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Indian Polity review

Indian Polity review


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Indian POlity for civil services this article is from partiyogita darpan... very nice magazine for more civil service material visit http://appscgroup.blogspot.com
Indian POlity for civil services this article is from partiyogita darpan... very nice magazine for more civil service material visit http://appscgroup.blogspot.com

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________ CSP·2007SuccessPlanner _

Indian Polity and Constitution Special


• Indian trade thrown open to.n Indian Councils Act, 1892

Iho::SritishSub;ects. • Introduced the prindple ofelec-

the~:~~.~e~:.~:;r~;;,~ • =orw;esallOWedtop",acltin • ::T:%;nl:~=:7t:~e

of lndia began with the advent of the Charl~r Act, 1833 Legislative Council. and Sove

East India Company in India in the • Governor-Gener.1 of Bengal them thcpoweT ,,{discussing tke

i~ ~~th:~~s?~nd~:~::;:n~~S~ became the Governor·~ner.l of ~oU!~~!.:~:~edressing questions

small commercial concern got the • Firsl Governor-General of India • Enl.~d the size of the Councils

first Chatter from Qu .... n Elizabeth I was lord William Bentick Indi~n Council Act, 1909

totradeinlndia • The Act ended the rommerciai (Modey-MinloReformsl

Constitutional activity of the East India Com- • First attempt at introdudng a

~1~CVC:~~~U:~t:i~: r!:!!: on Ch:~:~·Act, 1853 ~~~ . .entative and popular cle-

::e AR~gp".:~~:~~:,~:~~;~t~:;: : ~: 1~:~~:I~::a:~~ A::S~cutive ~~~~~~: ::~;;;"~ o~~~mC;~~ ~a;:~u~~~· I~m~l~wn ~~:~l; :':l~~n~l~:re c;;.:~~~;S;. ~:~Co~::embershlP I>r

~:~:r~el>~1>=~~~ 9,:,~~~~ • It introd~ce<I a system. ~ non-o£fidal~ in the Imperial and

lished In February 1948. The Cons- :;;~~:~~ ~ ~:ilb~~t. ~~ • :::~:~~~~~~;~::~;he

~~:~%'be~;~~~:tl~~:~~~:ff: ~~ th~ company. ~ non.official members had the

26january 19:,) ~(I::7a:::~~"" ::~:5:ver :a~o=;~ta~!h~r:,~:~ majority

Landmark Acts In by the Bn~"'" • The Act provided ror the appoin-

oev;~o;~~~:~~dla • ~1:~~ Crown s represen ~~C:~!y,~f ~:,~:~l~nou~:H.t~:

Regulatmg Ad 1773 • _&~vemor-e.,ner'l w.s made well as the Provincial E~ecutive

• ~!~'~;~~~l~.!;\~:~:~~ .~rq;,~vP:~7TSo~~!a Bntish Crown • ~;:~~ electorates for muslims

menl 01 the cornpany ~~: were 10 be exerc,.ed by the Go~e~;:·of India Ad,1919

• =~::~o~::e:;~~ • =C~no~'~~"'~::~:'~he first (MonL1gu-Chelmsford Reform,)

• The governor I>r Bengal made the Vireroy of l~dia • A provision was made for classi·

Governor-General Indian CounCIls Act, 1861 ficltion of central and provincial

• Council "f the Governor-General • It introduced for the first time the subjects

• :,:t;~;::e Court established at ;~~irau"ntativ" institutiOn' in • ;~ep~~:'blished dyarchy in

FortWil~am • legislative Councils were • The provincial subjects were

Pitt'slndiaAd,l784 established at the centre .nd in divided into two groups:

• Reilerated the supremacy of the presidencies and provinces Reserved and Transferred. The

British Parliamen' over the admi- • It provided thai the Governor- reserved subjects were with the

ni.t,.tionoHhecompany Gener.l·s Executive Council Governor and Tran.ferred sub-

• Reduced the strength 01 the should have some IndiaN'S the itoc!;:; with the Indian Ministers.

Council from four to three nl>n·I>/ficial memb~," while. Under the Act 01 1919 !he ""ntral

• Commercial and political activi- transacting the legislative busi- legislature covered all ""ntral

::m the company were"'para- • Initiated the p~ of d~tra- ::'i~I~:,;::t:::~~:.~

• Establlshed a Board of control lisationby r",,'''ringthe legisl,,- subjects.

over the court of direct OrB tive powers to the Bombay and. No biJl of thc LegisIature <:ould be

Charier Act, IgH the M.dras Presidencies deemed to have been possed

• Trade m"nopoly of the CI>mpany • 11 accorded the statutory recog- unle.. ....,n ... d to by the

was.bol"hed nition tn the portfolio system Governor-General The latter

Indian Polity and Constitution

could. howe...". ..... act a bill without tn.assent of the legi.lature

• The Arl provided for the establishment. for the lirst time. in India of. Public Services Com-

Indian Independence Act. 1947

• Sovereigntyand=PQnsibilityDf British Parliament abolished.

• Dr.Raj<ndr'P' ... dw .. ~led"""'!heP""'iden.oltheC""'1it""n'Ass<mblyon 11th pee 1946

• The CO<\!IlilueN A,oembly too~ 2 ye.rS. 11 month, and IS day. 10 frame and oper.te.eno<tthcConstilu,\on

• TheCon."ilu""1 Ao .. mbly had appoin.ed 13 cornmill .... for froming the ronsmulllm.Dr.B.N.Rou,ubm!lte<Itheroughdr.flollh<c.>!\!Ilitutlon.ontn. bui.oftn.n.'P" .... ofln ... commj.tees.

• ~.~~;;;;:::~luh"" "'os P"l"'red by the Drafting Committ"". hnded by Dr.

• CDMIi,,,,,n'......,,,blyhad11..,..ionsin;ol!.

• Dr.B.R.Ambrdlw-w .. thepionoerforlrantinJltheCoru.ituUon.

• ~titUtlOn w ... i!!"ed by 28-1 mernben01 CA and opproved by the

• 11>0 ·Ob;ocU_ R<soluti",,· was moved in the eo...tltu~nl A • ..,mbly by PI j.w .... rI.1 N.tuu"" LJIh o..r.mber 1946

• Origiruollyj''''d22part>..395article>.md8schedules

• D .. ~ of romm""<'<m.m of Co ... titution was decided u 26,h Jonuary 1950 10 ""lebr'''''''''''''ti",uf261h)an.1930(PumaSwa''iD,y)

• ;;:/ .. lgnofNotlo"olf.gw".dopt.dbytheConstiluen,Aoo;omblyan/uly22

• TheNalional.nthomw.,odo tedb .heCo ... li.uentM><mbl on).0241950


• The Droll Constitution as pre· po.red by the Drafting Commillel' consisted 01315 Articles and 8 Schedules. but in ihe final form, the Constitution contained 395 Articles and 8 SchedulCII

nbjectives ollhe ConstiluHon are stated in a nutllhell

• The 42nd COrultitution AmendmenIAct.1976.1ncorparaledthe wotd~ 80ei.li~1. ~ecular and inlegrity into the ConsUtulion

• The Preamble i8. parI 01 the Constitution a. ruled by Ihe Sup""meCourl in the Keshavanand Bharaticase. 197Jbuti$in il5ellnolenforooable.

• The Preamble reflects a secular spirit by .... uring libertyofbelie/. faithandworskipand~u.:>lityof opportunity.

• The Preamble envisage. Lhe emotional b-ond.ge in Indian Polity. where it conclude. with the e'pression"Frnternitya •• uring the dignity of the individual ~:~o~.~ity and integrity 01 the

Sources of the Constitution

Th"lndian Constitution is not theresultofanyevolution,ratheri!is the deliber.te and rool·headed pro· duct ofa galaxy of top-ranking leadersoflndiawhow~asseml>led in the Constituent Assembly. They preparedthedraftafterstudyingai1 the kmlwn Constitutions 01 the world. II i. much inspired by the British constitulional pr3clice. But it

!:!: bor:;ed c~~:~aL':2:~: •

other countries like USA. Canada.

Australia. Ireland..tc.

as a model. the new Constitution became bulky.

• Anotherfadorwhidtrontribu!es to the bulk of the Constitution is the itrunense divemty 01 India There ate various religions. languagt'S.castes, races here. Hissaid Iobeamulti'racial,mulli-lingual, and muiti.",ligiouscountry Various pwvisions have been pwvided in the Constitution 10 meet the needs of diff,:,rent

people in lndia.

A 'p""ial provision has been madeto>safeguardtheinteres15

of thentinorities.The Sclteduled Castes aJ1d SclteduledTribes



.Prlvi!og<>o(Leglslotu",et< • Spea<erandhisrole

: E3I~::gh~P~U~ ~ ~

• Fede .. I><heme~f!ndiJmConstitution ~:~. l.!'-Th"'.o!!:,,,"'m"""'-O-H"-C~-titu-"=...J

• :!": .h!'::::f distribution of powers ~(ji5f!nUe adopted the Parliamentary form

• QuasHW.tal £om> of govt '\S of government beeau,"" of our

: ~E~i~::::~:;~"!:rH= ::~-:;;~~:m':~a~~~e

: :=~n:rT~~ou=~~Mthm~coun~.nd • ;;=~~~~~s~:~!n:::~~

had aln:adyintrodll""d a limited k~~~mentary government in

Federal in Form but Unitary in Spirit

L l-'-""'''''''''''''''''- -' for ~!:~~f;=:~::~ro;e~~

Federalism is not a gifI of the British Parliament, butil comes from the wishes of the people.

The Federalism of India is diffe· rent from the Am~rioan mode1.

It i. patterned on the basi. <>f Canad;anmodel

The Constitutional experts provide'lndianmadeFeder.ilism:

• Art. 1 oftheConstitution dedan:s India as the 'Union "fStat:es.'

• The structure of the Indian Polity is made federal and there i.a dual polity and Constitutional division of powers

• AU feder.lf"atures .," there in our Conslitution. bttt at tliesame

~~I~~"!t::~~!:::"'~f the

canadlan Conslilution

Aastnl.i..m COMtjlulion

FrendtCooutitution SovlelCon.titution

Salient Features and Principles of the Indian Constitution LongestConstitution

• ThepresentConstitutionoflndia is the largest and most com· prehensive among all the writlen Coru;titutionsin the world

• ltconsislsof443Artidesand12 Schedules.

• There are several ractors that have contributed to this bulky &tteofourConstilulion

• The Government 01 India Act, 1935 w.s the lengthiest statute ""er pas..,d by the Parliament in theu.K. Sin<:e the framers of OUr Con.titution adopted !hisslatute

tQtho Uppe< Houseotc

have been accorded special bertefils underthe Constitution.

• The detailed chapters on the Fundamental Rights, Centrestare Relations, DirectivePrincipleofStatePolicy(DPSP),Em .... gencyprovisions,Fundamental duties ete. have contributed to ~~~ngthYSizeoftheConsti-

Parliamentary System

• Unlike the United States of America with its Presidential executive and the Swiss ConstitutionwithHsco\legialeexecutive,thelndianConstilutionproposes. Parliarnentary system of gcvernrnent/or th~ country. This is b«ause of the Brili..h infI"""",

LSov''''ign Sod.!;,! 5eruIa:r Democratic Republic

2. !:;,:I;;nge5tConstitutionmth.

3. ~:~tment.ry 'Y"t~m of govern-

"Agr,all •• der'scourog.tofulfllhisvtslonoome,lrompa.s.lon,nolpo.ttlan.'

• Our Constitution incorporales a set 01 Fundamental RightsguaranleoMltoall dti2.ens of India. PartlUoltheConstitutionwhici1 containsUArtides(Article12to 3S)dea19 with .ixeategone.of theFundam~ntaIRlghts.

• Similarly there are 11 Fundamental Duties incorporated in theConslitutiOn-lO provided by the42nd Amendment Act 1976 and one duty added by Mth Amendment 2002 of the Consti tution. llIese areadd<'CI in Article Sl_Ain the o...pte,ofDPSP

• !eo~~':~~nsth~.:":;: o~ .'\ U' In k~~ing with their aim of ~e':;;:l~~~j!:~~~ ~r~~~7~. a~~ ~n~~~~t:~ti~d~~

th ..... direct;v"" i$ thot the p"arty f?und,ng lathers pro~'de<:l for one holding the reign of admini •. SIlIgle cihzenship de.plte the federal tntion,houldlmplementthese structure

Conslitutionalide... TndependenlJudkiary

Parliamentuy Sovereignly Vs. Judicial Supremacy

• IntheBritishParhamentarysystern the Parliament is supreme and &overeign. There are no limitations on its powers. In the US system the Supreme Court has assumed supremoC)'. In India, the Constitution has arrived at a middle course and a compromise between the Bntish Sovet('ignty 01 Parliament and the American Judicial Supre=q

• Wea"'govemedbya",leoflaw and judicial review of the

• [J'r:;~rtioni.morepowerfuithan

• There is a provision of ernergcncy in which Ihe state governments can be auspended and put under the cenlral administration.

