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tm hiu su thm vt l s cp

Cc nh lut bo ton trong bi ton va chm Cc nh lut bo ton trong bi ton va chm Cc nh lut bo ton trong bi ton va chm Cc nh lut bo ton trong bi ton va chm

Trong vt l, va chm c hiu l mt qu trnh tng tc trong khong thi gian ngn gia cc
vt theo ngha rng ca t ny, khng nht thit cc vt phi tip xc trc tip vi nhau. Khi ang cch xa
nhau mt khong ln cc vt l t do. Khi i n gn ngang qua nhau, cc vt tng tc vi nhau dn n
c th xy ra nhng qu trnh khc nhau: cc vt chp li vi nhau thnh mt vt, to thnh cc vt mi,
hoc n gin ch thay i hng v ln ca vn tc,.. Cng c th xy ra va chm n hi v va chm
khng n hi. Trong va chm n hi cc vt sau khi tng tc nhau s bay ra xa nhau m khng c bt
k thay i no v ni nng, cn trong va chm khng n hi th trng thi bn trong cc vt sau va chm
s b thay i.
Trong thc t, mc no va chm xy ra gia cc vt thng l va chm khng n hi v
bao gi cc vt cng b nng ln do mt phn ng nng chuyn thnh ni nng. Tuy nhin trong vt l
th khi nim v va chm n hi li ng vai tr quan trng, c bit l trong nhng th nghim v cc hin
tng nguyn t.
Di y chng ta s xt mt s bi ton c th.
Bi ton 1. Mt proton khi bay ngang qua mt ht nhn ca nguyn t no ang ng yn b lch i mt
gc (vi ) 15 / 4 cos = , cn gi tr vn tc ca n gim i 10% (xem hnh v). Hy xc nh s khi ca
ht nhn nguyn t .








Gii: Tng tc gia cc ht y l n hi, v vy ng lng v ng nng ca h c bo ton:
, v M v m v m
2 1

+ = (1)
2
Mv
2
mv
2
mv
2
2
2
2
1
+ = (2)
y M v v l khi lng v vn tc ca ht nhn. T nh lut bo ton ng lng v nh l hm s
cosin ta c:
+ = cos v v m 2 ) mv ( ) mv ( ) Mv (
2 1
2 2
2
2
1
2
(3)
T (2) v (3) chng ta tm c s khi A:
, 7
k 1
cos k 2 k 1
m
M
A
2
2
=

+
= = y 9 , 0
v
v
k
2
1
= =
Vy proton tn x vi ht nhn liti.
Bi ton 2. Ht anpha tn x n hi trn ht nhn hyr (lc u ng yn). Gc tn x cc i bng
bao nhiu? bit khi lng ca hyd nh hn ca ht bn ln.
m
v
1
m

v
2
M
Gii: Chng ta c th gii bi ton ny theo hai cch.
Cch th nht:
Chng ta hy phn tch va chm n hi trong h quy chiu
phng th nghim (ng yn). K hiu:
1
m l khi lng ht , v

l
vn tc ca n trc va chm,
2
m l khi lng ca nguyn t
hir,
1
v

v
2
v

tng ng l vn tc ca ht v ca nguyn t
hir sau va chm. V va chm l n hi nn p dng c nh lut
bo ton ng lng v bo ton ng nng

:
+ = cos v m cos v m v m
2 2 1 1 1

= sin v m sin v m
2 2 1 1

2
v m
2
v m
2
v m
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
1
+ =
Kh v
2
v trong cc h thc ny, chng ta s nhn c phng trnh bc hai i vi
1
v
0 v ) m m ( v . cos v m 2 v ) m m (
2
2 1 1 1
2
1 2 1
= + +
Nghim ca phng trnh ny l thc khi
1 2
m / m sin . Gc cc i tho mn iu kin ny ng vi
du bng v chnh l gc cn tm. Vy:
rad 25 , 0
m
m
arcsin
1
2
= = .
Chng ta thy rng tn x vi gc lch cc i ch c th xy ra vi iu kin khi lng ht ti phi ln hn
khi lng ht ng yn.
Cch th hai:
Ni chung, kho st bi ton va chm trong h khi tm ca cc ht va chm l d dng hn.
Trong h ny vect ng lng tng cng ca h lun bng khng. vn tc khi tm ca h bng:
2 1
1
m m
v m
V
+
=


Trc va chm ng lng ca ht
1
m bng
( ) ,
m m
v m m
V v m p
2 1
2 1
1
+
= =


cn ng lng ca ht
2
m bng p

.
Vi va chm n hi th ng lng v ng nng ca h cc vt tng tc c bo ton. V vy nu k
hiu ng lng ca ht th nht sau va chm l
*
p

, th ng lng ca ht th hai s l
*
p

.
T nh lut bo ton nng lng c vit di dng:

|
|

\
|
+ =
|
|

\
|
+
2 1
2
*
2 1
2
m
1
m
1
p
m
1
m
1
p
chng ta tm c
*
p p =
Nh vy vect ng lng (v do vc t vn tc) ca ht ch quay i mt gc no y m vn gi
nguyn gi tr. Gc quay ph thuc vo c im c th ca tng tc v v tr tng i gia cc vt va
chm.
Khi chuyn sang h quy chiu phng th nghim ta dng quy tc cng vn tc.Theo quy tc ny vn tc ca
ht ti sau va chm bng
2 2
v m


1 1
v m
v m
1





* 1 1
v V v

+ = ,
y
* 1
v

l vn tc ca n trong h khi tm. Trn hnh bn V l vn tc khi tm ca h, v l vn tc ht


ti trc khi va chm. i lng
2 1
2
* 1
m m
v m
v
+
= xc nh bn knh ca vng trn m vect
1
v

kt thc trn
. T hnh v suy ra rng trong trng hp
2 1
m m > gc gia cc vect vn tc v

v
1
v

ca ht ti trc
v sau va chm khng th vt qu gi tr cc i , khi
1
v

tip tuyn vi ng trn, tc l


rad 25 , 0
m
m
V
v
arcsin
1
2 * 1
= = .
Bi ton 3. Phn ng ht nhn nhn to u tin do Rutherford thc hin nm 1919
p O He N
17 4 14
+ + l phn ng thu nng lng bng Q = 1,13Mev. Tnh ng nng ngng cn
truyn cho ht trong h phng th nghim khi bn ph vo ht nhn bia nit ng yn th phn ng
c th xy ra.
Gii: Trc khi gii bi ton ny chng ta hy tm mi lin h gia cc ng nng
k
E v
* k
E ca mt h
cht im trong h phng th nghim v trong h khi tm. Theo cng thc cng vn tc th i vi cht
im th i ca h ta c
* i i
v V v

+ = , y V

l vn tc khi tm ca h. Khi ng nng ca h trong


h phng th nghim bng:
=
+
= =

2
) v V ( m
2
v m
E
2
* i i
2
i i
k


+ +
* i i
2
* i i
2
i
v m V
2
v m
2
V m


Tng
* i i
v m

= 0, do vn tc khi tm trong h khi tm th phi bng khng. Nh vy:

* k
2
k
E
2
MV
E + = . y

=
i
m M
Vy ng nng ca h trong h phng th nghim bng ng nng ca h trong h khi tm cng vi
2
MV
2
.
By gi ta s bt tay vo vic gii Bi ton 3. K hiu ng lng ca ht trc khi va chm l
0
p

. ng nng khi tm ca h
ng
N He
He
N He
2
0
2
E
m m
m
) m m ( 2
p
2
MV
+
=
+
=
khng thay i trong qu trnh phn ng, v ng lng ca mt h kn c bo ton v do nng lng
ny khng gp phn vo cc bin i ht nhn. Nh vy nng lng ngng phi tho mn iu kin:

ng
N He
He
ng
E
m m
m
Q E
+
+ =
* 1
v
V

v
1
v
T
MeV 45 , 1 Q
m
m m
E
N
N He
ng
=
+
=
Nh vy, chng ta nhn thy rng ng nng ht ti nh nht khi cc ht to thnh sau phn ng ng yn
trong h khi tm.
Bi ton 4. Nguyn t hir trng thi c bn, ng yn hp th mt photon. Kt qu l nguyn t
chuyn sang trng thi kch thch v bt u chuyn ng. Hy tnh gi tr vn tc v ca nguyn t hir.
Cho nng lng kch thch ca nguyn t hir J 10 . 63 , 1 E
18
12

= . Nng lng ngh ca hir


J 10 . 49 , 1 mc
10 2
= .
Gii:
Cch 1: T nh lut bo ton nng lng:

2
mv
E
hc
2
12
+ =


v nh lut bo ton ng lng:
mv
h
=


s tnh c vn tc v (loi nghim v>c):
2
12
2
12
mc
E
c
mc
E 2
1 1 c v =
|
|

\
|
= ,
y chng ta s dng gn ng
2
12
2
12
mc
E
1
mc
E 2
1 do nng lng kch thich
12
E nh hn rt
nhiu so vi nng lng ngh
2
mc . iu ny cng cho thy khi gii bi ton ta ch cn s dng php gn
ng phi tng i tnh.
Cch 2: S dng cng thc tng i tnh cho cc nh lut bo ton nng lng v ng lng ta c:
2
2
2
2
c
v
1
mc hc
mc

+ v
2
2
c
v
1
mv h

.
Chia h thc th hai cho h thc th nht, ta c :
+

=
/ hc mc
/ hc
c v
2
. V nng lng ca photon b hp
th nh hn nhiu nng lng ngh ca nguyn t nn mt cch gn ng ta c:
2
12
2
mc
E
c
mc
/ hc
c v =



