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Logical Arguments

Aristotle .

Two Kinds of Logical Appeal .

Hard Evidence .

Reason and Common Sense .

Hard Evidence Statement + Proof .

Hard Evidence Claim + Supporting Evidence .

Hard Evidence Facts + Authority .

Hard Evidence Statistics .

Data are preliminary and subject to change. on the way to or from school. 3Youth ages 5-19 in the 2000 calendar year. previously unpublished tabulation (August 2003). and data on homicides of youth ages 5-19 away from school for the 1992-93 through 2000-01 school year are from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. . preliminary data (October 2003). 2000. SOURCE: Data on homicides and suicides of youth ages 5-19 at school and total school-associated violent deaths are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).1Youth ages 5-19 from July 1. to June 30. NOTE: "At school" includes on school property. 2000. retrieved August 2003 from http://www. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARST) (2003). 1999. 1992-2002 School- Associated Violent Deaths Surveillance Study. and while attending or traveling to or from a school-sponsored event.cdc. 2Youth ages 5-19 from July 1. data on suicides of youth ages 5-19 are from the CDC. 1999.gov/ncipc/wisqars. to June 30.

and Studies . Hard Evidence Surveys. Polls.

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Hard Evidence Testimonies. Narratives. and Interviews .

Reason and Common Sense Deduction .

Reason and Common Sense Syllogism .

Reason and Common Sense All humans are mortal Nate Stearns is human Therefore Nate is mortal .

Reason and Common Sense Enthymeme .

Reason and Common Sense Enthymeme = Claim + Reason .

Reason and Common Sense Enthymeme = My opinion + Commonplace .

. Reason and Common Sense I better buy milk because we’re going to run out soon.

Reason and Common Sense You should do your homework because you want to go to college. .

Reason and Common Sense Cultural Assumptions .

Is logic enough? .

Arguments of Definition .1.

Evaluative Arguments . Arguments of Definition 2.1.

Arguments of Definition 2. Evaluative Arguments 3. Causal Arguments .1.

Evaluative Arguments 3. Causal Arguments 4. Proposal Arguments .1. Arguments of Definition 2.