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# Cu hi trc nghim

## Trung hc c s Trung hc c s Trung hc c s Trung hc c s

(Lp 7, chng trnh mi)
TNCS1/7. Trng hp no sau y khng vn dng nh lut truyn thng nh sng:
A. Ngi th sn thng ngm trc khi bn sng
B. Ngi th mc thng nheo mt ngm thanh g xem sau khi bo thng cha.
C. Ngi th n thng dng dy di xy cho tng thng ng.
D. Khi tp hp, lp trng thng nhn theo vai cc bn chnh hng cho thng.
TNCS2/7. Trong cc phng m bnh vin, ngi ta thng dng mt h thng chiu sng
gm nhiu n. Theo em, mc ch chnh ca cch b tr n ny l g ?
A. Dng nhiu n thu c nh sng mnh hn khi dng mt n.
B. Dng nhiu n v b tr hp l s trnh c hin tng xut hin bng en che khut khi
m.
C. Dng nhiu n, khi mt n b chy s khng nh hng n ca m.
D. C ba l do trn.
TNCS3/7. Chiu mt tia sng ti gng phng. Bit gc ti l
0
60 = i , gc hp bi tia phn x
v mt phng gng l:
A.
0
60 B.
0
30 C.
0
120 D.
0
150
Chn kt qu ng.
TNCS4/7. Chiu mt tia ti gng phng vi gc ti
0
60 = i Mun tia phn x v tia ti vung
gc vi nhau th phi thay i gc ti ca tia ti trn:
A. Tng
0
30 B. Tng
0
15
C. Gim
0
15 D. Gim
0
30
Chn kt qu ng.
TNCS5/7. Tia sng mt tri hp vi phng nm ngang mt gc
0
30 . Mun hng tia sng ny
chiu vo y ging su theo phng thng ng th phi t gng phng chch vi tia sng
mt tri mt gc:
A.
0
60 B.
0
30 C.
0
20 D.
0
10
Chn kt qu ng.
Trung hc ph thng Trung hc ph thng Trung hc ph thng Trung hc ph thng

TN1/7. Mt vng dy dn hnh ch nht c cc cnh a v b, t cch dng in thng di v
hn
0
I on bng c (hnh v). in tr ca vng dy bng R. Cho
0
I gim n bng 0 trong
thi gian t
0
:
(

=
0
0
0
) (
t
t t
I t I ,
0
0 t t < < .

in tch chy qua mt thit din thng ca vng dy bng:
A)
0 0 0
t I ; B)
0
2
0 0
t
c
ab
I ; C)
|

\
| +
c
c a
R
bI
ln
2
0 0

; D) ) (
2
0 0 0
c
ab
R
t I
.

TN2/7. C ba dng in thng di v hn A, B v C nh hnh v. V tr ca im nm trn on
thng AC m ti cm ng t bng khng l:
a
b
c
I
0
A) Nm gia I
1
v I
2
v cch B on 3,2 cm;
B) Nm gia I
2
v I
3
v cch B on 3,2 cm
C) Nm gia I
1
v I
2
v cch B on 1,3 cm
D) Nm gia I
2
v I
3
v cch B on 1,3 cm

TN3/7. Mt thanh in mi di l mang in tch q, phn b u. Mt u thanh c gi c
nh v cho thanh quay u vi tn s f quanh trc vung gc vi thanh (i qua u c nh).
M men t ca c thanh s l:
A)
2
2
1
qfl ; B)
2
qfl ; C)
2
12
1
qfl ; D)
2
3
1
qfl

TN4/7. Mt ng tia X hot ng 50 kV. Bc sng ngn nht ca cc tia X c pht bng:
A) 2,484A
0
; B) 0,248A
0
; C) 0,00248A
0
; D) 24,84A
0
.

TN5/7. Khi nhit ca mt vt tng t t n t th mmen qun tnh ca n tng t I n
I . H s gin n di ca vt l . T s I I / bng:
A) t /t; B) 2 t /t; C) t ; D) 2 t .
RA K NY
Trung hc c s
CS1/7. Mt xi lanh c tit din S c gi thng ng, u di nhng trong chu thu ngn,
u trn h. Trong xi lanh c mt pittng rt nh, lc u pittng nm st mt thu ngn trong
chu. Ngi ta thc hin mt cng A ko t t pittng ln cao. Tnh cao ca pittng so vi
mt thu ngn. Cho p sut kh quyn l
0
p , trng lng ring ca thu ngn l
0
d . B qua
ma st
CS2/7. Mt cc nhm c khi lng khng ng k cha 200 gam nc t trong phng c
nhit C t
0
0
30 = . Th vo cc mt cc nc c khi lng 500 gam nhit
C t
0
1
10 = . Vi pht sau, khi tan ht th nc trong cc c nhit l
2
t v mt ngoi ca
cc c 1,2 gam nc bm vo. Hy gii thch nc u ra v tnh nhit
2
t ca nc
trong cc. Cho bit: nhit dung ring ca nc l kg kJ / 2 , 4 . v ca nc l
kg kJ / 1 , 2 .; nhit nng chy ca nc l kg kJ / 330 ; mt kilgam nc bin hon
ton thnh hi nhit phng th cn mt nhit lng kJ 2430 .
CS3/7. Cho mt mch in nh hnh v, bit =18
1
R v in tr on mch AB l 9 .
Nu i ch
1
R cho
2
R th in tr ca on mch AB by gi l 8 .
a) Tnh
2
R v
3
R .
b) Bit
3 2 1
, , R R R chu c hiu in th ln nht ln lt l V U U V U 6 , 12
3 2 1
= = = . Tnh
hiu in th v cng sut ln nht m b in tr mc nh hnh v chu c.
c) Mc b in tr ni trn ni tip vi mt b bng n gm cc n ging nhau c ghi
W V 1 3 , tt c c mc vo mch c V U 18 = khng i. Tm cch mc b n vi s
bng nhiu nht m cc n vn sng bnh thng.

CS4/7. Hai gng phng quay mt sng vo nhau v hp vi nhau mt gc
0
20 . Chiu mt tia
sng ti mt trong hai gng theo phng song song vi ng phn gic ca gc hp bi hai
gng. Xc nh ng i ca tia sng trn.
A
B
C
2I I
I
5cm 5cm
A
B

R
3
R
1
R
2
TRUNG HC PH THNG

TH1/7. Mt vin gch c nm t mt sn nm ngang vi gc nm . Bit rng trong qu trnh
chuyn ng b mt ln ca vin gch lun song song vi sn v khi va chm vi sn vin
gch khng ny ln. H s ma st trt gia vin gch v sn l . Xc nh gc vin
gch dng li cch im nm xa nht.
Nguyn Xun Quang (Vnh Phc)

TH2/7. T im A c hai vt nh bt u trt khng ma st n im B theo hai con ng
khc nhau: vt 1 trt theo ng thng vi gc nghing rt nh; vt 2 trt theo cung trn
m tip tuyn ti B nm trong mt phng nm ngang ( xem hnh v). So snh thi gian trt t
A n B ca hai vt.
Nguyn Thanh Nhn (H Ni)

TH3/7. Mt con lc l xo gm mt qu cu khi lng m gn vi l xo c cng K c t
trn mt phng nm ngang khng ma st. Qa cu c ni vi mt si dy cao su nh c h
s n hi K ( xem hnh v). v tr cn bng l xo v si dy u khng bin dng. Xc nh
chu k dao ng nh ca qu cu quanh v tr cn bng. B qua mi ma st.

Nguyn Nht Minh (H Ni)
TH4/7. Trong mch in nh hnh v, ngun in c in tr khng ng k, ba in tr u
bng R, t in c in dung C. Hy tnh nhit lng to ra trn in tr R
2
sau khi ng kho
K, bit in lng chy qua n l q.
V nh Tu ( B GD & T)
gip bn t n thi i hc
Mt trong nhng phng php t n luyn c hiu qu chun b cho cc k thi i hc
v thi t ti l t lm cc tng t nh cc thi. N cho php bn bit c nhng
phn kin thc bn cn hng cn phi b sung v c bit gip bn rn luyn cch trnh
by li gii trong thi gian quy nh. Th theo yu cu ca ng o bn c, bt u t s
ny VL&TT s ln lt ng mt s ca cc thy gio c kinh nghim v lnh vc ny.
Chc cc bn thnh cng!
t n luyn s 1
(Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht)

Cu 1. 1. Kho st s bin thin ca ng nng v th nng ca mt vt dao ng iu
ho theo thi gian. Chng minh rng cc i lng cng dao ng iu ho nhng
vi tn s bng hai ln tn s dao ng ca vt.
2. Cho con lc l xo nh hnh v.
C
E
K
R
1
R
0
R
2
Bit ), / ( 60 ); / ( 30
2 1
m N k m N k = = ) / ( 10 , 30 , 2 , 0
2 0
s m g kg m = = = . B qua lc
ma st.
a) Tnh gin
1
l v
2
l ca hai l xo khi m cn bng.
b) Ko m xung di v tr cn bng 2cm v truyn cho mt vn tc ban u
) / ( 3 20
0
s cm v + = . Lp phng trnh dao ng. Tnh lc cc tiu, cc i tc dng
ln im A khi vt dao ng.

Cu 2. 1. Nu nguyn tc hot ng ca my pht in xoay chiu ba pha v ng c
khng ng b ba pha.
2. Cho mch in nh hnh v. Hiu in th gia hai im A, B c biu thc:
) )( 100 sin( 3 100 V t u = . S ch ca cc vn k
1
V v
2
V ln lt l 3 100
1
= U (V) v
) ( 2 50
2
V U = . Cng sut tiu th trong on mch l ). ( 2 100 W P =
a) V gin vect; tnh cos , R, L C.
b) Vit biu thc ca cng dng in trong mch, ca cc hiu in th
AN
u v
NB
u .

Cu 3. 1. Quan h gia in trng v t trng bin thin. Sng in t khc vi sng
c nhng im no?
2. Mt mch thu sng v tuyn gm mt cun cm c H L 2 = v hai t in c
2 1
C C > . Bit bc sng v tuyn thu c khi hai t mc ni tip v song song ln
lt l ) ( 6 2 , 1
1
m = v ) ( 6
2
m = . Tnh
1
C v
2
C .
Cu 4. 1. Vi nhng iu kin no th xy ra phn x ton phn nh sng n sc
mt phn cch ca hai mi trng trong sut.? Hin tng ny c nhng ng dng g
quan trng?
2. Mt si cp quang hnh tr lm bng cht do trong sut. Mi tia sng i xin gc
vo qua y u b phn x ton phn thnh v ch l ra y th hai. Chng minh
chit sut ca cht do tho mn iu kin 2 > n .

