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INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

CHAPTER 9: INFECTIONS

SECTION A: ANTIBIOTICS

a. CELL WALL SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS:

I. BACITRACIN
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It inhibits cell wall synthesis by blocking the transfer of peptidoglycan
subunits to a growing cell wall.(bactericidal).
S/E: Nephrotoxicity if administered systemically, producing protenuria, hematuria,
and nitrogen retention, hypersensitvity reactions (eg. skin rashes) are rare. Because of
its marked toxicity when used systemically, it is limited to topical use.

BAMYXIN, Rekah
Bacitracin 400 U., neomycin sulph. 5 mg, polymyxin b sulph.5,000 U/G.
o EYE OINT: 3.5 G. Apply 2 or more x dly.
Broad spect . antibiotic for ophth. infects.

II. CARBAPENEMS
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: (See penicillin section VI) carbapenems are synthetic B-lactam antibiotics
that are structurally related to the penicillins. They are, however, resistant to B-
lactamase. It is usually combined with cilastatin. (bactericidal).
S/E: (which are more common with imipenem) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin
rashes, reactions at the infusion site, eosinophilia, and neutropenia.
C/I: Excessive levels of imipenem in patients with renal failure may lead to seizures,
patients allergic to penicillins may be allergic to carbapenems as well.

1. IMIPENEM

TIENAM, MSD
Imipenem 500 mg, cilastatin sod. 500 mg.
o STERILE PWDR (in infus. bottle): 10 x 120 ml. 250 mg or 500 mg by I.V infus.
(depend on sever.) over 20-30 mins.1,000 mg to be infused over 40-60 mins. Max.
total dly dose: not to exceed 50 mg/kg/day or 4 G/day, whichever is lower. Doses to
be given in equally div. doses.
Polymicrobial infection.

2. MEROPENEM

MERONEM, AstraZeneca
Meropenem.
o VIALS: 10 x 500 mg, 1 G. I.V. bolus inject. over 5 mins. or I.V. infus. over 15-
30 mins.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Pneum.(incl. hosp. acq.), infects. urinary tract, intra-abdom., gyne., skin and soft
tissue, meningit., septicem.

III. CEPHALOSPORINES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: See Penicillins section VI.
S/E: Cephalosporins are sensitizing and may elicit a variety of hypersensitivity
reactions that are identical to those of penicillins, including anaphylaxis, fever, skin
rashes, nephritis, granulocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. Local irritation can
produce severe pain after I.M. inject. and thrombophlebitis after I.V. inject. Renal
toxicity including interstisial nephritis and even tubular necrosis, has been
demonstrated and has caused the withdrawal of cephaloridine from clinical use.
Cephalosporins that contain a methylthiotetrazole group (e.g cefamandole,
cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoperazone) frequently cause hypoprothrombinemia and
bleeding disorders. Admin. of vit K
1
10 mg twice weakly can prevent this.
C/I: Alcohol (disulfiram-like reaction) with those containing methylthiotetrazole
group.

1. CEFACLOR

CECLOR, Eli Lilly
2nd generation. Cefaclor.
o CAPS: 12 x 250 mg.1 cap. 3 x dly.
o CAPS: 12 x 500 mg. 1 cap. 2-3 x dly.
o SUSP: 60,100 ml x125, 250 mg/5 ml. 20-40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses every 8
hrs. Otitis media: 40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses every 8 hrs.
Infects. by suscept. pathogens.

CECLOR MR, Eli Lilly
2nd generation. Cefaclor.
o M.R. TABS: 10 x 375 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg, 1 G. Pharyngitis, tonsillitis, skin struct.
infections: 375 mg 2 x dly. Bronchitis: 375 or 500 mg 2 x dly. Lower urinary tract
infections: 375 mg 2 x dly. or 500 mg 1 x dly. Pneumonia: 750 mg 2 x dly.
Infects caused by suscept. pathogens.

CEFACLOR-TEVA, Teva
2nd generation. Cefaclor.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. 20 mg /kg bdy wt / day in div.doses every 8 hrs. More
serous infects: 40 mg/kg/day. Not more than 1 G dly.
Cefaclor sens. organs.

CEFALOR, Vitamed
2nd generation. Cefaclor.
o CAPS: 10 x 250 mg, 500 mg. 250 mg 3 x dly. or 500 mg 2-3 x dly.
o PWDR for SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml. 20-40 mg/kg/day every 8 hrs.
Middle ear infect: 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hrs.
Infects. respir. tract, middle ear, urin. tract , ear.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.


2. CEFADROXIL

BIODROXIL, Sandoz GmbH
1st generation, Cefadroxil.
o CAPS: 12 x 500 mg. Child: 25-50 mg /kg bdy wt: 1 single dose or 2 equal div. doses
(every 12 hrs)/day. May inc. to 100 mg/kg bdy wt. if reqd. 9-12 yrs: (30-40mg/kg bdy
wt.): 2 caps dly. 40 kg and over: 1-2 G in single or 2 div .doses dly. May inc. accord.
to severity.
o FILM COATED TABS: 1000 mg.
o SUSP: 125 mg/5ml, 250 mg/5ml, 500 mg/5ml.
Infect .caused by organs. sens. to cefadroxil.

CEFADROX, BPC
1st generation. Cefadroxil monohydrate.
o TABS: 12 x 500 mg. Adult: Urinary tract: 1-2 G in single or 2 divided doses. Skin: 1
G in sigle or 2 doses. Pharyngitis / tonsillitis: 1 G in 2 divided doses for 10 days.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 30 mg/Kg/day in 2 divided doses.
Infections of urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, nasopharynx, pharynx and tonsils.

DURACEF, Bristole Mayer Squibb
1st generation. Cefadroxil.
o CAPS: 16, 100 x 250 mg, 12, 16, 100 x 500 mg. 1-2 G 1-2 x dly. Depending on
indication.
o SUSP: 60, 100 ml x 125, 250 mg/5ml. Child: 25-50 mg/kg 1-2 x dly. Depending on
indication.
Urinary tract infections, skin infections, upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

3. CEFAZOLIN

CEFAMEZIN, Teva
1st generation. Cefazolin sodium.
o VIALS: 1 x 1,000 mg.
Infections of genitor-urinary tract, respiratory tract, skin and soft tissues, bone and
joint, septicemia, bacterial endocarditis, biliary tract infections, pre-op prophylaxis.

CEFAZIN, BPC
1st generation. Cefazolin sodium.
o VIALS: 1 x 1 G. Dose: 250 mg-1.5 G I.M. or I.V. 2-4 x dly. Child: 25-100
mg/Kg/day I.M. or I.V. in 3-4 equal doses.
Infections caused by susceptible pathogens.

KEFAZIN, Vitamed
1st generation. Cefazolin sodium.
o VIALS: 1 x 1 G. Dose: 250 mg-1.5 G I.M. or I.V. 2-4 x dly. Child : 25-100
mg/Kg/day I.M. or I.V. in 3-4 equal doses.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Infections caused by susceptible pathogens.

4. CEFDINIR

ADCEF, Pharmacare
Cefdinir
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125mg/5 ml..
Infections caused by susceptible organisms.


5. CEFIXIME

RIZACEF OD, Pharmacare
3rd generation. Cefixime (anhydrous).
o CAPS: 10 x 200 mg.
o RIZACEF OD CAPS: 7 x 400 mg.
Infections caused by susceptible organisms, uncomplicated gonorrhea, (cervical,
urethral, rectal, pharyngeal) caused by Neisseria gonorrhea.

SUPRAN, Teva
3rd generation .Cefixime
o CAPS: 10 x 200 mg, 5, 7 x 400 mg. 400 mg dly. or 200 mg 2 x dly.
o SUSP: 50, 75 ml x 100 mg/5 ml. 8 mg/kg/day as single dose or 4 mg/kg/day 2 x dly.
Over 50 kg: Adult dose. Uncomplicated gonorrhea: single oral dose of 400 mg.
Infections caused by susceptible organisms, uncomplicated gonorrhea, (cervical,
urethral, rectal, pharyngeal) caused by Neisseria gonorrhea.

6. CEFONICID

CEFOCID, BPC
2nd generation. Cefonicid.
o VIALS: 1x 1 G cefonicid (as sodium). 1 inject q 24 hrs I.M. or I.V. if necessary, up to
2 G dly.
Infects of lower resp. tract, skin & skin structure, urinary tract, septicemia, bone &
joint, infections due to sensitivity to drug, peri-operative proph. of infects.

CEFONICID-TEVA: Lab Farmaceutico, S.L.E.(Teva Group)
2nd generation. Cefonicid.
o VIALS (pwdr. for inject. soln):1.cefonid sod. 1.081 G (eq. to cefonicid 1 G) 1 G 1 x
every 24 hrs I.V. or deep I.M. In except. cases, up to 2 G 1 x dly. If 2 G I.M. 1 x dly
dose to be administered in diff. large muscle masses. Impair. ren. funct.: Initial
load. dose: 7.5 mg/Kg I.V. or I.M.
Serious bact. infects caused by microorgans suscept. to cefonicid, surg. proph.

MONOCEF: Goldshield (Pharmateam Marketing)
2nd generation. Cefonicid.
o VIALS: 1 x 500, 1,000 mg. 1 G once every 24 hours IV or deep IM.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Infections of lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, septicemia, bone and joints,
prophylaxis during surgery.

7. CEFOTAXIME

CLAFORAN, Aventis Pharma
3rd generation.Cefotaxime sodium.
o VIALS: 1 x 1 G +1 amp of solvent. IV or IM injection. 2-4 G dly. in 2 divided doses.
Infections of upper and lower respiratory tract, genitor-urinary tract, septicemia,
endocarditis, meningitis, GIT, bone and joints, gonococcal, neonatal infections.

CLAFOXIM, BPC
3rd generation. Cefotaxime sodium.
o VIALS: 1 x 1 G. 2-4 G dly in 2 divided doses.
Infections of upper and lower respiratory tract, genitor-urinary tract, septicemia,
endocarditis, meningitis, GIT, bone and joints, gonococcal, neonatal infections.

8. CEFTAZIDIME

FORTUM, Glaxo (C.T.S.)
3rd generation. Ceftazidime pentahydrate.
o VIALS: 1 x 1, 2 G.
o MONOVIALS: 1 G. 1-6 G dly. Child. and inf: 30-100 mg /kg/dly.
Severe infections including infections due to pseudomonas. Infections in
immunocompromised patients.

9. CEFTIBUTEN

CEDAX, Schering-Plough
Ceftibuten (semi-synthetic).
o CAPS: 5 x 400 mg.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 36 mg/ml. Adult: Pneumonia: 200 mg 2 x dly. Bronchitis: 400 mg dly.
Upper respiratory infections, urinary tract infections: 400 mg dly. Child: 9 mg/kg dly.
up to maximum of 400 mg dly. Over 45 kg or 10 yrs.: Adult dose.
Upper and lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections.

10. CEFTRIAXONE

CEFIXON, BPC
3rd generation. Ceftriaxone (as sodium).
o VIALS: 1x 1 G. Adults and children over 12 yrs: 1-2 G once dly. I.M. or I.V. In
severe cases the dose may be raised up to 4 G once daily. Infants 3 wks-12 yrs: 20-80
mg/Kg bdy once dly. Child 50 Kg or more: use adult dose.
Lower resp. tract infects., skin & skin structure infects., urinary tract infects.
uncomplicated gonorrhea ,pelvic inflammatory disease, bact. Septicemia, bone &
joint infects., intra-abdominal infects., meningitis & other infects. Sensitive to
ceftriaxone, peri-operative prophylaxis of infections.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

CEFTRIAXONE-TEVA, Teva
3rd generation. Ceftriaxone (as sod. salt) 1000 mg.
o VIALS: 1 x 1 G.
See CEFIXON.

KEFTRIAXON 1000, Vitamed
3rd generation. Ceftriaxone (as sod) 1 G.
o VIALS: 1. For I.M. or I.V. adm. 1-2 G dly.
See CEFIXON.

PAN-CEFTRIAXONE, Panpharma
3rd generation. Ceftriaxone (as sod) 1 G.
o VIALS: 10. For I.M. or I.V. adm. 1-2 G dly or infu.
See CEFIXON.

ROCEPHIN, Roche
3rd generation. Ceftriaxone.
o AMPS (with solvent amp): 5 x 0.5, 1 G for IV or IM injections, 5 x 2 G for IV
infusions. 1-2 G dly.
Infections of respiratory tract, GIT, genito-urinary tract, bone and soft tissue, skin,
wounds, gonorrhea, sepsis, meningitis.

