Multiplying by 5, 25, or 125

Multiplying by 5 is just multiplying by 10 and then dividing by 2. Note: To multiply by 10 just
add a 0 to the end of the number.
12x5 = (12x10)/2 = 120/2 = 60.
Another example: 64x5 = 640/2 = 320.
And, 4286x5 = 42860/2 = 21430.
To multiply by 25 you multiply by 100 (just add two 0's to the end of the number) then divide by
4, since 100 = 25x4. Note: to divide by 4 your can just divide by 2 twice, since 2x2 = 4.
64x25 = 6400/4 = 3200/2 = 1600.
58x25 = 5800/4 = 2900/2 = 1450.
To multiply by 125, you multipy by 1000 then divide by 8 since 8x125 = 1000. Notice that 8 =
2x2x2. So, to divide by 1000 add three 0's to the number and divide by 2 three times.
32x125 = 32000/8 = 16000/4 = 8000/2 = 4000.
48x125 = 48000/8 = 24000/4 = 12000/2 = 6000.
4. Multiplying together two numbers that differ by a small even number
This trick only works if you've memorized or can quickly calculate the squares of numbers. If
you're able to memorize some squares and use the tricks described later for some kinds of
numbers you'll be able to quickly multiply together many pairs of numbers that differ by 2, or 4,
or 6.
Let's say you want to calculate 12x14.
When two numbers differ by two their product is always the square of the number in between
them minus 1.
12x14 = (13x13)-1 = 168.
16x18 = (17x17)-1 = 288.
99x101 = (100x100)-1 = 10000-1 = 9999
If two numbers differ by 4 then their product is the square of the number in the middle (the
average of the two numbers) minus 4.
11x15 = (13x13)-4 = 169-4 = 165.
13x17 = (15x15)-4 = 225-4 = 221.
If the two numbers differ by 6 then their product is the square of their average minus 9.
12x18 = (15x15)-9 = 216.
17x23 = (20x20)-9 = 391

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