MEASUREMENT AND SCALING TECHNIQUE

Introduction
o Measurement
n Common term – come across in daily life n Process of assigning numbers to objects or observations- under a function of rules.

o Physical properties of objects (e.g.) weight, height, etc. o Abstract concepts (e.g.) Social conformity, intelligence, marital status, etc.

Measurement of physical properties
o Is of quantitative measurement

o Measurement is of high accuracy

o Have a definite yardstick for measurement o o Has standard unit of measurement

Measurement of abstract phenomena
o Is of qualitative measurement

o Not easy to measure

o Less confidence about the accuracy

o Complex and demanding task

o Technically speaking,  “Measurement is a process of mapping aspects of a domain onto other aspects of a range according to some rule of correspondence.”

Consider the case…
o To find the male to female attendance ratio- in some show…according to sex. o In terms of set theory,
n Domain- those who are coming to show. n Range- sex classification. n Rule of correspondence is…
o If domain appears as male…assign ‘0’ o If female… assign ‘1’

Cont…
o Similarly if we record a persons marital status…assign 1,2,3,4 as…
n n n n Single Married Widowed Divorced

o We record “Yes” or “No” answers to questions as “0” or “1”(or as 1 and 2 or perhaps as 59 and 60) o We refer to the number we record as Nominal data

Nominal data…
o Are numerical in name only…

o Do not share any properties of numbers…as we deal with ordinary arithmetic.

o As in marital status record 1,2,3,4…
n We cannot write as 4>2 or 3<4 and 3-1=4-3.

Ordinal data…
o Qualities expressed as numerical data… which can be used to setup only inequalities. o For eg in assigning number to express the hardness of the minerals as from 1 to 10, respectively to Talc, Gypsum,….to Diamond. o We can write as 5>2, or 6<9…but cannot be written as 10-9 = 5-4. o “Greater than symbol (i.e.>), used to designate “happier than”, “preferred to”….

Interval data…
o In addition to setting up inequalities, can also form differences… o In case of expressing the degree of hotness…we use Temperature. o For eg temp 1100C > 900C and the diff 1100C – 900C = 600C – 400C. o It would not mean that 1260C is twice the hot as 630C.

Ratio data…
o Can also form quotients in addition to setting up inequalities and forming differences.

o It includes all the usual measurements… of length, height, money amounts, weight, volume, area, pressures, etc.

Measurement scales
o Classification of measurement scales are;
n n n n n n n Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale

Nominal scale…
o A simple system…of assigning numbers to events or order to label them. o Eg assignment of numbers to basketball players to identify them. o Order is of no consequence…have no quantitative value. o Provide convenient ways of keeping track of people, objects and events.

Cont…
o Mode is used as measure of central tendency. o chi-square test is the most significant test of statistical significance. o Least powerful level of measurement. o Nominal data, are, thus, counted data. o Widely used in surveys.

Ordinal data…
o Places events in order. o Used in research related to qualitative phenomena. o Eg as in ranking a student in his academic performance (from highest to lowest scale). o More precise comparisons can be made

Interval scale…
o Interval scales can have an arbitrary zero. o Primary limitation is the lack of true zero. o For eg increase in temp from 300C to 400C is same as 600C to 700C. o but the ratio of two temp 300C and 600C means nothing due to the lack of absolute zero.

Cont…
o Provides more powerful measurement than ordinal scale, also incorporates the concept of equality of interval. o Correlation techniques are appropriate and test for statistical significance are the ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test.

Ratio scale…
o Have an absolute or true scale of measurement. o For e.g. zero point on a centimeter scale indicates the complete absence of length or height. o A kind of comparison which is not possible in case of an interval scale. o All statistical techniques can be used and all manipulations that can be carried out with real numbers.

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