TRIAX POWDER FOR INJECTION, Taro
3rd generation. Ceftriaxone (as sod).
Pwdr for inject Ceftriaxone (as Sod) 1.193 G eq. to 1 G ceftriaxone.
o VIALS: 25 x 1 G. 1 G I.V./I.M.
Infection caused by suscept. organisms.

11. CEFUROXIME

CEFURAX, Lindopharm
2nd generation. Cefuroxime axetil.
Cefuroxime axetil 250, 500 mg.
o F.C. TABS: 10. 125-250 mg 2 x dly. Severe infect. respir. tract: 500 mg 2 x dly. Not
for inf. under 3 mths.
Infect caused by suscept. microorganisms.

CEFUROXIME-TEVA, Teva
2nd generation. Cefuroxime sodium.
Cefuroxime sodium 750 mg/vial.
o VIALS: 1.
See ZENACEF.
.
KEFURIM, Vitamed
2nd generation, Cefuroxime sodium.
Cefuroxime sodium 750 mg/vial.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
o VIALS: 1.
See ZENACEF.

PAN-CEFUROXIME, Panpharma
2nd generation. Cefuroxime sodium.
Cefuroxime sodium.750 mg/vial.
o VIALS: 50.
See ZENACEF.

ZENACEF, Glaxowellcome (C.T.S.)
2nd generation. Cefuroxime sodium.
o MONOVIALS: 1 x 750 mg, 1 x 1.5 G. 750 mg IM or IV 3-4 x dly. Severe infects:
1.5 G I.V. 3-4 x dly. Gonorrhea: 1.5 G IM as single dose. Child. neonates: 30-100
mg/kg dly. In 2-3 divided doses. Others: 30-100 mg/kg dly. In 3-4 divided doses.
Infections of respiratory tract, urinary tract, soft tissue, serious infections pending
bacteriology, meningitis, gonorrhea, prophylaxis against infection in surgical
procedures.

ZINNAT, Glaxo ( C.T.S.)
2nd generation. Cefuroxime axetil.
o TABS: 10 x 125, 250, 500 mg. Most infection: 250 mg 2 x dly. Pneumonia: 500 mg 2
x dly. Urinary tract infection: 125 mg 2 x dly. Uncomplicated gonorrhea: 1 G (single
dose). Child: most infection: 125 mg 2 x dly. Otitis media: 250 mg 2 x dly. (tablets
are not suitable for children under 5 years). To be taken after food for optimum
absorption.
o GRANULES FOR SUSP: 125 mg/50 ml, 100 ml.
o SUSP: 50, 100 ml x 250 mg /5 ml .10 mg 2 x dly aft. food to max 250 mg/day. Most
infections: 250 mg 2 x dly. Urinary tract infections: 125 mg 2 x dly. Gonorrhea: 1 G
as single doses. Child: most infection: 125 mg 2 x dly. Otitis media: 250 mg 2 x dly.
Infection of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue,
gonorrhea.

ZINAXIM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
2nd generation. Cefuroxime axetil.
o TABS: 10 x (250, 500 mg).
o SUSP: 50 ml x 125 mg/5ml.
See ZINNAT.

ZINEX, BPC
2nd generation. Cefuroxime sodium.
o TABS: 10 x 250 mg, 500 mg.
o VIALS: 1x 750 mg.
See ZINNAT.

12. CEPHALEXIN

CEFACARE, Pharmacare
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
1st generation, Cephalexin.
o CAPS: 16 x 500 mg. Adult: 500 mg every 6-8 hrs. Severe infections need larger
doses. Maximum 4 G dly.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 25-50 mg/Kg in divided doses, in severe
infections the dose may be doubled.
Infections of respiratory tract, genitor-urinary tract, skin and bone, otitis media,
dental infections.

CEFALEX, BPC
1st generation. Cephalexin monohydrate.
o CAPS: 16 x 250, 500 mg. 1-4 G dly. In 2-4 divided doses.
o SUSP: 60, 100 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml. Child 25-50 mg/Kg dly. In 2-4 divided doses.
See CEFACARE.

CEFALIN, IBSA
1st generation. Cephalexin monohydrate.
o CAPS: 20 x 350, 500 mg. 1-4 G dly. In divided doses. Child: 25-50 mg/Kg/day in
divided doses.
See CEFACARE.

CEFORAL, Teva
1st generation. Cephalexin monohydrate eq. to cephalexin.
o CAPS: 10 x 250, 500 mg. 250 mg every 6 hrs.
o PWDR FOR SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg, 250 mg/5ml. Child: 25-50 mg/Kg bdy. wt. div.
into 4 doses.
See CEFACARE.

CEFOVIT, Vitamed
1st generation. Cephalexin
o CAPS: 10 x 250, 500 mg. 1-4 G per day in div. doses. Child: 25-50 mg/Kg bdy. wt.
in div. doses.
o PWDR FOR SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg, 250 mg/5 ml. 25-50 mg/Kg bdy. wt. in div.
doses.
See CEFACARE.

JEFLEX, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
1st generation. Cephalexin monohydrate.
o CAPS: 16 x 250, 500 mg. Adult: 250 mg 4 x dly. or 500 mg every 8-12 hours.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml, 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 25-50 mg/kg/day in
divided doses.
See CEFACARE.

KEFLEX, Eli Lilly
1st generation. Cephalexin monohydrate.
o SUSP: 100 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 25-50 mg/kg dly. In divided doses.
o CAPS: 20 x 250, 500 mg. 1-4 G dly. in divided doses.
See CEFACARE.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

KEFLEXIM, Megapharm
1st generation. Cephalexin monohydrate.
o CAPS: 20, 1000 (LB) x 250 mg or 500 mg of the cephalexin base.
o SUSP: 250 mg/5 ml.
See CEFACARE.

13. CEPHALOTHIN Na

KEFLIN, Eli Lilly
1st generation. Cephalothin sodium.
o AMPS: 1 G. 0.5-1 G 4-6 hrs. IM or IV.
Broadspectrum bacterial antibiotic for parenteral use against organisms susceptible
to its action. Particulary valuable when high doses of antibiotics are indicated or
when renal functions are impaired.

14. CEPHRADINE

CEFADIN FORTE, Eastern Chemical Co.
1st generation. Cephradine.
o CAPS: 16 x 500 mg. Adult: Skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract: 250 mg 4 x dly. or
500 mg every 12 hours. Pneumonia, prostatitis and urinary tract: 500 mg 4 x dly. or 1
G every 12 hours. Sever infections may require larger doses. Maximum: 4 G per day.
o SUPS: 60 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child over 9 months: 25-50 mg/Kg/day in 2-4 divided
doses. Otitis media: 75-100 mg/Kg/day in 2-4 divided doses.
Tonsillitis, pharyngitis, lobar, pneumonia, streptococcal infections, prophylaxis of
rheumatic fever, nasopharynx infections, otitis media, skin and soft tissue infections,
prostatitis, urinary tract infections.

VELOSEF, Squibb
1st generation. Cephradine.
o CAPS: 20, 100 x 250, 500 mg.
o SYRUP: 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Adult: usual dose: 250-500 mg 4 x dly. Maximum: 4
G dly. To be continued for 48-72 hours after patient is asymtomatic. Child: 25-50
mg/kg in 4 divided dose. Injection: 5 x 500 mg, 1 x 1 G. See lit.
Infection of urinary, respiratory, GIT, skin and soft tissue.


IV. CYCLOSERINE
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Cycloserine is a structural analogue of D-alanine and therefore blocks the
incorporation of D-alanine into peptidoglycan.
S/E: Cycloserine cause serious dose-related central nervous system toxicity with
headaches, tremors, acute psychosis, and convulsions. If oral dosages are maintained
below 0.75 G/day, such effects can usually be avoided.

CYCLOSERINE, Lilly
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Cycloserine 250 mg.
o CAPS: 100. 500 mg1 G dly. Initially for first 2 wks: 250 mg 2 x dly.
Active pulm. & extrapulm. tuberculosis (include renal dis.) when tmt. with primary
medicates. are inadequate to be used in conjunct. with other effect. chemother.

V. FOSFOMYCIN
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It inhibits a very early stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It inhibits
cytoplasmic enzyme enolpyruvate transferase. Drug appears to be safe for use in
pregnancy.
S/E: Diarrhea, headache, stomach ache, nausea, heartburn, skin rash.
C/I: Hypersensitivity to drug, severe renal failure, patients undergoing hemodialysis,
children under 12 years.

MONUROL, Rafa
Fosfomycin trometamol.
o SACHET: 3 G. Dissolve contents into one cup of water. Take on an empty stomach
before bedtime.
Single dose treatment for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

VI. PENICILLINS:
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Penicillins bind to penicillin binding proteins PBPs (enzymes involved in the
synthesis of the cell wall and the maintenance of the morphologic structure of
bacteria) and inhibit transpeptidase step (the last step in bacterial cell wall synthesis)
resulting in bacterial cell lysis. Penicillins also release autolysins (bacterial
degradative enzymes involved in the normal remodeling of bacterial cell wall).
S/E: Allergic reactions include urticaria, severe pruritis, fever, joint swelling,
hemolytic anemia, nephritis, and anaphylaxis. Gastrointestinal disturbances such as
nausea, and diarrhea may occur with oral penicillin inpatient with renal failure,
penicillin in high doses can cause seizures. Nafcillin is associated with neuroenia;
oxacillin can cause hepatitis; and methicillin causes interstitial nephritis.
C/I: Hypersensitivity to them. Reduce efficacy of many concomitantly given drugs.
e.g. oral contraceptives, oral anticoagulants, digitalis, oral antidiabetics.

1. AMOXICILLIN

AMOXI 250, Generics
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 10, 20 x 250 mg. 250-500 mg 3 x dly. Severe infections: 1,000 mg 3 x dly.
Infections of the upper respiratory tract, genito-urinary tract, skin and soft tissue.

AMOXI 500, Generics
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 10 x 500 mg. 1 cap. 3 x dly. Severe infect: 2 caps 3 x dly.
Infections of upper respiratory tract, genito-urinary tract, skin and soft tissue.

PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
AMOXICARE, Pharmacare
Amoxicillin.
o TABS: 10 x 1000 mg. Usual dose: 1000 mg 2-3 x dly.
o CAPS: 16 x 250, 500 mg. Usual dose: 250 mg 3 x dly. Severe infection: 500 mg 3 x
dly. Gonorrhea: 3 G as single dose.
o SUSP: 100 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml, 60 ml x 400 mg /5 ml. Usual dose: 20 mg/kg in
divided doses 8 hours. Severe infection: 40 mg/kg in divided doses 8 hours. (children
weighing 20 kg or more should be given the adult dose).
Infections of upper and lower respiratory tract, otitis media, bronchopneumonia,
thphoid and paratyphoid fever, dental abscess, skin and soft tissue, gonorrhea,
urinary tract, septicemia, osteomyelitis, meningitis, typhoid fever, treatment and
prophylaxis of endocarditis.

AMOXICLAV-TEVA, Sandoz GmbH.S.L.E. Teva Group
Amoxicillin trihydrate 250, 500 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium clavulanate) 125
mg/tab.
o TABS: 20. Adult and child over 12 years: 250 mg 3 x dly. Severe infect 500 mg 3 x
dly.
o SUSP: Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) 250 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium clavulanate)
62.5 mg/5 ml. 100 ml. Child up to 12 yrs: 20 mg/kg/day in div. doses every 8 hrs.
Severe infect.: may inc. to 40 mg /Kg/day in dev. doses every 8 hrs.
Infects caused by suscept. organisms.

AMOXIL, Smithkline Beecham
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o TABS: 1 G (12 comprimes dispersible). Adult: 1 tab 2 x dly (morning & evening).
Child over 7 yrs: 1/2 tab 2 x dly (morning & evening). Not recommended for child <
7 yrs. Tablets can be swallowed or dissolved in water to be drinked.
For infections caused by amoxicillin susceptible organisms.

AMOXIM, Megapharm
Amoxicyllin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 20, 1000 (LB) x 250 mg or 500 mg of amoxicillin base. Adults: 250-500 mg q
8 hrs. Child <20 Kg: 20-40 mg/Kg/day in divided dose. Child >20 Kg: 250 mg q 8
hrs.
o SUSP: 250 mg/5 ml.
See AMOXICARE.

