Power System

Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Power System Protection
S.A.Soman
Department of Electrical Engineering
IIT Bombay
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Dependability
A relay is said to be dependable if it trips only when it is
expected to trip.
Dependability is the degree of certainty that the relay
will operate correctly.
Dependability can be improved by increasing the
sensitivity of the relaying scheme.
%Dependability =
No. of correct trippings × 100
Total No. of desired trippings
Sensitivity
It is the ability of the relay to pick up even on smallest
possible faults.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Security
Security is a property used to characterize false
trippings.
A relay is said to be secure if it does not trip when it is
not expected to trip.
It is the degree of certainty that the relay will not
operate incorrectly.
Security can be improved by improving selectivity of the
relaying scheme.
%Security =
No. of correct trippings × 100
Total No. of trippings
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Selectivity
It is the ability to correctly locate and classify the fault.
A relay should be able to discriminate whether the fault
is in its jurisdiction or not.
This jurisdiction of a relay is called zone of protection.
Protection zones are classified into primary and backup
zones.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Selectivity is usually provided by
Time discrimination. Overcurrent and distance relays
use this principle.
Applying differential protection principle. In the case of
differential protection, the CT location provides crisp
demarcation of zone of protection.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attribute of Protection
Reliability
It is the ability to ’not to fail’ in its function.
It can be achieved by redundancy.
Redundancy in protection depends on the criticality of
the apparatus.
Reliability can be improved by providing backup
protection.
%Reliability =
No. of correct trips × 100
No. of desired trips + No. of incorrect trips
Number of desired tripping can be greater than or equal to
number of correct trippings.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Zone of Protection
A relay’s zone of protection is a region which defines its
jurisdiction.
It is shown by demarcating the boundary.
It is essential that primary zones of protection should
always overlap so that no portion of the system ever
remain unprotected.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
A fault should be cleared as quickly as possible in order
to
Maximize safety
Minimize equipment damage
Minimize system instability.
The relay should quickly arrive at a decision and circuit
breakers should be fast enough.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
A fault should be cleared as quickly as possible in order
to
Maximize safety
Minimize equipment damage
Minimize system instability.
The relay should quickly arrive at a decision and circuit
breakers should be fast enough.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
A fault should be cleared as quickly as possible in order
to
Maximize safety
Minimize equipment damage
Minimize system instability.
The relay should quickly arrive at a decision and circuit
breakers should be fast enough.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
A fault should be cleared as quickly as possible in order
to
Maximize safety
Minimize equipment damage
Minimize system instability.
The relay should quickly arrive at a decision and circuit
breakers should be fast enough.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
For a single machine infinite bus system,
2H
d
2
δ
dt
2
= P
m
− P
e
Occurrence of fault reduces
P
e
to zero and δ increases.
At point D, P
e
> P
m
and
the machine decelerates.
At point E,

dt
= 0 and
P
e
= P
m
.
As δ reduces, generator
starts accelerating and the
swing reverses.
Finally system stabilises at
point O.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
For a single machine infinite bus system,
2H
d
2
δ
dt
2
= P
m
− P
e
Occurrence of fault reduces
P
e
to zero and δ increases.
At point D, P
e
> P
m
and
the machine decelerates.
At point E,

dt
= 0 and
P
e
= P
m
.
As δ reduces, generator
starts accelerating and the
swing reverses.
Finally system stabilises at
point O.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
For a single machine infinite bus system,
2H
d
2
δ
dt
2
= P
m
− P
e
Occurrence of fault reduces
P
e
to zero and δ increases.
At point D, P
e
> P
m
and
the machine decelerates.
At point E,

dt
= 0 and
P
e
= P
m
.
As δ reduces, generator
starts accelerating and the
swing reverses.
Finally system stabilises at
point O.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
For a single machine infinite bus system,
2H
d
2
δ
dt
2
= P
m
− P
e
Occurrence of fault reduces
P
e
to zero and δ increases.
At point D, P
e
> P
m
and
the machine decelerates.
At point E,

dt
= 0 and
P
e
= P
m
.
As δ reduces, generator
starts accelerating and the
swing reverses.
Finally system stabilises at
point O.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
For a single machine infinite bus system,
2H
d
2
δ
dt
2
= P
m
− P
e
Occurrence of fault reduces
P
e
to zero and δ increases.
At point D, P
e
> P
m
and
the machine decelerates.
At point E,

dt
= 0 and
P
e
= P
m
.
As δ reduces, generator
starts accelerating and the
swing reverses.
Finally system stabilises at
point O.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
For a single machine infinite bus system,
2H
d
2
δ
dt
2
= P
m
− P
e
Occurrence of fault reduces
P
e
to zero and δ increases.
At point D, P
e
> P
m
and
the machine decelerates.
At point E,

dt
= 0 and
P
e
= P
m
.
As δ reduces, generator
starts accelerating and the
swing reverses.
Finally system stabilises at
point O.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
As per equal area criteria, the post fault system
reaches stable equilibrium if accelerating area is equal
to the decelerating area.
If a machine goes out-of-step with the rest of the
system, it has to be islanded to a sub-system.
As the fault clearing time increases, the stability margin
reduces.
The fault clearing time at which the stability margin
reduces zero is known as critical clearing time.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
1
Desirable Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
2
Speed in Relaying
Necessity of Speed in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
3
Summary
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict
The consequences of quick tripping decisions are
Nuisance tripping or tripping when there is no fault.
Tripping for faults outside the relay jurisdiction.
High-speed system tend to be less accurate because of
lesser amount of information.
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Desirable
Attributes
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed in
Relaying
Necessity of Speed
in Relaying
Speed Vs. Accuracy
Conflict
Summary
Desirable Attributes of Protection
Summary
Desirable Attributes of a Protection System
Dependability
Security
Sensitivity
Selectivity
Reliability
Speed Vs Accuracy Conflict

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