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Kinetics of particles

study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a body,


the mass of the body, and the motion of the body

• Newton’s first law and third law are sufficient for studying bodies at
rest (- statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration

Ist law: A particle remains at rest or continues to move with uniform velocity
(in a straight line with const. speed) if there is no unbalanced force acting on it

• When a body accelerates (change in velocity magnitude or direction),


Newton’s second law is required to relate the motion of the body to the
forces acting on it

• Newton’s Second Law: If the resultant force acting on a particle is not


zero, the particle will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude
of resultant and in the direction of the resultant.
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Consider a particle subjected to constant forces,

F1 F2 F3 constant
= = = = mass, m
a1 a 2 a 3

Characteristic of
particle considered

When a particle of mass m is acted upon by a force ‘F’, the


acceleration of the particle must satisfy

F = ma
Magnitudes of F & a are proportional; F & a vectors are in
same direction

Body subjected to several forces, ΣF = ma

If force acting on particle is zero, particle will not accelerate, i.e., it will
remain stationary or continue on a straight line at constant velocity –
Newton’s Ist law R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Linear momentum of a particle
Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the velocity yield

Σ F = m dv
dt
d dL
= (mv ) = Mass is constant
dt dt
L = linear momentumof theparticle

‘L’ - Same direction as that of velocity of particle – mv (vector)

L = mv => ΣF = dL/dt Unit: kg. (m/s)

The rate of change of linear momentum (dL/dt) is zero when ΣF = 0 => If


the resultant force acting on the particle is zero, linear momentum of the
particle ‘L’ is constant, in magnitude and direction
This is called as Principle of conservation of momentum => another version
of Newton’s 1st law R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Equations of motion

In rectangular components,

Newton’s second law provides ∑F = ma

∑(Fxi + Fy j + Fz k )= m(axi + ay j + az k )
∑ Fx = max ∑ Fy = may ∑ Fz = maz
∑ Fx = mx ∑ Fy = my ∑ Fz = mz
0 -W 0 For a projectile without air
resistance
For tangential and normal components,

∑ F t = mat ∑ F n = man
dv v2
∑ t
F = m ∑Fn = m
dt ρ Narayanan, IITG
R.Ganesh
Dynamic equilibrium

• Alternate expression of Newton’s second law,

∑ F − ma = 0
− ma = inertial vector

Particle is in equilibrium under given forces and inertia vector


– called Dynamic equilibrium

In coplanar force system, all forces can be made into closed vector
polygon and can be solved (OR)
Sum of force components including inertia vector can be equated to zero

ΣFx = 0; ΣFy = 0 Rectangular components

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Tangential components can also be
used, -mat & -man

Tangential component: Measure of resistance of


particle to change in speed
Normal component: Tendency of particle to leave
its path

Inertia vectors or inertia forces are measure of resistance


that particles offer for motion

These forces are not considered like g, contact forces etc. and
hence dynamic equilibrium method is not used

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Beer/Johnston, 12.3
The two blocks shown start from rest. The horizontal
plane and the pulley are frictionless, and the pulley is
assumed to be of negligible mass. Determine the
acceleration of each block and the tension in the cord.
Write the kinematic relationships for the dependent motions and
accelerations of the blocks.
x
yB = 1x aB = 1a
2 A 2 A

Apply Newton’s II law to blocks A, B, pulley C y

Write equations of motion for blocks and pulley: ∑ Fx = m A a A :


∑ Fy = m B a B : T1 = (100 kg )a A
m B g − T2 = m B a B
(300 kg )(9.81 m s 2 )− T2 = (300 kg )a B
T2 = 2940 N - (300 kg )a B
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
T2 = 2940-150 aA
T2 − 2T1 = 0

Put T1, T2 in above equn., 2940-150aA-2 (100aA) = 0; aA = 8.4 m/s2

aB = 8.4/2 = 4.2 m/s2; T1 = 100 (8.4) = 840 N


T2 = 2 (840) 1680 N

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Beer/Johnston, 12.14 88 km/h
A light train made up of two cars is traveling at 88 km/h A B
when the brakes are applied to both cars. Knowing that car
A has a weight of 24947.56 kg and carB has a weight of Fb
19958 kg and that the braking force is 31137.5 N on each
car, determine (a) the distance traveled by the train before it
comes to a stop, (b) the force in the coupling between the
cars while the train is slowing down.