Cu 5. 1. nh ngha ht khi v nng lng lin kt ca ht nhn nguyn t. Nu
ngha ca nng lng lin kt v nng lng lin kt ring.
2. Cho ht nhn He
4
2
vi khi lng m = 4, 0015(u). Cho bit khi lng ca prton v
ntron ln lt l ) ( 0073 , 1 u m
p
= v ) ( 0087 , 1 u m
n
= .
a) Tnh ht khi m .
b) Tnh nng lng to ra nu 1kg He c to ra t cc ht trn. Ly
. 5 , 931
2
MeV uc = Cho 1MeV = ). ( 10 . 6 , 1
13
J

Bi Bng oan, HQG H Ni
(Bin son v gii
thiu)
Gii p thc mc
(xem VL&TT s 5 thng 1 nm 2004)
Li gii trong cun sch tham kho l sai. Ngi gii a ra li nhn xt khng ng: Do
gc khng i trong khi cc vt chuyn ng nn xt theo phng ngang cc vt c cng
vn tc, gia tc... .
Ta c th gii li nh sau:
Theo nh lut II Newton:

=
=
) 2 ( a M sin T T
) 1 ( a m sin T
x 2
x 1

tm mi quan h
x
a
1
vi
x 2
a ta xt trong khong thi gian t nh: vt M dch chuyn 1
on l
2
x , vt m dch chuyn 1 on l
1
x theo phng ngang.
Ta c: sin
2 2 1
x x x =

) 3 ( ) sin 1 ( a a
x 2 x 1
=
T (1), (2), (3) suy ra:
2
) sin 1 (
sin

= M m

Cc bn gii p ng: Dng Trung Hiu Lp 11B -THPT Nng Khiu Ng S Lin, Bc Giang;
Hong Thanh H 10 L, THPT chuyn H Tnh; Hong Anh Tun 10 L, THPT Nng Khiu HQG
Tp.H Ch Minh; Trn Vn Ho 11 L THPT Chuyn Bc Ninh; Trnh Hu Phc 11A10, THPT
Chuyn Vnh Phc.
Gii k trc

Trung hc c s Trung hc c s Trung hc c s Trung hc c s

CS1/4. Mt can xut pht t bn sng A c vn tc i vi nc l 12km/h ui theo mt x
lan c vn tc i vi b l 10km/h xut pht trc 2h t bn sng B trn cng mt dng sng.
Can v x lan u chy xui dng theo hng AB. Khi chy ngang qua B, can thay i vn
tc c vn tc i vi b tng ln gp i v sau 3h ui kp x lan. Bit AB = 60km.
Hy xc nh vn tc ca dng nc.
Gii: Gi vn tc ca ca n l
1
v , vn tc ca x lan v ca nc i vi b l
2
v v
3
v . Khi
vn tc ca ca n i vi b l:
3 3 1
12 v v v + = + . Do thi gian ca n i t A n B l:
3 3
12
60
12 v v
AB
t
+
=
+
= .
) sin 1 ( v v
x 2 x 1
=

x
1

x
2
Khi ca n n B th x lan n C vi
2
) 2 ( v t BC + = . Ti B ca n c vn tc i vi b l:
) 12 ( 2
3
v + v c vn tc i vi x lan l:
3 2 3
2 14 ) 12 ( 2 v v v + = + . Theo bi, ta c:
) 14 ( 3 10 ) 2
12
60
(
3
3
v
v
BC + = +
+
=
0 336 94 6
3
2
3
= + v v . Gii phng trnh ny ta c 3
3
= v (loi nghim m). Vy vn
tc dng nc l 3km/h.
Cc bn c li gii ng: Nguyn Th Thu Hin, Th Hin 8A, m c Hnh, Phm Tun
V, V Vn Hiu, Nguyn Th Quyn, Minh Hng, m Nguyn Hon 8B, Nguyn Vn
on, Nguyn Phng Hoa, L Kim Ngc, Nguyn Th Thu Hng 8D, Nguyn Vn Nam, T
Quang Hip, Nguyn Mnh Tun, V Ngc Duy, Nguyn Th Nhun, Kim Th Anh, Quch Hoi
Nam 9B, i Mnh Tng 9D, Hong Vn Thao, Nguyn Tin Th, T Phi Khnh 9C, Nguyn
Vn Tun 9E, THCS Yn Lc, Nguyn Th Huyn Trang, Phm Th Trung, L Th Hnh, V
Duy Lc, Phm Th Vn Trang 9D, THCS Vnh Tng, Vnh Phc; Nguyn Vn Ngc 10 L,
THPT Chuyn, Nguyn Huy Hip 9A, THCS Hn Thuyn, Bc Ninh; H Quang Sn 9C, THCS
ng Thai Mai, Vinh, Hong Anh c, Nguyn Th Nh Mai 10A3, THPT Chuyn Phan Bi
Chu Ngh An; Hong Ngc Chinh 9B, THCS Trn Mai Ninh, t.p. Thanh Ho; L S Hnh 9B,
THCS Nghn, Can Lc, Nguyn Vn Linh, Vng Quang Hng 10L, THPTNK, H Th Thi
10A1, THPT Cao Thng, Hng Sn, H Tnh; Lng Kim Danh 9A4, THCS Trn ng Ninh,
Nam nh; H Phng Tho 9(13), THCS L Qu n, Q. 3, V Ch Kin, THPTNK, HQG
t.p. H Ch Minh; Tun Minh 10L, THPT Amsterdam, H Ni; Ng c Tun 10 L, THPT
Chuyn H Long, Qung Ninh; Nguyn Thanh T 11 L, THPT Chuyn Tin Giang; inh
Xun Khu 10L, THPT Lng Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh.
CS2/4. Trong mt bnh cch nhit ng mt hn hp nc v nc C
0
0 . Ngi ta cung
cp cho hn hp mt nhit lng gi cho nhit ca nc khng i v nc tan
ht. Th nghim cho thy th tch ca hn hp gim i 3
3
cm . Bit khi lng ring ca nc
C
0
0 l
3
/ 99 , 0 cm g D
n
= , ca nc C
0
0 l
3
/ 92 , 0 cm g D
d
= v nhit nng chy ca
nc l kg kJ / 334 = . B qua s hp th nhit ca bnh v s trao i nhit vi mi
trng.
a) Tnh khi lng ca nc tan thnh nc v nhit lng cung cp.
b) Sau ngi ta thm vo bnh mt lng nc nhit
1
t ) 4 (
0
1
C t < v ngng
cung cp nhit cho bnh. So snh th tch nc trong bnh trc v sau khi c cn bng
nhit. Gi thit rng mi khi nhit tng 1 (trong khong t C
0
0 n C
0
4 ) th th
tch nc gim i % so vi th tch ca n C
0
0 .

Gii: a) Do th tch nc gim khi tan ht, th tch hn hp gim, ta c:

d n
n d
n d
D D
D VD
m
D
m
D
m
V

= =
Thay cc gi tr cho vo, ta c . 39g m Vy lng nc tan l 39g.
Lng nhit cung cp lm tan noc : J m Q 13026 10 . 39 . 10 . 334
3 3
= = =

b) Gi
1
m l khi lng nc rt thm vo,
2
m l nc c sn trong bnh, C t
0
0
0 = v t
l nhit khi cn bng, ta c:
) ( ) (
0 2 1 1
t t cm t t cm = ) ( ) (
0 2 1 1
t t m t t m = (*)
C
0
0 , cc khi nc c th tch bng:
n n
D
m
V
D
m
V
2
02
1
01
; = = . Ta li bit rng t C 0
0
n
C
0
4 th th tch ca nc gim khi nhit tng. Do vy, trc khi rt vo bnh, th tch nc
rt thm l: ) 1 (
1 01 1
t V V = v th tch nc trong bnh l: ) 1 (
0 02 2
t V V = . Sau khi rt
thm v cn bng nhit, th tch ca cc khi nc tng ng l: ) 1 (
01
'
1
t V V = v
) 1 (
02
'
2
t V V = . Suy ra:
) ( ) (
1
1
1 01 1
'
1
t t
D
m
t t V V V
n
= =

v ) t t (
D
m
) t t ( V V V
0
n
2
0 02
'
2 2

= = .
Theo (*) th v phi ca hai ng thc trn phi bng nhau. Do :
'
2 2 1
'
1
V V V V =
2 1
'
2
'
1
V V V V + = + .
Nh vy th tch ca hn hp nc khng i sau khi cn bng nhit.
Cc bn c li gii ng: Lu Tin Quyt 9C, THCS Yn Lc, Vnh Phc; Vng Quang Hng
10L, THPTNK H Tnh.
CS3/4. Cho mch in nh hnh v. Hiu in th hai u on mch l U khng i. Cho
R R R R R = = = =
4 3 2 1
v .
4 3 2 1
r r r r r = = = =
a) Cho cng dng in qua
1
R l 0,5A, qua
2
R l 0,3A, hiu in th hai u
1
r l 4V.
Tnh tng hiu in th ca tt c cc in tr ,
1
r ,
2
r
3
r , .
4
r
b) Cho mch in nh trn, nhng cho R = r/2 v thay
4
r bng mt in tr X no .
Hy tnh X theo r tho mn cc h thc sau gia cc hiu in th hai u cc
in tr R:
2 1
R R
kU U =
3
2
R
U k =
4
3
R
U k = vi k l mt hng s no . Tnh k.

Gii: a) K hiu hiu in th (h..t.) v cng dng in qua mi in tr
i
r l
i
U v
i
I .
) ( 20
3 , 0 5 , 0
4
2 1
1
1
=

= =
R R
I I
U
r r
Mt khc: ) (
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
I I I I r U U U U + + + = + + +

Tng hiu in th trn cc in tr
i
r l 10vn.
c) Thay
4
r bng in tr X :
Ta c:
r
X r
I
r
X R I
I
2
2 ) (
4
3
4 4
3
+
=
+
=
r
X r
I I I I
R
2
2 3
4 4 3
3
+
= + =
Theo bi:
4
4 3 4 3
kI kI I kU U
R R R R
= = = . Thay gi tr ca
3
R
I vo trn ta c
) 1 (
2
2 3
r
X r
k
+
=
Gi in tr ca cui cng l Y. Chng minh tng t nh trn ta c ) 2 (
2
2 3
r
Y r
k
+
=
So snh (1) v (2) ta suy ra Y X = . Vy:
r X r
r X r
X
+ +
+
=
2 /
) 2 / (

0 2
2 2
= + r rX X
Gii phng trnh trn, ta c: X = r/2 v X = -r (loi). Thay gi tr ca X vo (1), ta c k = 2.
Cc bn c li gii ng: Kim Th Anh 9B, V Duy Lc, Nguyn Th Huyn Trang 9D, THCS
Vnh Tng, Vnh Phc; H Kim Dung 10 L, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; Tun
Minh 10 L, THPT Amsterdam, H Ni; inh Xun Khu 10L THPT Lng Vn Tu, Ninh
Bnh; Nguyn Thanh T 11L, THPT Chuyn Tin Giang.
) ( 10 5 , 0 20
1
V rI
R
= = =

