they will retain about 90 percent of the material. Most people learn best by actually doing. Provide opportunities for the members to practice and explore what they have learned. Actual project work, planning and presenting a demonstration, and teaching younger members are examples of the saying and doing approach.

Teaching Methods

Here are some teaching methods you may want to use in working with your group. Also, you are encouraged to experiment with other methods.


Demonstrations are traditional teaching techniques in 4-H. A Teen Leader can present demonstrations to help the members learn, Members, in tum, will reinforce this learning by repeating demonstrations for the group. As they become more experienced, the young people should be encouraged to present their own demonstrations at club meetings, for parents, at achievement day, or other area, county, and state events. As they progress, they will assume an increasing amount of responsibility for choosing a subject, preparing the demonstration, and evaluating their efforts.

Demonstrations will help members to:

1. Develop a positive self-concept.

2. Acquire more self-confidence in front of a group.

3. Organize and express their ideas Clearly.

4. Spontaneously respond to questions,

5. Acquire subject matter knowledge and life-long skills.

4-H Demonstrations is a publication offering specific suggestions on planning and presenting demonstrations. It is available through your county Extension agent.

Discussion Groups

Group discussions can help young people increase their subject matter knowledge, learn skills in leadership, and share with others. Some decisions regarding programs, meeting times, expenses, etc., can be handled well in a discussion group where everyone contributes. Members will have a greater commitment to a group where everyone contributes and they help to make the decision. As members share information to make a group decision, they will become more aware of each person's skills and contributions to the group.

? -"-'".~' "-'-"""' ~ ,- ~,~, "' """ -", ,., ,-, ,~~ ,- ~; , ?

Try to look at yourself as a member of the group, with no more authority or prestige than the young people, but with a special function of helping all members to make and carry out group decisions. The amount of direction needed will depend on the members' ages and abilities. The following suggestions may help:

1. Make sure the topics or questions for the discussion are clearly stated. Older members should take the leadership role in determining an agenda.

2. Keep the list of topics or questions short for younger members.

3. Keep discussions short for younger members. They will lost interest and direction quickly.

4. Older members should set their own time limits and assume responsibility for keeping the discussion on the topics.

5. Differences of opinion will occur. Such conflict is good if the members can discuss their differences and reach some agreement. You can help by trying to state differences clearly, by recognizing the contribution of each side, and by attempting to find ways for each side to consider the other's viewpoint. Don't force agreement.

6. Try to get contributions from all members. Avoid having a few members do all the talking.

When members will not discuss, the problem may be that:

• The topic is beyond the range of their interest, knowledge, or experience.

• The topic is not vital to them, not practical.

• The leader's introduction of the problem does not make it easy to approach.

• Discussion of one point becomes worn out.

• Argument or debate takes the place of group thinking.

• Members are strangers to one another.

• Members don't wish others to know their real thoughts.

• The physical surroundings are not favorable to discussion.

• The discussion is too formal. .

• Members are embarrassed by the situation or by the question asked.

• Individuals fear ridicule or disapproval.

• One person "knows it all."

• The leader has the "I give - you take" attitude.

• The leader likes to answer his or her own questions.

• The leader talks too much.

• One or two members "hog" the discussion.

• Participants think the leader expects a set answer.

• Discussions are pressed or hurried.

• The question is a "leading" one.

• The question has too obvious an answer.

• The question has too difficult an answer.

• The question is one on which all are fully agreed.

• The question is the "yes and no" variety (unless it's likely to split the group between yes and no, leading explanations.)

Field Trips and Tours

Well planned and organized field trips develop more interest in project work. Trips create group feeling and commitment. New experiences are a vital part of each person's development. Young people are always interested in meeting new people and seeing different places. You will probably find that this is a popular teaching technique. Young people like to get out and visit new places. In order to provide a meaningful learning experience, you will need to:

1. Plan carefully; involve 4 -; H members.

2. If possible, visit the location or person ahead of time.

3. Provide transportation; one way to involve parents.

4. Make sure the purpose of the trip is clear.

5. Tell members enough of what to expect to arouse interest. Provide background and prepare

questions, if appropriate.