Consider Fb as braking force Fb Fb

Find ax

(a) Relate ‘ax’ to ‘Xf’ by ax = v (dv/dx); Apply BCs and by integration of ‘x’
and ‘v’; Find ‘Xf’
Fb Fc
A

(b) Find Fc from this


R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
12.36

A 2-kg ball revolves in a horizontal circle as shown at a


constant speed of 1.5 m/s. Knowing that L = 600 mm,
determine (a) the angle θ that the cord forms with the
vertical, (b) the tension in the cord.

θ
T ΣFy = m (ay) = 0 =>T cos θ-w = 0
ΣFx = m (ax) => T sinθ = ma
ma

a is towards circle center = v2/ρ = v2/Lsinθ


W

Solve these equns. and get θ, t

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


12.53
A curve in a speed track has a radius of 200 m and a rated
speed of 180 km/h. Knowing that a racing car starts
skidding on the curve when traveling at a speed of 320
km/h, determine (a) the banking angle θ, (b) the coefficient
of static friction between the tires and the track under the
prevailing conditions

Rated speed is the speed at which a car should travel if no lateral


friction force is to be exerted on its wheels
ma
F
Y
θ
N
w

Put F=0 and find θ FindNarayanan,


R.Ganesh µ from µIITG
= F/N
Angular momentum of particle

• H O = r × mV = moment of momentum or the angular


momentum of the particle about O.
• H O is perpendicular to plane containing r and mV

i j k
HO = x y z We have Hx, Hy, Hz
mv x mv y mv z

• Derivative of angular momentum with respect to time,

H O = r × mV + r × mV = V × mV + r × ma
= r×∑ F
0
= ∑ MO
• It follows from Newton’s second law that the sum of the moments about O of
the forces acting on the particle is equal to the rate of change of the angular
momentum of the particle about O
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Eqs of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components

• Consider particle at r and θ, in polar coordinates,


∑ Fr = mar = m(r r θ )
2

∑ Fθ = maθ = m(rθ +2rθ )

Motion under central force

• When only force acting on particle is directed toward or


away from a fixed point O, the particle is said to be moving
under a central force.

• Since the line of action of the central force passes


through O, ∑ M O = H O = 0 and
r × mV = H O = constant

rmv sinφ = r0mv0 sinφ0Narayanan, IITG


R.Ganesh
The 2.7 kg collar B slides on the frictionless arm AA′.
The arm is attached to drum D and rotates about O in
a horizontal plane at the rate θ = 0.8t,
where θ and t are expressed in rad/s and seconds,
respectively. As the arm-drum assembly rotates, a
mechanism within the drum releases cord so that the
collar moves outward from O with a constant speed of
0.457 m/s. Knowing that at t = 0, r = 0, determine the
time at which the tension in the cord is equal to the
magnitude of the horizontal force exerted on B by arm
AA′.
r t
dr/dt = r = 0.457 m/s; ∫dr = ∫0.457 dt => r = 0.457t; r = 0
0 0

(
∑ Fr = mar = m r r θ )
2

∑ Fθ = maθ = m(rθ +2rθ )


ar = -0.292 t3 m/s2; aθ = 1.09 m/s2

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


M aθ
M ar
=
T
Q

T = Q => -m ar = m aθ
0.292 t3 = 1.09 => t = 1.66 s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Energy and momentum methods

• Previously, problems dealing with the motion of particles were


solved through the fundamental equation of motion, F = ma
• We introduce two additional methods of analysis

• Method of work and energy: directly relates force, mass, velocity


and displacement

• Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, mass,


velocity, and time

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Method of Work & energy
Work of a force
• Work of the force is

dU = F • dr
= F ds cos α
= Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

• Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and sign but not direction.

