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# Chapter 19

Principles of Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy

Chapter 19
Principles of Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy
SOLUTIONS TO STUDY QUESTIONS
19.1

(a) The CO2 vapor at 0 ºC has a higher entropy than the sample of solid CO2
(b) Liquid water at the higher temperature (50 ºC) has a higher entropy
(c) Ruby has a higher entropy than pure alumina
(d) The sample of N2(g) at the lower pressure (1 bar) has a higher entropy

19.4

(a) NaCl(g) has a higher entropy than NaCl(s) or NaCl(aq)
(b) H2S(g) has a higher entropy than H2O(g)
(c) C2H4(g) has a higher entropy than N2(g)
(d) H2SO4(aq) has a higher entropy than H2SO4()

19.8

∆Sº = Sº[NH3(g)] – {1/2 Sº[N2(g)] + 3/2 Sº[H2(g)]}
∆Sº = 1 mol (192.77 J/K·mol) – [1/2 mol (191.56 J/K·mol) + 3/2 mol (130.7 J/K·mol)]
∆Sº = –99.1 J/K

19.9

(a)

/2 H2(g) + 1/2 Cl2(g) → HCl(g)

1

∆Sº = Sº[HCl(g)] – {1/2 Sº[H2(g)] + 1/2 Sº[Cl2(g)]}
∆Sº = 1 mol (186.2 J/K·mol) – [1/2 mol (130.7 J/K·mol) + 1/2 mol (223.08 J/K·mol)]
∆Sº = 9.3 J/K
(b) Ca(s) + O2(g) + H2(g) → Ca(OH)2(s)
∆Sº = Sº[Ca(OH)2(s)] – {Sº[Ca(s)] + Sº[O2(g)] + Sº[H2(g)]}
∆Sº = 1 mol (83.39 J/K·mol) – [1 mol (41.59 J/K·mol) + 1 mol (205.07 J/K·mol)
+ 1 mol (130.7 J/K·mol]
∆Sº = –294.0 J/K
19.11

(a) ∆Sº = 2 Sº[AlCl3(s)] – {2 Sº[Al(s)] + 3 Sº[Cl2(g)]}
∆Sº = 2 mol (109.29 J/K·mol) – [2 mol (28.3 J/K·mol) + 3 mol (223.08 J/K·mol)]
∆Sº = –507.3 J/K
A negative ∆Sº indicates a decrease in entropy
(b) ∆Sº = 2 Sº[CO2(g)] + 4 Sº[H2O(g)] – {2 Sº[CH3OH()] + 3 Sº[O2(g)]}
∆Sº = 2 mol (213.74 J/K·mol) + 4 mol (188.84 J/K·mol) – [2 mol (127.19 J/K·mol)
+ 3 mol (205.07 J/K·mol)]
∆Sº = 313.25 J/K

A positive ∆Sº indicates an increase in entropy