CS4/4. Mt thu knh hi t mng c dng hnh trn ng knh AB = 12cm. Thu knh c tiu
im F cch quang tm O mt khong bng 12cm. Mt ngun sng im S nm trn phng
AB v cch B 3cm. MN l mn chn sng (xem hnh v).
a) Ngi ta mun thu c mt chm sng song song vi trc chnh bng cch dng
thm mt gng phng. Hi phi t gng ny u v t nh th no?
b) Gi nguyn v tr ca gng, mn chn v ngun sng, dch chuyn thu knh dc theo
phng AB xung pha di 3cm. Hy m t hin tng xy ra v gii thch.
Gii: a) Mun chm sng l ra song song vi trc chnh ca thu knh th chm sng ti thu
knh phi xut pht t tiu im F. Vy nh ' S ca S qua gng phng cng phi nm F.
Mun th gng phng phi t im gia ca on SF v vung gc vi SF. D dng tnh
c SF = 15cm.
b) Gi nguyn ngun sng, gng phng v mn chn, dch chuyn thu knh theo chiu AB th
nh ' S coi nh di chuyn trn tiu din ti F ca thu knh. V th chm sng l ra khi thu
knh s song song vi trc ph i qua ' S . Vy chm sng l ra quay mt gc so vi trc.
Mt khc, . 14
12
3 '
0
= =
OF
F S
tg

Cc bn c li gii ng: o Vit Anh 8A, THCS Th trn Neo, Yn Dng, Bc Giang; inh
Xun Khu 10 L, THPT Lng Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh.
Trung hc ph thng Trung hc ph thng Trung hc ph thng Trung hc ph thng
TH1/4. TH1/4. TH1/4. TH1/4. Cho c h gm hai vt khi lng l M v M/2 c gn hai rng rng khi lng khng
ng k. Hai vt lin kt vi nhau qua si dy mnh khng gin vt qua hai rng rc. Bit rng
h chuyn ng khng ma st trn mt bn nm ngang di tc dng ca lc
0
F (xem hnh v)
v coi cc on dy khng tip xc vi rng rc u nm ngang. Tnh gia tc ca u dy t
lc
0
F .
Gii:
V dy khng gin, rng rc v dy c khi lng khng ng k nn lc cng dy
mi thi im u bng
0
F . Chn chiu dng l chiu chuyn ng ca mi vt.
Theo nh lut II Newton ta c:
Vt 1:
M
F
a a M F
0
1 1 0
3
3 = =
Vt 2:
M
F
a a
M
F
0
2 2 0
4
2
2 = =

Gi s sau thi gian t : Vt 1 dch chuyn mt on
1
S ,vt 2 dch chuyn mt on
2
S .

M
M/2
F
0
F
0
F
0
A
1
2 F
0

A
S
O

S

F

B

Khi u dy A dch chuyn c mt on l:
2 1
2 3 S S S
A
+ =
M
F
M
F
M
F
a a a
0 0 0
2 1
17 8 9
2 3 = + = + =
Vy, gia tc ca u dy t lc
0
F l:
M
F
a
0
17
= .
Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Trung Hiu 11L, THPTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang. Cc
bn khc c li gii ng: Trnh Hu Phc 10A10, Nguyn Duy Long 10A3, Dng Tin
Vinh 11A3, Trnh nh Cung 12A3, Nguyn Anh Vit 12A3, THPT Chuyn, Vnh Phc;
Nguyn Duy Cng 11A3, Chu c Anh 10A3, Bch Hng on A3K31, Phan Thanh
Huyn A3 K32, THPT Chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An; V Cng Thnh, Chu Thanh Bnh
12 L, Trn Vn Ho, Nguyn Ton Thng, Trng Hu Trung, Trn Trng Tun 11L,
Nguyn Cng Dng 10L, THPT Chuyn Bc Ninh; Hunh Minh Hong 12C THPT Phan
nh Phng, Nguyn Vn Dng, Nguyn Vn Linh 10 L, Phm B Vinh 11 L, THPT
Chuyn H Tnh; Hong Huy t, Trn Quc Vit 11L, THPT Chuyn Hng Yn; Nguyn
Tun t 10A, Nguyn Tin Ngha 10B, Hong Vn Tu K18A, Phm Vit c 11A, Khi
Chuyn L, HQG, H Ni; Trn Quc Ching, V Ch Kin 10L, L Quc Khnh 11L,
Hunh Hoi Nguyn 11 Ton, THPTNK, HQG t.p H Ch Minh; Dng Th Thanh Nhn
10L, THPT Chuyn Lng Th Vinh, ng Nai.

TH2/4. TH2/4. TH2/4. TH2/4. Mt qu cu nh ni vi mt si dy mnh c th chuyn ng khng ma st trn mt
phng nm ngang. Si dy c qun quanh mt hnh tr thng ng bn knh r. Truyn cho
qu cu vn tc v
0
theo phng tip tuyn vi ng trn chm chm bn knh R nh hnh
v.Tay cm u t do ca dy v ko sao cho qu cu lun chuyn ng trn ng trn trn.
Xc nh s ph thuc vn tc ca qu cu theo thi gian. B qua ma st gia dy v hnh tr.
Gii:

Qu cu A , khi lng m chuyn ng trn ng trn (O,R). Xt ti thi im t, qu cu c
vn tc V, lc cng dy khi l T. p dng nh lut II Newton:
a m T

= (*)
Chiu phng trnh (*) ln phng hng tm AO v phng tip tuyn At ta c:

= =
= =
) 2 ( sin
) 1 ( cos
2
dt
dV
m a m T
R
V
m a m T
t
ht

Chia theo v ca (2) cho (1) ta c:
dt
R
V
dV
tg =
2

dt
R
tg
V
dV
=

2
(vi I A O

= ).
Tay
r

A

R

O

t

V

I

Tch phn hai v:

=
V
V
t
dt
R
tg
V
dV
0
0
2

t
R
tg
V V
=
|
|

\
|
+

0
1 1

t
R
tg
V
V

=

0
1
1

Mt khc,
2 2
r R
r
AI
OI
tg

= = nn
t
r R R
r
V
V
2 2
0
1
1

=
iu kin: 0 t
r R R
r
V
1
2 2
0
>
|
|

\
|

0
2 2
V r
r R R
t

<

Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Trung Hiu 11L, THPTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang. Cc bn
khc c li gii ng: Trng Hu Trung 11L, V Cng Thnh, Chu Thanh Bnh, Trnh Vn
Minh, L Minh Huy 12 L, THPT Chuyn Bc Ninh; Khng Trng Ngha, Dng Tin Vinh
11A3, Trnh Hu Phc 11A10, Nguyn Duy Long 10A3, Trn nh Cung 12A3, THPT Chuyn
Vnh Phc; Phan Thanh Huyn A3K32, Bch Hng on A3K31, THPT Chuyn Phan Bi
Chu, Ngh An; Bi Hoi Nam 12L, THPT Chuyn H Tnh; L Quc Khnh 11L, Hunh
Hoi Nguyn 11 Ton, PTNK, HQG t.p. H Ch Minh; Hong Huy t, Trn Quc Vit, Phm
Quc Vit 11L, THPT Chuyn Hng Yn; Trnh c Hin 12F THPT Chuyn Lam Sn, Thanh
Ho; V nh Quang 11B, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; Nguyn Trn Hiu 12 L,
Dng Vn Hng 11L, THPT Chuyn L Hng Phong, Nam nh.

Th3/4. h3/4. h3/4. h3/4. Mt pittng nng c din tch S khi th xung t do y kh t mt bnh hnh tr th tch
V qua mt l nh y vo mt bnh c cng th tch. Cc thng s ban u ca khng kh
trong c hai bnh u nh nhau v u bng cc gi tr iu kin tiu chun. Hi pittng c
khi lng cc tiu bng bao nhiu n c th y ht kh ra khi bnh th nht.
Gii:

+ Kh trong bnh c nn on nhit t th tch 2V n V. Phng trnh trng thi:
Thi im ban u: ) 1 ( 2
0 0
nRT V p =
Thi im cui: ) 2 (
1 1
nRT V p =

Cng thc hin ln pittng l:
) 3 ( ) (
0 0
S
V
S p Mg
S
V
S p
S
V
Mg A + = + =
Theo nguyn l I nhit ng lc hc: 0
'
= + = U A Q , do cng kh thc hin l:
) 4 ( ) (
2
1
0 1
'
T T niR U A = =
(vi i l s bc t do ca khng kh)
T (1), (2), (4) suy ra:
) 5 ( ) 2 (
2
0 1
'
V p p
i
A =
M
'
A A = nn: V p p
i
S
V
S p Mg = + ) 2 (
2
) (
0 1 0

(*)
2
2
0 0 1
|

\
|
+ + = p
S
Mg
i
p p
iu kin pittng c th y ht kh ra khi bnh th nht:
(**)
0 1
S p Mg S p +
T (*), (**) v coi khng kh trong bnh (gn ng) l kh l tng lng nguyn t c 5 = i ta
c:
g
S p
M
0
3
7

Vy khi lng cc tiu ca pittng l:
g
S p
M
0
min
3
7
= .

Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Trung Hiu 11L, THPTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang.
Th4/4. Th4/4. Th4/4. Th4/4. Ti ba nh ca mt t din u cnh a gi ba qu cu nh ging nhau c khi lng
v in tch tng ng l M v Q. Ti nh th t gi mt qu cu khc in tch q, khi lng
m ( m << M, Q = 2q).Tt c cc qu cu c th ng thi.
1) Tnh ln vn tc cc qu cu sau khi chng bay rt xa nhau.
2) Sau khi bay ra xa nhau, cc qu cu ny chuyn ng theo phng hp vi mt
phng t din cha ba qu cu M mt gc bao nhiu.
B qua tc dng ca trng lc.
Gii: Chn trc OZ vung gc mt phng ca t din cha ba in tch Q. Do m M >> nn
coi gn ng l khi m ra xa v cng th cc qu cu M mi bt u chuyn ng.
Gi vn tc ca qu cu m khi bay ra xa v cng l
0
v . p dng nh lut bo ton nng lng
ta c:
a
kq
a
kQq mv
2 2
0
6
3
2
= =
ma
kq
v
2
0
12
=

Do tnh i xng nn khi cc qu cu M chuyn ng th vn tc ca chng c ln lun bng
nhau. Gi v l vn tc mi qu cu M khi chng rt xa nhau. p dng nh lut bo ton
nng lng ta c:
a
kQ Mv
2 2
3
2
3
=
Ma
kq
Ma
kQ
v
2 2
8 2
= =
Gi thnh phn vn tc ca cc qu cu M theo phng trc Z l
Z
v . p dng nh lut bo
ton ng lng cho h ) 3 ( M m+ , ta c:
ma
kq
m mv Mv
Z
2
0
12
3 = =
ma
kq
M
m
v
Z
2
12
3
=
Q
O
Z
Q
q
Q
Do v v
Z
<< nn gc rt nh.Ta c
) (
6
M
m
v
v
Z
=

