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(TRAVERSING)

..

(Horizontal Detail Surveys)

(Construction Surveys)

(n-2)180o
(n+2)180o

obs

=0

Yobs = 0

obs

= X n X1

Yobs = Yn Y1

(Closed Traverses)
(Opened Traverses)

(Closed Traverses)

(Closed Traverses)

(Polygon Traverse)
(Link Traverse)

(Polygon Traverses)



203
102

202
201
101

Polygon Traverse

(Link Traverse)

2
()
104
102

203
202
103
201
101

Link Traverse

(Opened Traverses)

(Opened Traverse)


Compass Bearings ()
Interior Angles
Angles to the Right
Deflection Angles
Azimuths

(FGCC Standard)


A
A

D
C


203

204

102
101

202
101
201

Sources of Error in Traversing

Mistakes in Traversing