• The appointmmt of Governors, theprovisionsofalllndiaserviceA.integrat...Jjudiciary,single citizenship etc. are some of the features in our Constitution whici1promoteurtitananism.

• Thi. ha. led critics to s.y that our

CON5TlTUTION is partly

unitary or a 'qu •• i·lederaJ· one.

• n_"", ,hat th.re isa happy blend between Unitananism and Fedcr.lisminourConslitution.

Fundamental Rights, Duties and DPSP

administrative action is an essential p;!rt 01 the rule 01 law. Thus courtsean determine not only the constitutionality of the law but also the pto<.'edural part 01 the adminiolTOtive action But, since we have a writlenConstitution and powers and functiOI\!l of every organ are defined and delimited by the Constitution.thereisnoquestionof any organ being absolute sove'"'gn

• Both the Parliament and the SupremeCourtareSuprem~in their re.pective sph"res. While SCcan declare. Law passed by Parliament ultra vires as being violative of the Constitution. Parliament may within certain restrictiOI\!l amend most parts of the Constitution.

Adult Franthise

The Constitution 01 India established an independent judiciary with powers of judicial review. The High Courts and the Supreme court form a single integrated judicial .Iru~""'ithj-urisdictionoialllaws _ UniOn. State. Civil. Criminal or Constitutional. Unlike US. inlndia the mtire judiciary is one hierarchy ofrourts; there is no sep.rate/ederaJ and state rourt system

Procedure for the Crntion of New States

• Art. 3 deals with the lonnation of a new state out of the territories ofihcexi.ting$lates

• Nobillforihcformationofnew states or alteration 01 the boundariU or nameS of the existing states.h.all be introduced ineiiher hoU6e of the parliamenl, exO'pton the recommendation of the President.

• ThePresidentbeforeintrodudng the Bill in the Parliament, shall reierit to the state Legislature concerned for its opirtion within aspecifi...Jtimelimit

• The Parliament Is nnlbound to acceptor.ct upon the viewl of the state legl&latur •.

Five Modu of Acquiring Citizenship

tu Bybirth:Bornonthe80ilof


(il y Registration : Certain caie-

va' ~=ns~~ ~nt('·;l~~ri:~~d:

• fOTe thc prescribed authority

(a) People of Indian ongin

(b) Citizen. ofa country men_ tioned in the Ii ... t ochedulc (c) Woman married to an Indian


(ill) By Ducent: A person from outside lndia on or after January 16,I9SOshallbeacitizenol India ilhis father ls a citi2.enof India at ihe time of the person's


(iv) By Naturalis.o.tinn ,A foreigner

can acquin! dti.zenship on application lor naturalisation to govemment 01 India. A person acquiringciti.en.hlpby naturalisation has to take an Ollth of ~~!iancebytheconstitutionof

(v) By IncorpontlonofTnritory:

If any new territory becomes a partoilndia,theGovemmentof India specilies the persoru;of that territory who shall be dtizensoflndia

• The three modes of 1000ing citi· o:ensrupareasfollnws·

(i) Renunclotlon: An Indian citizen may voluntarily renounce hi. Indian dlizenship


(ii) Tennination :Termination ,---------;A="',:::,.= •• "",::-';::'.=M':;::.ru='.=-.------,

~.~;;:~ ~~~n~~~e·~~~ I::---Am~'cl<--===.o===--------i

pcrsonvoluntarily.cquires Art-l..j

citizenship of some other country

(iii) Deprivation: This is a compulsorylermination of the citizenship oblainedby Regislralionor Naluralisation on ctJargesot using fraudulenl means to acquire thecilizenstJip.

• The Indian C<lnstilution. though federaI,prov;des fm a single cihzenship, namely, the citizen' shipoflndia

Citizenship Amendment Act 2003

• The Act has amended IheIndian dtizeTWlip Act. 1955 and pr(]vides for acquiring oversea. cilizenshipol India to peoples 01 Indian origin (PIOs) in sixteen countries who have acquired cilizenshipinthoseoountries

• These countries include USA, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand.tbeNetberlands,France, Portugal Italy.

• The Act defines overseas citizen


1 (a) 01 Indian origin. being a ~",,,,. Constituti6nal Protection to Sc:.and ST.

(» ~~~~~~~~~~~:~~~;~~~~~~{~~~~::~:.~~

2. and is regisleredas ov ..... as .Arj.}7.ooli,hesuntowfubmtyandlhe.~hastop""",hisinnocen'"

citizen of India by union • TbeP,..,.id<'JIti •• ",powernltodrawup.li.tofSCs/sTsinronsultationwitl.

gOVffl\ffient ~~.tat<.g<>vemorole;,Ch.tate,ubjecttoP.rli.mentaryam""dments(Art:l41.


: ~:ti~ %~v,;;:~::~~:r.rt.

• Hi. property right. and all hi.

;E,tm~E;.~;::~1 ~~t:

• H. may be given 'peci.l


• Howe.er they will not enjoy oquality ofoPpo,"",nity in public employment.

• Norightlov<rte

• :!ght to hold oon.tltutlon.'

• ~.,';l;!;~t:r::er!ect~tu: tho

;:.:::: ;f"::~~~dmj"ion. establi.hmeni 0' Citizenship

~,;;;~ ...... ntalR;ghlS

Dutiesofa citizen of lndi •. It w ••• dded by th. 42nd Amendmentinl'176.nd86thAmendmen~2002.

Govt .• t !he Union l".el.

De.lswitl."ates In P.rj·5 of tj,o FirstSchodul •. !tw ..


Territories in Port·D 01 the lirst Schedule and other t.rrilories.ltw<I5"""",ledby7thAmendmentinl956. Scheduled and Trib.lareas Relalionsbeiw"",,\heUni<m aruI Slates.

Finan",. PropErty. Contr.ctsetc.

f.rt-Xlll Art-301.J07 ~~~~. Commen:e and Travel within the territory of

Part·XJV-A Art-323A-ID-BAddedby.ft'!!J~dArn.ndm.ntin1976.ndde'I'

with.~lnl'lr.ti .. tribun'I'tohe;,rdi.pute'.nd

P.rt_XV Art-3l4-3l9 ~e:·~~Commisslon

P.rt_XVI Art-J3Q.34Z ~~provisionto"'''''ind''''''sr/5C.ndAnglO

Part_XVII Ar>--3tl-35~06:~:Langu,~

~::::l! ~~ =~i:~~=:~'~ding~'=i:lth¢

· ~_= Commission 01 SC/ST i. setup by the 65" Am<ndm<nt Ad in I_

· =."t. National Commissions /0, SC •• nd ST. vide 99th Amendment Ac~

• !".:~~j!:: ~~~ t~~P;~7:.:e~~~:i~~:nintoto':"~;:' t:'~:;:~~ti~ti~~

· ;;:~~ '"'-"."""~ "., ,.~ ,. "':.':::::::.:: ,;:;::::;':;


· ~.~= lib M.P. Bihar"". there ,holl be miroisters inohiU"S" ofSC/ST .nd OBC

.The",.",..,.ts""dro""tjtu""des~forsc.andSTs.lti.atempo,"'Y provi:;ion thatru.sbeen .. teruled every ten y •• rsso I ..


Sdood~lel,Dea"withthebmiloriesolthe2!lst.leO.nd7union""";toriesoi thelndJ..,UnIon.

SdoH~I. 2,0 .. 10 with the saJories, allow~ .le. of the I'r<!old<n~ Vice-

~=!""~~U!~"oIthe5uPr=.eCourtondHi8h<Ou,..,,thecornPlron .....


~=~1~.~~::=:.:."':=!·,~V~~., ... nd union """;Ion.om

theRajyoS.bho(CouncilofS .. ",,)

Sdo.dul.~:D .. I'w;ththe04"'inistt.tion.nd"""'rolmth.""h.dul.d • ...as ... dochodul<:dlri~ Sch<:dul.6,De,I,wlthpfQVisiooregarding,dmini,tr.tionoftriboloroa,in,ru, stalesofA ... m,MogholoyaandMizor.m.

Sdo.dlll.7'Del.il$the.ubjectsconWnodinth.tl1reell ... ·Unionli.t.St.te Llot ond Con<u,,,,nt Li.~ overwhi<" the Union ond .1.,. go •• mm.nts"njoy outhority.

~~-:.::e8,GI ... th.li,tol22"'gion.llilngu.g .. ««>gn!<edbytl1.

Sdo<:dul.9,eontaIM=WnAruandregulationsolthe ... t.legislotu", deAlin3w1tl1londmonnsand.boIitionofthe .. mindiIrloysten.n-Actsand regulil\lono~pro«<te<llromjudiciol..,."tiny_

Sdtedu10 10 ,'I1u. ScMdulerontains pro>isions 'WrdingdJJqu.olificotioru on gn>W><Ioofdofect\on.

Sch<:dut.n,Dtst'lbuHonolpowersbetweenthe.t.t.logl.l.tu ....... dth ....

::;:~;i;~r:§?~~t~;;~~~ b.~een the ".t. and mu,,~~


H.l>t •• Corpu.(Ut.rollyilm •• n.·lo .... ve._y1, wrilmear..fo.-p."""n.I_.When.perscnl ••



Corth ... rl(lU.r.lly"' ..... ·"'''"'oortlfi.d·),Th"ughpro!>ibiUon.ndoerti'''''ri

ayf~t~::~~';:~~i~~~~~~}~~:1l£FE~~~~X:~\~~ 0£~~;!~

Quo WOrT>"t" , Quo W''''niO I •• writ. which Is "oro to pre • ."t Illeg.1 ",",umptionoianypubli<olliceoru,urp.tionof""YP"bli"offlcobyonybody.

Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy

• The Fund8"'~nt.1 Rights (FRs) are justlci.ble. whereas the Directiv. Principles of Siale Policy (DPSP)a""non·j1istireable. If • Fund.mental Right is

;!~l:~:;,,~~~ tkr;~;~~ne~~~~

or the High Court and .eek :~:~d.by getting t"e right

However,ifaOi~vePrinciple as embodied in Part IV is viol~ted,l\Ooourlcanrometothe rescue of the aggti.v~d party . Art. 35 of the ConAt!iution provid ..... ·thestal.shallatriveto promOt.. the welfare of the people bysecuringandprotecti"sas effectively a~ It may •• social o,der in w"ich jualiC<l, social, economic "n" politi~&L shall inforrnalltheinstitulionsofthc national HIe. In this ortide, the


wo,ds·$lrive·i.deHbe,atelyused because the adverse <ireum.· lances in the rountry may not lead to the fulfillment of these principles imme<!lalely.11ilit is why th ..... principles a", made non-ju.lireable.

• The Fundamental Rights declared in Part 11l of lheComlilulion lay the IoundationcfparUamentary democracy in IndiB. whe",a.tM aim of the DirecUve Prindples is to.chievetheobjectiveofoocial and economic d~mocracy- in Ih. country. They do not form a cornplel~ blue-print nOr do they conslilulea CIlt·and·drifll and rigid programme, but they reflect the Ioundingfathers' d""i"" tQ p""","belh.aleverygovemment

§o~cs:e::a::ng .boul ec1>"

Inshort.theDi~v.Principlea o;m.titule.veryromp~msive

politic.l. sodal and economic programme for a modem dernoa-aticSlate. Mosto/lhern aim at the establi.hmt"l1t of the economic sodal democracy which is pledged in the rr..amble.

The Fundamenlal Right. are prorubitivelnnalure.n.ey .... lnthe natureolinjunrtlorutrequiringth. state not to do certain thing •. n.ey are thus ne-gative in ch.racter and p,ohibirthegov~nlfromdolng certain things. On Ih~ othe, hand, DPSP"", certain posiUv.obligations of!hestatetow.rd.itllciti ....... 1hey are affirmative in,truotions to the govemrnent to do certaln INngs


Unhke the USA. where the system of dual citiztmship la In vogue, the Indian Con.titution provides single citizenship.