Bi ton 5. Mt nguyn t hir trng thi c bn bay n va chm vi mt nguyn t hir khc cng
trng thi c bn v ng yn. ng nng ca hir ti nh nht phi bng bao nhiu khi va chm pht
ra mt photon. Nng lng ion ho ca nguyn t hir l 13,6eV.
Gii: y l mt bi ton va chm khng n hi. Nguyn t hir ti s truyn mt nng lng ln nht c
th ion ho khi c hai nguyn t sau va chm ng yn trong h khi tm. ng nng ca khi tm
bng:

2
E
m 4
p
) m m ( 2
p
ng
p
2
1 1
2
= =
+
,
y
p
m l khi lng proton, cn
ng
E l nng lng ngng ca phn ng. Nng lng ngng khng
thay i. Photon mang nng lng nh nht nu electron trong nguyn t chuyn t mc c bn ln mc
kch thch th nht. Mun vy nguyn t phi hp th mt nng lng

2
E
hR
4
3
)
4
1
1
1
( hR h
ng
12
= = = ,
y R l hng s Rydberg. Khi ion ho, electron chuyn t mc c bn ln mc v cng, nng lng ion
ho bng . hR E
i
= T ta tm c
eV 4 , 20 E
2
3
E
i ng
= =
Bi ton 6. Mt photon Rnghen va chm vi electron ng yn v b phn x theo hng ngc li. Hy
tm bin thin ca bc sng photon do tn x.
Gii: Vi nng lng hng ngn electron-vn th ta phi tnh n hiu ng tng i tnh. nh lut bo
ton nng lng v ng lng c dng:

2
2
2
2
0
c
v
1
mc hc
mc
hc

= +

v
2
2
0
c
v
1
mv h h

,
y m l khi lng electron,
0
v l bc sng ca photon trc v sau tn x. T h hai phng
trnh ny d dng rt ra c :
m 10 . 84 , 4
mc
h
2
12
0

= = =
Nh vy bc sng ca photon tng. Kt qu ny hon ton ph hp s liu thc nghim.
Bi tp
1. Ht nhn liti b kch thch bi chm proton bn vo bia liti ng yn. Khi xy ra phn ng

* 7 7
Li p Li p + +
Tm t s gia nng lng ca photon ti v nng lng kch thch ca liti xut hin cc photon tn x
theo hng ngc vi cc photon ti.
2. Mt electron bay n va chm vi mt nguyn t hydr trng thi c bn, ng yn. Tnh nng lng
ngng
ng
E ca electron ti khi va chm pht ra photon. Nng lng ion ho nguyn t hydr l 13,6
eV.
3. Photon Rnghen va chm vi mt electron ng yn v phn x theo hng vung gc. Hy tim tng
bc sng ca photon do tn x.
Phm T (Su tm v gii thiu)

Cu hi trc nghim

T TT Trung hc c s rung hc c s rung hc c s rung hc c s

TNCS1/8. Ch ra kt lun sai trong cc kt lun sau y:
A. Trng lng ca mt vt l lc ht ca tri t tc dng ln vt .
B. Trng lng ca mt vt gim khi a vt ln cao hoc a vt t cc Bc tr v xch o.
C. Trng lng c phng thng ng v c chiu hng v pha tri t.
D. Trn Mt Trng, nh du hnh v tr c th nhy ln rt cao so vi khi nhy Tri t v khi lng
v trng lng ca nh du hnh gim.

TNCS2/8. Trong cc trng hp sau, trng hp no khng xut hin lc n hi.
A. Qu bng bn ny ln khi ri xung bn bng.
B. Lp xe t khi xe ang chy.
C. Mt bn g khi t qu t.
D. o len co li khi git bng nc nng.

TNCS3/8. Hy ch ra nhng kt lun ng, sai trong cc kt lun sau:
A. Lc k dng o lc.
B. C th dng lc k o khi lng ca vt.
C. Dng cn ng h o khi lng ca mt vt Tri t v Mt Trng ta c cng kt qu.
D. Khi o lc phi t lc k theo phng thng ng.

TNCS4/8. Ch ra kt lun ng trong cc kt lun sau:
A. Khi lng ring ca mt cht ph thuc vo ni xc nh khi lng ca cht .
B. Ti mt v tr, trng lng ring t l thun vi khi lng ring.
C. Mt na lt du c khi lng l 0,4 kg. Trng lng ring ca du l
3
8000 m / kg .
D. C th dng bnh chia v lc k xc nh trng lng ring ca g.

TNCS5/8. Mt l xo c chiu di t nhin l 20 cm. Khi treo 3 qu nng, mi qu 50 g th chiu di ca l
xo l 25 cm v l xo bin dng n hi. Nu dng tay ko l xo trn di 22 cm th lc n hi ca l xo
tc dng vo tay l bao nhiu ?
A. 0,2N ; B. 0,44N ; C. 0,6 N ; D. 1,32N.
Chn kt qu ng.

Trung hc Trung hc Trung hc Trung hc ph thng ph thng ph thng ph thng

TN1/8. Mt im sng S nm trn trc chnh ca mt gng cu lm G. nh ca S to bi gng G trng
vi S. By gi t mt bn thu tinh mng hnh ch nht, c dy e, chit sut n gia gng G v im
sng S. cho nh ca S li trng vi S th phi dch gng:
A) v pha S on (n-1) e
B) ra xa S on (n-1) e
C) v pha S on (1-1/n) e
D) ra xa S on (1-1/n) e
TN2/8. Mt thu knh hi t to ra mt nh tht A trn trc chnh ca n. By gi t mt bn thu tinh
mng hnh ch nht, c dy e, chit sut n gia thu knh v A th A s dch chuyn:
A) ra xa thu knh on (n-1) e
B) v pha thu knh on (n-1) e
C) ra xa thu knh on (1-1/n) e
D) v pha thu knh on (1-1/n) e

TN3/8
*
Mt khi cu trong sut, bn knh R, chit sut n t trong khng kh. Hi phi t mt ngun sng
im cch b mt ca khi cu mt khong bao nhiu nh ca n to bi khi cu cch mt khi cu
mt khong nh vy?
A) R/n ; B) Rn ; C) R/(n-1); D) R/(n+1).

TN4/8* Mt tia sng truyn t mi trng chit quang hn sang mi trng km chit quang hn. Gc gii
hn phn x ton phn l C. lch ln nht ca tia ti v tia i ra khi mt phn cch gia hai mi trng:
A) -C ; B) -2C; C) 2C; D) /2+C.

TN5/8 Mt thu knh hi t c tiu c 40cm, mt thu knh phn k tiu c -40cm v mt thu knh phn k
tiu c -15cm c ghp st nhau. t ca h s l:
A) +1,5; B) -1,5; C) +6,67; D) -6,67.

Ch Ch Ch Ch : : : : Hn cui cng nhn p n l 10/6/2004

Gip bn t n thi i hc

P N TU N LUYN S 1
(Xem VL&TT s 6 thng 2 nm 2004)

Cu 1. 1) Nu vt dao ng iu ho (con lc l xo, con lc n dao ng nh khi 0 =
ms
F ) th:
) sin( ) ( + = t A t x
) cos( ' ) ( + = = t A x t V
Th nng ) ( sin ) sin(
2 2
2
2
2
+ = + = = t E t
kA
x
k
W
t

ng nng ) t ( cos E ) t ( cos
2
A m
V
2
m
W
2 2
2 2
2
d
+ = +

= =
Nh vy, ng nng v th nng u ph thuc t, nhng tng
t d
W W + th bo ton:
[ ]
2 2
) ( sin ) ( cos
2 2 2
2 2
A m kA
E t t E W W
t d

= = = + + + = +
ng nng
d
W v th nng
t
W l cc i lng dao ng iu ho theo t vi 2 ' = ) 2 / (
'
T T = :
[ ] ) 2 t 2 cos( 1
2
E
) t ( cos E W
2
d
+ + = + =
[ ] ) 2 t 2 cos( 1
2
E
) t ( sin E W
2
t
+ = + =
2) a) Khi vt cn bng th:
) (
3
10
sin
1 2 2 1 1
cm l mg l k l k = = = ; ) (
3
5
2
cm l = .
b) H hai l xo ni tip c cng tng ng:
) / ( 20
1 1 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
m N
k k
k k
k
k k k
=
+
= + = .
Tn s gc ca dao ng nh l:
) / ( 10
2 , 0
20
s rad
m
k
= = = .
Biu thc dao ng: ) sin( ) ( + = t A t x vi A v xc nh theo v tr v vn tc ban u:

>
= =

)
`

=
=
0 sin
3
1
cos
sin
0
0
0
0

V
x
tg
V A
x A

=
=

6 /
) ( 4

cm A

Vy: ) (
3
10 sin 4 ) ( cm t t x |

\
|
+ =


Khi m v tr thp nht ) 4 ( cm x = th hai l xo gin nhiu nht: ) ( 9 5 4 ) ( ) (
max 2 max 1
cm l l = + = +
Lu 2
1
2
2
1
= =

k
k
l
l
, ta c ) ( 03 , 0 ) ( 3 ) (
max 2
m cm l = =
Vy lc ko cc i tc dng vo A l:
) ( 8 , 1 ) (
max 2 2 max
N l k F = =
Khi m v tr cao nht ) 4 ( cm x = th hai l xo gin t nht: ) ( 1 4 5 ) ( ) (
min 2 min 1
cm l l = = +
Suy ra : ) (
300
1
3
1
) (
min 2
m cm l = =
) ( 2 , 0 ) ( ) (
min 2 2 min 2
N l k F = =

Cu 2. 1) Nguyn tc hot ng ca my pht in xoay chiu 3 pha v ng c khng ng b 3 pha:
xem SGK Vt l lp 12.
2) Bi ton in.