Cc bn khc c li gii ng: Trnh Hu Phc 11A10, Nguyn Duy Long 10A3, Nguyn Anh
Vit 12A3, THPT Chuyn Vnh Phc; V nh Quang 11B, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph
Th.
Th5/4. Th5/4. Th5/4. Th5/4. Ngi ta ct t mt qu cu lm bng thy tinh hu c bn kinh 10cm ly hai chm cu,
nhn c hai thu knh phng li vi ng knh l 1cm v 2cm. Cc thu knh c dn
vi nhau nh hnh v. Trn trc chnh v cch h thu knh 1m t mt ngun sng im v
pha bn kia ca h t mt mn. Hi phi t mn nh th no kch thc vt sng trn
mn l nh nht? V kch thc y bng bao nhiu?
Gii:
Ta ct qu cu (chit sut n) bn knh cm R 10 = ly 2 chm cu nhn c 2 thu knh
phng li
2 1
, L L c ng knh l
2 1
, D D (vi cm D D 2 2
2 1
= = ) th chng s c cng tiu c
l f:
) (
1
10 1
) 1 (
1
cm
n
f
R
n
f
= =
S to nh:

ng i ca cc tia sng nh hnh v. T ta thy vt sng trn mn c kch thc nh nht
l AB D
m
= khi mn I vi l OI = .
Mt khc, ta c:
) 2 (
1 1
*
1 1 1
'
2
'
1
'
1 1
d d d d f
+

= + =
+ Da vo tnh cht ng dng ta c:

=
) 4 (
) 3 (
'
2
'
2
2
'
1
'
1
1
d
d l
D
D
d
l d
D
D
m
m

Cng v (3) v v (4): ) 5 (
3 1 1 3
1
'
2
'
1 1
f
D
D
l
f
l
d d
l
D
D
m m
= =
|
|

\
|
+

=
d
1
S
d

1
d
2
d

2
S
1

S
2

d
1
S

O

I
l

D
2
D
L
D
m
(L
2
)
(L
1
)
S

2
S

1

A
B

v
Z

v
v
x
T (2), (3), (5) suy ra:

=

=
(**)
3 4
3
(*)
3 4
1
d
f
f
l
d
f
D
D
m

Qu cu lm bng thu tinh hu c nn nu ly 5 , 1 n (gn ng) ) ( 20 cm f =
Suy ra:

=
=
) ( 65 , 17
) ( 59 , 0
cm l
cm D
m

Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Trung Hiu 11L, THPTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang. Bn V
nh Quang 11B, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; Nguyn Tun t 10A, Khi chuyn
L, HQG H Ni cng c li gii ng.

Tr li Tr li Tr li Tr li Cu hi trc nghim Cu hi trc nghim Cu hi trc nghim Cu hi trc nghim
Trung hc c s Trung hc c s Trung hc c s Trung hc c s
TNCS1/4. TNCS1/4. TNCS1/4. TNCS1/4. Cu D (v thc hin php o mt ln v thc c CNN nh hn cc thc khc).
TNCS2/ TNCS2/ TNCS2/ TNCS2/4. 4. 4. 4. Cu D (v vin phn l vt rn ngm nc).
TNCS3/4. TNCS3/4. TNCS3/4. TNCS3/4. Cu C (v V = 5.10.20 =1000
3
cm )
TNCS4/4. TNCS4/4. TNCS4/4. TNCS4/4. Cu A (v kt qu c c t khi lng qu cn cn bng vi khi lng thc ca
vt tr i khi lng cn t vo cn thng bng lc u).
TNCS5/4. TNCS5/4. TNCS5/4. TNCS5/4. Cu D (v khi lng tnh l khi lng cht cha trong b).
Cc bn c tr li ng c 5 cu: Nguyn c Duy, V Th Lan Anh, Nguyn Th Hng Nhung,
Nguyn Ngc Anh 6A, THCS Yn Lc, Nguyn Cng Thnh 6D, THCS Th x Vnh Yn, Vnh
Phc.
T TT Trung hc ph thng rung hc ph thng rung hc ph thng rung hc ph thng
TN1/4. Tr li B)
Gi : Lc t trng tc dng ln electron t do trong a, hng theo phng bn knh ca a
(chiu tc dng ph thuc vo chiu ca t trng v chiu quay ca a v d dng xc nh),
c ln bng eBr F = (r l khong cch t electron n tm a). Lc t trung bnh tc
dng ln electron s l )/2 R + (R eB = F
2 1
. Khi cn bng cng ca lc in trng bng
cng ca lc t trng:
) R - F(R = eU
1 2
, suy ra ) (
2
2
1
2
2
R R
B
U =

TN2/4. Tr li A)
Gi : D dang thy gia tc
1
a ca
1
m bng 2 ln gia tc
2
a ca
2
m . Vit phng trnh nh
lut II Newton cho tng vt, ri bin i d dng tm c, gia tc ca vt
2
m .
(1) 2T - g m a m
2 2 2
=
(2) T 2a m a m
2 1 1 1
= =
Kh T i s tm c ). m g/(4m m a
2 1 2 2
+ =
TN3/4. Tr li B)

q
m m
q
L
x
F
c
P
T
Gi : T phng trnh cn bng ca mi qu cu: 0 T F P
C
= + +

suy ra
mg x
q
P
F
c
2
0
2
4
tg

## = = , do q nh nn lc Coulomb nh, do gc lch ca hai si dy nh v

vy
L
x
2
sin tg = . V vy tm c

3
1
0
2
2
|
|

\
|
=
mg
L q
x

TN4/4. Tr li B)
Gi : Thi gian ri ca vt th nht t =
g
h 2
. Trong thi gian ht th hai chuyn ng
c on ng
g
h 2
u ut d = = hay
g
hu
d
2
2
2
= .
TN5/4. Tr li A)
Gi : Trong phng trnh sng, gia x v t phi c dng (x -vt), Chng ta vit li phng trnh
sng di dng sau:
2
) ( 1
1
vt x
y
+
= . Khi t = 0 phng trnh tr thnh
( )
2
1
1
x
y
+
= nh
bi cho. Khi t = 2s ta c
[ ]
2 2
) 1 ( 1
1
) 2 ( 1
1
+
=
+
=
x v x
y . Suy ra 2v = 1. Vy v = 0,5 m/s.

Bn Trn nh Cung 12A3 Chuyn Vnh Phc c tr li ng c 5 cu.

Danh sch cc bn c li gii ng
Mc Gii k trc s 3 thng 11/2003

Do c thi gian ngh Tt, To son phi chun b s 6 thng 2/2004 sm hn thng l,
nn mt s bn c li gii ng cha ng kp vo s 6 thng 2/2004. Chng ti ng
tip danh sch cc bn y. Mong cc bn thng cm.
CS2/3. Nguyn Vn Tun, Nguyn Cng Bnh 9E, THCS Yn Lc, Vnh Phc; Tun Minh 10
L 1, THPT Amsterdam, H Ni; Trn Quang Huy 10 L, THPT Chuyn L Hng Phong, Nam
nh; Hunh Hoi Nguyn 11 Ton, PTNK, HhQG t.p. H Ch Minh; Phm Hi Hong 10L,
THPT Lng Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh.
CS3/3. Nguyn Vn Tun 9E, THCS Yn Lc, Vnh Phc; Hong Ngc Chinh 9B, THCS Trn
Mai Ninh, t.p. Thanh Ho; Trn Quang Huy 10L, THPT Chuyn L Hng Phong, Nam nh;
inh Xun Khu, Phm Hi Hong 10 L, THPT Lng Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh; V Ch Kin 10L,
PTNK, HQG, t.p. H Ch Minh.
CS2/4. Nguyn Vn Tun, Nguyn Cng Bnh 9E, Lu Tin Quyt 9C, THCS Yn Lc, Vnh
Phc; Hong Ngc Chinh 9B, THCS Trn Mai Ninh, t.p. Thanh Ho; H Kim Dung 10 L,
THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; H c D 10A3, THPT Chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh
An; Tun Minh, 10L 1, THPT Amsterdam, H Ni; Trn Quang Huy 10 L, THPT Chuyn
L Hng Phong, Nam nh; Vng Quang Hng , Hong Thanh H 10 L, THPT Chuyn H
Tnh; inh Xun Khu 10 L, THPT Lng Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh; Phm Tun Hip 10 L, THPT
NK Trn Ph, Hi Phng; V Ch Kin 10 L, PTNK, HQG t.p. H Ch Minh.
TH1/3: Dng Trung Hiu, 11B PTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang; Hong Huy t, 11 L THPT
Chuyn Hng Yn;
TH2/3: Hong Vn Tu, Ng Tun t K18A, Phm Vit c 11A, Khi chuyn L, HQG, H
Ni; Chu Thanh Bnh, V Cng Thnh 12 L, Nguyn Cng Dng, Trn Thi H 10 L, THPT
Chuyn, Bc Ninh; H Huy Cng, Mai Tn Thng, Nguyn Mnh Thnh 10A3, THPT
Chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An; Trnh c Hiu 12F, THPT Chuyn Lam Sn, Thanh Ho;
Nguyn Quyt Thng 11L, THPT Chuyn Ph Th; Trnh Hu Phc11A10, Nguyn Anh Vit
12A3, Hong Th Hng Hnh 11A3, THPT Chuyn Vnh Phc; Phng Minh Hong 12C THPT
Phan nh Phng, H Tnh; L H Vit 11A2 THPT c Ph 1, Qung Ngi; Trn Th Phng
Tho 11L THPT chuyn Lng Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh; Nguyn Trung Kin 12 L THPT Gia
nh TP H Ch Minh, Phm Tun Hip 10L, PTNK Trn Ph, Hi Phng, Nguyn Th Mai
Phng 10L, THPT Chuyn Qung Bnh.
TH4/3: Phm Vit c 11A, Khi chuyn L, HQG, H Ni; V Cng Thnh Chu Thanh Bnh
12 L, Trn Vn Ho 11 L THPT Chuyn, Bc Ninh; Phng Minh Hong 12C THPT Phan
nh Phng, Bi Hoi Nam Hong Vit Cng 12 L THPT Chuyn, H Tnh; Hong Huy t
11 L THPT Chuyn Hng Yn; L Quc Khnh 11 L PTNK HQG TP H Ch Minh, L
Quang Duy 11A3, THPT Chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An.
Cc bn hc sinh lu : Cn gi bi gii ng thi hn v ng a ch To Son
(nhiu bn gi nhm sang T/C Ton Hc v Tui Tr).

Giai thoi v cc nh vt l Giai thoi v cc nh vt l Giai thoi v cc nh vt l Giai thoi v cc nh vt l

Nguyn l bt nh...
Nh vt l ni ting ngi c Werner Heisenberg, nm 1932 uc trao gii thng Nobel v
vt l v nhng ng gp to ln ca ng cho C hc lng t m ni ting nht l nguyn l bt
nh nguyn l chi phi gii hn nhn thc ca con ngi. Theo nguyn l ny nu o to
ca mt ht cng chnh xc bao nhiu th o ng lng (hay xung lng) ca n cng km
chnh xc by nhiu v ngc li.
Khi mt, Heisenberg c li di chc v theo di chc ny ngi ta khc trn bia m ng
dng ch: Ti nm u quanh y.