AMOXIPEN, Eastern Chemical Co.
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 16 x 250 mg. One caps 3 x dly. In severe infections, dose may be doubled.
o SUSP: 60 ml x125 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses. In severe infections, dose may be
doubled.
o FORTE CAPS: 16, 200 x 500 mg. 500 mg 3 x dly. Gonorrhea: 3 G as single dose.
o FORTE SUSPS: 60, 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses.
See AMOXICARE.

PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
AMOXITID, BPC
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 16, 240 x 250, 500 mg, 12 x 750 mg. 250-500 mg 3 x dly. or 750 mg 2 x dly.
In severe infections, dose may be doubled. Gonorrhea: 2 G single dose and 1 G 4-6
hrs later.
o SUSP: 60, 100 ml x 125, 250, 400 mg/5 ml. Child: 0-2 yrs.: 62.5 mg 3 x dly., 2-10
yrs.: 125 mg 3 x dly. In severe infections, dose may be doubled.
o DROPS: 15 ml x 50 mg/ml. Dose according to body weight: 20-40 mg/kg/day in 3
divided doses. In severe infections, dose may be doubled.
See AMOXICARE.

AMOXYL, GAMA
Amoxicillin trihydrate
o CAPS, SUSP.
See AMOXICARE

AUGMENTIN, Smithkline Beecham
Aminopenicillin /B-lactamase inhibitor.
o 250 TABS: 15, 20. Amoxicillin trihydrate 250 mg, clavulanic acid (potassium salt)
125 mg.
o 500 TABS: 15, 20. Amoxicillin trihydrate 500 mg, clavulanic acid (potassium salt)
125 mg. 250 or 500 mg every 8 hrs depending on severity of infection, taken at start
of meal.
o 125 SUSP: 60 ml. Amoxicillin trihydrate 125 mg, calvulanic acid (potassium salt)
31.25 mg/5 ml.
o 250 SUSP: 60 ml. Amoxicillin trihydrate 250 mg, clavulanic acid (potassium salt)
62.5 mg/5 ml. Child: 3 months-6 yrs.: 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hrs.
Taken at start of meal.
o 400 SUSP: 70 ml. Amoxicillin trihydrate 400 mg, clavulanic acid (potassium salt) 57
mg/5 ml.
o 500 VIALS: 10. Amoxicillin trihydrate 500 mg, clavulanic acid (potassium salt) 100
mg.
o 1 G VIALS: 5. Amoxicillin trihydrate 1 G, clavulanic acid (potassium salt) 200 mg.
Adult: 1 G every 8 hrs, if necessary, may inc. to every 6 hours. Child: 3 months-12
yrs: 25 mg/kg every 8 hrs, if necessary, may inc. to every 6 hrs. Birth -3 months: 25
mg/kg every 12 hours in premature infants and perinatal period, then inc. to every 8
hrs. All by IV route or intermittent infusion.
See AMOXICLAV-TEVA.

AUGMENTIN BID, Smithkline Beecham
Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) 875 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt) 125 mg.
o TABS: 14. 1 tab 2 x dly.
Short term treatment of infections caused by susceptible micro-organisms.

CLAMOXIN, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
o TABS: 20 x 250, 500 mg amoxicillin (as trihydrate), clavulanic acid (as potassium
salt) 125 mg. BID: Amoxicillin 875 mg, clavulanic acid 125 mg.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
o SUSP: 100 ml, 125 mg amoxicillin (as trihydrate), clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
31.25 mg/5 ml. 100 ml, 250 mg amoxicillin (as trihydrate), clavulanic acid (as
potassium salt) 62.5 mg/5 ml. 35 ml, 70 ml, 400 mg amoxicillin (as trihydrate),
clavulanic acid (as potassium salt) 57 mg/5ml.
See AMOXICLAV-TEVA.

CLAVAMOX, Cimex (Taro)
o TABS 500: Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) 500 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
125 mg.10, 20, 30.
o SUSP 250: Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) 250 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
62.5 mg/5ml. 100 ml.
o SUSP 125: Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) 125 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
31.25 mg/5ml. 100 ml.
See AMOXICLAV-TEVA.

CLAVAMOX 1 G INJECT., Taro
Amoxicillin sod. 1 G/vial, clavulanic acid (as pot. clavulanate) 200 mg/vial.
o VIALS: 10. 1 G every 6-8 hrs. depend. on severity. Child: 3 mths-12 yrs: 25 mg/Kg
every 6-8 hrs depend on severity. 0-3 mths: <4 Kg: 25 mg/Kg every 12 hrs; >4 Kg:
25 mg/Kg every 8 hrs.
Short term tmt. bact. infects. caused by suscept. microorgans. resist. to other beta-
lactamase antibiotics.

CLOXABAL PLUS, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Aminopenicillin /Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
Amoxicillin trihydrate 500 mg, cloxacillin ( as sodium salt ) 250 mg.
o CAPS: 16. One cap every 8 hours before meals.
Infections caused by susceptible organisms, beta-lactamase-producing staphylococcl,
infections of repiratory tract, soft tissue, genitor-urinary tract, GIT, orthopedic
infections, endocarditis, meningitis, septicemia.

CURAM, Sandoz
Aminopenicillin /B-lactamase inhibitor.
Amoxicillin trihydrate, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt).
o TABS 625: Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) 500 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
125 mg.
o SUSP 156.25: 250 mg Amoxicillin (as trihydrate), clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
62.5 mg/5ml.
o SUSP 312.5: 250 mg Amoxicillin (as trihydrate), clavulanic acid (as potassium salt)
62.5 mg/5ml.
See AMOXICLAV-TEVA.

HICONCIL, Mead- Johnson
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 12 x 250, 500 mg. 250-500 mg 3 x dly. Severe infections: 1 G 3 x dly.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 0-2 yrs.: 2.5 ml, 2-10 yrs.: 5 ml. All 3 x dly.
See AMOXICARE.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

MOXEPHARM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 16 x 250, 500 mg. 250 mg 3 x dly. double dose in severe infections.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 250 mg/5 ml, 100 ml x 125, 250, 400 mg/5 ml. Child up to 10 yrs:
125 mg 3 x dly, double dose in severe infections.
Infections of respiratory tract, GIT, otitis media, other infections caused by
amoxicillin sensitive organisms.

MOXYPEN, Novopharm, Teva Group
Amoxicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 12 x 250 mg.
o FORTE CAPS: 10 x 500 mg.
o PWDR FOR SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg/5ml.
o FORTE SUSP: 60 ml,100 ml x 250 mg/5ml.
See AMOXICARE.

MOXYVIT, Vitamed
Amoycillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 10 x 250 mg.
o FORTE CAPS: 10 x 500 mg. 250-500 mg dly.
o SUSP: 60 ml, 120 ml x 125 mg/5ml.
o FORTE SUSP: 60 ml, 120 ml x 250 mg/5ml. Children up to 2 yrs: 62.5 mg 3 x dly. 2-
10 yrs: 125 mg dly.
Infections of respiratory tract, GIT, otitis media, other infections caused by
amoxicillin sensitive organisms.

OGMIN, BPC
o TABS: Amoxicillin trihydrate 250 mg, 500 mg, 875 mg, clavulanic acid (as
potassium) 125 mg.
o SUSP 125: Amoxicillin trihydrate 125 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium) 31.25 mg/5
ml.
o SUSP 250: Amoxicillin trihydrate 250 mg, clavulanic acid (as potassium) 62.50 mg/5
ml. 60, 100 x 125, 250 mg. Usual dose: 20-40 mg/kg/day based on amoxicillin
component in 3 divided doses.
See AMOXICLAV-TEVA.

2. AMPICILLIN

AMPEN, Estern Chemical Co.
Ampicillin
o CAPS: 16, 250 x 250 mg, 16, 200 x 500 mg. Adult and child over 20 kg: Respiratory
tract: 250-500 mg 4 x dly. GIT and urinary tract: 500-750 mg 4 x dly. on empty
stomach. Gonorrhea: 3.5 G single dose with 1 G probenecid.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg/5 ml, 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child less than 20 kg:
Respiratory tract: 50 mg/kg/day. GIT and urinary tract: 100 mg/kg/day. All divided
into 4 equal doses on empty stomach.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Infections of genitor-urinary tract, gonorrhea, respiratory tract, GIT.

AMPICILLIN, Vitamed
Ampicillin (as sodium).
o VIALS: 50 x 250, 500, 1,000 mg.
Infections due to ampicillin susceptible micro-organisms.

AMPIPHARM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Ampicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 16 x 250, 500 mg. Adult: 0.25-1 G 4 x dly. on empty stomach. Gonorrhea: 3.5
G single dose with probenecid 1 G. Urinary tract: 500 mg 4 x dly.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml. Child: half adult dose.
Urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, otitis media, chronic bronchitis,
invasive salmonellosis, gonorrhea.

BROADACILLIN, BPC
Ampicillin trihydrate.
o CAPS: 16, 240 x 250, 500 mg. Adult: 250-500 mg 4 x dly. on empty stomach. In
severe infections, higher dosage may be given. Gonorrhea: 3.5 G single dose with 1 G
probenecid.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250mg/5 ml. Child: 50-100 mg/kg bdy wt. Child weighing over
20 kg should receive adult dose.
o VIALS: 5 x 500 mg. IM, IV or continuos IV infusion.
Infections of GIT, urinary and respiratory tracts.

MAGNACILLIN, BPC
Aminopenicillin / Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
Ampicillin trihydrate, flucloxacillin sodium
o CAPS: 16. Ampicillin trihydrate 250 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 250 mg. 1 cap 4 x
dly. before meals.
o SUSP: 60 ml. Ampicillin trihydrate 125 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 125 mg/5 ml. 5 ml
4 x dly. before meals.
o DROPS: 15 ml. Ampicillin trihydrate 60 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 30 mg/ ml.
Infections due to staphylococci resistant to benzyl penicillin, mixed streptococcal and
staphyiococcal infections.

MAGNACILLIN FORTE, BPC
Aminopenicillin / Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
o FORTE CAPS: 16. Ampicillin trihydrate 250 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 500 mg.
Serious infections: 1 cap 4 x dly. before meals.
o FORTE SUSP: 60 ml. Ampicillin trihydrate 125 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 250 mg/5
ml. Serious infections: 5 ml 4 x dly. before meals. Infants and children up to 2 yrs.: 1
ml 4 x dly. before meals.
See MAGNICILLIN.

MEGACARE, Pharmacare
Aminopenicillin / Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
o CAPS: 16. Ampicillin trihydrate 250 mg, flucloxacillin sodium, 250 mg. 1 cap 4 x
dly. before meals.
See MAGNICILLIN.

MEGACARE Forte, Pharmacare
Aminopenicillin / Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
o FORTE CAPS: 16. Ampicillin trihydrate 500 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 250 mg. 1
cap 4 x dly. before meals.
o FORTE SUSP: 60, 100 ml. Ampicillin trihydrate 250 mg, flucloxacillin sodium 125
mg/5ml. Child less than 20 kg: 20-40 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses before meals.
See MAGNICILLIN.

PENIBRIN, Sandoz GmbH S.L.E (Teva Group)
Aminopenicillin.
Ampicillin.
o AMPS: 1 x 500 mg, 1 G, 2 G.
See AMPIPHARM.

SOLVOCILLIN, GAMA
Aminopenicillin/ Mucolytic.
o CAPS: 16 x Bromohexine HCl 8 mg. Ampicillin trihydrate 250 or 500 mg. Adult:
250 500 mg 4 x dly.
o SYRUP:100ml x bromohexine HCl 8 mg. Ampicillin trihydrate 125 or 250 mg /5
ml. Infant :125 mg 4 x dly. Child: 250 mg 4 x dly.
Bronchopneumonia, acute and chronic bronchial asthma, chronic lung disease,
sjogrens syndrome.

UNASYN 1.5 G, Pfizer
Aminopenicillin / B-lactamase inhibitor.
Ampicillin (as sod) 1000 mg, salbactam (as sod) 500 mg.
o VIALS (powder for I.V./I.M. inject.): Recommended adult dose: 1.5 G-3 G every 6
hrs. Recommended ped. dose: 300 mg/Kg bdy wt. dly I.V. in equal div. doses every 6
hours.
Succept. B-lactamase produce strains microorgans in skin/skin struct. infects., inta-
abdomen. infects.,gyne. infects.