N

V
2
u o
o
U
1
U
2
A

R

C

L

B

V
1
V
2






a) Gin vc t











b) Tnh cos , R, L, C.
Theo gin ta c:
2
1 2
2
2
2
sin 2 U UU U U = +
T ) 0 (
3
1
sin < =

3
2
cos = . T tnh c:
) ( 2
cos
A
U
P
I = =

; ) ( 2 50
2
= =
I
P
R
) (
2
1
) ( 50
2
H
Z
L
I
U
Z
L
L

= = = =
) ( 100 ) ( 6 50
2 2 1
= = = = R Z Z
I
U
Z
RC C RC

) (
10
4
F C

=
c) Vit cc biu thc ) (t i , ) (
1
t u u
AN
= , ) (
2
t u u
NB
= :
) )( 100 sin( 2 ) sin( 2 ) ( A t t I t i = =
vi ) 0 (
2
1
< =

=
R
Z Z
tg
C L

) sin( 2 ) (
1 1 1
= t U t u
) )( 100 sin( 6 100
1
V t =
vi 2
1
= =
R
Z
tg
C
.

O


2 50
2
= =
L
U U
U
R I

6 50 = U
3 100
1
= =
RC
U U
U
C
|

\
|
+ =
2
t sin 2 U ) t ( u
2 2

) (
2
100 sin 100 V t |

\
|
+ =

.
Cu 3. 1) Quan h gia in trng v t trng bin thin. Theo l thuyt Maxwell: in trng bin
thin theo t c tc dng nh mt dng in lm pht sinh t trng bin thin. Ngc li, t trng bin
thin theo t lm pht sinh mt in trng xoy. in trng v t trng bin thin theo t c mi lin
h tng sinh, cng tn ti v lan truyn trong khng gian, to ra sng in t.
Nhng im khc bit gia sng c v sng in t:
a) Sng c l s lan truyn dao ng c ca cc phn t vt cht trong mi trng n hi, cn sng
in t l s lan truyn ca in t trng.
b) Sng c c th l sng ngang hoc sng dc, cn sng in t lun l sng ngang (cc vc t
) (t E

v ) (t B

u V

).
c) Sng in t tn ti c trong chn khng, cn sng c th khng.
2) Bi ton v mch dao ng L C thu sng v tuyn (khi cng hng).
2
2
1
2
|

\
|
= = =
V L
C LC V VT


Hai t ni tip: ) 1 (
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
|

\
|
=
+
=
V L C C
C C
C
b


Hai t song song: ) 2 (
2
1
2
2
2 1
'
|

\
|
= + =
V L
C C C
b


Gii h (1) v (2), lu
2 1
8
), / ( 10 3 C C s m V > , ta c
) ( 20 ); ( 30
2 1
pF C pF C = =
Cu 4. 1) a) xy ra phn x ton phn nh sng mt phn cch hai mi trng trong sut phi c
hai iu kin.
Mt l: Mi trng th hai chit quang km (
1 2
n n < )
Hai l: Gc ti
gh
i i vi
1
2
sin
n
n
i
gh
= .
b) Mt s ng dng ca hin tng phn x ton phn:
- Ch to si cp quang truyn tn hiu nh sng i xa
- Ch to lng knh tam gic vung cn ) 5 , 1 ( n c kh nng phn x ton phn nh sng, dng trong
knh tim vng, knh vin vng, v.v...
2) Bi ton si cp quang: Chng minh 2 > n






c phn x ton phn (PXTP) thnh si:
PXTP
1
'
= n

r
n
i
gh min gh
i i > > (1)
Mt khc,
max
0
min
0
r 90 r 90 = = (2)
V
n
i sin
r sin = v
0
90 i 0
gh
i r 0
Suy ra:
gh max
i r = . Thay vo (2), ta c:
gh
0
min
i 90 = .
Thay vo (1), ta c:
gh gh
0
min
i i 90 > =

0
gh
0
gh
45 sin i sin hay 45 i < < .
2 n hay
2
1
n
1
> < .

Cu 5. 1) a. Cc nh ngha
ht khi ca ht nhn [ ] 0 m m ) Z A ( Zm m m m
n p 0
> + = = vi
0
m l tng khi lng
cc proton v ntron khi cha to thnh ht nhn, cn m l khi lng ht nhn do chnh chng ta to
thnh.
b. Nng lng lin kt:
2
c m E =
l nng lng to ra khi cc ht p v n kt hp thnh ht nhn, cng l nng lng phi tn ph hu
ht nhn (thng lc lin kt cc nucleon).
c.
A
E
l nng lng lin kt ring (nng lng lin kt tnh cho mi nucleon). Gi tr ca
A
E
c
trng cho bn vng ca ht nhn.
2) Bi ton
a) ht khi ca ht nhn hli ) (
4
2
He l:
) ( 0305 , 0 ) ( 2 u m m m m
n p
= + =
b) S ht nhn c trong 1 kg hli l:
26 23
10 505 , 1 10 02 , 6
4
1000
) ( =
A
N mol n N
Nng lng to do ht khi khi to thnh 1 kg hli
2
c m N E N E = =
Thay s: ) J ( 10 84 , 6 ) MeV ( 10 276 , 4 uc 10 59 , 4 E
14 27 2 24
= .

Bi Bng oan
(Bin son v gii thiu)
gip bn n thi i hc

t n luyn t n luyn t n luyn t n luyn s 2 s 2 s 2 s 2

Cu 1. Mt l xo vi khi lng khng ng k c cng k, u trn c treo vo mt im c nh. Khi
treo vo u di mt vt khi lng g 100 m = th l xo gin 25 cm. Ngi ta kch thch cho vt dao ng
iu ho dc theo trc l xo. Chn gc to ti v tr cn bng, chiu dng hng ln. Phng trnh dao
ng ca vt l cm ) 6 / t sin( 8 x = . Ly gia tc trng trng 10 ; s / m 10 g
2 2
.
1) Nu ti thi im no vt c li l 4 cm, th ti 1/3 giy tip theo sau li ca vt l bao nhiu
?
2) Tnh cng lc n hi ca l xo ti v tr ny.
Cu 2. 1) Tn s ca mt m thanh xc nh do dy n pht ra ph thuc vo nhng yu t no? Lm th
no m thanh pht ra t dy n c th lan truyn rng ri trong khng gian xung quanh mc d dy
n c tit din rt nh? Ti sao m thanh ca mi loi n li c c trng bi mt m sc ring?
2) Mt ci loa c coi nh mt ngun m im. Ti im A cch loa 1m mc cng m l
dB 70 . Mt ngi ng cch loa t 100 m tr ln th khng nghe thy m ca loa na. Hy tnh ngng
nghe ca ngi . Bit cng m chun l
2 12
0
m / W 10 I

= .
Cu 3. Cho on mch mc ni tip nh hnh v. Cun dy l thun cm. Hiu in th xoay chiu
AB
u
gia hai u on mch c tn s Hz 100 f = v gi tr hiu dng U khng i.
1) Mc Ampek c in tr rt nh vo M v N th ampe k ch A 3 , 0 I = dng in trong mch lch
pha
0
60 so vi
AB
u ; cng sut tiu th in trong mch l W 18 P = . Tm R, L, U.
2) Mc vn k c in tr rt ln vo M v N thay cho ampe k th vn k ch V 60 , hiu in th trn
vn k tr pha
0
60 so vi
AB
u . Tm r, C.



Cu 4. 1) Dng in dch l g ? Cho bit mt im ging nhau, mt im khc nhau c bn gia dng in
dn v dng in dch.
2) Cho mt t in pF 500 C = , mt cun thun cm mH 2 , 0 L = , mt cquy c s.. V 5 , 1 E = .
Hy mc mch in to ra dao ng in t trong mch LC. Vit phng trnh dao ng ca in tch q
trn t in. Chn 0 t = lc t bt u phng in. Ly 10
2
.
Cu 5. Mt lng knh c tit din thng l mt tam gic u, chit sut 2 n = , t trong khng kh (chit
sut 1 n
0
). Chiu mt tia sng n sc nm trong mt tit din thng n mt mt bn ca lng knh v
hng t pha y ln vi gc ti i.
1) Gc ti i bng bao nhiu th gc lch ca tia sng i qua lng knh c gi tr cc tiu
min
D ? Tnh
min
D .
2) t lng knh sao cho tia sng ti song song vi mt y v cho tia khc x gp mt y. Hi tia ti
trn mt y c b phn x ton phn khng? Ti sao? Chng minh rng kt qu ny khng ph
thuc vo chit sut n ca lng knh.

(HQG H Ni)
ra k ny
trung hc c s trung hc c s trung hc c s trung hc c s
CS1/8. C hai qu cu rng c khi lng nh nhau, mt qu lm bng vi cao su v qu kia lm bng cao
su mng. Hai qu cu u kn cha cng mt lng kh hir v c cng th tch khi mt t. Nu th hai
qu cu th hin tng xy ra nh th no? Gii thch.
CS2/8. xc nh t l nc trong tuyt (tuyt l hn hp nc trong nc ), ngi ta cho vo bnh mt
lng tuyt ri nc nng vo cho n khi ton b tuyt thnh nc. Khi lng nc nng vo l m
c nhit ban u
1
t . Khi lng sau khi tuyt tan l M c nhit
2
t . Bit nhit dung ring ca nc l
C, nhit nng chy ca nc l r. B qua s trao i nhit vi bnh. Tnh t l nc trong tuyt.
CS3/8. Cho mch in nh hnh v:






Nu mc AB vi ngun
1
U khng i th cng sut ton mch l W P 55
1
= == = . Nu mc CD vi ngun
2
U
khng i th cng sut ton mch l W P 176
2
= == = . Nu mc ng thi c A, B vi
1
U (cc dng A) v
C, D vi
2
U (cc dng C) th cng sut ton mch l bao nhiu?
CS4/8. Xc nh khi lng ring ca du ho bng phng php thc nghim vi cc dng c gm: Mt
ng thu tinh rng hnh ch U, mt cc ng nc nguyn cht, mt cc ng du ho v mt thc di c
chia nh nht ti mm.

trung hc trung hc trung hc trung hc ph thng ph thng ph thng ph thng
TH1/8. Tm gia tc ca vt 1 trong h trn hnh v. Mt phng nm ngang trn v nhn. B qua ma st
gia cc vt, khi lung ca dy v rng rc nh khng ng k. Dy khng gin. Khi lng ca ba vt
nh nhau.