• It implie. that irre.pective of bir!hor residence, all Indians"", entitled to enjoy civil and


• However,the""are""ceplionstc I"i. rute when .ppl!ed 10 Kashmir. No one other thn perrnanentresidenlcfK.ashmir, can acquire I.nded properly in Kashmi,. But this i. merely a Iransitoryprovision

The Preside"t i. to hold offi"" for a terJl".of five years from lhed~teon which he enters upon hi.offi"". He may resign belore th~ expiry 01 his term 01 olliee. The Constitution providesth.! therre-ide"t may. by writingunderhishand.ddressedto the Vi",,·Pr~sident ""'ign from his office.TheVice-P"",idenlisrequi$i 10 rommunicate such <e5ignationto the Speaker 01 th~ Lok Sabh. immediately. The P""'ident may al50be

~';a:!~~ the procedure of 1)!fe~i:i~:~~~n~~~.:::: o~o:;;

ProcedureOfElectionoftti~ndChoiC1'Voters.Thecxe~""i5 President ~conhnuedtlllo""olthecand'dates

elect:~ ~~I~::~~ ~c:!~~a~c:~~ :=~oa/b:;t~t~.:.aIOrity 01 tol.1

thesystemofproportion.lrepresen. Powers oflhe President t.tionbymean~olsingletram/etah1e vole. 1"heelector.1 oollege consists 01 (a) the elected memhets of holh House. of Parliamenl and (b) the electe-d members 01 the legislative

assembli of the stales {Art. S4)

The h.llbe unifonnity of

n'pf1'Sentationofthedif~l.tates attheelectlonandp;!rityshallbe maintained between the states asa whole and the union (Art. 55) and thevoteofthestates,inlheaggreS"te,inlheelecloralrolleseforthe election of Ihe p",.idenl sh.1l be equ.ltolhatofthepeopleofthe counlry asa whol. {method of pro· portional represenlation with.ingle transferahlevote)

• Art.S·ll,laysdownthev.rious aspectsrelale-dtocitizenshipas to who is a citUen of lnd;a; how it is acquired andlosl. Art. 5 deals wilh ciliz~ru;hip by birth, descentandacquisilion

• Art.6nogul.t~theriShtofciti· zenshlp of persons who migrated from P.kislan 10 Indi. hefore

• Art. 7 dCAls with citizenship right. of those from India who migr"ledtoP~klst.n.flerMarch 1,1947

• ThecitizemhipAcll9SSgrants citizenshlp through five ways

(a) birth


{c)....gistr.tion (d)natutaliullion

(e) incorporation of I£nitory

Eleroon of Ihe President


P~~':;,t ?!I ~~~~!y .~~~:io,t,~~.::::

.d~i<e siv~n b~ '~e Cou .. cil 01

TotaInumbtorofvot .. olanMP Mini.ters ~eaded by .he Prime

Totalnumberolvotesas Mini .... , 'hough he d_have ,he

~ ~:rntm~ ~l=~~ ;;::id~~ •• ~:~u:'c~h:1 ~~:I;~d I~;

~i2S h:,~~t:~;L~t~c~~ni~ :5~:ftt~~: ~~n~d;~~~;OI~;;~;

and Ihe slales. Conscqu~nlly Ihe to the Pre>ident.

PreSident represents nol only the • Toluml.htoth.r .... id"nl.u"'"

Unionhulalso Ih.SI.t .... This also inlonn"lion Ihat Ih. Pre.ident

~i: the fedPraI char.cter 01 Indian ~::i~·l!/Ot~~n u:::~O:nl: ~:

No person con bededared as the • ~=::~:~"!Is~I::r""'t<l<-n1

President unl ..... he S<'<"U ..... mOre .11 decl,lonoof thrrouncil of

than h.lf.oflhetOl.l votes cast. Since minisle .. .:onceml"3throffoirsof

the eleCllon of Ihe President is hy iM Union and l!>o p«>poNIs for


transferahle vOle, the next5tcp is to ooubmltf<>rtt..consider.lionof

ascerrain quota. To determine Ihe c: thecoun<ilofminilt.~.nym."'"

quota, Ihe total number of v'lt~. on:".hi(h~mini""h •• t.ken.

~~:~~~vi~~~~~"m~~~jE ~;;~:t~~~.~!~ d.b.~ by lh.

and :y~::~e:~;:~~ Executive Pow~r5lncludc

Number 01 mller. to be (i) Th~ pow"r. af appai~'ment ;

e\«ted+l The Prcsidentoflndi •• ppoinb; the Prime Mini9ler, the Ccnlral Minislers,lheStale(;QvernoT$, Amb.ss.dors, Ch~irman and membeT$ of the ursc, the mem· beT$ofth.. Election Corrunission. Finan~e Commission, Altorney General of IndiA, the CAe,' SpedalOfficers/orSC,andSTs, ~::~~:fficer for linguistic

(ii) T,eMi .. wirhrkeFonlgt1Powers a •• n~oriM.dand.lgH""illhl.

(iii) ~:;:~diJs"ndnctive'Amba_ (iv) He can aiso iu,," dlrtcfive. to the .rde Gov.rnors In rertain txec"riw",,,tI.rs/o, co",,...

~:n~:I::t;A~ij:!::' ",ad. by

(,.) ThePr ... identaOOhuAdi",ct "'p",,$lbllity/or Ih. "d",lnis· fNriono/rheUnlonT."""orits like Chandigarh, Pondi(hery, Andaman. Lak::;h:.d..ep clc.

(vi) Th~ Constitution provides Ihat Iherellh.1I be a coundl of mini ... ters 10 'aid and advi9c·the I'REStDENT in .,ercise of his functions.Aspe,th.42ndA",,,,..

Total number of vot ... of.n MLA Population of the .Stated,videdhylOOJ TOIalnumberof electedMLAs

The Presidenlol Indio enjoys certain personal and legallmmu_ nities. He is nOI answer.bl.loany oourtinoonm:<:tion withexercjseof his powers. The powen;grante-d10 th.. Presidenl of India m.y be hroadly eJ""';fif!d under the lollowing head. (A) f.xl'<;utivfPowt'1'!I

Presidenfse"ffUtiveoradminis native power m.y be e.ercised by him o.by hi.subordinales in his nam". He .I~o hold. Ih. supreme corrunandollheArrncd Forces. Itis


RulesofBusine .. (.II""atlonofwork) for the Governmenl of India

Pn'6ide'\!andUnionCouncilof MinisteR

(FJ Military Powers Whil~ !he proclamation of .""',_

The supreme corrunand of all the seney i.l~ operation then the folio ... •

~~':7d~~~(~~i~~:c~tH:e~!~dd:I~~ ing~~.~~: ::~!jv. aut.hority of the

warbut;t •. exer~istoberegul"t<.'d ~ be<;Qm •• subordmate [0 the

~~rli~;~llt~~ ~~at:O;:~~~1 i~ P'fI;~~:: ::s~:v;<::;!o~;kj:~ ~

exerciseof .... chpowe1$_ 0 IawsonlheSLolelist

rei Diplomatic Power ~ (iii) The 0ref.lion of .tHcle 19

,.Iatinglo Right of f"""om, '!'ftCh andexp""",lonr.",.in •• usp<nded,

(;v)Tnep ...... ldomtj,.uthorizedlo

(C) Ordinance Making Powers :~!t=~~~:10~:ti~~;':i~

!::~~dealswitho'din.mre :~~n;:,~~~~~h:;t:7a~~ Rights.n<q>tt"'-inAnide20,and21 ~:;:~!n:'e°7se~x~:u:~vee ~:~.:d~~~ ~:~~~~~ Pa~:?":~. subject 10 "-" .. ,,,-='-='o"'''"''''"''.'",'_--.J

P Id f I d" h d:\')- Under.uch an emergency the Union

':::in;n;O:crs" :~ioh"~r;rC;:'~~~ ~8~~~:~~~a~O;I~~~~~ 3~h2~ ~;~,J:~; ~~:~:::n:/Oth:niat~:~:

2~~~~-:;!f'=E~~F~::;;~· =ernonnalorruJJ\Sta~the ::;~:r~w;~ke"';~~~~~~;tt~~

~ lronstituti I provisions a state subject. While an emergency is

: :: ~t'!::;;::I~~~aave a E3~:~0~~:~~ 0~b1i~:~nS~i~ti~~ ~;:~~~~ :~eOfritt~t ~~r!~~~~o:

Pariiament.rylegistotiononthe make" envisaged that abnormal remains suspended. The Pt-..sidentis

~:~: a: n~:7~:;;io~oth the ~~;~ior:~u7r~ ;~~'~o::~~~e~~i:~ :~f:rC:~~~;~;~h~oco~~::e:fdot~:~

• On the advice 01 the Council of assume e~tr.ordinary powers_ The fundamental rights during emergeemergency provisions of the Cons- no",_ The 44'~ amendment substi_ titutionaremeanttobeusedinsuch tutedthewordintemaldisturbance

An ordinance may remain in byarmedrebellion.

fo~forsixw .... ksalterthe"'._m· bly of the Parliament unless it i. madeintoal'ariiamentaryActbefore or~cd (0) JudidaIPowers(Art.72) ~~!:~al Powers of ~ Pre!lident

• Power log .. nt pardon (completclyab..,lvetheoHendor)

• Power to reprieve (lemporary suspension of the scentence)

dm~Nt Ad, tI.t PRESIDENT is !::~:,.t"/d"!lSMd. ',,;dllnd

(8) LegislativePowers

The President has important powe ... in the field 01 legislation. The Pre!lidentis.nintegrolpartofthe Parliament

• He c"nsummon, prorogue the houses of the Parliament and dissolve theLok Sabha (Article OS,

• He may summon ioint sittings of both Houses 01 the Parliament (Article 86).

• Withouthisassent,n06i11canbe pas""" by the Parliament and be<:omelaw

• H.can.end messages to either ho",", 01 the Parliament on any pending matte ... Or on a Bill be{orethePariiament.

• He h.s the power to nominate 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and not more than two members 01 the Anglo--lndian community to the Lok Sabh.

• Power to commute

• Power to remit etc. (E) Financial Powers

• Annualfinan6aist.temcntislaid before Parii.ment in the name of thel't-esident(Art_112).

• A money bill cannot be introduced in LokSabha except on the rerommendation of the President

• The President appoints Ihe Finance Commission

• No demand for a grant Can be made exeept on the recommendation olthe President.

War. ASsression, or Anned Rebe_ llion. In other words, when the serurity or the national integrity is in danger, under Article 35201 the Constitution the President con pro· claim an emergency in case 01. serious threat to the nation, Or any part thcreof arising from external aggress;on or intemai rebellion. This emergency Can extend to the whole rountryorapartthereof.Thepro-damation will have to be approved by both thc Houses of Parliament within one month of its being issued

Effect of N.tio .... l Emergency

~~:~::~:ro~i:~K~::~E~~Z::b);,~ t.: __ d_',~",;~",i;.;on"'~":C",li~,-·"_"O_"---i

:~: ~~::~:nV:';!~:rt~: f~s~:: !:e~rocl.m"ion of emergency ....

controversial one_The Pre-sident<;an 1962---Chi ..... agg.-..sion(1 ..... tio-nal

proclaim thr .... different types of ~)

emergencies. These ace as follows 1971_PakiOlon war (2nd procl.m ...