S th nhn ca Frank...
Gio s James Frank l mt trong s cc v gim kho ti bui bo v lun n tin s ca
nghin cu sinh 23 tui Robert Oppenheimer nh vt l sau ny tr thnh ngi lnh o
chng trnh ch to qu bom nguyn t u tin ca Hoa K. Tuy nhin, khi bui bo v cha
kt thc, ngi ta thy Frank ht hi b ra ngoi. May m ti kp ra ngoi, - Frank gii
thch - nu khng cu ta s hi li ti th cu hi!.
Hng Hi (su tm)
Bt cc tr v thnh nin...
Mt ln ti thm trng i hc Gettingen (c), Niels Bohr mi Heisenberg, mt trong s
nhng ngi t nn mng cho mn C hc lng t, lc mi 25 tui, sang Copenhagen lm
vic. Ngy hm sau, trong ba tic cho mng Bohr, c hai cnh st i ti c lnh ... bt ng
v ti bt cc tr v thanh nin. Th ra l hai sinh vin ca trng ci trang thnh cnh st !
P.V.T (su tm)

Hc sinh vit

Dng tch vct gii mt s bi ton c hc
Nguyn c Giang
Lp 12 Khi Chuyn L, HKHTN-HQG H Ni

Trong chng trnh vt l lp 10, phn c hc, bi ton nm xin l mt trong nhng dng bi
ton kh nht. Phng php gii thng thng nh c gii thiu trong sch gio khoa l
xt chuyn ng theo hai phng vung gc. y l mt cch lm tng qut m v nguyn tc
c th gii c tt c cc bi ton. Nhng i vi mt s bi ton th cch gii ny t ra qu
phc tp v di dng. Trong bi vit ny chng ti xin gii thiu mt cch gii mi l s dng
cc tch vct (c tch v hng v hu hng). Vi phng php gii mi ny, li gii ca cc
bi ton trn s tr nn n gin v ngn gn. bn c tin theo di, trc ht chng ti xin
nhc li mt s tnh cht ca cc tch vct.
a) Tch v hng:
+ nh ngha: ) , cos( b a b a b a

=
+ Tnh cht:
0 . = b a b a

(1)
) ).( ( d c b a

+ +
d b c b d a c a

+ + + = . . . (2)
b) Tch hu hng:
+ nh ngha: [ ] c b a

= .
) ( sin b a b a c

=
c

## : c chiu xc nh theo qui tc bn tay phi

+ Tnh cht
a

// b

[ ] 0 = b a

. (3)
[ ] ) ( ) ( d c b a

+ + [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] d b c b d a c a

+ + + = (4)

V mt vt l chng ta ch yu s s dng cng thc: t g v v

+ =
0
trong
0
v

l vn tc ban
u, v

l vn tc ti thi im t.
minh ho nhng u im ca phng php ny, chng ta hy xt mt s v d c th di
y.

V d 1. Chng minh rng t mt cao no so vi mt t ta nm mt vt th khi t ti tm
xa cc i, vn tc ban u v vn tc ngay trc khi chm t vung gc vi nhau.
Gii: Gi vn tc ban u l
0
v

## v vn tc ngay trc khi chm t l v

.
Ta c: t g v v

+ =
0
(t l thi gian ri ca vt).
Ta c: [ ] [ ] ) (
0 0 0
t g v v v v

+ =
[ ] [ ] t g v v v

+ =
0 0 0
.
V [ ] 0
0 0
= v v

theo (3), suy ra
[ ] [ ] g t v t g v v v = = cos
0 0 0

V tm bay ca vt l t v t v L
x
= = cos
0

[ ] gL v v =

0

[ ]
g
v v v v
g
v v
L
) sin(
0 0 0

=

=

Vy L ln nht khi 1 ) , sin(
0
= v v

hay hai vn tc
0
v

v v

vung gc vi nhau.
c

Nhn xt: Trong v d ny ta a ra mt cng thc tng qut l:
[ ]
g
v v
L

=
0

Cng thc ny c th p dng cho nhiu bi ton v cho ta cch gii mi kh p nh trong v
d quen thuc sau y.

V d 2. Mt vt c nm t mt t vi vn tc
0
v

lp vi phng nm ngang mt gc .
Tm tm xa t c, vi gc nm no th tm xa cc i.
Gii: Theo nh lut bo ton c nng th vn tc cui l
0
v v = .

Kt hp vi hnh v bn ta suy ra: 2 ) , (
0
= v v

. p dng cng thc:
[ ]
g
v v
L

=
0

g
v
L
2 sin
2
0

=
g
v
L
2
0
max
= khi
0
45 1 2 sin = =

V d 3. Nm mt vt vi vn tc ban u
0
v

## lp vi phng nm ngang mt gc . Tm thi

gian vn tc ca vt vung gc vi phng ban u.
Gii: Gi thi gian phi tm l t, khi vn tc ca vt ti thi im t l:
t g v v

+ =
0

Ta c: 0
0 0
= v v v v

0 0
) ( v t g v

+
0
0
2
0
= + t g v v

0 sin
0
2
0
= gt v v
sin
0
g
v
t =

Kt qu ny ch c ngha khi
0
t t vi
0
t l thi gian ri ca vt. V d nh vt c nm t
mt t th thi gian ri l:
g
v
t
sin 2
0
0
=
0
45
2
1
sin
Tc l nu vt c nm t mt t th tn ti thi gian tho mn iu kin u bi th gc
phi ln hn hoc bng 45
0
.

V d 4. Mt vt c nm ln theo phng lp vi phng ngang mt gc . n thi im t
th vn tc ca vt l v

v gc lch so vi ban u mt gc . Tm t.
Gii: Gi vn tc ban u l
0
v

Ta c: t v v + =
0

0
v

2
Xt: [ ] [ ] ) (
0 0 0
t g v v v v

+ =
[ ] [ ] t g v v v

=
0 0

cos sin
0 0
t g v v v =

cos
sin
g
v
t =

V d 5. Hai vt c nm ti cng mt thi im vi vn tc l
01
v

,
02
v

ln lt lp vi phng
nm ngang cc gc l
1
v
2
. Sau khong thi gian t th vn tc ca hai vt song song vi
nhau. Tm t.
Gii: Sau khong thi gian t, ta c vn tc ca hai vt ln lt l:
t g v v

+ =
01 1

t g v v

+ =
02 2

Theo bi
1
v

//
2
v

[ ] 0
2 1
= v v

[ ] 0 ) ( ) (
02 01
= + + t g v t g v

[ ] [ ] [ ] 0
02 01 02 01
= + + v t g t g v v v

0 cos cos ) sin(
2 02 1 01 1 2 02 01
= + t g v t g v v v
t v v g ) cos cos (
2 02 1 01

) sin(
1 2 02 01
= v v
) cos cos (
) sin(
2 02 1 01
1 2 02 01

v v g
v v
t

=
Kt qu ny ch c ngha khi
0
0 t t (t
0
: thi gian ri ca vt).
T cc v d trn y cc bn cng hiu r c phn no s tin li ca phng php tch
vct trong cc bi ton nm xin. Phng php ny c th ng dng rt hiu qu cho nhiu
bi ton c hc hay tnh in.
Bi tp
1. Mt vt c nm i vi vn tc
0
v

, gc nm . n thi im no th vn tc ca vt
hp vi phng ban u gc . Tm thi gian .
S:

2 2
0
sin cos
sin
+
=
g
v
t
2. Hai vt c nm ti cng mt thi im vi vn tc l
02 01
, v v

v gc nm l
1
v
2
. n
thi im t th phng vn tc ca hai vt vung gc. Tm t.
S:
g
b a a
t
2
4
2 2

=
vi ) cos( sin
1 2 02 1 01
+ = v v a

Gii thiu cc thi
gii thi chn i tuyn hc sinh gii
mn Vt L THPT, t.p. h ch Minh, nm hc 2002-
2003

N

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \

O
y
-
Bi 1
v tr bt k, vt chu tc dng ca trng lc P

v lc F

## ca vnh. C th phn tch lc F

ra hai thnh phn: N

## hng tip tuyn

vi vng trn nh hnh v:
a m N Q P

= + + (1)
Chiu phng trnh (1) theo phng tip tuyn vi vng trn v phng nm dc theo bn
knh:
Q - Psin = 0 (2)
Pcos +N =
R
mv
2
0
(3).
Thnh phn lc F theo phng thng ng:
F
y
= Qsin - Ncos = Psin
2
- (
R
mv
2
0
- Pcos)cos =
R
mv
2
0
cos- mg
F
y
c gi tr ln nht khi gc = 0 ( vt cao nht): F
ymax
=
R
mv
2
0
- mg
Theo nh lut Newton III, lc do vt tc dng ln vnh l F
ymax
=F
ymax

iu kin vnh khng b ny ln l: F
ymax
Mg

R
mv
2
0
- mg Mg gR )
m
M
1 ( v
0
+
vnh chuyn ng vi vn tc khng i (theo gi thit) th phi c lc tc dng ln
vnh. Li gii trn ch ng cho trng hp lc tc dng ny khng c thnh phn thng ng.

Bi 2
a) Do khng c lc tc dng theo phng ngang nn khi tm G chuyn ng theo
phng thng ng. Qu o ca G l on thng vung gc vi mt t v i qua v tr ban
u ca n. Tm quay tc thi ca thanh l O nh hnh v. Khi thanh chm t, gc nghing
dn ti 0
0
, O dn ti A nn vn tc gc ca thanh:
=
d
v
OG
v
G G
= (1)

Khi thanh chm t th nng chuyn thnh ng nng ca chuyn
ng quay:
) 2 (
2
I
sin mgd
2
0

=
Trong
o
I l m men qun tnh i vi trc quay tc thi O :

2 2
G O
md
3
4
OG . m I I = + = (3)

2
sin gd 3
v
o
G

=

Bi 3
Khi cn bng pittng nm cch y h th kh trong xy lanh c p sut p
1
:
p
1
= p
0
+
S
Mg
.
Khi pittng v tr c li l x th kh c p sut p. V qu trnh l on nhit
nn:
-
x
O
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \
B
A
G

O

= + ) Sh ( p ) Sx Sh ( p
1
(1), y l t s gia cc nhit dung ng p v ng tch.
p = p
1 |

\
|

|
|
|
|

\
|
+

h
x
1 p
h
x
1
1
1
. Nu b qua lc ma st gia pittng v thnh bnh th:
" Mx
h
x
S p " Mx Mg S
h
x
1 p S p
1 1 0
= = |

\
|
+
Mh
x
S p " x
1
=
Dao ng l iu ho vi tn s gc:

Mh
) S p Mg (
0
+
=

Bi 4
Trong mch c s.. E = Blv v c dng in cng
r R
Blv
I
+
= . Hiu in th hai u R l:
= = IR U
r R
BlvR
+