TH2/8. Mt qu cu c, ng cht, khi lng m, bn knh R ang quay vi vn tc gc
0
. Trc quay i
qua tm qu cu v lp vi phng thng ng mt gc . Vn tc ban u ca tm qu cu bng khng.
t nh qu cu ln mt bn nm ngang. Hy xc nh vn tc ca tm qu cu v ng nng ca qu cu
ti thi im n ngng trt trn mt bn. B qua ma st ln.
V nh Ty (B GD&T)
TH3/8. Trong mt bnh cch nhit c N phn t lng nguyn t nhit T
1
. Trong nhng iu kin ,
cc phn t bt u phn ly v qu trnh phn ly ny hu nh chm dt khi nhit h xung cn T
2
. Khi
B



3R
D
C
R 2R
A
phn ly, mi phn t hp th mt nng lng bng . Hi phn cc phn t b phn ly v p sut trong
bnh gim i bao nhiu ln?
TH4/8. Mt ht c khi lng m v in tch q chuyn ng vi vn tc c ln khng i trong mt vng
khng gian c ba trng i mt vung gc vi nhau: l in trng E

, t trng B

v trng trng
g

(cho E

v B

ln lt hng theo trc x v y). Ti mt thi im no , ngi ta tt in trng v t


trng. Bit rng ng nng cc tiu sau c gi tr ng bng mt na ng nng ban u ca ht. Tm
cc hnh chiu vn tc ca ht trn phng ba trng ti thi im tt in trng v t trng.
TH5/8. Mt h quang hc gm thu knh phn k
1
L v thu knh hi t
2
L t cch nhau mt khong L =
10cm (hnh v). Trc chnh ca hai thu knh song song vi nhau v cch nhau mt khong l d. Mt chm
sng ti song song vi trc chnh ca hai thu knh sau khi i qua h cho nh ti im A nm bn tri
thu knh
1
L , cch thu knh ny mt khong a = 30cm v cch trc chnh ca n mt khong b =1cm. Bit
tiu c ca
1
L bng 10cm. Tnh: 1) tiu c ca thu knh
2
L ; 2) khong cch d gia trc chnh ca hai thu
knh.


Ch Ch Ch Ch : : : : Hn cui cng nhn li gii l 10/6/2004



Gii p thc mc
(Xem VLTT 6 thng 2 / 2004)

Cch gii cu b v c trong sch l sai (cu a gii ng). Sai lm bt u t lp lun: Phn nc dng ln
vi th tch thanh g chm trong nc. Lp lun ny nu c thong qua th thy c v l ng, nhng
suy ngh k th thy sai. Ta ch c th ni rng: Th tch nc dng ln bng phn th tch thanh g
chm trong nc. Di y l li gii ng cho cu b v c da trn nhn xt trn.
b) Gi H l cao ban u ca nc trong bnh,
'
H l cao khi th thanh g vo; H l cao khi mc
nc dng ln. Theo hnh v ta c:
2 2 1
S ) H h ( ) S S ( H =
cm 7 , 6 h
S
S
H S h S H
1
2
2 1
= =
Mt khc H H H
'
= h
S
S
h h H h h H H H
1
2 '
+ = + = =
Suy ra: cm , H 3 15 20
30
10
2 20 + ++ + = == =
H
H
h
3
h
1
2 H
1
Ch : Theo hnh v , gi s ta rt thanh g ln theo phng thng ng th mc nc s tt tr v mc
ban u c cao H, tc l phn th tch nc gch cho (1) v (2) trn hnh s lp vo phn g (3) chm
di mc nc ban u (ng vi lp lun trn).
c) Gi s thanh g chm hon ton trong nc th khi ) S l(S S H
2 1 1
. Nhng theo bi, ta c:
3
1
cm 459 30 . 3 , 15 HS = = v
3
cm 500 ) 10 31 .( 25 = = ) S l(S
2 1
.
V 459 < 500 nn thanh g khng th b nhn chm hon ton trong nc. Mun nhn chm c thanh g
hon ton trong nc th ) S l(S S H
2 1 1

. cm 6 , 16
3
50
H
30
) 10 30 ( 25
S
) S S ( l
H
1
2 1


=


Vy thanh g c th nhn chm hon ton trong nc th chiu cao ban u cc tiu ca mc nc l
cm , H
min
6 16 = == = (ch khng phi l 12,5 cm nh li gii trong sch).

Cc bn c gii p ng: Nguyn Vn Thnh 10L, Trn Vn Ho 11L, THPT Chuyn, Bc Ninh; Dng Trung
Hiu 11B, PTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang; Vng Bng Vit lp
1
7 , THCS Nam H, Th x H Tnh; Hong Nguyn
Anh Tun, 11L, PTNK HQG, t.p. H Ch Minh.


gii k trc
trung hc trung hc trung hc trung hc c s c s c s c s

CS1/5. Hai chic tu thy chuyn ng thng u trn bin. Tu 1 vo lc 12h tra pha
Bc mt hn o nh, cch o ny 40 dm v tip tc chy v hng ng vi vn tc 15
dm/h. Cn tu 2 vo lc 8h sng li pha ng hn o ni trn, cch o ny 100 dm,
v chuyn ng v pha Nam vi vn tc 15 dm/h. Xc nh khong cch nh nht ca hai
con tu v iu xy ra thi im no?
Gii:
Chn gc thi gian vo lc 8h sng. Khi tu 1 im A cch B mt on AB = u = (12h - 8h)15 dm/h
= 60 dm. t h = BD = 40 dm, d = DC = 100 dm. Xt thi im t, tu 1 M vi AM = x v tu 2 N vi
CN = x, v hai tu c cng vn tc l 15 dm/h. Khi khong cch gia hai con tu l:

2 2
) ( ) ( x u d x h MN s + + + = =






Ta thy s t cc tiu tng ng vi hm s:
h




Ty
ng
A M B
C
N
x
D
x
o

2 2
) ( ) ( x u d x h y + + + =
=
2 2 2
) ( ) ( 2 2 u d h h u d x x + + + +
t cc tiu. y l mt tam thc bc hai vi: a = 2 > 0, b = -2(d+u-h) = -240 v c = h
2
+ (d+u)
2
= 27200, vy
y i gi tr cc tiu ti:
60 240 .
4
1
2
0
= = = =
a
b
x x dm
Vy khong cch hai tu nh nht, khi tu 2 B, tc l lc 12 gi tra. Khong cch cc tiu ny bng:

2 2
0
2
0 min
) ( ) ( 2 2 u d h h u d x x s + + + + =
141 2 100 27200 60 . 240 60 . 2
2
= + = dm.
Cc bn c li gii ng: Phm Hi Dng lp 9A, THCS Phng Ch Kin, Tp. Nam nh; Nguyn Duy Dng, T Quang Hip,
Nguyn Vn Trng lp 9B, Nguyn Vn Tun, Nguyn Thanh Tng lp 9E, Lu Tin Quyt lp 9C, THCS Yn Lc, Nguyn
Tin Vit 9C, THCS Vnh Tng, Vnh Phc; ng Th H Giang 6A, THCS Yn Phong, Nguyn Vn Thnh 10L, Phm Anh T
11L, THPT Chuyn Bc Ninh.

CS2/5. Ngi ta trn nc nng v nc lnh theo hai cch sau:
Cch 1: t t theo thnh bnh ) kg ( m
1
nc nng nhit
1
T vo ) kg ( m
2
nc lnh nhit
2
T .
Cch 2: t t theo thnh bnh ) kg ( m
2
nc lnh vo ) kg ( m
1
nc nng ni trn. Bit
1 2
2m m = . B
qua trao i nhit ca bnh vi mi trng.
a) Trng hp no qu trnh truyn nhit xy ra nhanh hn?
b) Tm nhit ca hn hp khi cn bng nhit bng phng php th.
Gii:

a) t t s to ra hai lp nc nng v lnh. Trn theo cch 2 th qu trnh truyn nhit xy ra nhanh hn
v nc lnh trn, nc nng di nn xy ra i lu - mt hnh thc truyn nhit ch yu ca cht lng.
Trong cch 1 th truyn nhit bng dn nhit nn rt chm.
b) Khi trn hai khi nc th c s trao i nhit gia chng.
Nhit lng do nc nng to ra: ) t T ( C m Q
0
1 1 1
=
Nhit lng do nc lnh thu vo: ) T t ( C m 2 Q
2
0
1 2
=
y
0
t l nhit m khi nc nng v nc lnh t ti trong qu trnh truyn nhit. Trn cng h trc
to ) t , Q (
0
ta v th ca
1
Q v
2
Q theo
0
t .










(J)
Q
Q
1
m
1
CT
1
2m
1
CT
2
Q

O

T
2 2T
2
T
T
1
t
0
C
M
Honh ca giao im M l nhit T ca khi nc khi cn bng nhit. Tung ca giao im M l
nhit lng Q m khi nc nng to ra v khi nc lnh thu vo cho ti khi xy ra cn bng nhit.
Ch : C th v th ca
0
t theo Q ta cng c kt qu cn tm.