Nationa! Emergency (Art. 352) 1975-J'~:;n.'1 disturb.n,. (l,d pro--

pro<~~~~~:! :;n:~ge:;~~<~e~::: L..c',""""!"'''!"O'-' -"

Stat~ Em~rgency (President's ,...",.---~~~-RuJe:rlide 355 01 the Constitution >-"_'---':"'!!"';~~~rt,,"~:,,~ .. E~;:;'-"'_"_~_1

lay. n duty on Ihe Union 10 ensure • !~r~c~~~\e b~o",t':mper~~~d~~~ ':

thallhegovernrnenlofeverysl:3teis ob",,,c,,,,rt.inprl"ciplesofero-

carried onconslilulionally. If Ihe nomyinpubUc .. penditure

~;~~e~~~ :~~e:07':;P~;~:- • ~:7m::~~;Y .. ~~~~s o:.;t.~

wise that the co""titutional machi- ;.:!;:;;; ~~~~l t~~jU;i;~ ;!~~:

neryofa.tatehasbrokendown,he oannott>e .. omp,odfromlhis.

canmakeaproclamationtothi.effeot • MoneyBilt.ofa'lateleg;"I.I~re

~rt~;l~:r~;:.c~n ~~ c::.v,!:.~:,:! ~~'~~":':::'~OILfor the

the imposition of p""ldenl's rule, • ~::':'.~! .h."~:,:::,,:ee.;

~:~=~:~,:::;:u:t:n:x:~;;:! L"""~~~"'~.~·-='-"'·_---.J

while the powers of the State Legis· months. In a financial emergency the laturecanbeexetcisedbyParliament. Union can give directions to the stales Parliament also has the right to to observe such eonnons 01 financial delegate the power to make laws for the st~te 10 the Presldenl or any authority de.ignated by it. A pro damationunderArtide356hastobe approved by Par!iamcnl within two months and CilIl be extended by it for a period of six monlhs al a time subject to a maximum duration of three years. But the duration is to be extended beyond one year. only if,

• proclamatlon ct EmergencyIs tn operation, or

• The Election Commis.ion certi-

fiesth.ttherearediffi""ltiesin ~_~;.- _

holding general elections to the

;::;~~;,"~~semb!y of the ~~--"-~"'-_----j

(i) AllfunrnonsoflheSlaleGO e'ceptins 1h0l of theS'ote High Court or" ... umed by the


(II) AltpowersofIhoSt.t.LegisI .... :~~i:~e::.moed by th~ Union

(Iii) TheP.rtiament "'.yat.., del ... ~~: •• powers to the

• Charge <an be initiated by ~Ither house with ot l~ .. , 1/41h of tho tota!membe~ipoltl...._

• ~v~:?···dv.nre""ti"'i.'Obe

• !£~:~?"~o~:: 7::-~h:r Q!

.=~~~~ ~::

• If the oth~r Hou .. p the

r •• olutionaflerfinding\he

=~ ~;~.th~:'J~~en' ... nd,

financial Emergency

tf th" President is satisfied that situation which threatens Ihe finandal stability and credit of Indi. ha$ ari""n. he can proc:laim a financial emergencyunderArtide:!-60 of the Constitution. Such. proclamation eon be amended by a subsequent one .ndith.stobe.pprovedbyoothlhe Houses of Parliament within two

Constitutional Position of


Prior 10 1976, there waS no e><press provision In the Constitution that the President was bound to act in



accordanre with the advice rendered. by the council of ministers though it was judicially est.blished th.t the President was oound to acl according to the advice of ministers

The Supreme Court held that Constitution has adopted the parliamentary form of government. In such an .rrangement the head of the state i~ not the real executive head. Ex.cutive power is;n coundl 0/ ministers responsible to the Parlia ment. Therefore, head of government is the Prime Mini<ler. Therefore, the President isoound to accept the .dviceofcouncil ofminister90. He can not do anything withoul the advice of Prime Minisler

Further. it is imperative to alway. have a council of Ministers Presidcntcannoll'Jdslorexerriserus

44th Amendment Act further amended the Art. 74(1)cmpowering the President to refer the advice to coundlofminisler/orreconsideralion. How~"er, he has 10 act accord· ing to the reconsidered advIce

Whdh~r Ih~ IndiAn Pr~Jid""t is ,an5ti".ti"nal"rafiK" .. h~Qd?

.. Constitutional head means office is mostly ceremonial but under e.tra·ordin.rysi!ualioni!is

:'-:':~ti~:~So~~' isw:~~i:~

and never functional

Discretionary Powers of the President

Ollice of Indian President is g~nor.lly "" .... moni.l but oometimes it becomes functional. In many situations President has to work out of hi. discretion. that is without advice of~oundl of ministers. Such powers of the President ar. called discretionary powers. Constitution does not say that President has discretionary power, but it can be inferred from the constitutional pro-

::i:~~.e;o;':e~:;tion.ry powers


(i) Art.74-Presidentcansomdthe

adviae fotteronsider.~o".

(ii) Prime Mini$tershall i",otmthe President obout theaff.i"Df state. Thcrd",,, Presid""l "." ""kfotsomcinform.tiDn.

(ill) Under conventiDn, President can advt~e the Council of Minisl<>rs.

(iv) Presiderttran",lecaparticuln decision for ,ol1ectiv~ consi· dec.~on, (Council ofMini~rors is collectively responsible to LokSabha)

(v) RightloseodanmdinaryBill fOTreronsidecalion

(vI) Presidentit"s 10 en.ure that nOI

:=. ':: ~:c~::~el=i~~:


(vii) lfnopo~tkalpartyen;Oy.dear majority Prcsident can invite any party which in hi., view cangivcst.oblegovcmment.

(viii)DissolutiDnDILokSabha;\n c ... of minority gov~rnment Pre';dentis nOl bound by the advice DfCDuncil 01 MiniMcrS 10rdissolutiDnof l<lkSabha

V~to PowW! ofth~ i'Te5ident

Art. 63 Df the Constitution of Gov~~!:t~~:l~a=~~~i~~::;:!

lndi" provides thai "theresh.ll be a Chief E.ccutive of the natiDn .nd V;ce-l'","ident of India:' Heisdecte<l wDrks as the Head Df Government. bythemembersDfthetwDHDu5eSm He occupies the central role in the

~:~~g~;l~i.~~n~::;~~::a~ ~.V:n~n~:::o~lili:~~e~~

·(A) Powers Related to Council of Min;sters

There are a numbec of functiDM oi the Prime Mini&ter in "'lation to lheCDuncilofMinisters.

• FonnationoftheMlnistry:The Prime Minister forms the ministry. The Prime Minister has Ihe prl"ilege to select his cabinet coll~agueg. The President can only appoint thDse persons u ministcrswhoarererommended by the Prime Minister.

• DiotrlbutiDn of portfolio! L. another important task of the Prime Minister. He has a free hand in a.'<5igning and reshuffling various departments tD his eolleagues

• HecanaskaministertoresignDr advise the prcsident todismioa himin"a<eofdiff~",m:eofopi-

• he caR5itov", the Bill indefinitely as the constitutiDn d""snot specify a time limit within which he shDuld gi"e his assent or Dtherwise.1t isc.lI~d pocket veto and is exercised when the political circumstances are uncertatn and the ruling party does nnt seem IDbe .• lable and pro mising.ln the ca!W: of the CDn8· titution Amendment Bill that i. p.5S('d duly, the P,esident is obliged tDgive his ..... nt to it IConstitution (24th Amendment) Ad. 1971]


ThePresidenl i.given a variety of vet (I powers in the Indian Conslitution. The Bi!1 that is duly passed by th.. Pa,]iamcnl become, nn Act only when it i. a ... nted toby the

~:~\~::;a~:;~~~~:~a~N f~~ ,em~:;~iso~;ff~:yi"o:i~ea{y:"';'~~~

Pre<ident.theoptionsthatheha.are: paS5ingaresolution-aitergivingaI4

• givcsasaenltotheBiUafterwhim day.· noti~ to that effect and Lolt

tt becomes an Act Sabha a=pting the same

• rcjedsitonwhkhlheHilllap""-, Uiscalledanob..,lutev .. tuandi. nucised generally by the Presidenlin the raS<' Df. Private member's Bm (private mcm~r is a member 01 P.rliament whDi. nota Mini.tcr) Dr a Bill n;:..,rv .. d for his assent by thegDvcrnor. The latlec can be n;:turncd for

\ repassageby the concern"'! statc legislatun;:anynllmberofHn1'"

• he may "'turn it for ,econ,idecaliDnby the Parliam .. nt. But if the Bill is again passed by the Patlianlent, his .ssenl is man~::r)', It i~ called .u;pen.ive


Functions Qf the Vlc e- Pres;dent

There ore no functiDns alta~h"" 10 the office of the Vice-President and all functions are those of the Chair· man Df lhe Rajya Sabha which the Vice_Pre.ideol becomes in his exofficio capacity. He pre>ides o,""rthe meetings of the Rajya Sabha but being not a mernbeT of Rajya Sabha, hcc.nnot vote, All bllls, resolutions, motio""Otquestionacon be ultenup by the Rajya Sabha only with his con""nt. The Vice-President is the ~pokes·person of the Rajya Sabha. ff the President i, unable todisch.,.ge his lun~tiDn. due ID hi •• b~enoe, illncssoranyothcrcau .. ,theVke-

President will dischorge all the functiDns until the President resumes his duties

The Prime Minister

The Dffice Df the Prime Minister first originat"" in England and is borrDWed from then;: by lhe maker. ofDur Constitution. Art, 74(IJ reads. "th", .. shall be a Council of Ministe .. with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and ad"ise the PresidentwhD shall,intheexerciseofhisfunctiDJUi, actinaccordancewilh.uchadvlce. Powers and FunctlDns of th" Prime Minister

• He presides Dver all the meetings of the Coun~il of ministe .. aod


• He guide., cDntrols and co· ordinates the activities oi the

• Hccanbr;ngabouttheeollapse Df the Council of ministers by re!ligningfrom theoffia. at any pointmtime.

• Th.PrlmeMini.teriath.Chalr· m.n of the Cabinet Committee

He COnvenes and presides over. all the rneetings of the cabinet. He

is to lix Iheagcndaofsuch meetings

• He acls as Ihe Chairman of various standing and Ad_h..,< Commiltees oflhe <abinet.The Prime Minister is the 'Chief coordinator of the policies of sever.l departments. In case o! ~onnicts between two depart· ments,heactsasthemedi",or.

Prime Minister at the Head, The formation 01 the Council of Mini.ters begins with Ihe appointment of the Prime Minisler and others Ministers areappOintedbythePr<:sidentof India on the recommendalion of Ihe Prime Minister. Art. 75(1) says Ihal "Ihe Prime Minister shall btl appointed by the President and oiher Ministers shall be appoin-ted by the Presidenlon the advico of the Prime Minister,"

(H) Coordinating with the


• The Prime Minister's the sole

All the ministers of the Council of ministers can be categorized on the basis 01 status and ranks into three


(2) Ministers of State, and (3) Deputy Ministers

I N{f~;;::;:;:=j eP~:t:i~~t:sM:~~st;o~:f::t:~

~ ~""f!erentministersa«ordingtOlheir ranks

The Union Government, while agreeing thaI the Cabinelshould be a compact body, decided that its size could not be detennined on the basis of any rigid pattem. The fonnation 0/ the Cabinet is a political maUer and the Prime Minister's discretion in r<:gard to its size is final. The Cabinet is an inner body of the Council of Ministers. By convention and tradition the Cabinet dominates the Coun'

• He has the right to intervene in any debate in the LokSabha.

(D) As Leader of the Nalion

• ThePrimeMini.terislheleader of the nation. He is the Chief spokesman of the governmental policies in the Parliament.

• He is also the chief spokesperSon of the country and represents th€ countryintemationally


th~mo<!import.ntofliC(: under the Constitution.

Ouliesof CAG

• To audit aU expenditures from th~Sta"'.andsubmittheReport to the Presidenl or the Govemor, as the case may be.

• To ensure that all expenditures from the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI> or States are in accordance with the law

• To oversee that the money sanctioned by the Padiamentor StaleL<>gislarureisbeingspent for the particular purpose for which iI has been issued

Functions of the Council I)f Ministeu and Ihe Cabinet

(a> ~"::'~~~~~ei:~d Implemen-

The supreme legisl.ture of Ihe Union of India is o"lIed the

(b) ~=~:~~nd Control of an peak in the Par1iam~ntary =;r~:~:~:..~~na;;,r;l:r:oi"~~ (c) ;';"o~~:~~es of Depart- ~~~:a~~ansa~~d R:~:mfab~:) ~~ =;~~:~~! ~i;o:-"~:ce' !rl~c:

(d) ~Ia.tive Fun~on ~~ without a right to vote ;::'!'Y~!:!"s~ ~:h~eC,:~~ti:en 0:

(e) Flnan.aai Function ~ Privileges of the AGI Parliament for the Union which shall

Attorney ~~~~;al of India .ny=::=y':""",=~': ~;:~; ~~~=d:~;I;W~

he is not a .full time appointee and ~~~~::e~ States and the House

~~i~:;~.h:!.7-:t~:r~7a~;: com~o;:::o!t;:i;:~:nt and ~~:~:e~1 ~~e ::;;~~o~~~:r~ two Housesof the Parliarnent.

andfourAssistantSolicitors-GeneraL • LilceotherfederalConstitulions 01 the world, the Parliament 01 India is bicameral in structure

• The two Houses 01 Parliament are known as Council of State. (Rajya Sabha) and the Houst of the People (LokSabha) ThePresidentollndiai.apart and parcel 01 OUt Parliament. It Is an imitabon of the Bribsh pattem where thekingisa partel Parliament. He i. to .ummon, prorogue both the

The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG)

Art. 76.t.otes that the Presidenl shall appoint a person who i. quali· Iledtobeappoinleda/udlleofthe !:t=ae court to be Attorney Gme-

Go",,'!!:,~o~~~~tl ~f!~::~ti~~

th.t after the change 01 the Govem· ment the Attomey Gener.1 resign. and the new Govemmentappoints oneofilSownchoices

He is appointed by the Pre$ident for a full term oi 6 years or till 65 years of ose whichever is earlier. He i. the rustodion of the public purse, controllinstheentirefinancialsystem ~:.:~~ country_the Union and the

He advise. the Government 01 India on any legal matter. He performsanylegal dutie.a •• ignedby the President of India. Hedi.charge8

-Th& Opposlt. of oourog. !n our ,oclety IB no~ cowardl"", 11 I. conformlty"

Houses 01 Parliament and dissolve the LokSabha.