Lc tc dng ln thanh CD c cng l
BIl F = =
r R
v l B
2 2
+
=
2
2
vR
v ) r R ( U +
=1,6N
Lc F

hng vi v

## . Theo nh lut II Newton:

-
dt
dv
m
dt
dx
.
r R
v l B
2 2
=
+

2 2
0
v
2 2
S
0
l B
v ) r R ( m
dv .
l B
) r R ( m
dx s
+
=
+
= =

=

2 2
2 3
) r R ( U
R mv
+
= 0,25m
Bi 5
Sau khi khc x vo qu cu, tia sng b lch mt gc ) r i ( D
v
= . Sau khi phn x ln
1, tia sng b lch thm ) r 2 ( D
1
= ; sau phn x ln 2 lch thm ) r 2 ( D
2
= ... Khi l
ra ngoi tia sng li b lch ) r i ( D
r
= . Cc tia b lch theo cng mt chiu. Nu tia sng b
phn x k ln th gc lch gia tia ti v tia l l:
) r 2 ( k ) r i ( 2 D ... D D D
r 1 v
+ = + + =
o hm hai v theo i :
di
dr
) 1 k 2 ( 2
di
dD
+ = . T nh lut khc x: r sin n i sin =

r cos n
i cos
di
dr
= ; 0
i sin n
i sin 1
) 1 k ( 2 2
di
dD
2 2
2

+ = khi.
1 ) 1 k (
1 n
1 i sin
2
2
+

=
Do vi gc i tho mn
1 ) 1 k (
1 n
1 i sin
2
2
+

= th
di
dD
i du t m sang dng, gc
lch D t cc tiu.
Chm sng mt tri chiu n cc git nc ma l cc chm sng trng song song.
Sau khi phn x mt ln trong git nc, cc tia sng l ra khi git nc theo cc phng khc
F
+
+
+ + +
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
R
C
D

i
i
r
r
r
r
nhau, ch c cc tia lch gc nh nht mi ra khi git nc gn nh song song, n mt v gy
ra cm gic mnh nht. Cc tia cn li tn x theo mi phng.
Chit sut ca nc i vi tia l n 1,33 nn:

8624 , 0
3
1 33 , 1
1
1 ) 1 k (
1 n
1 i sin
2
2
2

=
+

=
0
6 , 59 i ; ; sinr 0,6484;
0
4 , 40 r .
0 0
min
138 r 4 i 2 180 D + =
Do ta thy cu vng c dng cung trn c nhn di gc c ln l
0 0 0
42 138 180 = vi ng thng ni t mt ngi quan st ti tm cu vng.
----------

Gip bn t n thi i hc
Sng c v bi tp sng c
Trn Ngc Hi
(H Bch Khoa, H Ni)

Sng c l hin tng thng gp trong thc t v l mt chng quan trng trong Vt l lp 12.
gip cc bn hc tt phn ny xin cung cp mt s kin thc c bn v cc dng bi tp
ca sng c.
A. Mt s khi nim v cng thc.
1. Phng trnh truyn sng: l phng trnh dao ng ca mt phn t vt cht khi c
sng truyn ti.

Gi s ly im S no lm gc, ti S phng trnh c dng: t A u
S
sin = , trong
S
u
l li dao ng, A l bin dao ng ti S. Gi s sng lan truyn t tri sang phi (H.1)
th ti im M trn phng truyn sng v pha trc S, phng trnh dao ng l:
|

\
|
+ =

d
t A u
M
2
sin .

Cn ti im N pha sau S, phng trnh dao ng l:
|

\
|
=

d
t A u
N
2
sin
y gi thit khong cch d khng ln c th xem bin A khng suy gim khi
truyn sng.
2. Phn bit vn tc truyn sng (v) v vn tc dao ng ca phn t vt cht (V)
a. Vn tc truyn sng l vn tc truyn pha dao ng (n l khong cch m sau mt giy
sng lan truyn c). Vn tc ny ph thuc vo bn cht mi trng, n cng ph thuc
vo nhit . Tuy nhin, n khng ph thuc vo tn s ca ngun sng. Cng thc lin h
gia v,, T v f l : f
T
v =

=
b. Vn tc dao ng ca phn t vt cht khi sng truyn ti:
H.1

M S N
d d
V

) t cos( A
dt
du
V = =
Vn tc ny c gi tr cc i khi phn t vt cht qua v tr cn bng: A V =
max

Tng t gia tc ca phn t vt cht: u
dt
u d
dt
dV
a
2
2
2
= = = .
V ln ca gia tc cc i: A a
2
max
=
3. Giao thoa hai sng kt hp.
iu kin c giao thoa sng l phi c hai sng kt hp v dao ng cng
phng. Hai sng kt hp l hai sng c cng chu k (tn s) v c hiu pha ti
mi im khng ph thuc thi gian.
Thng lp 12 ta ch xt hai ngun ng b:

t A u u
S S
sin
2 1
= = .
Phng trnh dao ng ti im M khi c sng truyn ti l:
M M M
u u u
2 1
+ =
|

\
|
+ |

\
|
=

2 1
2
sin
2
sin
d
t A
d
t A
|

\
| +
|

\
|
=

) (
sin
) (
cos 2
2 1 1 2
d d
t
d d
A
Ti im c cc i giao thoa: 1
) (
cos
1 2
= |

\
|

d d
,
suy ra: k d d =
1 2

Ti im c cc tiu giao thoa 0
) (
cos
1 2
= |

\
|

d d

suy ra
2
) 1 2 (
1 2
+
=
k
d d
4.Sng dng l sng c nhng im nt v bng c nh trong khng gian, n l kt qu ca
s giao thoa ca sng ti v sng phn x trn cng mt phng. C hai dng thng c
nghin cu.
a/. Sng dng trn mt dy cng, mnh, mt u (A) dao ng, mt u (B) c nh. iu kin
c sng dng l chiu di ca dy
2

n l = ... 3 , 2 , 1 = n
n gi l s b sng, y gi thit hai u A, B l cc nt sng.

b/. Sng dng trn mt si dy mnh, u A dao ng; u E t do. iu kin sng dng l:
4
) 1 2 ( +
=
n
l ... 2 , 1 , 0 = n
Khong cch gia hai nt (hoc hai bng) lin tip l:
f
v
2
1
vT
2
1
2 / i = = =
Thng qua cng thc ny ta tm c f , T , v ,

B.Mt s dng bi tp thng gp
1. Vi mt ngun sng: thng phi tm T , , v v vit phng trnh sng.
V d (HQG HCM 2001). Mt dy n hi rt di c u A dao ng vi tn s f v theo
phng vung gc vi si dy. Bin dao ng l 4 cm, vn tc truyn sng trn dy l
4m/s. Xt mt im M trn dy cch A 28 cm, ta thy M lun dao ng lch pha vi A mt
gc 2 / ) 1 2 ( + = k vi ... 2 , 1 , 0 = k
a/ Tnh , bit tn s f c gi tr trong khong t 22 Hz n 26 Hz.
b/ Vit phng trnh dao ng ti im M, bit phng trnh dao ng ti A l:
) ( sin 4 cm t u
A
=
Gii:
a/ Tnh : Ta c
2
) 1 2 (
2

+ = = k
d

suy ra
2
1
v
df 2
2
1 d 2
k =

=
Vi Hz f 22 = th 58 , 2 = k ; vi Hz f 26 = th 14 , 3 = k . Do k l s nguyn suy ra k = 3.
T y tnh c cm 16 = .
b/ Vit phng trnh dao ng c dng:
|

\
|
=

d
t u
M
2
sin 4 . Ta c:
v
2 f 2 =

= = v

5 , 3
2
=
d
.
Suy ra ( ) 5 , 3 50 sin 4 = t u
M
cm t ) 2 / 50 sin( 4 + =
2. Giao thoa (vi hai ngun kt hp)
Cc thi thng yu cu:
- Vit phng trnh sng ti im M no c hai sng truyn ti.
- Tm s im nt v bng trn phng ni 2 ngun sng.
- Tm nhng im cng pha, ngc pha vi mt im c bit no , chng hn im
ngun, hoc trung im gia hai ngun.
VD:(H Kin trc 2001)
Hai ngun kt hp
1
S ,
2
S cch nhau 50 mm, dao ng theo phng trnh
) ( 200 sin mm t a u = trn cng mt thong ca thu ngn, coi bin khng i. Xt mt
pha ng trung trc ca
2 1
S S ta thy vn bc k i qua im M c hiu s
mm MS MS 12
2 1
= v vn bc 3 + k (cng loi vi k) i qua
'
M c
mm S M S M 36
2
'
1
'
= .
a) Tm v vn tc truyn sng trn mt thu ngn. Vn bc k l cc i hay cc tiu.
b)Xc nh s cc i trn ng ni
2 1
S S v v tr ca chng.
c)im gn nht dao ng cng pha vi ngun trn ng trung trc ca
2 1
S S cch ngun
1
S
bao nhiu?
Gii:
1. Tac: k mm d d d = = = 12
1 2
(1)
) 3 ( 36 '
'
1
'
2
+ = = = k mm d d d (2)
Suy ra mm 8 = v chu k s T 01 , 0
2
= =

.
Vn tc truyn sng s / m 8 , 0 ) s / m (
01 , 0
10 8
T
v
3
=

.
Thay vo (1) hoc (2), tm c 5 , 1 = k ; k l s bn nguyn nn vn bc k l cc tiu giao
thoa.
2. Gi M l im dao ng cc i trn ng
2 1
S S , cch
1
S mt on
1
d v cch
2
S mt
on
2
d . Ta c:
k d d =
2 1

) (
2 1 2 1
S S a d d = = +
Suy ra
2 2
1
k d
d + = . Mt khc a d < <
1
0

a
k
a
< <
Thay s ta c: 25 , 6 25 , 6 < < k . Do k l s nguyn, vy 6 ..., 1 , 0 = k . Vy c 13 im
dao ng cc i v cc im ny c to l: ) ( 4 25
1
mm k d + = .
3. Dao ng tng hp ti mt im M bt k c phng trnh l:
|

\
| +

) (
sin
) (
cos 2
2 1 1 2
d d
t
d d
a u
M

lch pha gia M v cc ngun l

) (
2 1
d d +
= . cng pha th k 2 = , t
suy ra k d d 2
2 1
= + .
Phng trnh trn chng t rng im M nm trn h ng elip c hai tiu im l
2 1
S , S .
Theo bi ra im M nm trn ng trung trc nn
2 1
d d = , suy ra k d =
1
.
Mt khc
2 1 2 1
S S d d + , nn mm
S S
d 25
2
2 1
1
=
T cc cng thc mm k d 25
1
= , ta c 125 , 3
25
=

k . Do k l s nguyn nn 4 k v
4
min
= k .
Vy im M nm trn ng trung trc gn vi cc ngun nht, dao ng cng pha vi cc
ngun ny, cch ngun
1
S mt khong l: mm k d 32 8 4
min min 1
= = = .
3. Sng dng. Thng qua sng dng ta c th tm c f V , , v chiu di ca dy.
V d 1(H Ngoi Thng HN 2000)
Mt sng dng trn mt si dy c dng
) 1 ( ) ( cos ) sin( cm t bx a u =
trong u l li dao ng ti thi im t ca mt phn t trn dy m v tr cn bng ca n
cch gc to O mt khong x (x o bng mt, t o bng giy).
Cho bit bc sng m 4 , 0 = ; tn s sng Hz f 50 = v bin dao ng ca mt phn t
M cch mt nt sng cm 5 c gi tr l mm 5 .
1. Xc nh a, b trong cng thc (1)
2. Tnh vn tc truyn sng trn dy
3. Tnh li u ca mt phn t N cch O mt khong cm ON 50 = ti thi im s t 25 , 0 =
4. Tnh vn tc dao ng ca phn t N ni cu trn thi im s t 25 , 0 = .
Gii:
1. Bin dao ng ) sin(bx a A =
Ti gc to O: 0 = x nn 0 = A , gc O l mt nt. Ti nhng im nt th 0 = A suy ra
k bx bx = = , 0 ) sin( hay v tr m nt ,...) 2 , 1 , 0 ( = = k
b
k
x
k