6. Evaluate and discuss the experience with the members soon afterwards.

7. Carryover the learning from the trip into project activities.

8. Thank your host and lor host organization. (A written thank-you from the group is the best.)


Children have judging experiences long before they become involved in 4-H. Their 4-H project work should be one means of further developing their decision-making abilities. Judging is making a decision based on current knowledge; and telling why you made it. For the youngest members, this will involve selecting between only two items. As the youths' skills develop, they will judge more items and become more experienced in stating the reasons for their decisions. Older, more experienced members may choose to participate in judging days at county level or higher. These special events provide an opportunity for members to develop and practice their skins in a wider arena.


Generally, members will be excited about exhibiting what they have made and learned in their project work. This gives them an opportunity to look successful in the eyes of their friends and important adults. Each young person needs to be recognized both by friends and the important adults in his or her life.

Sometimes members will want to create a group exhibit of their work for a club meeting, fair, or achievement day. This will provide them with a chance to work as a group and to experience successful cooperative efforts.

Encourage young people to share their learning with others, but do not require them to do so.

Workshops/Work Sessions

The workshop or work session is an effective teaching technique. This method consists of showing 4- H'ers how to do a job and letting them perform and practice the same job under your guidance. 4-H members, a resource person, or you may conduct the work session. Use this method when you are trying to teach a particular skill, such as making a buttonhole, repairing an electric cord, learning to ride, etc.

Workshops are a way for all members to work under a knowledgeable person's direction and observation. It is very effective when trying to master or teach a complicated skill, Because workshops are a "doing" activity, they are fun. In summary, when conducting a workshop:

3. Discuss and evaluate their efforts.

Role Playing

Having club members play roles provides a learning experience through the use of dramatics. The purpose is to gain understanding of how things look to the other person and to consider different views of a problem or challenge. Ask members of the group to act out a situation that portrays a problem, that is controversial, and could have more than one answer. Players should be free to fill in the details of the situation and the attitudes. There is no right or wrong way to act out the role. Once the status and duties of the players are decided, each player is expected to play his/her part in his/her own way.

The process of role playing includes the following steps:

1. Establish a situation and define the problem.

2. Choose the role players.

3. Prepare the audience and set the stage.

4. Enact the scene, acting out the roles.

5. Discuss and evaluate.

Be careful to insure that a role does not violate the dignity and worth of individuals. The purpose is not to embarrass. Advantages of role playing as a teaching technique include:

1. Participants gain an understanding of the feelings of other people.

2. Participants gain an understanding of the different forces within a situation.

3. Participants gain facts and evidence as to which of several possible solutions will work best.

4. Participants generate discussion and participation of the entire group.

Panel Discussion

A panel is a group of four to six people who have special knowledge about a topic and who present their viewpoints. Having several presenters broadens the knowledge base and provides interest for mixed audiences. Panel discussions permit the presenters to focus on one specific major issue of the problem, and one person does not need to cover the entire problem. Advantages of the panel discussion include:

1. Promotes learning by doing. (Discussion provides for participation.)

2. Encourages good listening.

3. Stimulates thinking.

4. Makes use of peer group and adds credibility to the topic.

5. Permits the presenters to focus on one specific major issue of the problem, and one individual does not need to cover the entire problem.

Participants in each panel discussion should:

1. Define the problem and state in question form.

2. Select a leader or moderator. (The leader should be the quietest person on the panel.)

3. Be selected on the basis of their ability.

4. Prepare introduction of panel members and a statement of the topic.

5. Arrange the room for good discussion.

6. Maintain a favorable. environment conducive to good discussion at the conclusion of the panel.

Home Visit

By visiting your 4-H members at home at least once a year, you will get to know them much better. Parents and Teen Leaders working together can do so much more for boys and girls then either can do alone. If you are not sure how to go about making home visits, here are a few suggestions - especially for that first visit.

SURPRISES ARE NICE, BUT - Let parents know you would like to come, and find a time convenient for both of you.

DON'T GO TO COMPLAIN OR DEMAND HELP - Try to have a positive reason for your first visit, such as explaining 4-H, getting acquainted with each other, telling them about the local club program for the year, describing special achievements made by their children, or offering suggestions and guidance on the member's project.