The Parliamentary system 01 governrnent waS intro<iu",d in india in a limited scale during the days of the British Raj. The Government of India Acts 0/1909, 1919 and 1935 set up legislative bodies both at the Centreandtheprovinceginlndi •• nd established the limited Parliamentary govemmentinthiscountry

Powers and Funotions of Parliamenl

The Constitution o/lndiaenumerates in deta!! the powers and funotions of the Indian Parliament Like the British counterpart, the PARLIAMENT of India is not a fully sovereign legislative \;>Ody. Jt does not enjoy unlimited and absolute powers like that of the British Porliarnent. Itis a creation o/the Constitution. As it is created by the Constitution. it is ~~~:tu~~n the provisions 0/ the

The powerS and flmotions of the Indian Parliament maybe gP.neralised inthefollowingheads

(A) LawMaking Powers

• The Parliament 0/ India is competent to legislate on all matters that are enumerated in the union list and the concurrent list of the Constitution

• lnth~concurrentlist, theParliamentand the state legislatures

:~:~~~j~~~tti~~~~~~e~:~-Q. for the approval of the Parlia-

madeundertheconcurrentli~ ment.

:: ~t:~:nl~~w p;~~X:v~~:~ • The Parliament also approves 0/

law has nol received the earlier all proposals by the Unlon

.. ."nt of the President govemment to impo,", ta~es Money biIIs can originale only in

• The Union Patliament is also the Lok Sabha. After they have

compotenttomakelaw50nthe been passed in the LokSabha,

~:~m~:!n:d.er the following :~:;;o::~ 10 the Rajya \"bha

lutionby two-thirds majorityofitsmemberspresent and voting that it is necessaryinthenationalinterest that the Parliament should make law with regard to any matter enumerated in the.tate li.t, thenlhe

~a:!';::':nis ~tm';:17e~\~~

the whole or any part of India. This provision is made in Ar!. 249 of the

(iii) The Parliament is oompetent to legislale on any matter portaining to ihe state list if such legisIalion is deemed necessary for theirnpIementationofintemationaltreaties or agreements condu· ded with f<:>reign states

Committee. These two committeesexercise financial control over the execulive on behalf of the Parliament.

• Therearec~rt.initemsofexpenditure included in the budget which are not votable in the Padiament. Theseitemsindude salaries of Ihe President, the judges <:>f the Supreme Court, the members of the Union Public Service Commission etc. They are charged on the Consolidated Fundo/lndia


TheParliamenl keeps a day 10 day watch over the activities of the exerutive. As ours is a Parliamentary systemofgov~rnrnent, the executive


(i) When the ProcIarnalion of emergency is in operation, the Parliament can make

:~: ~t::Ks~~e:: :~:!~ th~

declaration 01 the President's rule in any state, the Parliamentis·compotentto legislate on any matter induded in the state list.

(ii) In normal times, when the Rajya Sabha passes a reso-

• Within 14 days the Rajya S.bha is expected to give itsronsenl. Th,.s, the power of the Rajya Sabha is limited with regard to moneybiIIs.

• Further, to keep a vigil On the way the executive spends the money granted by the legislature, there are two standing commit tee. 01 the Parliarnent They are the Public Accounts Committee and the Estimates

• Members of Parliament have a rightlo ask questions and supple ::;t.ry questions to the minis-

• Adjournment motions may be moved to di>cuss serious admi_ nistrative lapses. Through ad journment motions, matters 01 public importance can be brought tothenoti~olthegovernment by the members 0/ the Parlia-

• There is also a Committee on th~ Ministerial Assurances appointed by the Parliament to see that thepromise.madetotheParli._ mentby the respective ministers are fulfilled. In this matter, the LokSabh. i. more powerful than the RajyaSabha

The Parliament is competent to amend the Constitution. Both the Houses have equal powers,o fara. amendment of the Constitution is roncemcd. A bill to amend the Conslitution may originate either in the Rajya Sabha or in the Lok Sabha Unless it is passed by both the Houses with the required majority, the amendmentcal\!lotbee/Ie<:tive

Judicial Powers

PDIMa.-.:hl20071152316 ' -To I • .,.love I. to I • .,.rue, o.nd thINl. who I • .,.ru • .,.. alre&d,y tl1ree pllrt. dead.·

The Constitution has vested in ihe Parliament the power to irnpeach

~:;~~~:: ~eju~~':;!te ~=:::""~;;:;;::;;;;;;;':==l

Supume Court and High Courts, The quorum to Constitute •

Auditor General, Members of the ;:'.';ji~:,~~f,~:t;: o~:'~=tno!1 :~:

Public Servi<:<: Commission etc total number 01 the members 01 the

While the "'SOlution for impea- hou .... II at any time during the

=~~:.:o;;~ A~ :':u~:7;rl~ ;u":~~ i~f ~Uho~~h. ~:~; :r ,~~

Approval of both the HOU8CS is ~~~~::; .~d:~·'i~r.~~~r~%;,,:.";h~

necessary for any Impeachrnent Houaeorto,uspendtNomeetu1gunht

Elecumo.lPowers .r....,1s.qucrum.

The Padiamentparticipate,in the electlon of the President and the

• The",a",threetypesolsessjOflli as per Ihe Parliamenlary prac·

1 B"dget • .,..ion:Trusisthe most importanland longesl session of the par1iament.I! ocCUrS between Febn..lary and May.

2 Mon800n ot55ion This session taJuos place during /uly-August oflhe year.

3 Winterse •• ion:ThisiAthe 6hortest se.sion of the Parliamentand ocCUrS during NovembEr-December

Joint Sitting of the Parliament


• [t ~lso elects 110m<: 01 its membo:rs to various committ...,. of the Parliament.

• The Vi<:e-Prelident is elected by both the Houses 01 the Parlia· ment. He is removable by the .e""lution of the Rajya Sabha agr-eedtobytheLokSabha.

Parliamentary Privileges in India

Article lOS deals with the joint .ittingof the Houses I .•. LokSabha and R'ly' Sabha together. Th~ President summons a loint sitting of f---===---j Porli.mcntinthefollowingc""",:

bill or non·Oloney bill. It ha, tobo: resotvedinojoin',ittingtnwhlcheach memberofeach~hutovate. nu. obviou,ly, gives on od •• n .. ge to Lok

TM iwomoJI impo,lanlpriuil<su S.bh •. It. will be inv.ri.bl~ p,..v.U

o/,,,,,mbersojParJiammJan bec.u"" "f it.nu,,,,,rlc.t.up0rio,lty.

(a) Freedom of 5peech in the Hou"" :~;~i~:!~~~m; ::;!~t ~lt~::t:::~

and immunity from l<>gal _clion de~dlo<k on the Dow." Prohi!>iticm

in re-spect 01 anything said Or • bill on which the 'wohouses had

do"" by him in Parliament Or in fin.lly di •• greed. Th •• ~rond ioint

::~f the committees 01 Parli.- ys passe E~~\~r~r:::E~~i£~ =

(h) Another privilege i ". immunity .~ PreSident may call fo~i~. :i:~ the day. Th. thin! J ..... , .!w...g took

f t d f ;t~~ ,- ~~n::" ::;.':!o~:;,. !::i~~2~ :1:

:F1.:m~~~~~:~~ ~i;~~~;fp~::.~:~r~~:l esv- Bill wa. passed by 425 102%.

=.:~~~r~.the • ~:r~~!~~!~~~i:~~ L.:.:C:':."',"'s~!=:"-:.':a.'-,=a!=,::=~'--.!~-':;;.-.""--',,

The Privilege "I Ireedom 01 agree either as to the provisions parliamcnlary..,.;sionknowna.

arrest oppHes only in Ovil ca..,S 01. of the BiUas introduced or oito S""<I.I ..... ion

clvilnatun':andoperatesduringthe the amendment. propos<:d by * The Special Session 01 the

""ss;on 01 Parliament and 40 days, either Hou .... the machinery Parliament c;ul bo: convened

before and after. I'rovided by theCQnSt:ilution lor by the P",sident on Ih~

Another important privilege of resolving such a deadlock is • recommendMions of the

the Parliament is the power to joint.ittingof the twohouscs Coundl 01 Min;sters on the ba<isoI14daysoladvanct! notice 10 the Chainnan o • ~':Speaker,asthe~may

* In another case if the Lok Sabha isnOI in ,",ssion, not less than o",,-Icnlh 01 the members can write to the iPresident for convening a specialse",;on


Sessions of P.,.lIament

swnmonpef"!lOTIS. 11>eParliamentcanai.'lopunish membo:rsand outside ... for breach of