.
Khong cch hai nt lin tip 2 /
1

= = =
+
b
x x i
k k
, suy ra ) ( 5
4 , 0
2 2
1
= = = m b

Ti im M bin dao ng l ) sin(bx a A
M
=
mm
mm
a a mm 2 5
4 / sin
) ( 5
) 05 , 0 5 sin( ) ( 5 = = =

2. Vn tc truyn sng trn dy:
s / m 20 50 4 , 0 f v = = =
3. Biu thc ca mm ) t 100 cos( ) x 5 sin( 2 5 u = .
Ti im N cch O cm 50 v thi im s t 25 , 0 = th
mm u 2 5 ) 25 , 0 100 cos( ) 5 , 0 5 sin( 2 5 = =
4. Vn tc dao ng mm ) t 100 sin( ) x 5 sin( ) 100 ( 2 5
dt
du
V = = . Ti im N ni trn v
s t 25 , 0 = , ta c:
0 ) 25 sin( ) 5 , 2 sin( ) 100 ( 2 5 V = = .
V d 2. Mt si dy AB treo l lng, u A gn vo m thoa dao ng vi Hz 100 f = , u B
t do. Vn tc truyn sng trn dy s / m 4 v = .
1. Chiu di ca dy l 80 cm. Trn dy c sng dng khng?
2. Chiu di ca dy l 21 cm . Trn dy c sng dng khng? Nu c, tnh s bng v s nt
sng.
3. Chiu di ca dy l 21 cm. Hi tn s f bng bao nhiu trn dy c 8 bng sng.
4. Tn s vn l 100 Hz. Mun trn dy c 8 bng sng th chiu di ca dy bng bao nhiu?
Gii:
1. iu kin c sng dng
4
) 1 2 (

+ = n l . Vi cm 4
f
v
= = . Khi cm l 80 = th 80 1 2 = + n .
V n khng tho mn iu kin l s nguyn, nn trn dy khng c sng dng.
2. Khi cm l 21 = th 10 = n (l s nguyn). Vy tho mn iu kin c sng dng. Trn dy c:
11 bng v 11 nt (k c im A).
3. ch c 8 bng sng th 7 = n , bc sng l:
Hz 4 , 71 f
f 4
v 15
4
) 1 7 2 ( cm 21 =

+ =
4. Khi Hz f 100 = th vn l 4 cm. T iu kin tn ti sng dng, ta c:
cm cm n l 15 ) (
4
4
) 1 7 2 (
4
) 1 2 ( = + = + =

.

Ting Anh Vt l

Problem: A radio receiver is set up on the mast in the middle of a calm lake to track the
radio signal from a satellite orbiting the Earth. As the satellite rises above the horizon,
the intensity of the signal varies periodically. The intensity of the signal is at a
maximum when the satellite is
0
1
3 = above the horizon and then again at
0
2
6 =
above the horizon. What is the wavelength of the satellite signal? The receiver is h =
4.0m above the lake surface.

Solution: Distance from reflection point to top of mast =

h h
D =
sin
2
(for small
angles). Corresponding distance on direct path from source to receiver: sin
2 1
D D = .
But ) 2 2 / ( = , so ) 2 1 ( 2 cos
2
2 1

= =
h
D D (for small angles). The path
difference is then h D D 2
1 2
= .

As the satellite rises from 3 to 6 degrees above the horizon, that path difference changes
by one wavelength, so . 42 . 0 ) 180 / )( 3 6 ( 2 m h = =

T mi:
in the middle - gia
signal - tn hiu (radio signal - tn hiu v tuyn)
mast - cc, ct bum
(to) orbit - quay quanh (orbiting the Earth - quay quanh Tri t)
satellite - v tinh
intensity - cng
(to) vary - bin thin
periodically - (mt cch) tun hon; (period - chu k)
maximum - cc i
horizon - ng chn tri
wavelength - bc sng
surface - mt, b mt
distance - khong cch
reflection - phn x (reflection point - im phn x)
corresponding - tng ng
path - ng i
source - ngun
angle - gc (small angle - gc nh)
degree - (gc)
difference - hiu (path difference - hiu ng i).
Lm quen vi vt l hin i

Tnh i xng ca cc nh lut vt l
Richard Feynman

i vi con ngi c l s i xng c sc hp dn rt c bit. Chng ta thch nhn
nhng biu hin i xng trong t nhin , nhn cc hnh tinh v Mt Tri c dng hnh
cu i xng mt cch l tng, nhn cc tinh th i xng, nhn cc hoa tuyt v c
nhng bng hoa gn nh i xng. Song by gi ti mun ni khng phi v s i
xng ca cc vt m v tnh i xng ca chnh cc nh lut vt l. Th no l mt vt
i xng, iu d hiu; nhng mt nh lut vt l c th l i xng chng? R
rng l khng, nhng cc nh vt l li rt t mn l h ly nhng t rt thng
thng ch nhng khi nim hon ton khc. Trong trng hp ca chng ta, mt
vi tnh cht ca cc nh lut vt l biu hin rt ging vi nhng tnh cht ca mt s
vt i xng do h ni ti tnh i xng ca cc nh lut vt l. Chnh iu
chng ta mun ni ti y.
i xng l g? Hy nhn vo ngi ti, bn s thy na bn tri ngi ti i xng vi
na bn phi, t nht l hnh dng b ngoi. Mt l hoa cng c tnh i xng ng
nh vy, hoc ch hi khc mt cht. Tt c iu c ngha l th no? Thn hnh ca
ti i xng c ngha l nu chuyn mt na ngi bn tri sang bn phi v ngc li,
tc i ch hai na ngi cho nhau, th bn s thy ti ging ht nh trc. Hnh
vung c mt dng i xng c bit: Quay n i 90
0
th n li ging nguyn nh c.
Nh ton hc ni ting Hermann Weyl ngh mt nh ngha rt hon ho v tnh
i xng, theo nh ngha ny mt vt c gi l i xng nu nh sau khi bin i
n nh th no th ta li c kt qu ging nh ban u. Ta ni v tnh i xng
ca cc nh lut vt l chnh vi ngha nh vy. Trong trng hp chng ta cn ch
rng c th bin i cc nh lut vt l hoc cc cch biu din ca chng th no
tu nhng khng c lm nh hng ti cc quan h ca chng. Trong bi ging
ny, chng ta cp ti tnh cht ca cc nh lut vt l.
Th d n gin nht v loi i xng nh vy - v bn s hiu ngay rng n hon ton
khng phi l i xng bn phi vi bn tri - c th chn s i xng vi s dch
chuyn khng gian. Ni dung n nh sau. Nu ta lp mt my bt k v dng n
tin hnh mt th nghim no , v sau em lp cng ng ci my nh th, lm
mt th nghim ng nh th, vi i tng nghin cu ng nh c, nhng mt ch
khc, khng phi y na m ch kia, ngha l ch n gin chuyn th nghim ca
chng ta ti mt im khc ca khng gian, th iu xy ra theo thi gian ca hai th
nghim hon ton nh nhau. D nhin khng nn hiu mt cch qu n gin iu
khng nh . Nu ti dng y, ti ch ti ang ngi ny, mt thit b no , v
sau c gng chuyn n i 6 m v bn tri, th n s chui vo tng v ko theo bao
nhiu hu qu. V th, ni ti i xng i vi cc php dch chuyn khng gian ta
phi k ti tt c nhng g nh hng ti th nghim v chuyn tt c nhng ci i
cng vi thit b. Th d, ta hy ly mt h con lc no v th chuyn n i 20
nghn dm v bn phi. R rng l n s hot ng khng ng nh trc c, bi v
con lc cn ti lc ht ca Qu t. Nhng tng tng nu ta dch chuyn c hnh
tinh ca chng ta cng vi thit b, th h s hot ng y nh trc. Vn l nh vy:
cn phi dch chuyn cng mt lc tt c nhng g nh hng - d l rt t - ti th
nghim. Quy tc y thy nh l v vn. Tht vy, c th di chuyn mt cch n gin
thit b th nghim, v n nu khng hot ng th bo rng chng ta chuyn ti cha
y tt c, - nh th th trong trng hp no anh cng ng. Nhng thc ra khng
phi nh vy, bi v khng nht thit rng chng ta ng. Tnh cht hay nht ca t
nhin chnh l ch bao gi cng c th chuyn mt s vt liu cho thit b hot
ng ging nh trc. V iu khng phi l nhng li l trng rng.
Ti mun chng minh bng mt th d rng iu khng nh ng. minh ho, ta
hy ly nh lut vn vt hp dn, n khng nh rng lc tng tc ca hai vt t l
nghch vi bnh phng khong cch gia chng. Chng ta nhc li rng di tc dng
ca lc, vn tc ca vt bin thin theo hng ca lc y. By gi ta hy ly hai vt,
chng hn nh mt hnh tinh quay quanh Mt Tri v chuyn c cp ti mt vng
khc ca V tr. Khong cch gia chng d nhin l khng thay i v do lc
tng tc gia chng cng khng thay i. Ngoi ra, trong tnh hung mi, vn tc
chuyn ng cng nh t l cc bin thin xy ra vn gi nguyn, v trong h ny
tt c u xy ra hon ton ging nh trong h ka. Trong nh lut vn vt hp dn
dng khi nim khong cch gia hai vt ch khng dng khong cch no ti
tm ca V tr; iu cng cho thy rng nh lut tha nhn nhng s chuyn
dch trong khng gian.
l ni dung ca mt trong cc tnh i xng ca cc nh lut vt l - tnh i xng
i vi s chuyn dch trong khng gian. Mt tnh i xng khc khng km phn
quan trng c lin quan ti s kin: Cc nh lut vt l khng thay i khi dch
chuyn thi gian. Ta hy phng mt hnh tinh quanh Mt Tri, theo mt hng xc
nh. V gi s ta c th phng n mt ln na sau hai gi hoc hai nm sau, v trong
ln th hai ny, cch phng t im xut pht cng nh v tr tng i ca hnh tinh
v Mt Tri lc bt u phng, hon ton ging nh ln trc. By gi, tt c s xy ra
hon ton ng nh trong ln phng trc, bi v nh lut vn vt hp dn ni v vn
tc v khng u dng ti khi nim thi gian tuyt i m ta phi bt u o t mt
thi im xc nh no ca thi gian tuyt i y. Thc lng m ni, chnh trong th
d c th ny, chng ta cng khng tin lm nhng khng nh c th ca chng ta l
ng. Trc y, khi ni v cc nh lut hp dn, chng ta c nhn xt v kh nng
bin thin ca cc lc hp dn theo thi gian. V iu c ngha l gi thit v tnh
i xng ca cc nh lut vt l i vi s dch chuyn trong thi gian l khng ng.
Tht vy, nu sau mt t nm hng s hp dn b hn by gi, m khng nh rng khi
y chuyn ng ca hnh tinh v Mt Tri th nghim ca chng ta cng hon ton
ging nh hin nay, th s khng ng. Nhng trong chng mc chng ta bit ngy
nay ( y ti ni cc nh lut vt l di dng hin nay chng ta bit - mc d ti
khng ph nhn kh nng c th trnh by chng theo quan im ngy mai), th s
dch chuyn thi gian khng c mt ngha no c.
Trong mt phm vi khc, chng ta bit l s tht khng phi th. iu ch ng i
vi cc nh lut vt l. Nhng cc s kin (m chng c th rt xa l vi nhng nh
lut chng ta bit) ni ln rng hin nay V tr khng ngng n ra. Ngi ta c th
bo, y chng ta cng phi nu li cc iu kin a l - nh trong trng hp cc
dch chuyn khng gian, ngha l ta phi chuyn di tt c nhng ci khc ch khng
ring g thit b. Vi ngha nh vy, c th khng nh rng, i vi s dch chuyn
thi gian cng phi c mt quy tc tng t v chng ta phi chuyn di trong thi
gian c qu trnh n ra ca V tr cng vi tt c nhng ci cn li. Nhng chng ta
khng th c mt tc ng no ti qu trnh ; ngay c bng phng php thc
nghim, chng ta cng khng th no c c mt hnh nh no v n. Do , chng
ta khng th c kin g v vn , bi v ta ang ni ti khoa hc chnh xc. Ni
mt cch n gin, vn l cc iu kin tn ti ca V tr hnh nh bin i theo
thi gian v cc thin h khng ngng i ra xa nhau; nu theo mt cu chuyn khoa
hc hoang ng no , bn bng tnh dy vo mt thi im tng lai cha bit, th
by gi, o khong cch trung bnh gia cc thin h, bn s c th bit khong thi
gian tri qua . iu c ngha rng thi gian tri i th V tr s khng nh
chng ta thy n by gi na.
Nhng ngy nay ngi ta tho thun vi nhau phi vch mt ng ranh gii mt bn
l cc nh lut vt l, chng cho bit chuyn ng s nh th no nu n bt u bng
nhng s kin xc nh no , v mt bn khc l cc khng nh V tr chng ta
sinh ra nh th no, bi v v iu sau chng ta ang bit rt t. Thng ngi ta cho
rng lch s thin th hay l tinh nguyn hc hon ton khng phi nh l cc nh lut
vt l. S tht nu bn hi ti, s khc nhau nh th no, th bn s t ti vo
mt tnh hung kh x. Nt c trng r nht ca nh lut vt l l tnh tng qut ca
n, nhng nu trn i ny cn tn ti mt ci g tng qut hn na, th l s kin
i ra xa dn ln nhau ca cc thin th. V vy, ti khng bit chnh xc s khc nhau
u. Nu tho thun vi nhau rng, khng cn quan tm ti cc qu trnh lin h ti
s pht sinh ca V tr, m ch ly cc nh lut vt l thc s chng ta bit th s
chuyn dch thi gian khng c mt vai tr no c.
Hy thm vi v d v tnh i xng ca cc nh lut. Mt tnh i xng na, lin
quan ti php quay trong khng gian. Nu lm mt th nghim no vi mt thit b
t ti mt im xc nh, v sau ly mt thit b khc ging ht nh vy (c th
a ti mt im khc ca khng gian cho thoi mi hn ) v quay n, th no tt
c cc trc ca n c mt hng khc, th thit b s hot ng hon ton ging trc.
D nhin lc by gi chng ta cng phi quay tt c nhng g khc c nh hng ti th
nghim. Nu thit b l ci ng h c ngy xa m chng ta em lt nm ngang, th
con lc ca n vng vo thnh hp. Nhng nu cng vi ng h quay c Qu t
(Qu t cng lun lun quay nh th !), th by gi ng h s chy nh c.
S biu din ton hc ca php quay khng gian rt l th. biu din mt qu trnh
no xy ra nh th no, chng ta s dng nhng s, ch v tr ch ang xt. Cc s
y gi l to ca im, v c lc chng ta phi ly ba s: chng cho bit im cao
bao nhiu trn mt mt phng no , n xa bao nhiu v pha trc hoc pha sau
(nu s l m) v n cch bao nhiu v bn phi hoc v bn tri chng ta. V mt
ton hc, s quay trong khng gian c biu din nh sau. Nu ti ch v tr ca mt
im no (hnh v) bng cc to x v y, v mt ngi no khc quay mt sang
mt bn cho bit to ca im y l ' x v ' y theo cch nhn ca h, th c th thy
r rng rng to x ca ti l mt hn hp hai to ngi quan st kia tnh.
Cng thc bin i cho thy mi mt to x v y bin thnh mt hn hp hai to
' x v ' y .