Cc bn c li gii ng: Phm Din Thng lp 6E, THCS Hng Dng Tp. Vinh, Ngh An; ng Th H Giang 6A, THCS Yn
Phong, Bc Ninh.

CS3/5. 1. C 5 in tr ging nhau, lc u mc 3 in tr thnh mt mch, sau mc thm 2 in tr
cn li th in tr mch in sau nh hn 4 ln so vi in tr ca mch in lc u. V s mch in
lc u v lc sau.
2. Ngi ta mc ni tip b in tr lc sau ni trn vi mt b bng n gm 2 bng loi 6V - 6W v 4
bng loi 3V - 1,5W, tt c c mc vo ngun in c hiu in th khng i 15V th thy cc n u
sng bnh thng. Tm gi tr ca mi in tr mc trong b in tr ni trn.
Gii:
1. Trc ht v s mch in ca cc cch mc 3 in tr ging nhau ta c 4 s . in tr tng
ng gim ta phi mc song song cc in tr cn li. T mt s php th ta tm c s lc u v lc
sau:





2. Bn s mch in cc n u sng bnh thng nh sau vi k hiu
0
R l b in tr,
1
l n
W V 6 3 ,
2
l n W , V 5 1 3



















T s mch 5 in tr ta tnh c
8
3
0
r
R = == = vi r l gi tr mt in tr. Vy
3
8
0
R
r = == = .




R
0

2
a)







R
0

2
b)


R
0

1
c)






R
0

2
d)






Vi mi s mch thp sng n, t gi tr nh mc ca cc n ta tm c cng dng in mch
chnh v hiu in th hai u b bng n, suy ra c hiu in th trn
0
R . T tnh c
0
R ng
vi mi s ri tnh ra gi tr r. Kt qu ta c (tnh ton c th dnh cho cc bn): vi s a:
3 16/ r = == = v vi cc s b, c, d: 8 = == = r .

Cc bn c li gii ng v v c 3 s mch in thp sng n: V Th Hng lp 9A, THCS Lp Thch; T Phi Khnh,
Nguyn Tin Th, Lu Tin Quyt, lp 9C, Quch Hoi Nam, Nguyn Vn Trng, lp 9B, Nguyn Vn Tun, lp 9E, THCS
Yn Lc, Vnh Phc; Nguyn Hng Thm, lp 9A7, THCS Trn ng Ninh, Nam nh; inh Xun Khu 10L, THPT Lng
Vn Tu, Ninh Bnh.

CS4/5. hi t nh sng vo mt din tch nh, ngi ta ngh ra mt thit b nh hnh v. Thit b ny l
mt ng hnh nn, mt trong phn x tt nh sng. Cc tia sng xut pht t ngun S sau khi phn x
nhiu ln lin tip s i vo l AA

, l ny c th nh tu . Nh vy nh sng s hi t vo mt din tch


nh. n ny c th thc hin c khng? Gii thch.
Gii:
n khng thc hin c.








Xt tam gic IJN, gc phn x ti I l gc ngoi ca tam gic bng tng gc ti ti J v gc ( = == = N

v l
hai gc c cnh vung gc). Do gc ti ti J nh hn gc ti ti I mt gi tr ( l gc nh hnh
nn). Vy sau mt s ln phn x lin tip trong hnh nn th tia ti s c gc ti bng 0 hoc nm bn kia
php tuyn. Nu gc ti bng 0 th tia l s trng vi tia ti. Nu tia ti nm bn kia php tuyn th tia phn
x s truyn ra ngoi. V th nh sng t S khng th hi t ti l nh.

Cc bn c li gii ng: Phm Quc Vit, lp 11L, THPT chuyn Hng Yn; L Hong Long, lp 11F, THPT chuyn Lam Sn,
Thanh Ho; Hong Nguyn Anh Tun, lp 11L, THPT NK, Tp.HCM.
trung hc ph thng trung hc ph thng trung hc ph thng trung hc ph thng
Th1/5. Th1/5. Th1/5. Th1/5. Mt vt nh khi lng m t trn mt bn nm ngang. Tc dng mt lc theo phng hp vi
phng ngang mt gc . Khi vt bt u chuyn ng th gc thay i theo quy lut =ks, vi s l
qung ng m vt i c v k l mt hng s dng. Tnh vn tc cc i ca vt. B qua ma st.
Gii:
Khi vt bt u chuyn ng th gc thay i theo quy lut ks = vi s qung ng
m vt i c v 0 const k > = , nh vy trong qu trnh chuyn ng vt khng th b nhc
ln, mun th mg F .


J


I
S
N
m
F



Xt mt on dch chuyn ds nh. p dng nh l ng nng ta c:
|

\
|
=
2
mv
2
1
d ds ) s k cos( F
) v ( d
2
m
) ks ( d ) ks cos(
k
F
2
=

=
ks
0
v
0
dv v 2
2
m
) s k ( d ) s k cos(
k
F

mk
) s k sin( F 2
v v
2
m
) s k sin(
k
F
2

= =
1 ) s k sin( v
max max
=
mk
F 2
v
max
=
Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Tin Vinh, 11A3, THPT Chuyn Vnh Phc.
Cc bn khc c li gii ng: Hong c Thnh 10 A,Khi chuyn l HQG, H Ni; Chu Thanh Bnh, L Minh Huy, Trn Vn
Minh 12 l, Phm Tin Dng, Trn Vn Ho 11 L, Nguyn Vn Ngc, Nguyn Trng m, Nguyn Cng Dng 10 L, THPT
Chuyn, Bc Ninh; Nguyn Duy Long, Trn Ngc Linh 10 A3 , Nguyn Vit Hng 11 A8, Trnh Hu Phc 11A10, Trn nh
Cung 12 A3, THPT chuyn Vnh Phc; Phan Duy Tng, Nguyn Cnh ip 10A3, Bch Hng on, ng Tun Anh A3 K31,
V Hong Bin K31 L. THPT chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An; Ng Thu Hng, Thn an My 11 L, Trn Trng Tun 10 L,
THPT chuyn H Tnh; L Huy Hong, V nh Quang 11 L, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; Dng Trung Hiu 11 L,
PTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang; L Hong Long 10F, L Minh T 11F, Trnh c Hin 12F, THPT chuyn Lam Sn, Thanh Ho;
Trn Quang Duyt, Nguyn An 12 L, THPT chuyn Sn La; Nguyn Vit Anh 11 L, THPT chuyn H Long, Qung Ninh; Trn
Quc Vit, Phm Quc Vit 11 L, THPT chuyn, Trn Hng Chinh 11A, THPT Tin L, Hng Yn; inh Xun Huy xm 4,Hnh
Thin, Xun Hng, Xun Trng, Nam nh; Nguyn Trung Kin 11 A1, THPT Gia nh, L Quc Khnh 11 L, PTNK HQG
Tp. HCM; Trn S Kin, m c Quang K15 L, THPT chuyn Thi Nguyn.
Th Th Th Th2 22 2/5. /5. /5. /5. Mt dy kim loi cng mnh c un sao cho nu t trc Oy trng vi mt phn ca dy th phn
cn li ca n trng vi th ca hm s
3
ax y = vi x >0 (xem hnh v). Quay u dy trn theo phn
thng ng ca dy vi vn tc . Mt ht c khi lng m c t sao cho c th chuyn ng khng
ma st dc theo dy. Tm to (
0 0
; y x ) ca ht v tr cn bng v chu k dao ng b ca ht xung
quanh v tr cn bng .

Gii:
Chn h quy chiu gn vi dy kim loi. Lc tc dng ln m gm: Trng lc g m P

= , phn lc N

v lc
qun tnh li tm: x m F
2
q
= .








t


M
y
y
O
A
x
0 x

N


qt
F







Khi m v tr cn bng ) y ; x ( M
0 0
. Ta c:
) 1 ( 0 N F P
qt

= + +
Chiu (1) ln phng tip tuyn Mt (hnh v ) ta c:
) 2 ( 0 sin mg cos F
qt
=
) 3 (
g
x
mg
F
tg
0
2
qt

= =
Mt khc, h s gc ca tip tuyn Mt l:
) 4 ( ax 3 y tg
2
0
) x (
'
0
= =
T (3), (4) suy ra:

0 y , 0 x
0 0
= = , tc l im M trng vi gc O (loi) v

3 2
6
0
2
0
g a 27
y ,
ag 3
x

=

= .
Vi nhng dch chuyn nh ca m ta coi gn ng l m dch chuyn trn Mt. Xt thi im t, m lch khi
v tr cn bng M on nh r (xem hnh). Theo nh lut II Newton ta c:
) 5 ( r m sin mg cos F
" '
qt
=
vi ) 6 ( ) cos r x ( m F
0
2 '
qt
=
Th (2) v (6) vo (5) ta rt c:

' ' 2 2
r cos r = hay ) 7 ( 0 r cos r
2 2 ' '
= + .
Phng trnh ny chng t m dao ng iu ho quanh M vi chu k: 1 tg
2
cos
1
2 T
2
+

=

=
hay: 1
g a 3
a 9
2
T
4
2
2
+
|
|

\
|

=
Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Trung Hiu, 11L, THPTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang.
Cc bn khc c li gii ng: L Huy Hong 11 L, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; Ninh Vn Cng 11B, Khi chuyn
l, HQG H Ni; V Cng Thnh 12 L, V Trng m 10 L, Trn Huy Hong 11L, THPT chuyn Bc Ninh; Nguyn Trung
Kin 11 A1, THPT Gia nh Tp. HCM; Nguyn ng Thnh 11 A3, THPT chuyn Vnh Phc.
Th Th Th Th3 33 3/5. /5. /5. /5. xc nh hng s on nhit
V p
C C / = ca kh khng l tng, mt nh thc nghim tin
hnh nh sau. ng ta thc hin mt qu trnh ng p 2 1 v mt qu trnh ng tch 3 1 sao cho
trong ni nng ca kh trong hai qu trnh thay i mt lng nh nh nhau. Kt qu thc nghim cho
thy s thay i nhit trong qu trnh ng tch ln gp ba ln trong qu trnh ng p, v trong qu trnh
ng p mt phn ba nhit lng nhn c c chuyn thnh cng m kh thc hin. Hy xc nh hng
s .
'
qt
F