• A sessio,,;' the period of time =eentheme.-tingolaparlia-

• Thereisno'pcdficationsonthe sessions the parUam~nt. It only specifies that there should nol bo: • gap of more thansi>< months

~~~~a:::':n~wo ~ittings of the


Theotherlmportantprivilegl'Sof both the Houses of Parliament are the right to publish debates and proceedings,therighttoregul.tethe intemoloffal ... oftheHou,",.


How the Parliamenlary Session Com ... lo.n End?

Jftheparli t'ryses,ion<ioe.notend normally, ilcancome to an endbythe lollowingp

• ::rtion, It is done by the President on theadYice tJithe Council of Minisl<", which brings the Parh.mentory session to


• "",om,"" ,,":::::::::,'

• Adjournment Sine die; When the house is adjourned by the pr.siding officer without Ii>:ing any time/date 01 the next meeting,'Thismotion <ioesnotend the..,ssion, but only suspends iI orpostpones it lor 'ome hme

Q" .. ,ionHo""ThofuncboningtJi.dayinPorH.m""'get'".lIy ... rlswithQuestionHour during which questions • ..., .,ked by the membE,.,ondifferen';,"ues and topics and answel'8 ore provided by the "",<emed M;nis"'"

Zero hour: This perle><! follow> the Question Hour. Generally bEgms a' noon. h.n", tho nam€ Zero Hour. The members norm.llyu .... ",hourfordisrussionsonv•rious;"ues

Qumum, ftis theminirnumnumbErofmemberswhosepresenceis .... ntial '0 transactthebusinessof,he Hou ..

Vote 00 Ac<ount: The vote On .«'OWlt generally enable; the g<lV€rrurum' to draw ""me amount from the Consol;dated Fund oflnd;.,asthe", usuaUy ",m.;ns. bmo S.pbot\WOn !he pr..."tat;onol,heannual Budget and its approval

Guillotine; The.<,ofpulling'.llthe domand,lor grant to ",to, withoutdis<uss;o~on'h.l .. t day earmarked for the

::d::~;:;:~~E=!;:~~:;,:0;,:;~wrsro7~::~~:!~~:~~~:I:;:~amen, meet. for the~t

QUESTION HOUR .,..,0 ...... •


I ,~<Sj'

• H;s the lower house of the Parliamentwhose members are directly elected by the people by universal adult francruse

• The term of the House is five years beginning from the date of the commencement of its first session. The Pre.idenl may. however. dissolve it earlicr

• The DraftingCommiUee subsequenUy changed it to five years

• The Constitution 42nd Amendment Act 1976 had extended the period from 5 years to 6 years .

• The Janata Governmen, had again restored it to five years by the Constitution (44th Amend mentJAct.197B


• The Con.litulion ha, fixed the maximum strength of the Lok Sabha at552;outofwhicb

* not more than 530 members are to be elected dire<Otlyby the people Irom different state. of India [Artide81(1) (a)l;


-True oourage "' & r .. ul~ of '."Gnlng,"

union territories [Artide 81(1) (b)~

* In addition, not more than

2 members can be nominated from the Anglo Indian Community of Indi. by the President, if he feels that the community i. not adequately represenled in the Parliament (Art. 331).

• Theele<OlionlotheLokSabhai. conducledonlhebasisofadult

• Each constituency .ends o!'e represcntative to the Parliament.

• The nllmber of such seats in both Houses of the Parliament has been fixed by the Constitution Presently the strength ofLok

Sabha i. 545, out ,,( which 530 members are to be chosen by direct electiollS,13representativesofUts,2 Anglo-Indian membe .. a", nomi· natedby the Presidenl. As per 2001 cellSuspopulalionoflndiaisl.OB billion.TI",.LokSabhahaving543 members, I member ,ep", .. nts about 1.9 million people. QualificationforMembership

To be qualified for election to the LokSabha,acandidatcshouldpos· sessihelollowingqualificatiollS

(a) He must be a dtizcnofIndia

(b) He must be not less than 25 years of age

(c) He must possess such other qualifications as may be rar~bedbytheParliamentby


EachM.P, (MemberoltheLok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) get. a monthly salary and a constituency aIlowanee per month and secretariat expenses as decided by the P ARLlAMENT and he is entitled to a pension per month for a tot.ll period 01 .. rvicein the PARLlAMENT.


remains as a 5peakeT until a new person is cho .. n by the new Lok Sabh3

Functions of Ihe Speaker

;;:::=-==-=-=::..:;:!I¥------~. :.~!!;~:e:n~e:,:~~~si~

I- ""'_""'l"""'''''''''''''''''''- ~ • He adjourns the House or sus-

pends its meetings, if there !s no

the recommendation of the Prime. in th. first sitting af ter the Lok

Minister. Butwhentherei.a pro· Sabh3e1ection, th. Speaker and

damaUonolemergencyunderArtide Deputy speaker are elected

352 ison operation. this period can be .. paratelyon motions moved and

extended fo," period not exceeding seconded by respective party

more than one year time leaders. However, a convention

Speaker has been developed now where

(Presiding Officer of Lok Sabha) O~~ ~:li~";~i:r~e i:P~~:;~ u~~ elert;:~~:i~~YSa~~rel~s ~t:n~9 ;~:::.da~~ ~~e d:;~~ s;~!~

~;;~;g olli""r who is htO~ ~e ~a~~ne:;~Yi::~P~t:~P~;i~~:

• ~:e~~sealsoeVQf)<,puty ::;ei.:Z)~oen5uretheunani-

. .

• The5peakerhotdstheoffi""from the date of his election and

• Hemaintaim perfect order and disdplineinthehou ... Ifamem_ berdoesnotobeyhisorder,he canaskhim to withdraw from the house Or he may ou.pend him from attending the remaining session of the House.

• In consultation with the leader of thehouse,thespeakerdetermines the order ofihe business, the time to be allowed to the debates On the Pre.ident's address and the ~:rm~e:::~votedtOtheprivate

• He is the final judge on the

L_~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~:r~::!,~~i;;'do~~~:~uestions.

·Goodt1mbsrdoesnotgroww1th •• '".ThesU'ong~r\h~"lndlh.s\",ng.rlh't,..., "


A candidate for 1M ell.'ction to the Rajya Sabha should pos56S thc followingqualifi.c.olions

(a) Hemuslbeacitiunofl.ndia

(b) HemuslbenollessthanJOycars olage.

(e) He must possess such other qualificatiom as may be prescribo>dby the ParUament by law The Rajya S.bha i~ a Pennaneni

House like most of the .econd

• The speaker '" to der:tde whether (iv) authenticates Bill. in the chambers of the world. At the end of

~?~~n~~!~:r ~;~7::fi;~ Iv) ;:~::(}:o~n:::~rverba_ :~rya:::~rar. 1/3 of the mem-

bill before it is transmitted to the tim of the House. Officers of the Rajya Sabh.

Rajya Sabh. or presented to the Hajya Sabha The vice-Presid...,t of Indio is the

Presiden, for his assenl

• :~~r~a~~~~:;~-:~ Of5:~~j~:~:~ro~~:e~: ~~iciO chairman of the Rajya

by the President while making a Indian ParHam..." sometimes called ~s the presiding offiCf>r of the

:::!o:c!~the joint Sitting of :~:':!~~::~ 7e=ta~$J0 ~t~!a, Noadmita rnembe",

• !::.,s::~~t:i~g;'~!i~e~e right "I Composition 'i Powers and UHlitie$ ul Rajy~ S~crclary-GM~ralofLokSabha el~:~:~~Sabhn is ~rr Iy Sab~""e are Ihret special powe ..

• ~:hs;crI~'7n-G:~~a:o~1 t~e ~~: • ~:'n~:~5~:U~~.z;~h~aXi~~m ~~:t~jY;4~"b~~' the Constitution

Speaker, 10 the HQU5e .nd to the RajyaSab~liso(~de~). e provides that if the Rojy. Sabha

~,:b:; w~t:~li':t::;;/;: • Out 0rl~ members, 12 are ~:~:::sb;yn:t 7.,:I~~~~ ::~

• :~:;~~ralisch05ell :~t ;~r:':n~~:'t::: ~i~d:,:~;:.;r:;~~;::

• :re'7;~:a;:~slator,rathera.~~i::~:~~~' ~::~=tti=l~=

~::Ua~:~dt~e;:""?!h:~" :~:tb~h~:~~:;l~°ti: !'::~~edrl'5l:::t:~i:t7~

5etvedtheP'r!iamentmaxim;llly Assembl;esofdlfferenlstale5and fied in the resolution, Parliamen'

in Ihe Secretarial isempow.red to m.ke laws for

• He is a government setv.mt. who the whole or any part of the

remains in the o//ice till hi. The Constitution lias fixed the territory of Indio with respedto

retirement (60 yea", olage}. number of elected represent.tive. Ihat matter a~ long as the

• The Secretary-Genual is an£- from each atate. resolution remalns;n 10m'

werable only 10 th~ Speakr, and • The number 01 ""pre""nt~tiv'" 2. Another monopoly of powers <>f

his actions cannot be discusse<lor .ent to the Rajya Sabha by the theR.jya Sabha iiioiniliale a

criticized in or out of the Hoose States is fhed in proportion to resolution for the removal of the

• His/unctionsindudc: their respective populations. Vice-President.

(j) he is the principal advisor to • The .mall itat ... in India have As per Art. 67 of the Cons-

~~~:r=!;~: ~;e!:t:i~:sa F:;igehxt:!epl~ :~~i~o;:,;~~:-:~":::\:

~~:!::;;. procedures and while U.P. sends 34 represen- ~:'a~a=~~o~a~~;~j~i

(ii) he keeps trock of all parlia tatives, Orissa send. 10 rep"""" the members of it and agreed to

mentaryrecord. tativesonly by the LnkSabha.

(iii) he is.ues summons 10 the • Small stal ... like Goa. Sikkim, • The third special power of the

members 10 attend padia- Mi2orll.m, Manipur etc. send one Rajya Sabha is connected with

:~~~.~:.:~:~~n" On behalf ;;:t~ea""nt.tivc each to th~ Rajya lhe setting up of All India Se.-

Spedal Powers of the S cakeroflheLokSabha

th.~S::::.t=i~~r.,v:.n •• ~iolposition.ndp ....... tOIh.Sp"korgf (i) Though the Speaker hirnself is "" elected membero/tJ..e LokSobho,he """tin .... 'ohotdhlooffi""_theLokSabhaiodjssotved.r.dtiUthelime. ""'"Sp .. kttseto·l«tN·Thisiobeca""'theSpe.b,-also..,.. .. tJ..eHHdoi ::~w:tt!theLokS.bh.owhichronlin""'i .. W<lrking .... .,.o.h .. theLok

(ii) A, the Heod 01 the l<>kS.bha. the Speaker rep.-nlA LokS.obh .... democr.tk In!i,itution. Honcehe is emp""·ered to uphold the dignity and lM privil.geoofth.H~.Thisi •• nother_mpl.ofhls.ped.lf>OW1'T

(IU) ~",~'::,:g:';'~~adi:::U:i~~:~.n 01 Members of the House (Anti·Defection


Firstly, he may mnvethat thebill be taken intn consideraUnn by the Hoose al nnce nr on some further datespedfiedin therrtCltinn


MnneyBi!lililconlainsottlyprovisinnsdealing with all or any of the foUowingmatlm's

• As per Art. 312 of the Constitutinn,theParliamentisemp<>wered 10 make laws providing lor the crealion of one or mo.e AllIndiaServke:scommnntnthe Uninn and Ihe states, if the Rajy. Sabha dedares by a resolulio~ supportedbynntiessthantwnthird. of the members pre..,nt

and voting Ihot it is nece:ssary or ", '":.,"'''::.: , ••

expedient in the nabmtal interest todoso All the high apPOintment. are

madebytheappointmentscommiltee on behalf of the Cabinet Inmatlers alfecting other departments/ministries,theministerrefersthemtothe Cabinet foT decisio~_ o.di~."""s are normally prepared by lhe Cabinet which advi..,. the President to prnmulgatethem

Passing of Bills

• the regulation 01 the borrowing 01 money or the giving of any guarantee by the govemment 01 India o. the amendment of the

Select Commillee Stage law with 'espect to any financial

After .. condreading. the Bill is obligatlnn undertaken or to be

usually referred to a .. Iect committee undertahn by the Government

which includes other members in of India;

chaTge of the bill and a Law Member • the <"Ustody of the Consolid~ted

who is an ex-officio membeT Fund or the Contingency Fund of

TheChairm.nnftheCnrrunittee lndia,thepayrrtentolmoneyinto

is appointed by the speaker orlhewithdrawalofmnneyftom

During this commiltee stage. the anysuchfund

wmmiltee examines the Bill lhnro- he app.opriation of money out

ushl:;;'e select wrnmittee can makeVO ~~d!e Consolidated Fund of any change in lhe Bill .. it plea .. so ...... • • the 'declaring 01 any such

The Report Stage ~~ expenditure to be charged on the

Afte, the Bill ha.~<gmined Consolidated Fund 01 India Or

anddiseussedthoro,,~ytheselect the incre .. ing of the amount of

rommitteep"'pa 'itsoreport. any such expenditure;

All legislative proposals aN' initiatedintheParliamentintheforrn 01 Bilk The Bills can be broadly categorizedas

(a) Ordinary Bills (b)MoneyBills

(c) Constitution Amendment Bills Every Bill has to be read three times and passed through five stages in ;'acnHou .. befor. it i.considered tn have been passed by Ih" Parliament. The !ive stages are First

~;,:~;.. ~:~~ t::~:i;;;t ~~~' ••

;:;;e::;eading. ~~. ~'7::::ti: the rornmitlee

In the lirst reading. the Bill is presentsthereporttotheHCIlliie.

;u~~~~e~ t~: G:tteHo~~~:ia.·~~ Third Reading

• At the time of third reading, discussion is ~onfined to the submissinn or arguments either in suppo,t of the Bill or its rejection

• Only verbal amendments are allow~datthisstage

• 11 is then outhentkated by t~e secretary of the House and transmi!ted to the other House, where it undergoes the sam~ process

• the reoeipt oImnney On ao:ount of the Consnlidated Fund nf India or the Puhlk Ac:count nf lndi.nrtherustodyori .. ueuf such mnney or ihe audit of the ac:counts 01 the Union orof State;

• any matler incident to any of the mattersspecifiedinsub-dauses (a) to (f)


Money Bill can be Introduced in the LnkS.bha ottIy. If any 'luestion arises whether aBilli.a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker thereon is final. Thee<:rtificate of the Speaker to the efiect that. Bill i •• Money Bill, is to be endnrsed and signed by him when it is transmitted to RajyaSabha and also when it is pTeoented to the Pre.ident/or his

ordin~ry Bill can be ivt.oduc..d in eitherHou .. of the Parliament by any member alter giving a noticeofon~ mnnth. At the outset, a copy of the Bill is presented to the seoretariat nf theHouseinwhichitisinitiated.The

on a date selected by the Speaker Afie.introduction in the House, the

Bi11isimmediatelypublishedinthe Cazetteoflndia.