INCLUDE 4-H MEMBER IN THE VISIT - Here is your natural opener for a conversation. Taking him/her home from a club meeting may be a good entrance.

OBSERVE THE RESOURCES THE MEMBER HAS FOR IDS PROJECT - Be objective about this, but be observant about the place the member has to work, the materials he/she can use, the quality of the materials, the parents' interest in 4-H, the parents' ability and willingness to help him.

EXPLAIN YOUR ROLE - Members are sometimes very vague about this at home. Be sure parents know what project thir child is taking and what the local club plans for the year. Most clubs expect parents to help at least once during the year by serving as hosts or providing transportation. The home visit is a good opportunity to ask for help.

FIND OUT THE PARENTS' EXPECTATIONS OF 4-H ~ What do they hope their members will learn or do? What special interests or abilities do they have?

ONE COMPLIMENT AND ONE CHALLENGE ~ Everyone has some good points and almost everyone has some room for improvement. Check your observations of this member before your visit, and try to be ready with at least one compliment for something well done and a challenge for one thing that needs attention.

Teaching Devices

Just as a variety of teaching methods is important to good teaching, you will want to consider the different devices available for improving communications. Consider using the following teaching devices with your selected teaching method.

• Projectors • Tape Recorders
• Filmstrips • Charts
• Slides • Books
• Movies • Posters
• Chalk Boards • Tools
• Flannel Boards • Calculators
• Bulletin Boards • Computers Check with your county Extension agent to learn what teaching devices are available.

In Conclusion

You can adapt the teaching techniques and devices discussed to many topics and situations. Do not get hung up on which is most important. Use as many of these techniques as often as you think they can effectively contribute to learning. They are tools of your trade. Each has certain merits in contributing to young people's ability to act intelligently - the overall purpose of the 4-H program.


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revi§ed By:

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status,

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the Ll.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 10 Worksheet

Teaching Techniques for Teen Leaders

After you have read the study guide, please complete the form using the back of the page if necessary.

Look up any answers you are unsure of, or ask your advisor or Extension Agent jar help.

1. A basic concept in 4~H teaching is

2. The greatest retention occurs when young people are actively involved in

3. List three basic principles that are conducive to good learning.




4. The overall purpose of the 4~H program is to have 4-H'ers

5. List three teaching techniques or methods that you plan to use the coming year and describe the situation in which they will be used.

Teaching Method

Situation to be Used

A. _





The 4-H Meeting Lesson 11

Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 11

The 4-H Meeting

4-H employs the meeting as a basis for group activity and learning. If you are new, experienced advisors and Teen Leaders will help you understand how meetings work. Meetings need to be educational and fun.

"The 4-H Advisors' Program Book," available at your county Extension office, supplies information ideas, and methods concerning club meetings. Here are some additional suggestions to make your club meetings more productive and fun for everyone (you included).

Know Your 4-H Group

How many persons want to be in your club? Who are they and where do they come from? (Boys and girls? What ages? What are their homes like?)

Why do they want to be in 4-H? What are they interested in - individually and as a group? As you talk with them and learn to know them, what do you think $hey need most?

Write your members' names on the "Club Roll" in "The 4-H Advisors' Program Book." You can also add comments and notes that will be of assistance as you work with individual members later. A running account of participation, experiences, and assignments will help "even up" opportunities in "making the best better" for every single member of your club.

Look for Additional Help. Listen to Suggestions.

Now you'll want to determine who will make up your club team. 'What about parents? Some of them are interested enough to give you a hand. What are their talents? Where would they "fit" best?

Are there other people in the community who might be willing to share their time - and who have a way with kids? What about older 4-H'ers (liked by your club members) who would make good Teen Leaders? It's amazing how many people are willing to help, especially if there is a specific "something" they can do. 4-H alumni is a good source of help for your club team. Don't forget about experienced advisors who are nearby. They may not be able to help directly with your meetings but their "know-how" can save you much time and effort You might attend one or two of their meetings to learn "methods and techniques" which they have found effective.

