# 1.

Multiplying by 9, or 99, or 999
Multiplying by 9 is really multiplying by 10-1.
So, 9x9 is just 9x(10-1) which is 9x10-9 which is 90-9 or 81.
Let's try a harder example: 46x9 = 46x10-46 = 460-46 = 414.
One more example: 68x9 = 680-68 = 612.
To multiply by 99, you multiply by 100-1.
So, 46x99 = 46x(100-1) = 4600-46 = 4554.
Multiplying by 999 is similar to multiplying by 9 and by 99.
38x999 = 38x(1000-1) = 38000-38 = 37962.
2. Multiplying by 11
To multiply a number by 11 you add pairs of numbers next to each other, except for the numbers
on the edges.
Let me illustrate:
To multiply 436 by 11 go from right to left.
First write down the 6 then add 6 to its neighbor on the left, 3, to get 9.
Write down 9 to the left of 6.
Then add 4 to 3 to get 7. Write down 7.
Then, write down the leftmost digit, 4.
So, 436x11 = is 4796.
Let's do another example: 3254x11.
The answer comes from these sums and edge numbers: (3)(3+2)(2+5)(5+4)(4) = 35794.
One more example, this one involving carrying: 4657x11.
Write down the sums and edge numbers: (4)(4+6)(6+5)(5+7)(7).
Going from right to left we write down 7.
Then we notice that 5+7=12.
So we write down 2 and carry the 1.
6+5 = 11, plus the 1 we carried = 12.
So, we write down the 2 and carry the 1.
4+6 = 10, plus the 1 we carried = 11.
So, we write down the 1 and carry the 1.
To the leftmost digit, 4, we add the 1 we carried.
So, 4657x11 = 51227