Calegories of Money Bills

Fln.nce Bill: Finance BiU i. ivtroducedinLokSabhae"eryyear im"",diatelyafterthepresentalionof the Cene,al Budget to give effect to

Second Reading

Money Bills [Art. 110(1)] Under Article 110(1) of the Con.titution, a BiU is deemed to be a

In the secnnd reading. the member who moves the Bill. may adoptanyofthethree.lternative.

the financial proposals of the Government of India for the foUowing financial yeor. Finance Bills are lreated as Money Bills as they

:~;:~:"'::~s.with amendments

Role pf RajY'Sabh. with RegardtoManeyBIll~,RajyaSabh.a is required to return. Money Bill paseed.andtransmittedbyLokSabha within a period of fou,teen days from the d.te of its receipt. R.ajy. Sabha may return a Money Bill transmitted to il with or without its rerommendations.

If a Money Bill isretumed by RajyaSabhawithoulanyreromrnendation, itispresentoo tothePresident forms"""",!.

II Lok Sabha does not accept any of the arnendmenta reoonunendoo by Rajya Sabha. the Money Bill is deern.ed to have been passed by both the Houses of Parhament in the form inwhichitwaspaseed.byLokSabha withoulanyofamendmenlli,..,rommended by Rajy" Sabha and it is presented 10 the Presidentfo, his -,.

Budget (Art. 112)

receipts and expenditure oflhe Government 01 India for the financial year. It also states the means of raising the revenue and expending the same. The Budget spee<:h of the FinanceMinisterjs in two parts.

(a) Part A contains general eCO· nomic survey 01 therountryand (b) Part B includes taxation proposals.

After introducing the Budget. the Finance Minisler introduces the Finance bill that contains the taxation P"'P"""

There is nO immedi.te dis<.-ussion

:C~i:nm:I:~· ~~7:ead :;od~~


discussion in the Parliament, when they are pul to vote the power of the Rajya Sabha is limiled as mentianed above. The Annual Finanee Bill (containing t.axationproposa!s) is to be passed within 75 days after introduction. During discussion on demand. for grants, members can move subsidiary motions called cut motions which are essentially three in number

Disapproval of the Policy Cui

ltsays thai the amount 01 d"",and be reduced to onerupee. The motion implies that the mover disapproves the policy underlying the demand.

Economy Cut

1. GenewlDiscussion It .eeks the demand 10 be

2. Discussion and voting on reduced bya specificsurn to effect

dernands/orgrant& economy in expenditure.

scpa"!!'t:~.timatesoftheBudgelshow ~~~:~s the demand to be

Thechargedexpenditurewhich~ucedbyRs.100.Theobjectofthe is drawn from the conoolidated tw\.i ... ·token cut motion is 10 ventilate a grievanceforwhichthegovemment is responsible. The cut motion isa budgetary device to initiale a discussion On the d"mand. lor granbl and are generally moved by the opposition members. Rule 209 01 the Rulesoi procedure and ronductol Business in Lok Sabha mentions the given three typeso/cut motions. Rule 211 gives absolule powe, to the :~w~=acutmotioniStobe

Vole on Account (Art. 116)

The budget is generally presented on the last working day of February. After the di$CUSSions and voting in the parliament moneys are appropriated. The discus.siongeneraUy goes on till late April and early M"

The government reqUites tina· nces from the beginning of the financiaI year to run the administration of theoountry till demands for grants are passed.

The Constitution provides lor a specta!accountcal1oovoteonaccount to rneet 5uch need for expenditure requirements.

It empowers the Lok Sabha to m.keany grant in advance lor a part of the financial yeat, pend!ng the compielion 01 the budgelary proress (Art. 116)

Abudgeti6a financial report 01 statement and proposab; whicl! are periodically placed belore the legislatute for its approval and sanction. A budget is. balanced

:;:a~::;::~~tu:t:!.~i~U:;~~': t~~~~e~ ":~;:r~:!:=

handsoltheadministratotthebu"'d'}J Demandforgranlsvoteduponand isa record of past perlorrnance, a thechargedexpenditurethatistol;>e method 01 current control, and a drawn from the CFI is incorporated projection 01 future plans. II is a into an appropriation bill which is the report 01 the entire financial only way to deaw money lrom the operations of the gpvernment 01 the CFl

past (for a given penod) and gives us After the appropriation bill is a glimpse into future govemmcnt passedintheLokSabha..iti8C<!rtifioo fiscal policy money bill by the speaker and

lhe budgetary system that tran6JJlitted to the R.jya Sabha. The evo!vedin Engiand duriflS the chorsedexpendittueincludessalaries eigbre..nthand nineteenthcefltu- oltheronstitutionaldignitarles!ike ries, "'o.sviewed primarily osa legal the Pre.ident. Vice·President the and accounting instrument, and the judges of the SC and olllers, debt budget agency had the main res- charges for which the Goverrunentof ponsibility 01 conoolidating money Indiaisliabte,anysums<equ;redto estimates of expenditure needs from satisly any judgement, decree and so the various departmenlli each yeor. on. The tax proposal, 01 the ThePresident.haUcausetheSudget government are incorporated in tobelaidbeforeboththeHousesof aflotherBill. Annual Finance bill is the Porliament. ltis an estimate of the also pas""" as a Money bill. A~lcr

PDfMarclll2007IIS29 ·You .. n ,omploln ",etlUee I"lJSeI h&V"6Ihorne; you eM ~OlC6 b~&use \.hOlm have l'Ila&i"

IndianCoMtilutionprovidH/<>rvoriou,Commltteco k>reffirient working 01 thegovEmment. Thes.! CommittftS play an irnpo"'n' ro!e in the !unctioning of the Indian Parliament. M.",o. ... of these rornmi.lftO.re .ppointed by the Speaker or elected by the House from omong.' h. mo",I>< ... Some of the important r..-liament.ryCommi_ .re .. follow.:

• Eoti""," Com",I!!.., : Thi. Commltt ..... mlll6 the .nnual ... jm • ..,. and .ugges"'.lrem.tiv.polici .. t<>IMgo"."' ..... n"o""'u,...ffio:ioncyand "'-"""'my in administr.tion. Thl. e<>mmUlft to<Ulst> 01 3I,l member<. 1M members .re .I.ded every year lTOm omon8 ..... mbe.. of the HDUS< on proportion.al rq>,...,.,tation.n..O"lrnu'" of the"""'ml_io'pp"itI,ed by theSpeaborofthelokSobha.

• f'u.bli'''«»un''CommlttH:nu.Commi_~ thereporlo/thoCAG ofJndi.o.h""'..-lha' .. penditu ... hunot •• _thegr"" .. maMbythe P&rlWnent and the ~ hal -. .pont lor t.'oe P"'1""'" /0, which it WlO!i sanctioned by the Pubm""'. Thi,Commm"" ploys an effectjve role in ensuring the"'5l'l.rity ..... economy in .. pendi,,,,,,. !t<'<lllSio .. of22memben; 15IromthelokSobha.rocl7fromthelUjyoS.bho.

• S.I.ctCommitt ... :Th."'."'v.rtouoSrI""'Commil' oonstitut.forth.

considerotionofdi[f"rentl<ind<o!BIl",StIKt Commi ro!l«.1in1onnation

onvariou.iss.,..""d""bmitreports0l'l8il1.",~,otMm. been~toalargeextent

• ::;~:~ ~~:t~~·p~~:~!~n.~!':i~c:;:i:w7.rm= ';;,~.;~ ~W:!S ~e w~~a~:~ ::'~om~;'~~':y ~:-;~~th~:~~:.w. It """,",10 0/ 15 members Wh:~ cP :h~ti;;':~t';~~sft~.!;~::ti:!


_·_.ndcl.ssifi .. theBIlI ..... bmlttedby~ftheHou .. ocoording ~:tI~::t:~ ~;ti;n~~~;'rt:~~

~~r~\:~;;;;.~tconsl:lUOf15m.mbe§~'i!JYare""minaredbythe like Defen~e, Foreign Affair.,

• Rul •• Co",,,,l"~, ThI.""",I,U of I~~ with 'he Sp .. l<.er •• th< e. Cunency and so on are in the

~~i====iS'l,=~ ... ~~~;~::.~in ~~o~a~:~~~:):nw~~s:1.

.. ~~ These items are 97 in nwnber

Not.: ~~~~E!~E.?~7o/~=~m~eo::~ • ~:~ofl~importancel!ke

1h<Commi_""N.IionoIE<onomy.ond agriculture, local ""lfguvern-

1h<Comml_""t.gis1otion. ment, law and order are in ihe

Supplt'ment.J.ry Demands C~n50lidatedFundoflndia ~ta~:~tlI)andlheyan>1i6

(Art. 115) (Art. 266) • There is a Concurrent Us. {list

Supplementary Demands for lin in which are listed itemslilce

grants presented in the Parliament l! is the fund into wlUrn all the forests,socio-eror.omicplanning.

towan:ls the end of the calendar year money, received by the Guvemment sports, education and so on .

..,.,lcing more finandal grant. from of India are credited like loans and so There are 47 items in the Con.

the lokSabha current List and le~slalion on these items is open to both the Union and the State legi.latu ......

• The power of the Padiament to impose taxes on the services sector of the economy i.said to l;>e a residual power.

Art. 254 (2) empowe", the Perllament with the 'extra territorial1egislation." It means that the laws m.de by the Parliament govem the Indian


Appropriation ACCDunts (Art. 114)

Contingency Fund of India (Art. 267)

Appropriation Accounts are accounts of tile e,,,,,, •• of expenditure I>ythegovemmentl;>eyondwhathas been authori..,d I>y the I'arliament in the budget. Theoeare reported upon by the Comptroller and Auditor G""eral of India.

It wu created in 1950 by the Parliament and the money is kept at thedispogaloftheexecutivetom<.'el any unforesoon expenditure wlUrn is retrospectively outhorised by the I'arliamentondrepleni.hed

Union-State Relations



The Constitution of India providesa division of dot ails regan:ling the rela!ionship betw"""the Union and the States stated in Part XI and Part Xll of the Constitution.

• TheIndianConstitutiondivides

the powers of governance between the Centre {Union, the two words being used inter dtangeablylandtheStatesinall sphere.legislative,adlll;nislrativeandfinanciaL

• Thepowersoflederalunitshave been elaborately spell out and the coequality of the unib has

PDlMBrchl2007ll.530 "E .. &~nllwl &11oI&n\. whLl t. rarolll &he ooura,go III r<lllowthet&l&nl to Ill. d&rkpl",. wh ... I\ tOld."

subJects resident and theit property situated anywhere in tho. world

• wtwon thereisem~rgen<:y in the muJ'1try,p.artorwholeofcountry IArt.352)

• Under a prodamationof P,e<ident'. rule (Art. 356),

• To implement an internatio""l treaty. For "".mple, the Union Government acceded to WTO whose implementation may requir" that Parliament should legir!late onState List items.

• Fianlly Art. 249 empowers the Rajyn Sabha to enable the P.rliament to legislale on an item i"theStateListinthenatinoal interestif!heresolutionispassed by. two third majorityi"the RajyaSabha.


• To 8eCUre the provisionso{the adequate fadlities for the instnlClion in themothu tongue at the primary.wge to Hnguistic minorilies (Art. 350A)

• To ensure the development of Hindi I"nguage (Art.3Sl)

Financial Relations

The divisions of the finances between the Cenl::re and th"States is partly baSf'd on the Constitutional scheme ar>d p;ortly outside.

• The Constitution elaborates on five types 01 ta~es and duties (four types since theS9th Amendment Acl2000,ihatis.the altematiw sdteme of devolution recommended by the Tenth finance Cornmission) and how they are appropriated by the federaluniu

• Any other form from the Centr<'. like !he V01SroUection t,.nsrers.

The Supreme Court (Art.U4)

TheSupremeCourtsland.atthe ape~ofth.judid"l"y"temoflndi".lt consists of a Chid lusHre and 25 othe,Judgeo.The ChiefJ".ticeis appointed by the President in ronsultationwithsuch]udgesofihe Supreme COUri and High CourU 0$ he deems I'>('CI'SSary. Theother]udges oftheSupremeCourt.re.ppointed by the President in consultation with the Chief jURtice. However, he may al.oC<ln.ult othe.Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts while appointing a Judge of Ihe Supreme Court


The Executive (administrative) • Provides for" Finance Com· power. are outlined in the following

m tionedprovi!;ions.Stateslmple-

m t the laws they make. They

extend to only ihfir own territory. In thecaseof !heUnion.. they implement • thelawstheymake.!nthecaseofihe Concurrent sphere anyone of the lollowing modes of enlorrement may

be followed.