The 4-H agent has the greatest 4-H program responsibility . Your home economics agent, agricultural agents, and program assistants are also interested and willing to give all the assistance they can. Call and arrange a time when you can talk with one of them about your club and the 4-H program in your county. They have ideas, know-how, and resource materials they will gladly share. They are just like you though - busy people doing many worthwhile jobs. A scheduled time for getting questions asked and answered will help both you and your 4-H club!

Setting The Stage for Teaching and Learning

Your 4-H'ers want to be active and take part in their club's program. They want to feel it is their meeting. You can help them by checking out the following essentials:

1. A pleasant meeting place. Light and air are important; so is arrangement. Everyone should have a spot where he/she can see and hear every person during group discussion. If project work is to be done, if recreation is to be enjoyed, space and facilities must be available. Members' homes may work fine for meeting places. The chance to be a host or hostess gives new experiences. Parents learn about 4-H this way, too. A central meeting place may have merit. Where you meet isn't nearly as important as where it's "right" for your group.

2. A comfortable atmosphere. Everyone feels best and gains most when he/she is at ease. Each person needs a chance to know all the others, to talk together. You can help create a positive situation where members feel free to "join in." Welcoming and listening to all ideas and thoughts expressed will bring greater response.

3. A feeling of belonging and acceptance. Each person wants to be an active part of a group but sometimes he/she needs help. Discover ways to involve individuals, learn their strengths and weaknesses, then provide a chance for each to be successful before the whole group. Here is where you can inspire others to try new things, to work cooperatively. and to care about group members.

4. As an advisor or Teen Leader, plan ahead and be prepared to lead or withdraw. You need to know why the group is meeting. what they hope to accomplish, and how it is going to be done. Some props are helpful. A table and chairs for officers gives them support and confidence. Work space during project work makes learning easier. A flipchart or a small blackboard may be good for recording "thinking" or in showing how and telling why. Your job is to guide the group in the right direction. Let ideas and experiences of members have an important place. Sometimes you'll be leading, sometimes they will have the leadership jobs. You will have to know your group and be sensitive to them if your club is to move in a "growing" direction.

Have Members - Do Meet!

Your club is all set to go. You have members ready for the first sign of action. Don't keep them waiting too long - do meet! "But what will I do with them - all at the same time, and with so much enthusiasm?" A well planned meeting consists of three main parts:

Business - 15-20 minutes

Education & Project Work - 40-60 minutes Recreation & Social Activities - 30-45 minutes

The pattern of your meeting is up to your group. They may want recreation first (everyone's on time that way) or they may want it last (save the most fun for last and the longest period of time). The suggestion above is for a two hour meeting. The length of the meeting may vary depending upon the age of your group. Younger members' interest span is shorter and the length of the meeting should be shortened. Your group may want to vary the meeting length from time to time.

Including all three parts (business, education - project work, recreation and social activities) is important. Each contributes a different kind of learning to those participating. Sometimes your members may want to "mix things up. H Perhaps an outing, a picnic, a special fun activity will take one entire meeting. They may "make up" project work by having an all day workshop at a later date. A longer business meeting one time may let other "specialized" parts fit in another meeting. It is the balance that counts, Let the suggested three areas and the time for each be a guide only, You and your members can work that out during your club season, There is no certain set pattern for every meeting. As your club members and you gain experience you may want to add other educational and service programs - but don't rush it. You don't have to do everything the first year!

Let us focus on the various parts of a 4-H meeting and what goes on in each:

Business Meeting: 15-20 minutes

The business session can be democracy in action. Members learn how to express themselves in a group, to listen to views of others, to take individual responsibility in reaching a decision and to abide by majority rule. Your agenda may include:

1. Call to order.

2. Club songs, pledge, creed, the pledge of allegiance, other opening thoughts.

3. Ron call - answering in any way that the group decides.

4. Minutes of the previous meeting.

5. Committee reports.

6. Old business.

7. New business.

8. Adjournment.

Your first meetings may be informal with various members doing various jobs. As your members gain experience they may want to elect officers and begin to follow parliamentary procedure.

Education & Project Work: 40-60 minutes

Project work may include actual "doing" of the project by the members with guidance and instruction from project leaders (you, if that is one of your responsibilities). Here's the place for members to give demonstrations, illustrated talks, discussions, work on project books, all sorts of activities that result in project learning. "Learning by doing" is one of 4-H's unique strengths. Use your ingenuity and creativity to make this section of your meeting one that is packed with interest and action as members learn.