• Dimensions of work are length × force. Units are


1 J ( joule ) = (1 N )(1 m )

•Work of finite displacement


•Work of force of gravity
•Work of the force exerted by a spring
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Kinetic energy of particle
• Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force, F
dv
Ft = mat = m
dt
dv ds dv
=m = mv
ds dt ds
F t ds = mv dv
• Integrating from A1 to A2 ,
s2 v2
= = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 2 KE:
∫ t
F ds m ∫ v dv 2 2 2 1
s1 v1
Unit: Nm or Joule
U1→2 = T2 − T1 T = 12 mv 2 = kinetic energy
Scalar quantity

• The work of the force F is equal to the change in kinetic energy


of the particle => Principle of work & energy

T2 = T1 + U (1-2)
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
T1

• To determine velocity of pendulum bob


at A2. Consider work & kinetic energy.
• Force P acts normal to path and does no work.
T2

T1 + U 1→ 2 = T 2
1W 2
0 + Wl = v2
2 g
v2 = 2 gl

Advantages:

• Velocity found without determining expression for acceleration and


integrating
• All quantities are scalars and can be added directly

• Forces which do no work are eliminated from the problem.


R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
• Principle of work and energy cannot be applied to
directly to determine the acceleration of the
pendulum bob

• Calculating the tension in the cord requires


supplementing the method of work and energy with
an application of Newton’s second law

• As the bob passes through A2 , Problem with more particles: KE


can be obtained for each particle
∑ Fn = m a n ΣFt = m at = 0 separately and KE can be added for
W v 22 all particles
P −W =
g l T1 + U (1-2) = T2
W 2 gl
P =W + = 3W T – arithmetic sum of the KEs of
g l particles involved; U (1-2) = work of
all the forces acting on the particles
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Power: Rate at which work is done
Power = dU/dt = F.dr/dt = F.v
Unit: Nm/s

Efficiency = Power output / Power input < 1

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Two blocks are joined by an inextensible cable as
shown. If the system is released from rest, determine
the velocity of block A after it has moved 2 m. Assume
that the coefficient of friction between block A and the
plane is µk = 0.25 and that the pulley is weightless and
frictionless.

Apply the principle of work and energy separately to


blocks A and B.

+ ve

( )
W A = (200 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 1962 N
FA = µ k N A = µ k W A = 0.25(1962 N ) = 490 N
T1 + U1→2 = T2 :
0 + FC (2 m ) − FA (2 m ) = 12 m A v 2

FC (2 m ) − (490 N )(2 m ) = 12 (200 kg )v 2

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


( )
WB = (300 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 2940 N
T1 + U1→2 = T2 :
0 − Fc (2 m ) + WB (2 m ) = 12 m B v 2

− Fc (2 m ) + (2940 N )(2 m ) = 12 (300 kg )v 2

• When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel.
Solve for the velocity

(2940 N )(2 m ) − (490 N )(2 m ) = 12 (200 kg + 300 kg )v 2


4900 J = 12 (500 kg )v 2

v = 4 .43 m s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A 40.8 kg package is at rest on an incline when a constant force P is applied to it. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and the incline is 0.35. Knowing that
the speed of the package is 0.6m/s after it has moved 0.9 m up the incline, determine the
magnitude of the force P.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


400
P 20°

50°

F = 0.35 N

T1 = 0 N

N = 400 Cos 20 + P sin 50 Put N in U (1-2)

U (1-2) = T2 – T1 => P = 737.9 N

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A 2000-kg automobile starts from rest at point A on a 6°
incline and coasts through a distance of 150 m to point B.
The brakes are then applied, causing the automobile to 6°
come to a stop at point C, 20 m from B. Knowing that
slipping is impending during the braking period and
neglecting air resistance and rolling resistance, determine
(a) the speed of the automobile at point B, (b) the
coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road
w

VA = 0; Vc = 0; w = 19620 N

U (A-B) = TB – TA F

19620 (150) Sin 6 = ½ (2000) (VB2) N


VB =17.5 m/s

U (A-C) = TC – TA
19620 (170) Sin 6 – F (20) = 0
19620 (170) Sin 6 – 19620 (µ) cos 6 (20) = 0
µ = 0.89 R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Car B is towing car A with 4.6 m cable at a constant speed
of 9 m/s on an uphill grade when the brakes of car B are
fully applied causing it to skid to a stop. Car A, whose driver
had not observed that car B was slowing down, then strikes
the rear of car B. Neglecting air resistance and rolling
resistance and assuming a coefficient of kinetic friction of
0.9, determine the speed of car A just before the collision.