• Administration of a Union • legi.lation may be left entirely to

the states. for example, Electridty (Supply) Amendment

• ~:i~~9~~lements the Low. For .~'t). entation of centrally sponsored

e~ample, Forest (conse.vation~. programmeandsoon

~'~:~ government h~ ~~~!:a! Finandal Transfers 10

~:;":!~~'!.,~~~~g~a~=. from~~~re~finandal transfers

• ~e e;':~~n d~"w':'7'rt:~;"'fm~l~ • The Finance Cornmiilsion media-

rnentationofiheStateLaws(Arl ted transfers from shareable


• To ensure ihat the exercise of the • G,antsinaidofstaterevenues

executivepow..rofthestatedoes • Plana<.slstancebase<ionGadgil

not impede the implementation formula

of tile UniOn Laws tAn. U7). • Loa.nsandgranlSfromthesm.an

• To ensure the construction and savingsmobHised by the States

the malntenaru:eof the mean.' of (all states re<;eive 70%, of .ueh

communication of military Dr savi"gs mobilised by them as

national importance (Arl 257.2). loan and the rest as grant while

• To ensure protection of Railways .pedal category siatts like

within the State (Art. 339.2}. Uttaranchal(nowUttarakhand),

• To devise and e~ecute schemes HP, J &. K are gi'"n 90% as grant

for the we1f.,~ of the tribal and the rest as loan)

communities"smcntionedinthe • Transfurfo.centrallyspon.ored

dl=tions (Art. 339,2}. programmes


Must have been a Judge of a High Court o,oftwosurn rourU in m<:ee5sion for a period of five years; Dr

• AnadvoxAte r>f a High Court 10. allea~11O years.or

• Is, in ihe view 01 the President. a distinguished jurist of the coun-


The Chief Justice and other Judges 01 the Supreme Court hold office till they attain the age of 65 years. They ean be removed from olfice earlier by addre •• ing their tesignation letter to ihe Pr ... ident They can be removed from office before the age of retirem.ent by the President on the basi.ofa resolution passed by the Pa.liamenton grounds of proved ml.behaviouror incapacity. The Supreme Court normally sits at New DelhI. However, it""n hold itB me<:'Hng at any other pLaC>' in India. lbedeci.ionin this rega"'!is t.>ken by the Cll.iefJustice of India in consu.Itatlon with the Ptestdent Independence of Judges

• The Constitution h .. made elaborate provisions to ensure. the independence of Judges.

• The salaries and aliowanC0'"5of the]udgeshavebeenrnargedon th"Conoolidated Fund of India

~:~I:~;~ subject 10 a vol<! of

The Suptemc Court has original junsdicti<min:

• Disputesbetw..,nlheCentrealld oneormoreState.

• DisputesbetweenlheCent ..... and any State on Ih~ one hand and one or mcreSlaleson theother

• Disputesbelween two or more '"~

• Dispute. regarding the "n/or<:e'

menl01 FundamenlalRighlS.

AppeUateJ"ri.didion (Art. 132.


cour~fS~;;e:t ~~~~!~ ~~i~~~

decreesrunthroughouttherountty. J".ticeol the High Court. AU cases that rome to the Supreme QuaLifintions

Court in rhe funn 01 appeal. against

judgements of lower c"urts fall in the To qualify lor appointment as a

appeliatejurlsdlclionoftheSupreme /udgc 01 the High Court. aperson:

Court. Broadly.peaking. fuurtypes of cases lall within the appellate jur:i&diction 01 the Supreme Court -Constitutional , civil,criminal .• nd such cases where it may gront special leave to appeal. Generally,appe.ls can be taJu.-n to the Supreme Court If th"ca5('involves'sub5tanlial question of law regarding inter· pretation 01 Constitution or il it Invol"". a substanti.l question of law of general importance

• 'The salanes and other service ronditions of judges cannot be changed to Iheirdi.odvantage. during their tenure.

• The removal 01 the Judges has been made quite difficult. They CBnbe removed iromoffice by rhe i'residenl only on grounds 0/ proved misbehaviour or incapa city On the basis 01 a resolution passed by the two Houses 01 Parliament by two-third majo-


• Judges.r.bar ..... dlromc.rrying

on any pr.crictl before any rourt inlndiaaftertheirretiNmenl.

• 'The de6sions and actio'" 01 Judges cannol be criticized

Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (Arl131) Original Jurisdictiion (Articie131)

Advisory PoweR

The Supreme Court renders advlctl 10 the President on any matter


01 law (}T fact wherwverhe seeks.uch .dviO!'. However. the advice is not binding upon the President.

Court of Record (Art. 129)

The Supreme Court is a rourt 01 rernrdand il5 rernrds are admitted to beolevid~ntiary value and carmotbe questioned in any <ourt. As a rourt of reoord, it aiso enjoy .• the power to punishfuril5ronternpt

Supreme Court and Judicial Review

The Supreme Court also enjoys the powerofjudidai review which meansrhatilc.nensurerhat the law. passed by the legi,lalure and the orde ... is/iued by rh"e>cecutive do not controveneanyprovisionolthe


~:H~::' as the gUardi~"he ;~:~~;;~7~~~~.=e ~rti~~"1;!

High Court ( "~14) ~:~es~;:g~;n~~~~~!i:


• Muslbeaciti;«'nollndia

• Shouldh.vebeenan.dvoc;aleof a High COUri or of two or more 9ud> oourls in ~ucoeS/iion lor at least 10 years; or.hould have held judicial office in Indian terrilory fora period ofal least lOye ....

• The Judg"s of the High Court holdofficetilitheyattainthc.ge 01 62 years. Their termcan becul short due to reslgnalion Or removal by Ihe President On groundsolprovedmi~behaviour or incapadty. The President can

remOve a Judge of Ihe High Court irom his office only ilthe Parliam~nt posses, a resolution by a two-third majority of its membe ... present and voting in ead> House, requesting rum 10 removethejudge

Union Territories (ArI.2J9,PartVIll)

Union TerritOTies rek:r to area. directly adminil;teredby the Cenlral Government. whid> administer them through administraton.The Pre.i· dent holds therespon.ibility 01 adminislering rhe Union Territones through adminislrato ... appointed by him. There is no uniform system of administration inlhe Union Ternl·

Public Service Commissions (Art. 31S-32J)

Thc responsibilJly for recruit· menl of civil servanlS al the Union and the State levels has been entrusted to the Union Public Servlctl Cornmission and Slate Public Servictl CommissionsrespeClively

Union Public: Service Commission (UPsa

The composition oi Ihe UPSC Is determined by the President. AI pn!S6I1 il ronsisls of a Chairman and nine membe .... At leasl hU of rhe memb<:rs of Ihe UPSC hail from among persons who have worked in adminl,tralivecapacilies under the Unlon OT State go~"rnments fur al least 10 yea .... The oIher half belongs to liberal pTofesslons like law. academi<s,elc.

The·membe ... of the UPSC .re appoinled for atenn of six years. or till they att.in the age of 65 years. They can relinquish olfictl ~ar1ieT by lendcring their resign.tion 10 the

p",.idenl.Th"Pre9identcanalso remove them before e><pi.y 01 thei. term on grounds of proved misI:>ehaviour. The President can issue orders 10. the removal of the membeJll 01 the UPSC only alter the Supreme Court makes such a """,mmenda"ononthrbasisofan inquiry. Members of the UPSC can'l ~,,;:~:"J';;~lbY government after


• To conduct e~8minalions for .ppoinlment to service .. under the Union.

• To advise the President in mattersrelatlng t"the methods 01 recruitment tocivi] !;O'MCes, theicpromoti"nsandtrans/t:JlI. and disciplinary action and monslers, and disc:iplinary action againstcivilservanl$.

• To advise the P,..,,;ident with nogard to the daims 01 a person reg.rding rosts incurred by him duringeJCecutionolduties.

• To dischargo such other functionsinrcspe<:tofserviceso/the Unio", OC local authmitywhirn it may be ...... igned by Parli.ment.

• To submit an annual report to the Pr",,;dentf)f"l illl working

Jammu &; Kashmir 5l"'dalStatu5forJ~mmuand K~5hmir


Unio", List and theConcufrent List which, in consultotion with the Government "f the State, are dedared by the President to com>Spond10 mauersspedliE.'d in the [nstrumcnts "f Aca$$i"n g"veming the Accession "I the 5t..teto the Oruninion nfTndia as the matters with re5ped to which The state 01 Jammu and Kashmir the O"mini"n ~gisl.ture may is n<>l included in Ihis category. It make law for Ih.t .tale; and sum enjoy. sp~dal stalu. of different otheTm"ltec~in tnesaid lists, as nature under Art. 370. Both oflhese with tne COncurrence of the Arlicles,370.nd371.reprovidE.'din Government of th" St.te, the P~rt XXI of the ConstHuti"n. OrigiP...,sidentmaybyorderspeci/y nally Ihe heading 01 this p.rtwas

• such other provisions 01 this "'emporaryandTronsitional',.ndthe

Constitution shan .pply in :eoar:in:P:;i;l~t;~m:!~~e~~ ~~~

rel.tion10 th.t State.ubject to 1962. So to conclude, /.K. enjoy. such eXCI1pti"ns and modi/ica- special status since the day of lions as the President may by commencement of the Constitution

order.ped/y ; .... /0".26,19SOunderArt.37I)band

States of Special Status *:r 1~~·3~ :~~:ds~~! ~~::


:::;t;;::I:";:~:~ ~h:r~;;#' :::.~ ~~~~;t:'70e.:· :The detail of

protect cultmal div~""ily ~ariE.'d • Maharashlra and Cujara! Art

ht.ritage. ~O ~~e~lm~~~ ~!7) l~ol~a;;,tulion.l

Sin"" the day ~'1iianch.1 (now • Nag.land, Art. 371 (A) nau,

~:'~~~enqtt~a':;, :u~e:~~~ ;;6~stitulional Amendment Act)

7 Union Terrilodes. P"rthepurpose of relationship wilh Ihe Union. States are dividE.'d into Iwo calegories.The first category indudes states which ha"" identical relntioru;hip with the Union. ThE-se.tates are: (11 Bihar (2)K6ala(3) M.P.(4) Tamil Nadu (5)Kamatalca (6) Orissa (7)Punj.b (8) Raj",,\han (9) Ultar Pradesh (IO)Tripura(1J)Meghalaya(12)/har- 1<J1.nd (13)C!>hatisgarn (14) Uttaranehal (now Uttarakhand) (IS) West BEngal (16) Haryanl.(l7) Himachal Pradesh. The.tatc. which have been

given speciat 9tatus under Art. 371 in

""rtain malters of administration are mentionE.'d in the second calcgory TheseSt.lesa .... : (1) Maiuuashtr. (2) Gujarat (3) Nagahnd (4) Assam (5) Manipur (6) Andhra Pradesh (7) Sikkim (8) Mizoram (9) Arun.chal (lO)Goa

• Assam,Art.3n(B)(22ndCorur titutional Am~ndmcnt Act) 1969

• M.nipur, Art. 371 (C) (27th Constitutional Amendment Act) 1971.

• Andhra Pradesh. Art. 371 (0 and E) (32nd Constitutional AmendmentAct) 1973

Artid""on Panchayatlraj

coru;~~~~~ a~d."!~a~ s~~~~~~=: ~~;·~:~;~d~~:

theStateof)a~muandKasluru~ lreatment under theConstilution. The

~~~~:7tu~:~ :~C;~::~:e ;:f :~: full case regarding the spedal status

commitment made by Jowahrlal /or the State is yet to I:>e presented

Nehru 10 Maharaja Hari Singh in India i~ a Union of 28 States and

October [947 at the lime ofsig<1ing the Instruments of Accession of /ammuand Ka,nm;rto [ndi.

Article 370(1) ,tipulates, "Not:ttu~:~dinganyth!nginthi"Corur

• the provision 01 Article 23t! in ParI Vll (which was .ubsequentlyomitlE.'dnomtheCO!\5- titutionby the 7th Amendment in 1956) shall not apply in relation 10 th. state of/ammu and Kashmir.

• the power of Pacliament to make laws for Ihe 9.idState sh.ll be llmiled to tho"" matters in the

Al"I.24J _Definition. ArL2'3A _GramSobn.

- COMliMlonof Ponchoy ...

- Compooit!onof

A,U'JO _ ~~'::'~'::Ofs... ..

ArL1UF _ DioquatiHoat!onfor .......,bmohlp Constltutlonol finanooCornmio!lion tcrev<iwfinoncial p<»iHon


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