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Non-Nursing Theories

DEVELOPMENTAL
THEORIES

 The Psychosexual Stages of
 Development

There are five major stages of


 biological-physiological
development
 - every person must progress if
he is to become psychologically
mature.
Freud’s 5 Stages of
Development
 The personality develops in 5
overlapping stages from birth to
adulthood.

 The libido changes its location of
emphasis within the body from one
stage to another.
 Therefore, a particular body area has
special significance to a client at a
particular stage.

 If the individual does NOT achieve a


satisfactory resolution at each
stage, the personality becomes
fixated at that stage.
Fixation

 Immobilization or the inability of


the personality to proceed to
the next stage because of anxiety
Pregenital stages
(the 1st 3 stages – oral, anal and phallic)

 Oral stage
 The mouth is the principal source of
pleasure, primarily as a result of
eating

 Feelings of dependence (may tend to
persist throughout life)

Fixation with oral stage

 A person may have:


 Difficulty trusting others

 Nail biting

 Drug abuse

 Smoking
 A person may have:
 Alcoholism

 Argumentativeness

 Overdependency

 Overeating


PREGENITAL STAGE
(the 1 st 3 stages – oral, anal and phallic)

 Anal stage

 This stage occurs when the child is

learning toilet training



Fixation with anal stage

 Obsessive-compulsive personality
traits:
 Obstinance

 Stinginess

 Cruelty

 Temper tantrums
Pregenital stage
(the 1 st 3 stages – oral, anal and phallic)
 Phallic stage

 Sexual and aggressive feelings

associated with the genitals come


into focus
 Masturbation offers pleasurable at

this time
 Child experiences Oedipus or Electra
 Oedipus Complex
 Male child’s attraction to his mother

and his hostile attitudes toward his


father

 Electra Complex
 Female child’s attraction for her

father and her hostility toward her


mother
Fixation with phallic stage

 It can result in such traits as


problems with:
 Sexual identity

 Homosexuality
 Bisexuality

 Problems with authority


Latency stage

 The sexual impulses tend to be


repressed

 The energy is directed to physical and

intellectual activities
Fixation with latency stage

 Unresolved conflict maybe reflected


in obsessiveness and lack of
self-motivation

Following latency come adolescence


and the reactivation of the

pregenital impulses…
Genital stage

 Energy is directed toward attaining a


mature heterosexual
relationship
Fixation with genital stage

 Inability to resolve conflicts during


this stage can result in sexual
problems such as:
 frigidity

 impotence

 inability to be satisfied in a

heterosexual relationship
FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
The five (5) Stages of
Development - Freud
 Oral Stage (0 to 1 year)
 Mouth is the center of pleasure

 Implication:
 Feeding produces pleasure and
sense of comfort and safety.

 Feeding should be pleasurable and
provided when required.
 Anal Stage (2 to 3 years)
 Anus and rectum are the centers of
pleasure

 Implication:
 Controlling and expelling feces
provide pleasure and sense of
control.
 Toilet training should be pleasurable
experience
 Appropriate praise can result in
 Phallic Stage (4 to 5 years)
 The child’s genital are the center of
pleasure

 Implication:
 The child identifies with the parent of
the opposite sex and later takes on a
love relationship outside the
family.
 Encourage identification
 Latency Stage (6 to 12 years)
 Energy is directed to physical and

intellectual activities

 Implication:
 Encourage child with physical and

intellectual pursuits
 Genital stage (13 years and after)
 Energy is directed toward attaining a

mature heterosexual relationship



 Implication:
 Encourage separation from parents,

achievement of independence, and


making decisions.