M
m


r
Gii:
Gi
2 1
Q , Q l nhit lng kh nhn trong qu trnh ng p v ng tch. Ta c:
) 1 ( T C
m
Q
1 p 1

=
) 2 ( T C
m
Q
2 V 2

=
Chia 2 v (1) cho (2) ta c:
1 2
2 1
V
p
T Q
T Q
C
C


= .
V
1 2
T 3 T = (*)
Q
Q 3
C
C
2
1
V
p
=
Theo nguyn l I ta c: A U Q
1 1
+ = m
1 1
1
Q
3
2
U
3
Q
A = =
Mt khc,
2
3
Q
Q
Q
3
2
Q U U Q
2
1
1 2 1 2 2
= = = =
Thay vo (*), ta c:
2
9
2
3
3
C
C
V
p
= = =
Vy
2
9
=
Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Tin Vinh, 11A3, THPT Chuyn Vnh Phc.
Cc bn khc c li gii ng: Chu Thanh Bnh, V Cng Thnh, Trn Vn Minh 12 L, Nguyn Vn Tu, Trn Vn Ho 11L,
Nguyn Thanh Tun 12 A2, Trn Thi H, Nguyn Cng Dng 10L, PHTH Chuyn Bc Ninh; L Minh T 11F, Trnh c Hiu
12F, THPT chuyn Lam Sn Thanh Ho; Nguyn Minh c, Trng Tun Anh, Trn H Quy 10 L, THPT chuyn H Tnh;
Hong Vn Tu, Hong c Thnh 10A, Phm Vit c 11A Khi chuyn l HQG H Ni; Bch Hng on A3 K31, THPT
chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An; Trn nh Cung 12A3, THPT chuyn, Vnh Phc; Nguyn Anh Tun 11 L, PTNK, HQG Tp.
HCM; V nh Quang 11L, THPT Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th.
Th Th Th Th4 44 4/5. /5. /5. /5. Mt mch in gm cc in tr nh hnh v c to thnh theo cch sau. Xut pht t mt hnh
vung cnh c chiu di L, in tr R. Ni trung im cc cnh ca hnh vung bng dy in tr trn
to thnh mt hnh vung mi v c tip tc nh th n v hn. Hy xc nh in tr gia hai nh i
din ca hnh vung ban u. (Coi tt c cc dy in tr trong mch c cng tit din v cng in tr
sut).
Gii:








N

C
D






M
E
A
B
A
1
B
1
D

C

E








Do s vung mc bn trong v hn nn in tr gia hai nh i din ca hnh vung t l vi in tr
ca cnh ln nht ca hnh vung :
[ ]
) 1 ( kR R kR R R
0 AC 0 AB
= = = (vi k > 0 l mt hng s). Do
tnh i xng ca mch in nn cc im ) E , E ( ); D , D ( ); C , C (
' ' '
c cng in th nn ta c th chp
chng li. ng thi nu tch M thnh
2 1
M , M v N thnh
2 1
N , N th in tr mch vn khng i. Ta c
mch mi nh hnh v sau:
Trong :
[ ] AC M A B , A
R k
2
1
R k R
2 1 1 1
= =
[ ]
) 2 ( R k
2
1
R
1 1
B , A
=
in tr tng ng ca ton mch:
4
R
R
4
R
kR R
DE 0
+ + = =
kR
2
1
2 2
R
1
2 2 / R
1
2 / R
1
R
1
2
R
kR
1
DE
+
+ + = =


1 k 2
2 2
2 2 2
1 k 2
2
+
+ + =


) 3 ( 0
2
2
k ) 1 2 ( k
2
= +

<

=

+
=

0
2
3 2 1
k
659 , 0
2
3 2 1
k


(Loi nghim th hai). Vy, in tr gia hai nh i din ca hnh vung ban u l:
[ ]
R 659 , 0 R
B , A
.
Li gii trn l ca bn Dng Trung Hiu, 11L, THPTNK Ng S Lin, Bc Giang.
Cc bn khc c li gii ng: L Huy Hong, V nh Quang 11L, THPT chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th; Nguyn Trung Kin
11 A1, THPT Gia nh, Tp. HCM; Bi Hiu 11B, Phm Vit c 11A, Khi chuyn l HQG H Ni.







C,C

A
1







D,D

E,E

M
1
,N
M
2
A

N
2
B
1
B








Tr li cu hi trc nghim

trung hc c s trung hc c s trung hc c s trung hc c s
TNCS1/5. p n D

TNCS2/5. p n A: Sai v Mt Tri lc no cng pht ra nh sng
p n B: Sai v cy ci khng pht ra nh sng m nhn nh sng t Mt Tri ri ht vo mt ta.
p n C: ng v nh sng mu vng t hoa cc truyn n mt ta.
p n D: Sai v vt sng bao gm c ngun sng.

TNCS3/5. p n A: Sai v tia sng l ng truyn ca nh sng c biu din bng mt ng thng c
mi tn ch hng.
p n C: Sai v chm sng gm v s tia sng, cc tia sng ny c th pht ra t ngun sng hoc vt ht
sng ...
p n D: Sai v cc tia sng trong chm sng hi t khng nht thit phi giao nhau ti mt im m giao
nhau trn ng truyn ca chng.

TNCS4/5. p n A: Sai v nh sng truyn qua hai mi trng trong sut khc nhau l khng kh v nc.
p n B: ng v khng kh trn mt ng nha ang nng l mi trng trong sut nhng khng ng
u (lp khng kh gn mt ng th long hn so vi lp khng kh trn n).
p n C: Sai v nh sng truyn trong khng kh vi vn tc gn bng s / km 000 . 300 nn nh sng
truyn rt nhanh t n n mt ta, nhng khng phi l truyn tc thi.
p n D: ng v khng kh trong mt khong hp c coi l mi trng trong sut ng u.

TNCS5/5. p n C v D l nhng kt qu ng.
p n A: Khng ng v bng ti l phn nm sau vt cn khng nhn c nh sng t ngun sng.
Tng t nh vy vi p n B.
Khng c bn no lm ng hon ton. Cc bn lm tt hn c l: Hong Th Thanh Huyn, lp 7/2, THCS L Vn
Thim; L Th Thoa, T Th Kim Lin, lp 7B; Quch Hoi Nam, lp 9B THCS Yn Lc, Vnh Phc

Ch : Khi lm bi tp trc nghim, cc bn ch cn tr li ngay cu hi m khng cn nu l do la chn.
Th d: TNCS1/5. p n D; TNCS2/5. Cu A: Sai. Cu B: Sai. Cu C: ng. Cu D: Sai.
trung hc trung hc trung hc trung hc ph thng ph thng ph thng ph thng
TN1/5. p n B
TN2/5. p n B
Gi : Kim pht quay mt vng c gc 2 rad mt thi gian 1h=3600s. Do vn tc gc trung bnh
bng 2/3600 s / rad 10 . 7 , 1
3

TN3/5. Khng c p n no ng
Gi : M men lc ca ng c l:
, r 30 r ) 20 50 ( = = y 2 / d r = l bn knh ca
bnh xe tnh theo mt. Vn tc gc ca bnh xe
20 2 f 2 = = , y f l s vng quay c trong
1 giy. Do cng sut ca ng c l:
W 300 P = = .
TN4/5. p n D
Gi : Ly hiu in th gia hai u on mch chia cho
tng in tr ca nhnh c in tr 5 .

TN5/5. p n C
Gi : Khi dng in qua in k bng khng th hiu in
th ca on mch cha cp nhit in bng s.. ca cp nhit in 6,00mV . Do cng dng in
bng 6/3,0=2mA=0,002A. T in tr R bng:
= + = 995 ) 2 3 (
002 , 0
2
R .

Bn V Th Ngc nh 12A3, THPT Yn Khnh A, Ninh Bnh c p n
ng ca 5 cu.


Giai thoi v cc nh vt l

Ti xin u hng ...
Nh bit, Feynman l mt trong s nhng nh vt l li lc nht ca th k 20. Tuy nhin, ngoi vt l ra
ng cn lm rt nhiu vic trong cc lnh vc khc nhau, m lnh vc no ng cng ng gp nhng
tng v phng php ht sc c o, k c trong nhng chuyn vui a. Feynman cng cn ni ting v
kh nng tnh nhm mt cch gn ng vi chnh xc chp nhn c. iu ng ni l ng lm iu
khng phi do kh nng siu nhin m l do ng bit s dng mt cch ti tnh nhng tnh cht ca cc s
v hm khc nhau. Cu chuyn di y c trch trong tc phm t thut "Chc l ngi a phi khng,
ngi Feynman!" ca Feynman do mt hc tr ca ng ghi chp li. Hy vng mt ngy no Vt l & Tui
tr s gii thiu vi cc bn mt s on trch t cun sch rt hp dn .