VITAPEN, Vitamed
Aminopenicillin.
o CAPS: 16 x 250 mg, 16 x 500 mg ampicillin. Adult and child over 20 kg: Respiratory
tract: 250-500 mg 4 x dly. GIT and urinary tract: 500-750 mg 4 x dly. on empty
stomach. Gonorrhea: 3.5 G single dose with 1 G probenecid.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg/5 ml, 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child less than 20 kg:
Respiratory tract: 50 mg/kg/day. GIT and urinary tract: 100 mg/kg/day. All divided
into 4 equal doses on empty stomach.
Infections of genitor-urinary tract, gonorrhea, respiratory tract, GIT tract.

3. CLOXACILLIN
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

CLOXABAL PLUS, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Refer to PENICILLIN section VI no. one.

CLOXAN, BPC
Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
Cloxacillin.
o CAPS: 16 x 250 mg, 500 mg.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg, 250 mg. Usual adult dose: 250-500 mg q 6 hrs. Infant and
Children up to 20 Kg is 12.5-25 mg/Kg q 6 hrs. Over 20 Kg should receive adult
dose. Higher doses may be administered according to severity of infection should by
administration with a full glass of water.
Resistant staphylococcal infections.

CLOXAPEN, Eastern Chemical Co.
Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
Cloxacillin.
o CAPS: 16 x 250 mg. 250-500 mg 4 x dly. before meals.
o FORTE CAPS: 16 x 500 mg.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg /5 ml. Child: 50-100 mg/Kg/day in 4 divided doses
before meals.
Resistant staphylococcal infections.

LOXAVIT, Vitamed
Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
Cloxacillin.
o CAPS: 10 x 250, 500 mg. Adult and child over 20 kg: 250-500 mg every 6 hours.
Child less than 20 kg: 50-100 mg/kg in equal doses every 6 hours.
Infections due to cloxacillin sensitive organisms.

ORBENIL, Teva
Penicillinase resistant penicillin.
Cloxacillin sodium.
o CAPS: 12 x 250 mg, 10 x 500 mg. 250-500 mg every 6 hours.
o INJ ECTION VIALS: 50 x 10 ml x 500 mg, 1 G.
o SYRUP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml. Infant and child up to 20 Kg: 12.5-25 mg/kg
every 6 hours. Child over 20 kg: Adult dose: 250-500 mg every 6 hours.
Resistant staphylococcal infections. Gram + ve infection.

4. EPICILLIN

DEXILLIN, Gama Chemical Co.
Semisynthetic penicillin.
Epicillin.
o CAPS: 8 x 250, 500 mg. Usual dose: Genito-urinary, GIT: 2 G dly. Respiratory and
skin infections: 1 G dly. All in 2 divided dose. Severe infection: 4 G dly.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg. Child: Usual dose: Genito-urinary, GIT: 100
mg/Kg/day. Respiratory and skin infections: 50 mg/Kg/day. All in 2 divided doses.
Tonsillitis, pharyngitis, otitis media, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, cystitis, pyelitis,
pyelonephritis, bacteriuria, prostatitis, bacterial diarrhea, salmonellosis and
shigllosis, gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis, ecthyma, impetigo, abscesses
and furuncles, meningitis.

5. FLUCLOXACILLIN

MAGNACILLIN, BPC
Refer to 9A, a, VI no 2.

MAGNACILLIN FORTE, BPC
Refer to 9A, a, VI no 2.

MEGACARE, Pharmacare
Refer to 9A, a, VI no 2.

MEGACARE FORTE, Pharmacare
Refer to 9A, a, VI no 2.

6. MEZLOCILLIN

BAYPEN, Bayer Germany (Agis)
Extended spectrum penicillin.
Mezlocillin.
o VIALS: 0.5 G, 1 G, 2 G, 5 G. 2 G I.V. every 6-8 hrs. or 1-2 G by deep I.M. inject.
Severe infects: 5 G every 6-8 hrs. by I.V. infuse. Proph: 2 G I.V. Pre-op. repeat. 2 x
post op. at 8 hrs. intervals. Child: Under 3 Kg: 75 mg/Kg bdy wt. by I.V. infus. every
12 hrs. 3-5 Kg: 0.2-0.4 G, 5-10 Kg: 0.4-0.75 G, 10-13 Kg: 0.75-1 G, 13-20 Kg: 1-1.5
G. Over 20 Kg: 1.5 G. All by I.V. inject. or infus. every 8 hrs.
Serious infects. caused by suscept. microorg.

7. PENICILLIN

BEPEN, BPC
Procaine penicillin G, sodium crystalline penicillin G.
o VIALS: 50 x 400,000 U. (Natural penicillin). Containing: 300,000 U Procaine
penicillin G and 100,000 sodium crystalline penicillin G.
o VIALS: 50 x 800,000 U. Containing: 600,000 U Procaine penicillin G and 200,000
sodium crystalline penicillin G.
o VIALS: 50 x 1200,000 U. Containing: 900,000 U Procaine penicillin G and 300,000
sodium crystalline penicillin G. 2-5 ml of diluent is added to each vial. Adult:
400,000-2,000,000 U dly. Child: dose adjusted according to bdy wt, type and severity
of infection.
Infections due to penicillin susceptible organisms.

PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
BEPEN-V.K, BPC
Natural penicillin.
Phenoxymethyl penicillin.
o TABS: 20 x 250, 500 mg. Most infections: 125-250 mg 4 x dly.
o SUSP: 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. Child: 25-50 mg/kg bdy wt divided into 4 doses.
Streptococcal infections: 1 G 2 x dly. for 10 days. Older child: 500 mg 2 x dly. for 10
days.
Infections due to penicillin V.K susceptible organisms.

DEPOCILLIN, BPC
Natural penicillin.
Benzathine penicillin G.
o VIALS: 1 x 600,000 U., 1,200,000 U. Adult: 1,200,000 U. I .M repeated every 5-7
days. As necessary. Child: 300,000-600,000 U. I .M repeated every 5-7 days. As
necessary.
Infections due to micro-organisms susceptible to low and prolonged levels of
pencillin G, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, venereal infections.

DURABIOTIC, Sandoz GmbH, (S.L.E) Teva Group
Natural penicillin.
Benzathine penicillin G 1,200,000 U.
o VIALS: 1.
See DEPOCILLIN.

PENICILLIN G SODIUM, Sandoz GmbH S.L.E (Teva Group)
Benzyl penicillin sod.
o VIALS: 5 MU, 10 MU.
Tmt. severe infects. caused by sens. organs. when rapid and high blood levels of
penicillin are reqd.

REFAPEN MEGA 1000, Rafa
Phenoxymethyl penicillin.
o CAPLET: 20 x 1,000 mg. Streptococcal infections: 1 caplet 2 x dly. for 10 days.
Older children: 500 mg 2 x dly. for 10 days. Infants and small children: See lit. Post-
endocarditis: Adults and children weighing more than 25 kg: 2 caplets 1 hour before
therapeutic intervention and 1 caplet 6 hours after. Child less than 25 kg: adult
dose.
Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis in patients risk.

RAFAPEN V-K, Rafa
Phenoxymethyl penicillin.
o TABS: 40 x 250, 500 mg.
o SYRUP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/ 5 ml. Most infections: 125-250 mg 4 x dly. Child: 25-
50 mg/kg dly. in divided doses every 6-8 hours. Streptococcal infections: 1 G 2 x dly.
for 10 days. Older children: 500 mg 2 x dly. Infant and small children. See lit.
Penicillin V-K susceptible infections.

PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
V-PEN, Biochemie
phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium. (penicillin v-k).
o TABS: 40 x 250 mg, 30 x 500 mg. Adult: 500-750 mg 3-4 x dly. or 500-1,000 mg 3-4
x dly. Child: 500 mg 3 x dly. Doses should not be less than 15 mg/kg. See lit.
Infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin.

8. PIPERACILLIN

PIPRACIN, Vitamed
Piperacillin (as sod) 4 G/vial.
o VIALS: I.M. /I.V. 4 G: 3-4 G every 4-6 hrs.
Systemic, local or mixed infects. due to suscept. bact., empirical ther., periop. proph.

TAZOCIN, Lederle (Neopharm)
Broad spectrum penicillin /Beta lactamase inhibitor.
Piperacillin sod., tazobactam sod.
o VIALS: 2.25 G (2 G: 250 mg); 3.375 G (3 G: 375 mg); 4.5 G (4 G: 500 mg). 2.25 G-
4.5 G every 6-12 hrs. by slow I.V. inj. or infus. or by I.M. inj.
System. and/or local bact. infects. caused by suscept. organisms.

9. TICARCILLIN

TIMENTIN, Smithkline beecham
Penicillin/ B-lactamase inhibitor.
3.2 G: Ticarcillin sodium 3 G, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt) 200 mg.
1.6 G: Ticarcillin sodium 1.5 G, clavulanic acid (as potassium salt) 100 mg.
o VIALS (pwdr. for reconstit.): 4 x 3.2 G, 4 x 1.6 G. Adult: 3.2 G by I.V infusion every
6-8 hours. Child: 80 mg/kg by I.V. infusion every 6-8 hours.
Septicemia, bacteremia, intra abdominal sepsis, post-operative infection, upper or
lower respiratory tract infection, bone and joint infection, skin and soft tissue
infection, pyelonephritis, severe hospital infections.

VII.GLYCOPEPTIDE
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It binds to the D-alanyl-D-alanine portion of cell wall precursors and inhibits
peptidoglycan polymerization.
S/E: Mainly with vancomycin, fever and chills, shock as a result of rapid
administration, dose-related ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity (rare with today's
preparations), red man's syndrome (facial flushing and hypotension due to rapid
infusion of the agent).
C/I: Hypersensitivity to glycopeptide, nephrotoxic antimicrobial agents (e.g,
aminoglycosides or amphotericin).

1. TEICOPLANIN

TARGOCID, Aventis Pharma
Teicoplanin.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
o VIALS: 1 x 200 mg +1 x 3 ml amp. of solvent. IV, IM or IP in single dly. dose, after
1 or more loading doses. To adjust according to severity of infection. See lit.
Severe gram + ve infection, serious staph. infections. Prophylaxis against gram + ve
endocarditis in dental surgery to high risk heart patients. IP: peritonitis in patients
undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

2. VANCOMYCIN

VANCOMYCIN, Gemedix
Vancomycin HCl.
o VIALS: 1 x 500 mg, 1 G/vial.
Severe infects. due to suscept. strains.

VANCO-TEVA INJECT, Teva
Vancomycin HCl.
o VIALS: 1 x 500 mg, 1 G/vial.
Severe infects. due to suscept. strains.

b.PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS:

I. AMINOGLYCOSIDES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Aminoglycosides cross the outer membrane and enter the periplasmic space
through aqueous channels formed by porin proteins. These drugs are then actively
transported through the cell membrane by an oxygen-dependent process. They then
irreversibly bind to 30S ribosomal subunit and inhibit protein synthesis by blocking
the formation of the initiation complex and the translocation step.
S/E: Ototoxicity which is directly related to plasma levels and duration of treatment,
nephrotoxicity (severe acute tubular necrosis may occur), neuromuscular blockade
(aminoglycosides may cause respiratory paralysis after larger than recommended
doses). Neomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin are the most ototoxic agents.
Streptomycin and gentamicin are the most vestibulotoxic. Neomycin, tobramycin and
gentamicin are the most nephrotoxic.
C/I: Pregnancy, Loop diuretics (e.g, furosemide, ethacrynic acid), nephrotoxic
antimicrobial agents (e.g, vancomycin or amphotericin), renal insufficiency.

1. AMIKACIN

AMIKIN, Bristole mayer squibb
Amikacin sulphate.
o VIALS: 100, 250, 500 mg/2ml. 1 G/4ml.
It is indicated in the short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible
strains of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli,
species of indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia species,
Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia species, and Acinetobacter (formerly Mima-
Herellea) species and Citrobacter freundii.

PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
2. GENTAMYCIN

CIDDOMYCIN, Hoechst Marion Roussel (M. S. S.)
Gentamycin sulphate.
o VIALS: 5 x 2 ml x 80 mg.
o CONTAINER: 100 ml 0.9% NaCl x 60, 80, 100 mg.
Urinary tract infection, chest infection, bacteremia, septicemia, systemic infections
caused by burns, surgical wounds and sensitive organisms, intrathecal and bacterial
infections of CNS. Infections caused by gentamycin susceptible organisms.