a) V tr im P i vi ti c c c trng bi hai s x v y; s x ch im
P pha trc mt ti xa bao nhiu v s y ch n cch ti v bn tri bao
nhiu.
b) V tr cng ca im P y c c trng bi hai s khc, ' x v ' y , nu ti
vn ng ch c nhng quay ngi sang mt bn.

y cc nh lut ca t nhin phi th no trn ln cc to theo cch nh vy v
a cc biu thc c c vo cc phng trnh, th cc phng trnh ny s gi
nguyn dng ca n. Biu hin ton hc ca tnh i xng nu l nh th. Bn vit
cc phng trnh vi nhng k hiu xc nh, sau tm phng php thay cc k hiu
x v y bng cc k hiu mi, ' x v ' y , mi mt k hiu mi lin h vi hai k hiu c x
v y bng mt cng thc xc nh, sau khi thay th nh vy th cc phng trnh mi s
c dng hon ton ging nh c, ch khc l ch x v y by gi c thm du phy.
Suy cho n cng th iu c ngha l ngi quan st kia s nhn thy trong my ca
h hon ton ng nhng g m ti nhn thy trong my ca mnh, mc d n quay.
Ti xin dn thm mt th d rt l th v nh lut i xng. N lin quan ti chuyn
ng u theo ng thng. Ngi ta cho rng cc nh lut vt l khng thay i
trong chuyn ng thng u. Khng nh c tn l nguyn l tng i. Ta hy ly
mt con tu v tr, trong c mt ci my no c mt chc nng nht nh, v ly
mt ci my khc hon ton ging nh vy nhng t y, mt t. By gi nu
con tu chuyn ng vi vn tc khng i th ngi quan st trong con tu theo di
hot ng ca my s khng thy c my may g khc so vi nhng iu ti thy trong
my ng yn ca mnh mt t. D nhin nu ngi quan st chuyn ng m nhn
qua ca s hoc qua mt chng ngi vt no , th y li l mt vn khc. Ngoi
ra, khi h chuyn ng vi vn tc khng i theo ng thng, h s thy cc nh
lut vt l biu hin hon ton ging nh ti. M mt khi s vic nh vy, th ti
khng th quyt on ai trong hai chng ti l ang chuyn ng.
Trc khi i xa hn na, ti mun nhn mnh rng trong tt c cc php bin i v
nh lut i xng y, chng ta khng ni ti s dch chuyn ca ton b V tr. Trong
trng hp dch chuyn thi gian, ni ti s dch chuyn nh vy ca mi qu trnh
trong V tr th c ngha l khng ni g c. Cng ging nh vy, khi ni rng: nu ta
c th chuyn di ton b V tr ca chng ta ti mt ch khc trong khng gian, th
tt c chng c g thay i, iu khng nh khng mang mt ni dung hp l no.
iu rt hay trong tt c cc nh lut y l: nu ly mt ci my no , a n ti
mt ch khc, kim tra thy cc iu kin u thc hin v chuyn ti ch s
thit b b sung, th nh vy l chng ta tch c mt phn ca V tr, dch
chuyn n so vi b phn cn li, v iu khng nh hng g ti hin tng quan
st, tt c u nh c. Trong trng hp ca nguyn l tng i, iu c ngha l
ai bay trong V tr theo ng thng v vi vn tc khng i i vi v tr trung bnh
ca V tr chng ta, ngi y s khng nhn thy mt du hiu no chng t l mnh
ang chuyn ng. Ni cch khc, cc th nghim tin hnh bn trong vt chuyn
ng, loi tr vic nhn qua ca s, s khng cho mt du hiu no kt lun c
chng ta ang chuyn ng hay khng chuyn ng so vi tt c cc v sao nhn trong
ton b ca chng.
Khng nh c Newton nu ln u tin. Ta hy xt nh lut vn vt hp dn ca
ng. ng khng nh rng lc tng tc gia cc khi lng t l nghch vi bnh
phng khong cch gia chng v mi lc gy ra mt bin thin vn tc. By gi gi
s ti dng c mt thuyt v chuyn ng ca hnh tinh, quay quanh Mt Tri
ng yn, v ti mun ni r iu g xy ra vi hnh tinh, quay quanh Mt Tri ang
chuyn ng. Trong trng hp sau, tt c cc vn tc u khc vi vn tc quan st
thy trong trng hp trc: cn phi cng thm mt vn tc khng i no vo
nhng tr vn tc c. Nhng nh lut ca chng ta ch cha khng nh v bin
thin vn tc; v v vy trn thc t lc tc dng ln hnh tinh ca Mt Tri ng yn
cng ng bng lc tc dng ln hnh tinh ca Mt Tri chuyn ng, v, do cc
bin thin vn tc ca hai hnh tinh l nh nhau. V th vn tc ph thm trong trng
hp sau vn gi nguyn gi tr ca n m khng chu mt s bin thin no. Kt qu
cui cng ca nhng suy lun ton hc y cho thy rng, nu thm vo tt c cc vt
mt vn tc khng i, th chng s hon ton tun theo nhng nh lut nh trc. V
vy nghin cu H Mt tri v qu o chuyn ng ca cc hnh tinh quanh Mt
Tri, chng ta khng th gii quyt c vn Mt Tri ng yn hay n ang
chuyn ng i vi V tr chng ta. Ph hp vi nh lut Newton, mt chuyn ng
nh vy ca Mt Tri s khng c nh hng no ti chuyn ng ca cc hnh tinh
xung quanh n. V th Newton thm: chuyn ng tng i ca cc vt vi nhau
trong khng gian s gi nguyn v khng ph thuc vo iu l khng gian y ng
yn hay chuyn ng theo ng thng vi vn tc khng i so vi cc v sao.

(K sau ng tip)