P. 1
Chemical Bond I

Chemical Bond I

4.93

|Views: 15,943|Likes:
Published by MalaysiaBoleh

More info:

Published by: MalaysiaBoleh on Mar 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/28/2013

pdf

text

original

Chemical Bond I

WHY DO ATOMS BOND TOGETHER? 1. Bonding is the way in which atoms join together and combine with one another. The arrangement of the resulting particles is called the structure. 2. Some atoms are very reluctant to combine with other atoms and exist in the air around us as single atoms. 3. These are the Noble Gases and have very stable electron arrangements eg 2, 2.8 and 2.8.8 because their outer shells are full. 4. The first three are shown in the diagrams below and explains why Noble Gases are so reluctant to form compounds with other elements.

Noble gas structure.
THE OCTET RULE EXAMPLE 1. (a) Arrange the 11 electrons of sodium into shells. (b) Arrange the 10 electrons of neon into shells. Answ:

The first two electrons fill the first shell, and the next eight electrons fill the second shell. That leaves one electron left in sodium for the third shell.
Shell Number 1 2 (a) (b) Na Ne 2 2 8 8 3 1

1. The charge on the nucleus and the number of electrons in the valence shell determine the chemical properties of the atom. 2. The electronic configurations of the noble gases (except for that of helium) correspond to a valence shell containing eight electrons—a very stable configuration called an octet. 3. Atoms of other main group elements tend to react with other atoms in various ways to achieve the octet, as discussed in the next sections. 4. The tendency to achieve an octet of electrons in the outermost shell is called the octet rule. 5. If the outermost shell is the first shell, that is, if there is only one shell occupied, then the maximum number of electrons is two. 6. A configuration of two electrons in the first shell, with no other shells occupied by electrons, is stable and therefore is also said to obey the octet rule.

1

1. It is important, with bonding, to remember the following points: a. It is only the valence electrons in the outermost shell which become involved in bonding. The complete, inner shells are not involved. b. It is the aim of every atom to achieve a noble gas structure. This makes it very stable. c. The maximum number of electrons in the first shell is two. This is called a duplet. The maximum number in the second shell is eight. This is called an octet. The maximum number in the third shell is eighteen. However, in many elements, the electrons begin to fill the fourth shell when there are already eight in the third shell. 7. Atoms can achieve the very stable electronic configurations of the noble gases in two ways: (a) by receiving or releasing electron (Ionic Bonding) (b) by sharing electron (Covalent Bonding) 8. Covalent Bonding - sharing electrons to form molecules with covalent bonds, the bond is usually formed between two non-metallic elements in a molecule. 9. Ionic Bonding - By one atom transferring electrons to another atom. 10. The phrase Chemical Bond refers to the strong electrical force of attraction between the atoms or ions in the structure. 11. The combining power of an atom is sometimes referred to as its valency and its value is linked to the number of outer electrons of the original uncombined atom . IONS 1. An ion is an atom or group of atoms carrying an overall positive or negative charge eg Na+, Cl-, [Cu(H2O)]2+, SO42- etc. 2. If a particle, as in a neutral atom, has equal numbers of protons (+) and electrons (-) the particle charge is zero, ie no overall electric charge. Example Proton Number: Nucleon Number: Number of proton: Number of neutron: Number of electron: Charge: Symbol: 3. The proton number in an atom does not change BUT the number of associated electrons can! 4. If negative electrons are removed, the excess charge from the protons produces an overall positive ion. 5. If negative electrons are gained, there is an excess of negative charge, so a negative ion is formed. 6. The atom losing electrons forms a positive ion (cation) and is usually a metal. 7. The atom gaining electrons forms a negative ion (anion) and is usually a non-metallic element.

2

Example Fluorine Atom

Number of proton =9 Number of electron =9 Charge =
-

After receiving 1 electron

Number of proton = Number of electron = Charge =

1. The Fluoride ion is written F . The Fluoride ion has the same configuration of electrons that a neon atom

has. 2. Ions that have the electronic configurations of noble gases are rather stable. 3. Note the very important differences between a fluoride ion and a neon atom—the different nuclear charges and the net -1 charge on F-. The F- ion is not as stable as the Ne atom.

Lithium Atom

Number of proton =3 Number of electron =3 Charge =
+

After releasing 1 electron

Number of proton = Number of electron = Charge =

4. The Fluoride ion is written Li . The lithium ion has the same configuration of electrons that a helium atom

has, and helium is a noble gas, too. Exercise

Natrium, 11Na

Magnesium, 12Mg

No of proton: 11 No. of electron: 11 Electron configuration: 2.8.1 Charge: 0

No of proton: 11 No. of electron: 10 Electron configuration: 2.8 Charge: +1

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration: Charge:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration: Charge:

Equation of the process: Na ⎯⎯→ Na+ + e Aluminium, 13Al

Equation of the process: Nitrogen, 7N

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration: Charge:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration: Charge:Charge:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration: Charge:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration: Charge:

Equation of the process:

Equation of the process:

3

Oksigen, 8O

Fluorin, 9F

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration:

No of proton: No. of electron: Electron configuration:

Charge:

Charge:

Charge:

Charge:

Equation of the process:

Equation of the process:

Example 1

Example 4 Which one of the following atoms, A, B, C, D or E would readily form an ion with a charge of 2+? Nucleon Proton Number Number A 12 6 B 16 8 C 24 12 D 31 15 E 37 17 Example 5 The elements T, X and Y have consecutive, increasing atomic numbers. If element T is a noble gas, what will be the symbol for the ion of element Y in its compounds? D Y− A Y3+ B Y2+ E Y2− + C Y Example 6

Example 2

A B

Mg2+ and ClAl3+ and F-

C D

K+ and Ca+ H+ and O2-

Example 3 Chlorine atoms and chloride ions A are chemically identical. B are allotropes of chlorine. C have the same number of electrons. D have the same number of protons. E have the same physical properties.

4

Exercise 1

4

The diagram below shows the arrangement of electrons in a particle.

[proton number of calcium = 20] 2 What is the symbol for the particle shown? A Ne B F− C O2− D N3− E N3+

X

Answer
Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 B B D C B D

3

Exercise 1 B 2 C

3 4

C D

[Ans: C]

5

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->