GENTAMICIN-IKA, Teva
Gentamicin sulphate 80 mg/ 2ml.
o AMPS: 25.
See GENTICIN.

GENTICIN, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Gentamycin sulphate.
o AMPS: 5 x 20 mg/1 ml, 5 x 40, 80 mg/ 2 ml. IM route: Patients with normal renal
function: Serious infections: 3 mg/Kg/day. Patients weighing 60 Kg or less: 60 mg 3
x dly.; over 60 Kg: 80 mg 3 x dly. Life-threatening infections: up to 5 mg/Kg/day;
reduce dose as soon as clinically indicated. Children: 6-7.5 mg/Kg/day. Infants: 7.5
mg/Kg/day. All in 3 divided doses Neonates: 5 mg/Kg/day in 2 doses. Preterms: 3
mg/Kg/day. Usual duration of treatment is 7-10 days; longer courses may be
necessary. Monitoring of renal, auditory and vestibular functions is recommended.
Neurotoxicity occurs more after 10 days of treatment. Patients with impaired renal
functions: Dose must be adjusted. See lit. IV route: Recommended for pts suffering
from: shock, blood disorders, severe burns, reduced muscle mass. Dose is same as IM
route. The does is diluted in 100-100 ml sterile N/S or D 5%, infused over 1-2 hours.
Volume of diluent should be less in children.
Severe systemic infections of CNS, urinary, bone, skin, soft tissues and septicemia
caused by susceptible G-ve organisms & some G +ve.

ISOTONIC GENTAMICIN SULPHATE, Teva-Medical
Gentamicin sulphate 60, 80, 100 mg.
o INFUS: 100 ml. Adults with normal renal functions: 3 mg/Kg/day in 3 doses.
Children: 6-7.5 mg/Kg/day in 3 doses.
See GENTICIN.

ZETAMYCIN, BPC
Gentamycin sulphate.
o AMPS: 5 x 20, 40, 80 mg.
See GENTICIN.

3. NEOMYCIN

NEOMYCIN, Rekah
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Neomycin sulphate.
o TABS: 20 x 500 mg. Suppress intestinal bacteria: 40 mg/kg/day in 6 divided doses
for not more than 3 days. Hepatic coma: 10 mg/kg/day the first, followed by 50
mg/kg/day, total dly. dose not to exceed 3 G. Infants and children: Diarrhea: 50
mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for 2-3 days.
Diarrhea due to enteropathology E. Coli, pre-op sterilization of bowel, suppression
of intestinal flora in hepatic coma.

4. PRISTINAMYCINE

PYOSTACINE, Aventis Pharm
Pristinamycine.
o TABS: 16 x 500 mg. Adult: 2 tabs 3-4 x dly. Child: 50 100 mg/kg dly. in 46 doses.
Cutaneous staphylococcal infections (furuncles, pyodermatitis, carbuncles, abscess),
staphylococcal septicemia, osteomyelitis, resistant staphylococcal gonorrhea.

5. STREPTOMYCIN

STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE, Teva
Streptomycin (as sulphate).
o VIALS: 50 x 6 ml x 1 G, Adult: 0.5-1 G IM dly. in divided doses. Child: 20-40
mg/kg dly. in divided doses.
Infections caused by susceptible organisms.

II. CHLORAMPHENICOL
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It binds reversibly to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits protein synthesis
during the peptidyl transferase reaction, bacterostatic broadspectrum antibiotic.
S/E: Gray baby syndrome, which is characterized by cyanosis, vomiting, green stools,
and vasomotor collapse caused by accumulation of unmetabolized drug (The
neonatal liver has not yet synthesized sufficient glucuronidase to detoxify many
drugs), bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia (rare, but can be fatal), hemolytic
anemia.
C/I: It inhibits hepatic microsomal enzymes that metabolize several drugs such as
phenytoin, warfarin, tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, so their half-lives increase.

SYNTHOMYCINE SUCCINATE, Teva
Sodium chloramphenicol succinate.
o VIALS: 1 x 1 G.
Infections caused by susceptible organisms.

III.CLINDAMYCIN
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It binds to 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits protein synthesis by interfering
with aminoacyl translocation step.
S/E: Pseudomembranous colitis (treatment of this condition includes metronidazole
or oral vancomycin), diarrhea, granulocytopenia, skin rashes.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
C/I: Sensitivity to the drug.

CLINDACIN, BPC
Clindamycin HCl.
o CAPS: 16 x 150 mg.
See DALACIN C.

CLINDAMYCIN, Rafa
Clindamycin (as phosphate) 150 mg/ml.
o AMPS: 5 x 4 ml (600 mg/ 4ml) I.M./I.V: Serious infects: 600-1200 mg/day in 2-4 eq.
doses. More severe anaerob. infects: 1200-2700 mg/day in 2-4 eq. doses. Life-threat.
infects: up to 4800 mg/day I.V. Child: 1 mth-16 yrs:20-40 mg/Kg/day in 3-4 eq.
doses I.M. Single dose not to exceed 600 mg.
Serious infects. caused by suscept. anaerobic bact. and suspect. strains of
streptococci and staphylococci.

DALACIN C, Pharmacia (Pfizer)
Clindamycin HCl.
o CAPS: 16 x 100 x 150 mg. 16 x 300 mg. 150 mg every 6 hours. Serious infections:
300 mg every 6 hours. Sever infections: 450 mg every 6 hours. Child: Sever
infections: 8-16 mg/Kg/day. All in 3-4 divided doses. More severe infects: 16-20
mg/Kg/day in 3-4 div. doses.
Severe infects. caused by streptococci, pneumococci, staph. Micro-organ., severe
infects. Caused by anaerobic micro-organ.

DENACINE, Jordan Chemical Lab
Clindamycin HCl.
o CAPS: 16 x 150 mg, 300 mg. Usual adult oral dose: 150-300 mg every 6 hours. For
more severe infections: 300-450 mg every 6 hours. The total daily dose should not
exceed 1800 mg.
Antibacterial, antiprotozoal. For dental infections, bone and joint infections, skin and
soft tissue infections, pelvic infections, and for respiratory tract infections.

IV. FUSIDIC ACID
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Fusidic acid inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by interfering with amino
acid transfer from aminoacyl-s RNA to protein on the ribosomes.
S/E: Rashes, reversible jaundice, nausea and vomiting
C/I: Sensitivity to fusidic acid and its salts, or lanolin in respect of Fucidin ointment
or intertulle.

FUCIDIN, Leo (Dexxon)
Sodium fusidate BP.
o TABS: 12,100 x 250 mg. Adult and child over 12 yrs.: 2 tabs 3 x dly. with meals. For
staph. cutan. infects: 250 mg (1 tab) 2 x dly for 5-10 days.
o VIALS: 2 (1 active pwdr, 1 buffer soln.) x 500 mg/ vial. 1 vial (500 mg) 3 x dly.
Child and inf: 20 mg/Kg/day div. into 3 eq. doses.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
All staph. infects. due to suscept. org. Admin. I.V. when oral ther. inapprop. incl.
cases where absorpt. for gastrointest. tract is unpredictable.

V. MACROLIDES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: They bind to the 50S ribosome and inhibit the translocation step of protein
synthesis, this action is bacteriostatic for some organisms, bactericidal for others.
S/E: Epigastric distress (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) and cholestatic hepatitis, fever,
eosinophilia, probably as a hypersensitivity reactions.
C/I: Sensitivity to the drug, avoid using erythromycin with theophylline, oral
anticoagulants, cyclosporine, methylprednisolone, digoxin, or cisapride, because it
will increase the serum concentrations of these drugs, patients receiving terfenadine,
astemizole, pimozide.

1. AZITHROMYCIN

AZENIL, Pfizer
Azithromycin (as dihydrate).
o CAPS: 6 x 250 mg. Adult: 2 caps dly. for 3 days, or 500 mg on day one followed by
250 mg on days 2-5. Sexual transmitted diseases: 4 caps as single dose. All to be
taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after food.
o PWDR: (for oral susp) 15, 22.5 ml x 200 mg/5 ml. Child: total dose: 30 mg/Kg bdy
wt. as foll: 3 days tmt: single dose: 10 mg/Kg or, 5 days tmt: Day 1: single dly dose
of 10 mg/Kg. On days 2-5: 5 mg/Kg dly. Ped. streptococ. pharyngit: Single dly dose
of 10 mg/Kg or 20 mg/Kg for 3 days (a dly dose of 500 mg not to be exceeded).
Acute otit. med.: 30 mg/Kg as asingle dose, for 3 days (10 mg/Kg dly) or for 5 days
(10 mg/Kg on day 1, then 5 mg/Kg on days 2-5).
Infections caused by susceptible organisms, in lower respire. tract infects. incl:
bronchit. and pneumon., skin and soft tissue infects., otit media, upper respire. tract
infects incl: sinusit., pharyngit./tonsilit. Also in uncomplicated gential infections due
to Chlamydia trachmatis.

AZICARE, Pharmacare
Azithromycin (as dihydrate).
o CAPS: 6 x 250 mg, 3 x 500 mg
See AZENIL.

AZICARE TRIPAK, Pharmacare
Azithromycin (as dihydrate).
o CAPS: 3 x 500 mg. 1 cap. dly.
Tmt of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. tmt of acute bacterial sinusitis.

AZIMEX, BPC
Azithromycin (as dihydrate).
o CAPS: 6 x 250 mg.
o PWDR: (for oral susp) 15, 22.5 ml x 200 mg/5 ml.
See AZENIL.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

ZETO 250, Unipharm
Azithromycin (as dihydrate) 250 mg.
o TABS: 6.
See AZENIL.

ZITHROMAX IV, Pfizer
Azithromycin dihydrate 500 mg/vial (100mg/ml).
o VIALS: 1. Initial: 500 mg 1 x dly I.V. for at least 2 days (commun. acq. pneumon.)
and 1-2 days (pelvic inflamm. dis.), foll. by Azenil by oral route.
Infects. caused by suscept. micro-organs. in commun. acq. pneum., pelvic inflamm.
dis.

ZITROCIN, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Azithromycin (as dihydrate).
o CAPS: 6 x 250 mg.
o SUSP: (15 ml, 22.5 ml) x 200 mg/5ml.
See AZENIL.

2. CLARITHROMYCIN

KARIN, Unipharm
Clarithromycin 250 mg, 500 mg.
o TABS: 14. 1 tab 2 x dly for 7-14 days.
Upper and lower respir. tract infects., skin and soft tissue infects., mycobacterium
avium complex (MAC) infects. in AIDS, erad. helicobacter pylori infect. in comb with
PPI (proton pump inhibitor).

KLACID, Abbott
Clarithromycin.
o FILM TABS: 10, 14 x 250 mg. 1 tab 2 x dly, for 6-14 days, depending on severity of
illness.
o PED. SUSP (granules for reconstitute): 60 ml x 125 mg/5 ml. 6 months and older: 15
mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses.
See KARIN.

KLARICARE, Pharmacare
Clarithromycin
o TABS: 15 x 250 mg, 500 mg. 1 tab 2 x dly for 7-14 days, depend on severity of
illness.
o PED. SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 250 mg/5 ml
See KARIN.

KLARIDEX, Dexcel (Dexxon)
Clarithromycin 250 mg.
o CAPLETS: 14. 1 caplet 2 x dly for 7-14 days, depend on severity of cond. May
increase to 2 caplets x dly in severe infects.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
See KARIN.

LARICID, BPC
Clarithromycin
o TAB: 250, 500 mg,
o SUSP: 125, 250 mg/5 ml
See KARIN.

3. ERYTHROMYCIN

E-MYCIN, Upjahn (Agis)
Erythromycin.
o TABS: 16, 100 x 250 mg. One tab every 6 hours, or 2 tabs every 12 hours.
Bacterial infections susceptible to erythromycin.

ERYC, Taro
Erythromycin base 250 mg.
o CAPS (enteric coated pellets): 20. 1 cap. every 6 hrs.
Bacterial infections susceptible to erythromycin.