mg
0 Car B

F = 0.9 N
F = 0.9 mg cos 5
N = mg cos 5
=> d = 4.2 m

For Car A: initial to contact mg


Car A

N
(-mg sin 5) (4.6+4.2) = ½ m VA2 – ½ (m) 92 =>
VA = 8.22 m/s
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Potential energy

PE due to displacement; U (1-2) = Wy1 – Wy2 = V1-V2


PE due to spring deformation; U (1-2) = ½ k(x1)2 – ½ k (x2)2

Conservative forces
Forces whose work done is independent of path followed; depends
only on initial and final positions => conservative forces

• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the


work of the force is independent of the path
followed by its point of application.
U1→2 = V ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) − V ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 )

For any conservative force applied on closed path

∫ F. dr = 0
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
• Elementary work corresponding to displacement between two
neighboring points,
dU = V ( x , y , z ) − V ( x + dx , y + dy , z + dz )
= − dV ( x , y , z )
The elementary work of a
du = -dv (x, y, z) conservative force is exact
differential

 ∂V ∂V ∂V 
Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = − dx + dy + dz 
 ∂x ∂y ∂z 
r  ∂V ∂V ∂V 
F = − + +  = −grad V
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  Differential of a function
of several variables

Depends only on position


Fx = -∂v/∂x; Fy = -∂v/∂y; Fz = -∂v/∂z
of point of application

F = -grad V For conservative


R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITGforce
Conservation of energy

U (1-2) = V1 – V2; V – POTENTIAL ENERGY


U (1-2) = T2 – T1; T – KINETIC ENERGY

V1 – V2 = T2 – T1
T1+V1 = T2+V2

When a particle moves under the action of conservative forces, the sum of
kinetic energy and potential energy of particle remains constant

T + V = CONSTANT = MECHANICAL ENERGY, E

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


At A1; T1 = 0; V1 = Wl; T1 + V1 = Wl
At A2; T2 = ½ (W/g) v22 = ½ (W/g) (2gl) = Wl; V2 = 0
T2 + V2 = Wl
E = T + V = CONSTANT

Energy: A1 = only potential; A2 = Only kinetic

Only PE depends on elevation and not KE. So, speed is


same in A, A’
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
A B C

Particle will have same speed at A, B, C as long as weight of


particle and normal reaction of path are the two forces acting;
without friction
Weight of particle, forces exerted by spring – conservative
forces
Friction force => Non-conservative force; work done by friction
force can not be expressed as change in potential energy as it
depends on path followed by point of application
A mechanical system involving friction will have decrease in
total mechanical energy;R.Ganesh
dissipated
Narayanan,as
IITGheat etc.
A 20 N collar slides without friction along a vertical
rod as shown. The spring attached to the collar has an
undeflected length of 4 cm and a constant of 3 N/cm. If
the collar is released from rest at position 1, determine
its velocity after it has moved 6 cm. to position 2.

Position 1: Ve = 12 kx12 = 12 (3N / cm )(8 cm − 4 cm ) = 24 N ⋅ cm


2

PE: V1 = Ve + V g = 24 N ⋅ cm + 0

KE: T1 = 0

Position 2: Ve = 1 kx22 = 1 (3N / cm )(10 cm − 4 cm )2 = 54 N ⋅ cm


2 2
Vg = Wy = (20 N )(− 6 cm ) = −120 N ⋅ cm
PE: V2 = Ve + Vg = 54 − 120 = −66 N ⋅ cm
1 20 2
KE: T2 = 12 mv22 = v2
2 10
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Conservation of Energy:
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
0 + 24 N ⋅ cm = v22 − 66 N ⋅ cm

v2 = 9.5 m s ↓

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


13.55

A force P is slowly applied to a plate that is


attached to two springs and causes a deflection
x0. In each of the two cases shown, derive an
expression for the constant , ‘ke’ in terms of k1
and k2 , of the single spring equivalent to the
given system, that is, of the single spring which
will undergo the same deflection x0 when
subjected to the same force P.