Recreation & Social Activities: 30-45 minutes

A variety of fun activities add enthusiasm and enjoyment to your meetings. Some clubs have a different recreation committee for each meeting. Some elect recreation leaders for the year. Having someone responsible for the job each time makes it go smoother and makes it more fun. Possible activities include: small group games, charades, relays, active sports, quiet games, puzzles, folk games, party for parents, picnics, hikes, swimming parties, talent numbers, and signing. Refreshments can be a part of the recreation and social activities now and then if desired. Keep them simple, eye appealing, nutritious, easy to prepare, serve and clean up. A committee of different members may assume responsibility for this at different times.

Other Educational and Service Programs

When the club is first starting you will want to concentrate on the three parts just reviewed. As you and your group learn more about 4-H you may want to expand your interests and go beyond the basics of business, education - project work, and recreation - social activities. Ideas for other educational and service programs are numerous. Possibilities include health, safety, citizenship, community service, and international understanding. You will think of others.

Examples of educational and service programs might include:

HEALTH - physical and dental check-ups, drives for funds, testing programs (TB diabetes, etc.), speakers, tours of health department or hospitals, nutrition programs, exercise and fitness, first aid and home nursing activities, immunization programs.

SAFETY - hazard hunts, safety speaking activities, accident studies, safety skits, safety slogan contests, special programs - highway safety, lawn mower safety, slow moving vehicles.

CITIZENSHIP - visits to local government offices, public officials speak to club, tours to local historic sites, learn and practice correct respect for flag, mock elections.

COMMUNITY SERVICE - clean-up campaigns, roadsides, parks, community buildings. Program for hospitals, nursing homes, county homes, children's homes. Donate articles for hospitals, children's home (relate to project work). Community drives, funds, distribute or collect information.

INTERNATIONAL - IFYE hosts or sponsors, pen pals, sister clubs overseas.


Good strong officers can be the difference between a successful club that offers meaningful experiences for its members and a mediocre club. Officers can also be a tremendous help to you, the 4-H Teen Leader. Each officer has a book, available through the county Extension office, that describes his/her duties and offers suggestions. Following is a brief summary that should help you in working with your members and officers.

Good officers are honest, sincere, dependable, friendly, and loyal. They let the members of the club help decide what the club will do and give everyone a fair chance. Officers represent 4-H to the people in the community, at school, at public events, and at home.

Good officers get things done right and on time. They are proud of their jobs and always do their best. They work with their 4-H club advisors to plan and carry out the club program.

Election of officers should not be held at the first meeting. Time is needed for members to become acquainted with potential officers. The election should be based upon what contributions the potential officer can make, and not on a popularity basis.

All officers should strive to serve the club best during the coming year rather than riding on the successes of the past. They should work with all youth and give everyone an opportunity to participate. Share leadership with many and thereby give others an opportunity to develop, represent the best interest of the club in outside contacts, be dependable, help plan a program which the club can support wholeheartedly. work well with the other officers, executive committee members, and leaders; and try to make the meetings worthwhile and interesting.

Some of the important duties of all officers are to secure new participants and organize the club; plan the program, month by month for the year; arrange for meeting places and their proper care; conduct and take part in the meetings; keep club records and submit them as required; serve on committees, as chairman or as a member; keep other people informed about the club; maintain good spirit and interest in the club; help every 4-H' er find a place in the club and an opportunity to contribute; maintain good relationships with all individuals and other groups; maintain contact with the county Extension office; and attend 4-H Officers Training School when it is offered in the county.

Specific duties of each office include:


1. Check meeting arrangements.

2. Preside and call meeting to order and direct the business meeting.

3. Appoint committees and check frequently on progress, asking for reports.

4. Cast deciding vote in case of tie.

5. Conduct meeting according to parliamentary procedure.

6. Be familiar with the duties of other officers and help them when needed.

7. Guide meetings, encouraging all members to take an active part.

S. Show courtesy to guests and have them properly introduced to the club.

Vice Presid~nt

1. Become acquainted with duties of the president and rules of parliamentary procedure.

2. Preside at meetings in temporary absence of president.

3. Work closely with the president, leaders, and other officers on all club activities.

4. Serve as chairman on program committee (usually).


1. Keep accurate minutes of all meetings and be prepared to readthem at the next meeting.

2. Call roll and keep record of attendance.

3. Handle all club correspondence.

4. Collect news items and clippings about the 4~H activities of the club and individual members.


1. Receive and be responsible for all money.

2. Keep an accurate record of:

a. all money received and its sources

b. all money paid, to whom and for what.