ERYTHRO-TEVA, Teva
Erythromycin as stearate.
o TABS: 10 x 250 mg, 500 mg.
o SUSP: Erythromycin ethyl succinate. 60 ml x 125, 200, 400 mg/5 ml. 250 mg (as
stearate) or 400 mg (as ethylsuccinate) every 6 hrs. May inc. to 4 G dly. Child: Mild-
mod. infect: 30-50 mg (as ethylsuccinate)/Kg bdy wt. dly in div. doses every 6 hrs.
Severe infects: May double the dose. Adults and child: if 2 or 3 x dly dose desired:
1/2 or 1/3 total dly dose every 12 or 8 hrs. Long term prph. recur. strep. infects. /
History rheumat. heart dis: 250 mg (as stearate) or 400 mg (as ethylsuccinate) 2 x dly.
Short term proph: Bact. endocardit. in pts. with congest. heart disease, rheum./other
acq. valv. heart dis., dental proceeds., surg. proceeds. upper respire. tract: 1 G as
stear. or 1.6 G as ethylsucc. (child: 20 mg/Kg bdy wt. as ethylsucc.) orally 1.5-2 hrs
before proced., foll. by 500 mg as stear./800 mg as ethylsucc. (10 mg/Kg for child as
ethylsucc.) orally every 6-8 hrs for 8 doses. Tabs on empty stomach. Susp. without
regard to meals. Strep infect: For at least 10 days.
Tmt. infects. caused by suscept. organs. Long term proph. rheum. fever, hort term
proph. bact. endocardit., rheum. or other acquir. vav. heart dis., dental proceds.,
surg. proceds., upper respire. tract.

ERYTHROBAL, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Erythromycin stearate
o TABS: 20 x 250 mg.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROCARE, Pharmacare
Erythromycin ethyl succinate.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 200, 400 mg/5ml.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROCIN LACTOBIONATE, Abott
Erythromycin lactobionate.
o VIALS: 1x 1 G. 15-20 mg/Kg/day. Severe infects: up to 4 G.
Bact. infects. req. I.V. tmt.

ERYTHROL, Vitamed
Erythromycin (as ethyl succinate).
o SUSP: 60 ml x 200, 400 mg/5ml.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ETHYROPED, Abbott
Erythromycin ethyl succinate.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 200 mg/5ml.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROLAN, Gama Chemical Co.
Erythromycin ethyl succinate
o SUSP: 60 ml x 200 mg/5ml or 125 mg/5ml.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROLET, BPC
Erythromycin ethyl succinate
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125 mg/5ml, 200 mg/5ml.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROMYCIN MERCK 1 G, Vianex for Merck Generics
Erythromycin lactobionate 1 G/freeze dried pwdr.
o VIALS: 1. 2 G dly, can inc. to 3-4 G dly in severe cases. Child: 30-40 mg/Kg bdy wt
dly. To be admin. by contin. or intermit. infus.
Infects. caused by sens. microorgans.

ERYTHROPHARM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Erythromycin ethylsuccinate.
o SUSP: 60 ml x 125, 200 mg /5 ml.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROTAB, BPC
Erythromycin stearate
o TABS: 24 x 250 mg.
See ERYTHRO-TEVA.

ERYTHROZOLE, BPC
Erythromycin ethyl succinate 200 mg, sulfisoxazole acetyl 600 mg/5 ml.
o SUSP: 100 ml.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
See PEDIAZOLE.

PEDIAZOLE, Abbott
Erythromycin ethyl succinate 200 mg, sulfisoxazole acetyl 600 mg/5 ml.
o SUSP: 100 ml. Less than 6 kg: According to bdy wt, 6 kg: 2.5 ml, 12 kg: 5 ml, 19 kg:
7.5 ml, 24 kg: 10 ml, over 30 kg: 12.5 ml. All 3 x dly. for 10 days.
Acute otitis media in children.

4. ROXITHROMYCIN

ROXO 150, Unipharm
Roxithromycin 150 mg.
o SCORED TABS: 10 x 150 mg. 1 tab 2 x dly.
Infects. ear, nose, throat, respire. tract, genital (except gonococcal infects.), skin
infects., proph. meningococcal meningit. in contact subjects.

RULID, Aventis Pharma
Roxithromycin.
o TABS: 10 x 150 mg. 1 tab 2 x dly.
See ROXO 150.

5. SPIRAMYCINE

ROVAMYCINE, Aventis Pharma
Spiramycine.
o SYRUP: 150 ml x 375,000 U/5 ml. 10-15 ml/5 kg bdy wt 2-3 x dly, during meals.
o TABS: 16 x 1,500,000 U/tab. 3 tabs 2 x dly, for first day, then 2 tabs 2 x dly. till end
of tmt.
Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, cryptosporidiosis, chlamydia infections, respiratory
tract and ENT infections, cutaneous infections, prophylaxis of meningococcal
meningitis.

6. SPECTINOMYCIN

TOGAMYCIN, Upjhn (Agis)
Spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate.
o VIALS: 1 x 2 G. Male: single 2 G dose (5 ml) I.M. Female: single 4 G dose (10 ml)
I.M.
Infection by Neisseria gonorrhea in both sexes.

VI. TETRACYCLINES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Tetracyclines bind reversibly to the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes,
blocking aminoacyl transfer RNA from entering the acceptor site on the mRNA-
ribosomal complex.
S/E: Nausea and vomiting are the most common symptoms. Tetracyclines are readily
deposited in bone and teeth during calcification which can lead to discoloration and
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
hypoplasia of teeth growing in children, liver toxicity, photosensitivity
(Demeclocycline), vestibular reactions-dizziness, nausea, and vomiting can occur
with minocycline or doxycycline administration.
C/I: Pregnancy, children under 12 years, liver insufficiency, dairy foods, iron-
containing preparations, or antacids that contain Ca
2+
, Al
3+
, Mg
2+
, or Fe
2+
.

1. DOXYCYCLINE

DOXACIN, Eastern Chemical Co.
Doxycycline HCl.
o CAPS: 10 x 100 mg.
See DOXYLIN.

DOXAL, Jordan Chemical Lab
Doxycycline HCl.
o TABS: 10 x 100 mg.
See DOXYLIN.

DOXIBIOTIC, CTI (C.T.S.)
Doxycycline hyclate 100 mg.
o CAPS: 10.
See DOXYLIN.

DOXY 100, Vitamed
Doxycycline hyclate 100 mg.
o CAPS: 10. Acute infections: 200 mg (in 2 divided doses or as single dose) on first
day with food, then 100 mg dly. Acne: 100 mg dly. for 6-12 weeks. Malaria
prophylaxis: 100 mg dly. for 1-2 days prior to entering malaria area, then 100 mg dly.
for duration of stay, to continue for 3-4 weeks after leaving. Not for children under 8
yrs.
See DOXYLIN.

DOXYLIN, Dexxon
Doxycycline HCl BP.
o TABS: 10 x100 mg.
o CAPS: 30 x 100 mg. Acne: 100 mg dly. for 6-12 weeks. Acute infections: 200 mg (in
2 divided doses or as single dose) on first day with food, then 100 mg dly. Malaria
prophylaxis: 100 mg dly. for 1-2 days prior to entering malaria area, then 100 mg dly.
for duration of stay, to continue for 3-4 weeks after leaving. Not for children under 8
yrs. To be taken with large quantity of water, with food whilst standing.
Infections due to tetracycline susceptible micro-organism, adjuvant therapy in acute
intestinal amebiasis, severe acne, trachoma, prophylaxis against malaria when other
drugs are unsuitacle or parasites are resistant to other drugs.

DOXYPHARM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Doxycycline HCl
o TABS: 10 x 100 mg.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
See DOXYLIN.

DOXYTRIM, Trima
Doxycycline monohydrate.
o TABS: 10 x 100 mg.
See DOXYLIN.

PERIOSTAT, Collagenex (Taro)
Doxycycline hyclate 23.08 mg eq. to 20 mg doxycycline.
o TABS: 56. 2 x dly at least 1 hr. bef. bedt. Swallow whole with at least 100 ml water
sitting upright or standing. May be taken for up to 9 mths.
Adjacent to scaling and root planning to promote attach. level, reduce pocket depth
in adult priodontit.

VIBRAMYCIN, Pfizer.
Doxycycline hyclate.
o SYRUP: 30 ml as calc. chelate 50 mg/5ml. 1st day: 4 mg/Kg bdy wt., then 2 mg/Kg
bdy wt. dly in single dly dose. Severe infects: up to 4 mg/Kg bdy wt. dly.
Infects. caused by sens. organs.

2. MINOCYCLINE

MINOCIN, Lederle
Minocycline HCl.
o TABS: 30 x 50 mg, 10 x 100 mg.
See MINOCYCLINE.

MINOCLIN, Vitamed
Minocycline HCl 50 mg.
o CAPS: 30.
See MINOCYCLINE.

MINOCYCLINE, Rafa
Mingcycline HCl.
o CAPS: 30 x 50 mg, 10 x 100 mg. Adult: Initial: 200 mg, followed by 100 mg every
12 hours. Child over 8 yrs.: Initial: 4 mg/kg, followed by 2 mg/kg every 12 hours.
Acne: 50 mg 1-3 x dly
Infections of respiratory tract, genito-urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, ear, nose and
throat.

3. OXYTETRACYCLINE

JORDACYCLINE, Jordan Chemical Lab
Oxytetracycline HCl.
o CAPS: 16 x 250 mg. 1 cap 4 x dly.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Anthrax, brucella, pneumonia, whooping cough, rickettsia, urinary tract infection,
psittacosis, lymphogranuloma inguinale, staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
in penicillin-sensitive patients, mycoplasma pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, cholera.

4. TETRACYCLINE

BRIMOCYCLIN, BPC
Tetracycline HCl.
o CAPS: 16 x 250, 500 mg. Adult: 1-2 G divided into 2-4 equal doses. Child: 25-50
mg/kg divided into 4 equal doses. Severe infections need higher doses. All doses
given on empty stomach.
Infections caused by susceptible organisms.

TEVACYCLINE, Teva.
Tetracycline HCl 250 mg.
o CAPS: 20.
See BRIMOCYCLIN.


c. NUCLEIC FUNCTION OR SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS:

I. FLUOROQUINOLONES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: They inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II), thus blocking bacterial DNA
synthesis.
S/E: CNS effects (headache, dizziness, insomnia), GI effects (diarrhea, nausea,
abnormal liver function tests), photosensitivity, damage growing cartilage and cause
an arthropathy (reversible), tendonitis (rare).
C/I: Hypersensitivity to drug, children, pregnancy, nursing (because they cause
cartilage erosion), multivalent cations (Ca
2+
, Al
3+
, Mg
2+
, or Fe
2+
), increase
theophylline level.

1. CIPROFLOXACIN

CEPROXX, BPC
Ciprofloxacin HCl.
o CAPLETS: 10 x 500 mg.
See FLOXIN.

CIPLOX, Cipla
Ciprofoxacin 0.2 G, 0.5 G, 0.75 G.
o TABS: 10, 20, 50, 100.
See FLOXIN.

CIPROCARE, Pharmacare
Ciprofloxacin.
o TABS: 10 x 750 mg, 15 x 500 mg, 10 x 250 mg.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
See FLOXIN.

CIPRODEX, Dexcel (dexxon)
Ciprofloxacin (as hydrochloride)
o TABS: 10 x 250 mg.
o CAPLETS: 10 x 500 mg, 750 mg.
See FLOXIN.

CIPROFLOXACIN-TEVA, Teva
Ciprofloxacin (as hydrochloride) 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg.
o TABS: 10.
See FLOXIN.

CIPROGIS, Agis
Ciprofloxacin.
o TABS: 10 x 250, 500, 750 mg.
See FLOXIN.

CIPROGIS 125, Agis
Ciprofloxacin 125 mg.
o FC TABS: 6. 1 tab 2 x dly for 3 consec. days.
See FLOXIN.

CIPROXIM, Megapharm
Ciprofoxacin monohydrate.
o CAPLETS: 10 x 500 mg.
See FLOXIN.

CIPROXIN, Bayer (Agis).
Ciprofloxacin.
o VIALS: 1 x 50, 100 ml x 0.2%. IV infusion: single dly. dose: Uncomplicated
infections of upper and lower urinary tract or kidneys: 2 x 100 mg dly. Other
infections: 2 x 200 mg dly. Acute gonorrhea and uncomplicated cystitis in women:
single infusion of 100 mg.
o SUSP: 100 ml x 5 %, 10%. 500 mg-1500 mg dly in 2 div. doses depend. on infect. 5-
17 yrs with CF: 20 mg/Kg 2 x dly. Max. dly dose: 1500 mg.
Infections caused by susceptible micro-organisms.