"Mt ln chng hiu l v sao, ti bng ni hng tuyn b vi mi ngi rng: "Ti ch cn 60 giy
gii c bt c bi ton no m cc v ngh ra trong 10 pht vi chnh xc l 10%".
Lc l gi ngh n tra. Tt c mi ngi u ua nhau ngh ra nhng bi ton theo h l hc ba
nht. Chng hn nh hy tm tch phn xc nh ca mt hm i loi nh ) 1 /( 1
4
x + (hm ny gn
nh khng thay i my trong khong tch phn). Bi ton phc tp nht m h ngh ra lc l tm
X Y
5
2
3
6
2,00V
cp nhit in
6,00m
V
2,00

R
in
k
h s ca s hng
10
x trong khai trin ca nh thc
20
) 1 ( x + , nhng ti cng gii c ngay trong
mt pht.
Mi chuyn din ra tng nh khng g tt p hn th bng Paul Ulam bc vo nh n. Anh ta vn
l ngi quen c ca ti t hi i hc Princeton, ngi m lc no cng t ra thng minh hn ti.
V th l, khi anh ta va mi bc vo, mi ngi nhao nhao ngh:
- Cho Paul! Hy cho Feynman nc ao i! Bn mnh ngh ra cc bi ton nhng cu ta u gii
c trong mt pht vi chnh xc ti 10%. Cu hy th i.
Gn nh khng cn ngh ngi, Paul lnh lng ni:
- Hy tnh tg ca
100
10 i!
V i vi bi ton ny ti phi u hng !".
Cn bn, bn hy th sc mnh xem.
P.V.T (Su tm)




Ting Anh Vt l

Problem: When the system shown in the diagram is in equilibrium, the right spring is stretched by
1
x . The coefficient of static friction the blocks is
s
; there is no friction between the bottom block
and the supporting surface. The force constants of the springs are k and 3k (see the diagram). The
blocks have equal mass m. Find the maximum amplitude of the oscillations of the system shown in
the diagram that does not allow the top block to slide on the bottom.


Solution: The origin is at the equilibrium position and the direction of increasing x is toward the
right. If the blocks are at the origin, the net force on therm is zero. If the blocks are a small distance
x to the right of the origin, the value of the force exerted by spring on the right is less than its value
with the blocks at the equilibrium position by kx. Furthermore, the value of the force exerted by
spring on the left is less than (more negative than) its value with the blocks at the equilibrium
position by 3kx. Therefore, with the blocks at position x the value of the net force on them is -4kx.
Applying Newtons second law to the two-block system gives:
x
ma kx 4 =
Applying Newtons second law to the lower block gives:
x 1
ma f ) x x ( k =
where f is magnitude of the frictional force. Solving the first equation for
x
ma , and substituting the
result into the second equation gives: kx 2 f ) x x ( k
1
= . Solving for f gives:
) x x ( k f
1
+ =
The maximum value for x is the amplitude A, and the maximum value for f is mg
s
. Thus,
) A x ( k mg
max 1 s
+ = . Solving for
max
A gives:
1
s
max
x
k
mg
A

= .
T mi:
equilibrium cn bng (equilibrium position -v tr cn bng)
direction of increasing x hng x tng
diagram s , hnh v
spring l xo (the right spring l xo bn phi)
(to) stretch gin
coefficient of static friction h s ma st tnh
supporting surface mt
force constant - cng (ca l xo)
amplitude bin
oscillation dao ng
(to) slide trt
net force lc tng hp
value gi tr
(to) exert tc dng
negative - m
law - nh lut (Newton second law - nh lut II Newton)
magnitude - ln
(to) substitute....into thay ...... vo....
result kt qu

Lm quen vi vt l hin i

TNH I XNG CA CC |NH LUT VT L
Richard Feynman
(Tip theo k trc)
Thi gian tri qua v sau Newton, pht minh ra nhng nh lut mi, trong c nh lut in
ng lc ca Maxwell. Mt trong nhng h qu ca cc nh lut in ng lc l: phi tn ti
nhng sng - sng in t (th d nh sng nh sng) - truyn i vi vn tc 299 792 km/s, khng
hn khng km. Ngha l ng 299 792 km/s, u cng th. Nhng by gi s d dng gii
quyt vn ci g ng yn ci g chuyn ng bi v nh lut - nh sng truyn i vi vn tc
s km/ 000 300 - chc chn (mi nhn hnh nh th) s cho php ngi quan st chuyn ng
trng thy c nhng bin i no . S tht c phi r rng l: nu anh trong mt con tu v
tr v bay vi vn tc 200 000 km/h theo mt hng no , cn ti ng di t v phng ln
mt chm sng, truyn i vi vn tc 300 000 km/s v lt vo ca s ca bung anh, th do anh
chuyn ng vi vn tc 200 000 km/s, nn anh s thy nh sng truyn i vi vn tc 100 000
km/s m thi. Nhng nu nh vy th gii thch th no c khi tin hnh th nghim , anh
thy nh sng truyn i vi vn tc 300 000 km/s i vi anh, cn ti, ti cng thy nh sng
truyn i vi vn tc 300 000 km/s i vi ti.
Cc hin tng t nhin khng phi d hiu, v cc s kin thc nghim va miu t sai tri vi
np suy ngh thng thng ca chng ta ti mc m hin nay vn cn c ngi cha tin vo kt
qu . Nhng ln ny n ln khc, cc th nghim chng minh rng vn tc truyn nh sng
bng 300 000 km/s, v iu khng ph thuc chng ta chuyn ng nhanh ti mc no. Mt
cu hi t ra: lm th no c th nh vy c? Einstein v c Poincar, hiu rng s gii
thch duy nht, v sao hai nh quan st chuyn ng tng i vi nhau li c th o thy mt tr
nh nhau ca vn tc nh sng, l ch thi gian v khng gian ca h khc nhau, ng h trn
con tu v tr chy khng ging nh ng h di Qu t v.v... Bn c th ni li rng:
Nhng nu ng h vn chy th ti ngi trong con tu v tr v theo di n, ti s c th nhn
bit n chy chm li ch ! Khng, bn khng th nhn bit c v ng h ca khi c bn
cng s chy chm hn c ngi thng ! y, tha nhn mt cch tuyt i nhng bin i
tng ng ca tt c cc qu trnh xy ra bn trong con tu v tr, ta c th xy dng nn mt
thuyt, theo vn tc nh sng trong con tu bng 300 000 kilmt - v tr trong mt giy - v
tr cn y, trn Qu t, n bng 300 000 kilmt ca ti trong mt giy ca ti. l mt
thuyt rt khn ngoan, v iu ng ngc nhin l mt thuyt nh vy, ni chung, li c th dng
nn c.
Ti nhc li mt trong nhng h qu ca nguyn l tng i l bn trong con tu, khng th
xc nh vn tc ca n theo ng thng. Bn hy nh li hai con tu v tr A v B (hnh di)
trong bi ging trc (xem VL&TT s 4, thng 12 /2003).