3. Report at club meetings on money received, money paid out, and the amount on hand.

4. Payout money only when approved by the club.

5. Give the new treasurer complete and accurate records when he takes office.

News Reporter

1. Write articles about club meetings and special events for the local newspaper.

2. Send news items in immediately after each meeting or event. Old news will not be printed.

3. Make sure all articles tell who, what, when, where, why, and how.

4. Keep all newspaper items referring to the club in a scrapbook.

Recreation Leader

1. Plan games and other recreation for the club - suitable for age, desire, space, and time available.

2. Lead recreation at 4-H meetings.

3. Keep necessary equipment on hand.

4. Make notebook of recreation ideas and give to next recreation leader.

More Hints jor Good Meetings

Stan and Stop on Time

Your example and that of club officers is to set a standard for group participation. Time is valuable. Two hours, well planned, can maintain interest, accomplish worthwhile things and be fun. Habits, good or bad, are formed by practice. You can teach your members to make the best use of the resources they have. Parents appreciate punctuality.

Give Officers Responsibility and Let Them Act

Be sure the president calls the meeting to order and is in charge. Let other officers and committee chairmen do the job given to them. You will need to guide, but stay in the background, giving them confidence in their abilities.

Another technique that many advisors use with great success is getting the officers together for 15-20 minutes sometime preceding the total 4-H club meeting. In some cases, advisors will meet with the officers following a meeting to plan what needs to be done the next time. Regardless of when it is done. it is important that officers know the items of business that should be brought up, have these written down. and be able to help expedite and speed up the business process.

Encourage the Use oj Parliamentary Procedure

Democratic participation takes place when each member has a chance to express himself as he feels. Parliamentary procedure is an orderly way of making this possible. It is really a set of good manners for respecting the views of others. Be sure it is used to give freedom, and not to force fast action before everyone has a chance to. speak. Explain the procedure to. all members so. they know how to make a

motion, to address the group, to express themselves, and to make decisions. The President's Book will provide reference.

In Conclusion

Know where you want to go and what you want to accomplish. Then, set up a plan of action to attain your goals. This can save time, make for greater progress, and be more fun. Sometimes this is hard in the very beginning. Until you and your club members learn to know each other and work together, you may find that taking one meeting at a time is better. Planning takes practice, but results are gratifying in terms of goals attained, progress made, and effective use of time - for members and advisors! Your club has meetings. Some are good and some are not so good. Which way will you influence yours to go?


Clair W. Young, Professor and Assistant State Leader, Emeritus

John D. Ruoff, Associate Professor and Area Extension 4-H Agent, Emeritus

Revised B)::

Ken Lafontaine, Hardin County Extension Agent, 4-H

Kathryn J. Cox, Extension 4-H Specialist, Youth Development Michelle Totman, State 4-H Office Secretary

All educational programs and activities conducted by the Ohio State University Extension are available to all potential clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, age, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work Acts of May S and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.


Learning Through Leadership: Lesson 11 Worksheet

The 4-H Meeting

After you have read the study guide, please complete the form using the back of the page if necessary.

Look up any answers you are unsure of, or ask your advisor or Extension Agent for help.

1. 4-H meetings have three main parts. Name them.




2. An orderly procedure to help assure the democratic process in the 4-H meeting is known as _

3. Officers have specific responsibilities that are unique to their particular job. However, there are common duties and responsibilities that all officers share. List six of these responsibilities that you feel are most important.

A. D.





4. Good meetings do not just happen. List five steps you will take to assure good meetings.

A. D.




5. Many methods need to be used in the education part of the 4-H meeting, List three methods you plan to use in conducting this phase of the meeting.






4-H Program Planning Lesson 12