FLOXIN, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Ciprofloxacin.
o TABS: 10, 14 x 500 mg, 20 x 250 mg. Drug taken to an empty stomach. Urinary
tract: 250-500 mg 2 x dly. For 10-14 days. Infectious diarrhea: 500 mg 2 x dly. for 7
days. Respiratory tract, skin, bone: 500-750 mg 2 x dly. For 10-14 days. For ped.
cystic fibros. pts. aged 5-17 yrs. with acute pulm. exacerbate. assoc. with P.
aeruginosa infects: 20 mg/Kg 2 x dly. Max. dly dose: 1500 mg.
Infections of lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, bone and
joints, infectious diarrhea.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

UFEXIL, Demo S.A (Naveh)
Ciprofloxacin lactate 2.55 mg. (eq. to 2.0 mg ciprofloxacin).
o SOLN. (I.V. INFUS): 50 ml, 100 ml, 200 ml. To admin. by I.V. infus. over 60 mins
for 1-14 days. Depend. on sever. infect. and sens. to caus. organs.
Infects. caused by suscept. organs.

2. LEVOFLOXACIN

LEVO, Unipharm
Levofloxacin 500mg.
o TABS: 5.1 tab 1-2 x dly for up to 14 days.
Mild to mod. infects. incl. acute sinusit., acute chron. Bronchit., common acq.
pneumon., complicat. urin. tract infects., skin and soft tissue infects.

LEVOX, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Levofloxacin hemihydrate 500 mg, 750 mg.
o TABS: 5.
See LEVO.

TAVANIC TABLETS, Aventis Pharma
Levofloxacin 500 mg.
o F.C TABS: 5.
See LEVO.

TAVANIC I.V. SOLN., Aventis Pharma
Levofloxacin 500 mg.
o I.V. INFUS: 1 x 100 ml x 5 mg/ml. Slow infus. over minimum 60 mins 1-2 x dly for
up to 14 days.
See LEVO.

3. LOMEFLOXACIN

MAXAQUIN, Searle
Lomefloxacin HCl.
o TABS: 3 x 400 mg. Upper and lower urinary tract infections: 1 tab dly. for 3 days.
Severe urinary tract infections: 1 tab dly. for 10 days.
Infections caused by susceptible micro-organisms, urinary tract infections, acute
exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, prophylaxis prior trans-rectal prostate biopsy.

4. MOXIFLOXACIN

MEGAXIN, Agis
Moxifloxacin 0.4 G.
o TABS: 5, 7. Acute bact. sinusit. and community acq. pneumon: 400 mg every 24 hrs
for 10 days. Acute bact. chron. bronch: 400 mg q 24 hrs for 5 days. skin and skin
struct. infects: 400 mg every 24 hrs for 7 days.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Bact. infect. respir. syst., bronchit., chron. bronchit., pneumon., community acq.
sinusit. (acute uncomplicat.), community acq. (spontan.), wound infects. skin and skin
struct.

MEGAXIN I.V, Agis
Moxifloxacin 0.4 G.
o INFUS. SOLN.: 250 ml. 400 mg every 24 hrs. accord. to infect.: Acute bact. sinusit.:
10 days. Acute bact. exacerbate. chron. bronchit.: 5 days. Commun. acq. pneumon.:
7-14 days, uncomplicat. skin and skin struct. infects.: 7 days, I.V. over 60 mins. by
direct infuse. or Y-type I.V. infus. set. Rapid/bolus I.V. infus. must be avoided.
See MEGAXIN.

5. NORFLOXACIN

APIROL, MSD
Norfloxacin.
o TABS: 10 x 400 mg. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections: 400 mg 2 x dly. for 7-10
days or 400 mg 2 x dly. for 3 consecutive days. Complicated urinary tract infections:
400 mg 2 x dly. for 10-21 days. Maximum total dose not to exceed 800 mg dly.
Uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis: 600 mg 2 x dly given 4 hours apart. Acute
bacterial gastroenteritis caused by susceptible organisms: 400 mg 2 x dly. for 5 days.
Infections due to norfloxacin susceptible organisms.

6. OFLOXACIN

OFLODEX, Dexcel (Dexxon)
Ofloxacin 200 mg.
o CAPLETS: 20. 200-800 mg dly. Dose of up to 400 mg can be taken 1x dly in morn.
Higher doses: 2 x dly morn. and even.
Infections of respiratory tract, including ear, nose and throat, genito-urinary tract,
bone and joints, skin and soft tissues, severe systemic infections.

OFLOXACIN-TEVA, Teva
Ofloxacin 200 mg.
o TABS: 10.
See OFLODEX.

OFLOXACINA, Farmoz S.A.(Bioavenir)
Ofloxacin 2 mg/ml.
o SOLN. FOR I.V. PERFUS: 100 ml. Normal ren. funct: Urin. tract infects: 1 x 100-
200 mg/day, kidney and genital infects: 2 x 100-200 mg/day, respir. infects, bone and
joint infects, skin and soft tissue infects., abdom. infects, septicem: 2 x 200 mg/day.
All within a 12 hrs interval. Cases of variable sens., severe/complicat. infects. or
insuffic. response: Can adjust to 2 x 400 mg/day.
See OFLODEX.

TARICIN, Jordan Chemical Lab
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Ofloxacin.
o TABS: 10 x 200 mg.
See OFLODEX.

TARIVID, Aventis Pharma
Ofloxacin.
o TABS: 10, 20 x 200 mg. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection: 1 tab. 1 x dly. Urin.
tract infects: 1 tab. 2 x dly, or 2 tabs 1 x dly.
o VIALS: 100 ml x 2 mg/ml. 2 x dly.
See OFLODEX.

ULTRACIN, Birzet-Palestine pharmaceuticals
Ofloxacin.
o CAPLETS: 10 x 200 mg. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: 1/2 tab
once dly. (single dose). Uncomplicated lower urinary infection: 1/2 tab 2 x dly. Other
infection: 1 tab 2 x dly. Severe infection: up to 800 mg dly.
See OFLODEX.

URO TARIVID 100, Aventis Pharma
Ofloxacin 100 mg.
o TABS: 6. Uncomplicat. low. urin. infects: 1 tab x dly for 3 days.
See OFLODEX.

7. PEFLOXACIN

PEFLACINE, Aventis Phama
Pefloxacin.
o TABS: 10, 50 x 400 mg. 400 mg 2 x dly, with meals.
o AMPS: 5 x 400 mg. 400 mg 2 x dly.
Septicemia, infections of Respiratory tract, genito-urinary tract, ENT, renal, skin, soft
tissue and abdominal infections, gonorrhea, gynecological infections.

II. QUINOLONES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Refer to FLUOROQUINOLONES section I.
They are only useful as UT antiseptics because they do not reach systemic
bactericidal levels and because they rapidly develop resistance, so replaced by
fluoroquinolones.
S/E, C/I: Refer to 9A, c, I.

1. NALIDIXIC ACID

NEGGRAM, Winthrop (Siam Medical)
Nalidixic acid
o TABS: 56 x 250, 500 mg
o SUSP: 160 ml x 250 mg/5 ml.
See U-GRAM.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.

U-GRAM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Nalidixic acid.
o TABS: 50 x 250, 500 mg. Initially: 1 G 4 x dly. for 7-14 days., then 500 mg 4 x dly.
o SUSP: 100 ml x 250 mg/5 ml. child: up to 12 yrs.: 55 mg/kg/day in divided doses for
7-10 days, then 33 mg/kg/day in divided doses.
Urinary tract infections.

III. RIFAMPIN
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It inhibits the B-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It suppresses
RNA synthesis by blocking chain initiation.
S/E: Urine, sweat, tears, and other secretions may become red-orange in color, rash,
thrombocytopenia, nephritis, fever, nausea, vomiting are common, a flu like
syndrome with chills, fever, and myalgia may develop in patients who use Rifampin
once or twice weekly, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis.
C/I: J aundice associated with reduced bilirubin excretion, first trimester of
pregnancy, it induces most cytochrome P450 isoforms thus increase the elimination of
numerous drugs (e.g, methadone, anticoagulants, some anticonvulsants, protease
inhibitors, and contraceptives). Likewise administration of rifampin with
ketoconazole, cycloserine, or chloramphenicol results in significantly lower serum
level of these drugs. Ketoconazole in turm may reduce rifampin serum concentrations
by interfering with absorption.

RIFACIN, BPC
Rifampin.
o CAPS: 60 x 300 mg. Acute infections: 300 mg 2 x dly. on empty stomach.
Gonorrhea: 1 single undivided dose of 900 mg. T.B: 450-600 mg once dly. in
combination with other T.B agents.
Tuberculosis, leprosy.

RIMACTAN, Sandoz GmbH
Rifampicin.
o CAPS: 80 x 150 mg, 40 x 300 mg.
o SYRUP: 50 ml (with 5 ml teasp. +100 mg active subst.). Acute infection: 300 mg 2 x
dly. morning and evening on empty stomach. Gonorrhea: 1 single undivided dose of
900 mg. T.B: 450-600 mg once dly. in combination with other T.B. agents.
o VIALS: 1 x 300 mg +10 ml solv.
Tuberculosis, leprosy.

IV. SULFONAMIDES
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: They resemble PABA, so they bind and competitively inhibit
dihydropteroate synthetase (the enzyme responsible for combining PABA and
pteridine).
S/E: Hypersensitivity (rashes, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity, steven-johnson
syndrome), GI effects (nausea and vomiting), hematotoxicity (hemolytic anemia may
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
occur in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency,
agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia have also been reported but rare),
crystalluria/hematouria, kernicterus (in newborns, sulfonamides will displace bilirubin
from albumin, the excess bilirubin penetrates the CNS and causes this condition).
C/I: Pregnancy, in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, renal
or hepatic failure.

1. SULFISOXAZOLE

ERYTHROZOLE, BPC
Refer to 9A, b, V. no. 3.

PEDIAZOLE, Abbott Laboratories (M. S. S.)
Refer to 9A, b, V. no. 3.

2. SULPHAMETHOXAZOLE

BACTIL, Belpharm
Trimethoprim 80 mg, sulphamethoxazole 400 mg.
o TABS: 20. Adult: 2 tabs 2 x dly for 10-12 day. Sheigellosis: same tmt. for 5 days.
o SUSP: 60, 100 ml x Trimethoprim 40 mg, sulphamethoxazole 200 mg /5ml. Child: 6
wks6 mths: 2.5 ml; 6 mths 5 yrs: 5ml; 6-12 yrs: 5 -10 ml, all twice dly for 10 days.
See DISEPTYL.

DISEPTYL, Rekah
Folic acid inhibitor / sulphonamide.
Trimethoprim 80 mg, sulphamethoxazole 400 mg.
o TABS: 20. 2 tabs. 2 x dly. to max. of 6 tabs. dly.
o SUSP: Trimethoprim 40 mg, sulfamethoxazole 200 mg /5 ml. 100 ml .1 teasp. 2 x
dly.
o FORTE CAPLETS: Trimethoprim 160 mg, sulfamethoxazole 800 mg. 10. 1 caplet 2
x dly.
Upper and lower respir. tract infects. , urin. tract infects., genital tract infects.

MEGAPRIME, Megapharm
Folic acid inhibitor / sulphonamide.
o SUSP: Trimethoprim 40 mg, sulfamethoxazole 200 mg /5 ml. 100 ml.
See DISEPTYL.

METHOPRIM, GAMA
Folic acid inhibitor / sulphonamide.
o SUSP: Trimethoprim 40 mg, sulfamethoxazole 200 mg /5 ml. 60, 100 ml.
See DISEPTYL.

PATHOPRIM, BPC
Trimethoprim 80 mg, sulfamethoxazole 400 mg.
o TABS: 20. Adult & children over 12yrs: 2 tabs 2 x dly. Maximum: 2 tabs 3 x dly.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
o D.S TABS: 10. Sulfamethoxazole 800 mg, trimethoprim 160 mg, 1 tab 2 x dly.
Maximum 3 tabs dly.
o SUSP: 60, 100 ml. Sulfamethoxazole 200 mg, trimethoprim 40 mg /5ml. Child: 6wks
6 mths: 2.5 ml; 6 mths - 5yrs: 5ml; 6-12 yrs: 5-10 ml, all twice dly for 10 days.
See DISEPTYL.