b

Mt s kin no xy ra hai u con tu B. Ngi ng gia con tu , khng nh rng hai
s kin (x v y), hai u con tu ca mnh, xy ra ng thi bi v ng chnh gia, anh ta
nhn thy tn hiu sng v hai s kin y cng mt lc. Nhng ngi trong con tu A, ang
chuyn ng vi vn tc khng i so vi con tu B, s nhn thy hai hin tng khng cng mt
lc, m nhn thy x trc v sau mi thy y. S d nh vy l v anh ta i v pha trc. Bn s
thy mt trong cc hiu qu ca tnh i xng i vi chuyn ng thng u (trong ch i
xng c ngha l bn khng th quyt on quan im no ng); - khi ti ni rng mt s kin
no xy ra lc ny trong V tr, th iu hon ton v ngha. Nu bn chuyn ng thng
u th nhng s kin m thy l ng thi th dng nh li khng l ng thi i vi ti, mc
d chnh thi im, khi chng ta cng mt v tr, th ti cng thy cc s kin l ng thi.
Chng ta s khng th thng nht c vi nhau v vic phi hiu ch lc ny nh th no, khi
chng ta xa nhau. V iu dn ti nhu cu phi thay i tn gc r nhng nhn thc ca
chng ta v khng gian v thi gian, c th bo v c nguyn l ni rng bn trong vt
chuyn ng th khng th no nhn bit c chuyn ng thng u. Tht vy, kt qu s l:
theo quan im ny, th hai s kin l ng thi, nhng theo quan im khc th chng li khng
l ng thi, nu nh chng xy ra khng ti cng mt ni, m ti hai im cch xa nhau mt
khong xc nh.
D dng thy rng, iu tng t vi php bin i cc to khng gian. Nu ti ng quay
mt vo bng, th mp trn ca bng cng mt cao vi ti. Mp bng y c tr x khng i
v tr y bin thin. Nhng nu ti quay ngi i
0
90 v cng nhn thy mp trn ca bng th,
ng quan im mi m xt mt phn ca n v pha trc ti, phn cn li pha sau ti v
chng c nhng tr ' x khc nhau. Cng hon ton ging nh vy hai s kin theo quan im ny
l ng thi (cng mt tr t nh nhau), nhng theo quan im khc th li thy chng xy ra
nhng thi im khc nhau (cc tr ca
'
t khc nhau). Ni cch khc y chng ta m rng
php quay trong khng gian hai chiu - m chng ta c ni ti trc y - cho trng hp khng
gian v thi gian, chng hp thnh V tr bn chiu. Thm thi gian nh l mt to mi vo
ba to khng gian - iu khng phi n gin l mt th php gi to, nh thng thy gii
thch trong nhiu sch ph bin khoa hc: Chng ta thm mt to thi gian vo cc to
khng gian, bi v khng th no ch hn ch trong vic nu r v tr ca im, m cn phi ni
thm lc no na. iu ng tt c, nhng n khng dn ti vic hnh thnh V tr bn chiu
c thc v n ch c ngha l t hai vt khc nhau bn cnh nhau m thi. Khng gian thc, vi
ngha thng thng, c c trng bi iu n tn ti t n, c lp vi mi quan im la chn
ring bit v khi chng ta nhn n di nhng gc khc nhau, th ci pha trc hoc ci
pha sau c th ho ln vi ci bn phi hoc ci bn tri. Cng hon ton ging nh th ci
hoc ci s trong thi gian c th c mt phn trn ln vi ci hoc ci y trong
khng gian. Khng gian v thi gian gn b cht ch vi nhau. Sau pht minh , Minkvxki
nhn xt rng: T nay v sau khng gian t n v thi gian t n phi ho hp vi nhau v ch
mt dng kt hp no ca hai ci l cn gi c tnh c lp.
Ti trnh by th d c th y mt cch t m nh vy l v nhn vo bn cht ca vn th chnh
xut pht t y m chng ta nghin cu cc tnh i xng ca cc nh lut vt l. Chnh
Poincar ngh nghin cu cc cch c th bin i cc phng trnh m khng lm thay i
dng ca chng. Chnh ng nu ra kin u tin l cn phi ch ti cc tnh cht i xng
ca cc nh lut vt l. S i xng i vi cc php dch chuyn trong khng gian v trong thi
gian v.v... khng cha nhng g c bit su sc ! Nhng i xng i vi chuyn ng thng u
th rt l th, n cho nhng h qu nhiu mu nhiu v. Hn na, nhng h qu c th m rng
ra cho nhng nh lut m chng ta cha bit. Chng hn, nu coi nguyn l y l ng c cho s
phn r ca mzn , th chng ta c th khng nh rng dng mzn khng th bit c
con tu v tr chuyn ng nhanh ti mc no, d rng chng ta khng c mt nim no v
nguyn nhn gy ra s phn r y.
Trong cc nh lut vt l cn khng t tnh cht i xng khc v mt vi tnh cht i xng
li thuc mt loi hon ton khc bit. Ti xin ch k mt vi tnh i xng nh vy. Mt tnh i
xng loi y l: mt nguyn t c th thay th bng mt nguyn t cng loi, v iu khng h
nh hng g n bt k hin tng no. Ngi ta c th hi: Nhng cng loi ngha l th no?
V ti ch c th tr li rng, cc nguyn t cng loi cho php thay th ln nhau, m khng gy
ra mt hu qu no ! Phi chng, iu ny gy nn n tng rng cc nh vt l lun lun nghin
cu nhng ci v ngha? Nguyn t c nhiu loi khc nhau, v nu anh thay mt nguyn t bng
mt nguyn t khc loi, th s c thay i no , cn nu thay bng mt nguyn t cng loi th
khng c thay i g c, v chng ta khng bao gi thot ra khi ci vng lun qun. Nhng
ngha thc ca khng nh ca chng ta l ch: c tn ti nhng nguyn t cng loi v c th
tm thy nhng nhm hay lp nguyn t, trong php thay th nguyn t ny bng nguyn t
khc s khng c mt ngha g. M v s lng nguyn t trong mt mu cn con no ca
vt cht cng phi tnh bng mt s vi 23 ch s khng, cho nn bit c c nhng nguyn t
ng nht v khng phi tt c chng u hon ton khc nhau l iu rt quan trng. Tht vy,
iu quan trng l: chng ta c th phn chia chng ra mt s c hn (vi trm) loi khc
nhau, v mt khi vy th iu chng ta khng nh - mt nguyn t c th thay th bng mt
nguyn t khc cng loi m khng c nh hng no c - cha ng mt lng thng tin
khng nh. Trong c hc lng t, iu quan trng bc nht. Tht ng tic l ti khng th
gii thch c iu y, d ch l mt phn thi, v bi ging ny dnh cho nhng ngi
khng c chun b trc v ton hc. Nhng i vi nhng ngi c chun b th l mt
vn rt l th. Trong c hc lng t, khng nh - mt nguyn t c th thay th bng nguyn
t khc cng loi - dn ti nhng h qu tht bt ng. N cho php gii thch c mt hin tng
k l, quan st thy trong hli: hli lng chy trong ng m khng chu mt sc cn no c, t n
chy v chy, c th khng bao gi dng. N cng l c s cho ton b h thng tun hon ca
cc nguyn t v gii thch v u m c nhng lc gi cho ngi ti khi bin mt vo t. y,
ti khng th ni t m v nhng iu , m ch mun nhn mnh v tm quan trng ca vic
nghin cu cc nguyn l nu.
By gi, hn l bn inh ninh rng cc nh lut vt l u i xng i vi mi bin i.
bn ng ngh nh th, ti s dn ra mt vi th d. Th nht l s bin i kch thc. Nu ta lm
mt ci my, xong lm mt ci khc m mi chi tit hon ton ging cc chi tit tng ng ca
my kia, v cng lm ng bng cht liu nh th nhng to hn hai ln th khng chc l n s
hot ng hon ton ging nh chic my ban u. Ai tng quen tip xc vi cc nguyn t
u bit v iu , bi v nu ti thu nh my mi t ln, th n ch cn vn vn li khong nm
nguyn t, m vi nm nguyn t th khng th lm nn ci my g c. Hin nhin l chng ta
khng th thay i kch thc nhiu n nh vy. Nhng trc khi c bc tranh nguyn t y
v th gii, th ngi ta quan nim nh th. C l bn thnh thong ch ti cc bi bo ni
rng c ngi no dng mt ci nh th bng nhng que dim, nhiu tng, theo kiu gtc hn
c nhng nh th gtic nht, m li cc k trng l na v.v... Nhng v sao khng bao gi chng
ta li dng c nhng nh th tht s ging nh th vi nhng cy g khng l, cng p v
cng theo kiu nh vy? Cu tr li l: Nu chng ta dng mt nh th nh vy, th n s qu cao,
qu nng v s sp . ng nh vy, v chng ta qun rng, lc so snh hai vt th phi i tt
c nhng g c trong h! Do lc ht ca Qu t cng tc dng ln nh th t hon, cho nn mun
so snh vi nh th khng l, th cng cn phi tng lc ht ca Qu t tc dng ln n mt s
ln tng ng. iu ny cn t hn na. Bi v Qu t kch thc to hn s ht mnh hn na, v
lc by gi cc x ca anh s gy ht.
Galileo ln u tin pht hin ra rng cc nh lut vt l khng gi nguyn khi kch thc bin
i. Nhn xt v bn ca xng v x nh, ng a ra hnh nh nh sau. Nu ta mun c
mt con vt ln, chng hn nh hai ln cao hn, to hn v di hn bnh thng, th trng lng
ca con vt s tng ln 8 ln, v nh vy phi cn ti mt b xng chu c mt sc nng 8
ln ln hn. Nhng bn ca mt xng ph thuc kch thc tit din ngang ca n; v th nu
tt c cc xng u hai ln ln hn trc, th tit din ngang ch tng ln bn ln, v ch chu
c mt sc nng gp bn ln trc m thi. Trong cun sch Trao i v hai nn khoa hc
mi ca Galileo, bn s thy nhng hnh v b xng tng tng ca mt con ch khng l vi
nhng t l hon ton khc. Ti cho rng Galileo coi vic pht minh ra s kin khng i xng
ca cc nh lut t nhin i vi vic thay i kch thc y quan trng khng km g nhng
nh lut chuyn ng m ng pht minh, v chnh v l do y m ng a c hai vo trong
cun sch ca mnh.
V y, mt th d na v s khng i xng ca nh lut vt l. Nu anh trong con tu v tr
quay vi vn tc khng i m khng nh rng anh khng th nhn bit iu th tht l sai
lm. Ngc li kia. Anh s thy u c mnh quay. S cn mt s du hiu khc na xut hin; tt
c cc vt s b bn vo thnh do lc li tm (anh gi th no, tu - ti hi vng rng trong phng
ny khng c nhng gio s vt l dy nm th nht mun quay ti v ch ). Mun xc nh
rng Qu t quay, c th dng con lc hoc con quay, v c l bn cng nghe ni rng trong
nhiu i thin vn v vin bo tng c treo con lc Fuc dng chng minh Qu t quay m
khng cn phi quan st cc ngi sao. Chng ta c th khng nhn ln bu tri m khng nh
c l chng ta quay vi vn tc khng i cng vi Qu t, bi v trong chuyn ng nh vy,
cc nh lut vt l khng cn l khng thay i na.
Nhiu ngi bo rng, s tht Qu t quay tng i vi thin h, v ni thm: nu quay thin
h cng vi Qu t th cc nh lut s khng thay i. Nhng bn thn ti khng bit iu g s
xy ra, nu nh chng ta c th quay ton b V tr, v hin nay chng ta cng khng bit lm
iu nh th no. Cng ging nh vy, hin nay chng ta khng c mt l thuyt no miu t
nh hng ca thin h ln cc hin tng Qu t t (mt cch t nhin, ch khng phi
l kt qu ca s la di hay ba t) c th suy ra rng qun tnh quay, cc hiu ng quay, chng
hn nh dng cong ca mt nc trong mt x nc ang quay, tt c nhng ci c gii
thch bng tc dng ca nhng lc, do nhng vt vng ln cn trc tip, gy nn. Cho ti nay
cha r iu y ng hay sai. C th phi l nh vy, nh ni trong nguyn l Makh, song s
ng n ca nguyn l y cn cha c chng minh. Nhng cu hi nh vy tr li bng thc
nghim s n gin hn. Nu chng ta quay vi vn tc khng i so vi cc tinh vn, th khi
liu chng ta c s quan st thy nhng hin tng c bit no khng? C. Cn nu chng ta
trong con tu v tr chuyn ng thng u so vi cc tinh vn, th trong trng hp y chng ta
c thy hin tng g c bit g khng? Khng. l hai iu hon ton khc nhau. Do
khng th khng nh: mi chuyn ng u l tng i. Ni dung ca nguyn l tng i
khng phi nh th. N ch khng nh rng, bn trong con tu khng th no pht hin c
chuyn ng thng u (i vi cc tinh vn) ca n.

(K sau ng tip)