RESPRIM, Teva
Folic acid inhibitor / sulphonamide.
Trimethoprim 80 mg, sulphamethoxazole 400 mg.
o TABS: 20.
o FORTE TABS: Trimethoprim 160 mg, sulphamethoxazole 800 mg. 10.
o PED. SUSP: Trimethoprim 40 mg, sulphamethoxazole 200 mg/5 ml. 100 ml.
See DISEPTYL.

SEPTRIN FOR INFUSION, GlaxoSmithKline
Folic acid inhibitor / sulphonamide.
o AMPS: Trimethoprim 80 mg, sulphamethoxazole 400 mg /5ml. 10 x 5 ml. IV
infusion only. Adults and child. over 2 yrs.: 2 amps (10 ml) every 12 hrs. Child 12
yrs. and under: Approx. 6 mg trimethoprim and 30 mg sulphamethoxazole /Kg bdy.
wt. every 24 hrs. in eq. div. doses. As a guide: 6 wks.-5 mths.: 1.25 mg every 12 hrs.,
6 mths.-5 yrs.: 2.5 ml every 12 hrs., 6-12 yrs.: 5 ml every 12 hrs. Severe infects. all
age groups: inc. by 50 %. Cont. tmt. until pt. sympt. free for 2 days. Usual tmt.: At
least 5 days.
Lower resp., urinary, & GIT infects., gonorrhea, otitis media, sinusitis, skin & wound
infects., fungal & protozoal infections.

SULFAPRIM, Jordan Chemical Lab
sulphamethoxazole 400 mg, Trimethoprim 80 mg.
o TABS: 20. Adult & child over 12yrs: 2 tabs 2 x dly.
o SUSP: 50, 100 ml. sulphamethoxazole 200 mg, trimethoprim 40 mg / 5ml. Child: 10
kg: 5ml; 20 kg: 10 ml; 30 kg: 15 ml; 40 kg: 20 ml. All 2 x dly.
See DISEPTYL.

SULPRIM, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Sulphamethoxazole 400 mg, trimethoprim 80 mg.
o TABS: 20. Adult & children over 12 yrs: 1-2 tabs 2 x dly. Severe infections: 2 tabs 3
x dly.
o FORTE TABS: 10. Sulphamethoxazole 800 mg, trimethoprim 160 mg. 1 tab 2 x dly.
Maximum 3 tabs dly.
o SUSP: 60 ml ,100 ml x sulphamethoxazole 200 mg, trimethoprim 40 mg /5ml. Child:
6 wks 6 mths: 2.5 ml; 6 mths 5 yrs: 5ml; 6 12 yrs: 5-10 ml. All twice dly.
See DISEPTYL.

d. MISCELLANEOUS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS

I. COLISTIMETHATE: Na (colomycin)
INTRODUCTION:
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
M.O.A: Polymyxin antibiotic (E), disrupt bacterial membrane through a detergent
like mechanism.
S/E: Respiratory arrest, decreased urine out put, or increased BUN or serum
creatinines, paresthesia, tingling of the extremities or the tongue, generalized itching
or urticaria, drug fever, GI upset, vertigo, slurring of speech. The subjective
symptoms reported by the adult may not be manifest in infants or young children, thus
requiring close attention to renal function.
C/I: Hypersensitivity to colistimethate Na, infections due to Proteus or Neisserea
species, caution in patients with impaired renal function.

COLIRACIN, Rafa
Colistimetate sodium.
o VIALS: 1,000,000 I.U. Child: 50,000 I.U./Kg bdy. wt./day. Adult: 6 vials/24 hour.
Acute and chronic gram-ve bacterial infection, diarrhea.

II. DAPTOMYCIN
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Exact mode of action unclear binds to cell membrane and forms an ion
conduction structure thought that this allows rapid depolarization of the cell
membrane due to potassium efflux and that this associated with a disruption of DNA,
RNA and protein synthesis resulting in death unable to penetrate outer membrane of
gram negative organisms
S/E: Risk of myopathy is major adverse effect, monitor creatine kinase.
C/I: Hypersensitivity to the drug.

CUBICIN, Cubist
Daptomycin 500 mg/vial.
o VIALS (lyophilized pwdr. for i.v. infus.): 1. 4 mg/Kg I.V. infus. over 30 mins. in 0.9
% sod. chlor. inject. once every 24 hrs for 7-14 days.
Complicat. skin and skin structure infects. caused by syscept. strains Gram +ve
microorgans.


III. LINEZOLID
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Linezolid is a synthetic antibiotic belonging to a new class of antimicrobials
called the oxazolidinones. Linezolid disrupts bacterial growth by inhibiting the
initiation process of protein synthesis (a mechanism of action that is unique to this
class of drugs).
S/E: Change in taste, headache, mild diarrhea, dizziness, mild stomach upset, nausea,
vomiting, temporary tongue discoloration and skin rash, itching.

ZYVOXID, Pharmacia (Pfizer)
Linezolid 600 mg.
o F.C TABS: 10. Commun. acq./nosocomial pneum; skin and soft tissue infects: 1 tab 2
x dly for 10-14 consec. days. depend. on severity and clin. respons.
o INFUS. SOLN.: 300 ml x 2 mg/ml. Infus. over 30-120 mins. Adults: 600 mg 2 x dly.
Durat. tmt. depend on sever. and pt. response. Max: 28 days.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Infects. caused by suscept. organs.

IV. METRONIDAZOLE
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: The nitro group of metronidazole is chemically reduced in anaerobic bacteria
and sensitive protozoans. Reactive reduction products appear to be responsible for
antimicrobial activity.
S/E: Nausea, headache, dry mouth, or metallic taste, occur commonly, and peripheral
neuropathy with prolonged use. Infrequent adverse effects include vomiting, diarrhea,
insomnia, weakness, dizziness, thrust, rash, dysuria, dark urine, vertigo, paresthesia,
and neutropenia.
C/I: Alcohol (because it has disulfiram effect).

CYSTOGYN, Megapharm
Diloxanide furoate, benzoyl metronidazole.
o SUSP: 100 ml. Each 5 ml contains: Diloxanide furoate 100 mg, benzoyl
metronidazole 200 mg. Child 2-5 yrs: 1/2-1 teasp. Child 6-10 yrs: 1.5-2 teasp. Child
11-12 yrs: 1 teasp. All doses are admins. q 8 hrs 5-10 days.
o TABS: 20. Each tab. contains: Diloxanide furoate 250 mg, metronidazole 250 mg.
Amoebiasis: One tab 3 x dly. for 10 days. Giardiasis: One tab 3 x dly for 7-10 days.
Eradication of entamoeba histolytica in both the cyst form and the vegetative form,
giardiasis, treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic amoebiasis, acute amoebic
dysentery.

FLAGYL, Aventis Pharma
Metronidazole
o ORAL TABS: 20, 100 x 250 mg.
o ORAL SUSP: 120 ml x 125 mg/5ml. Amoebiasis (intest. and hepat.) for systemic and
contact action: 1.5 to 2.0 G dly. for 5-7 days. Child 40-50 mg/Kg bdy. wt.
o dly. Giardiasis: 2 tabs. dly. Child under 10: (accord. to age) 250-375 mg dly. for 5
days.
o FLACONS: Metronidazole 0.5 G/100 ml for I.V. infus.
o VAG. TABS: 10 x 500 mg.1 vag. tab. every even.
Curative and proph. of anaerobic infects.

FLAGYN, Megapharm
Metronidazole benzoyl.
o SUSP: 100 ml, 120 ml x 125 mg/5 ml.
See FLAGYL.

METROGYL, Teva
Metronidazole.
o ORAL TABS: 20 x 250 mg. Male: 2 tabs. dly. (1 in morn. and 1 in even.) for 10 days.
Female: Combined ther.: 2 oral tabs. (1 in morn. and 1 in even.) for 10 days in
conjunct. with vag. tabs. at bedt. for 10-20 days.
Trichomon. infects. in both sexes.

METRONIDAZOLE, B. Braun
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Metronidazole 0.5 G/100 ml.
o FLACONS: 100 ml. Loading dose: 15 mg/Kg infused over 1 hr. Maint: 75 mg/Kg
infused over 1 hr, every 6 hrs.
Proph. and tmt. anaerob. bacteria and protozoa.

METRONIDAZOLE MERCK, Merck Generics
Metronidazole 0.5 G/100 ml.
o VIALS (soln. for infus.): 24. Pts who can not take orally. Slow I.V. infus. at rate of 1
vial/100 mg bag (500mg) over 30-60 mins. Durat. ther: Not more than 10 days.
Serious infects. caused by suscept. anaeob. bact., prevent. infect. due to surg.
procedures.

METROZOLE, BPC
Metronidazole.
o SUPP: 6 x 1000 mg. 1 supp 3 x dly for 7-10 days.
o SUSP: 100, 120 ml x 125 mg/5ml. Child: 35-50 mg/Kg/day divided into 3 doses for
10 days.
o TABS: 20 x 250, 500 mg.
See FLAGYL.

VENOGYL, Teva Medical
Metronidazole 5 mg/ml.
o INFUS: 100 ml. Admin. by slow I.V. (cont. or intermit.) drip infus. only. Not to
exceed 4 G in 24 hrs.
Serious infections caused by suscept. anaerob. bact.

V. NITROFURANTOIN
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: It alters various bacterial enzymes and bacterial DNA.
S/E: Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting (most side effects), pulmonary infiltrates,
hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency,
neurological disorders such as polyneuropathies, chronic active hepatitis (rare but
serious side effect), rashes, brown urine.
C/I: Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, renal function
impairment, anuria, oliguna, infants under 1 month, pregnancy at term one.

MACRODANTIN, Proctor & Gamble
Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals.
o CAPS: 100 x 50 mg, 30 x 100 mg. Adult: 100 mg 4 x dly. with meals or milk. Child:
5-7 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses. Long term therapy: Adult: 100 mg at bedtime.
Child: 1 mg/kg/day.
See MACROFURAN.

MACROFURAN, BPC
Nitrofurantoin.
o CAPS (microencapsulated): 24 x 100 mg. 50-100 mg 4 x dly. with food for 1 week.
In long-term therapy: reduce dosage.
PDII ASSALI et al
INFECTIONS 9A. Antibiotics & Sulfonamides.
Urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of E. coli, enterococci, S. aureus,
certain strains of klebsiella, enterobacter species and proteus species.

MICROFURADIN-SR, Jerusalem Pharmaceuticals
Nitrofurantoin.
o SPANSULES SR: 16 x 100 mg. One cap 2-3 x dly with food.
See MACROFURAN.

UVAMIN, Mepha (Gilco Pharm)
Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals 100 mg.
o CAPS: 30. 1tab 4 x dly with meals or milk. Child 5-7 mg/Kg bdy wt. in 24 hrs. in div.
doses. Long term: 1 tab 1 x dly at bedt. Child: 1 mg/Kg bdy wt. 1x dly.
See MACROFURAN.

VI. STREPTOGRAMINS
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Both group A and group B streptogramins inhibit protein synthesis at the
ribosomal level, and they act synergistically against many isolates their combination
generating bactericidal activities and reducing the possibility of emergencies of
resistant strains. The mechanisms of acquired resistance to group B streptogramins
remain unaffected by target modifications and active efflux.
S/E: Venous irritation, arthralgia, myalgia, nausea & vomiting.

1. QUINUPRISTIN/ DALFOPRISTIN

SYNERCID, Aventis Pharma
Quinupristin (streptogramin A) 150 mg, dalfopristin (streptogramin B) 350 mg as
mesilate salts.
o PWDR. FOR INFUS. SOLN: 1 x 500 mg. Skin and skin struc. infects.: 7.5 mg/Kg
bdy wt. every 12 hrs for 7 days, nosocomial pneumonia: 7.5 mg/Kg bdy wt. every 8
hrs. for 10 days, infects. caused by enterococ. facium: 7.5 mg/Kg bdy wt. every 8 hrs.
Durat. ther. depends on site of infect. All by slow I.V. infus. over 60 mins.
Gram +ve infects. when I.V. ther. reqd.

VII. TRIMETHOPRIMS
INTRODUCTION:
M.O.A: Trimethoprim stops the conversion of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate by
inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase.
S/E: Dermatologic effects (rash, exfoliatve dermatitis, urticaria, steven johnson
syndrome), hematologic effects (agranulocytosis, megaloblastic anemia in folate
deficient patients, hemolytic anemia), headache, depression.
C/I: Folate deficient patients, pregnancy, AIDS patients.

Refer to 9A, c, IV. no 2.


PDII ASSALI et al