Series connection: Force in both springs is the same = P


X0 = X1 + X2

P/Ke = P/K1 + P/K2


=> Ke = (K1.K2)/(K1+K2)

Parallel connection: Deflection in both springs is the same = X0

P = P1 + P2 = K1 X0 + K2 X0
P = Ke X0 => Ke = K1 + K2
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
13.59
A 750-g collar can slide along the horizontal rod shown. It
is attached to an elastic cord with an undeformed length of
300 mm and a spring constant of 150 N/m. Knowing that
the collar is released from rest at A and neglecting friction,
determine the speed of the collar (a) at B, (b) at E.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
A 2.7 kg collar can slide without friction on a vertical rod
and is held so it just touches an undeformed spring.
Determine the maximum deflection of the spring (a) if the
collar is slowly released until it reaches an equilibrium
position, (b) if the collar is suddenly released.

2.7 kg
a) Collar in equilibrium

ΣF = 0 => -26.5+2627X = 0 K = 2627 N/m

Xmax = 0.01 m

b) Collar in suddenly released

T1+V1 = T2+V2
0+0 = 0 + (-Wh+1/2x2627xh2)
h = 2 (26.5)/2627 = 0.02 m

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A spring is used to stop a 90.7 kg package which is moving
down a 20° incline. The spring has a constant k = 22 kN/m
and is held by cables so that it is initially compressed 15 cm.
Knowing that the velocity of the package is 2.4 m/s when it is
7.6 m from the spring and neglecting friction, determine the
maximum additional deformation of the spring in bringing
the package to rest.

Position 1 is at the top of the incline; position 2 is when the spring has maximum
deformation

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
½ (90.7) (2.4) + [1/2 (22000) (0.15)2 + 890 (7.6+X) sin 20] =
0 + [0 + ½ (22000) (X+0.15)2]

Where x = Deformation of the spring

Solving this, X = 0.367 m


R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Method of impulse and momentum
• Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, mass,
velocity, and time.

F = d (mv) / dt
FX
Fdt = d (mv)
t2
∫ F dt = mv2 - mv1
t1
t2
t mv1 + ∫F dt = mv2
t1
t1 t2

Integral => Impulse Vector quantity;


of force, F (Imp1-2) Unit : N.s

Imp1-2 = i ∫FX dt + j ∫Fy dt + k ∫Fz dt, from t1 to t2


R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
t2
mv1 + ∫F dt = mv2
t1

mv1 + Imp1-2 = mv2

The final momentum of the particle can be obtained by adding


vectorially its initial momentum and the impulse of the force
during the time interval.

Note: KE, work => scalar quantities; Momentum, impulse =>


vector quantities
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Several forces acting on one particle mv1 + Σ Imp1-2 = mv2

Two or more particles Σ mv1 + Σ Imp1-2 = Σ mv2

• Impulse of action and reaction forces exerted by particles cancel


out; Only the impulses of external forces need be considered
• If sum of external forces is zero, then Σ mv1 = Σ mv2. This says
that total momentum of the particles is conserved. (discussed later)

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Impulsive motion

Force acting on a particle during a very short time interval that is large
enough to cause a significant change in momentum is called an
impulsive force and resulting motion is called impulsive motion

When impulsive forces act on a particle,


m v1 + ∑ F ∆ t = m v 2

When a baseball is struck by a bat, contact occurs over a short time


interval but force is large enough to change sense of ball motion

Non-impulsive forces are forces for which (F ∆t) is small and


therefore, may be neglected; Eg.,
R.Ganesh weight
Narayanan, IITGof body, spring force etc.
Impulse motion of several particles

∑m v1 + ∑ F ∆ t =∑ m v 2
Second term involves only impulse and external forces

If all the external force are non-impulsive, then Σ m v1 = Σ m v2

This indicates that total momentum of particle is conserved, and


not energy; Eg., Two particles moving freely collide each other

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A 0.5 kg baseball is pitched with a velocity of 80 m/s.
After the ball is hit by the bat, it has a velocity of 120
m/s in the direction shown. If the bat and ball are in
contact for 0.15 s, determine the average impulsive
force exerted on the ball during the impact.

x component equation:
− mv1 + Fx ∆t = mv2 cos 40°
0.5
− (80)+ Fx (0.15) = 0.5 (120 cos 40°)
9.81 9.81
Fx = 58.42 N y

y component equation:
x
0 + Fy ∆t = mv2 sin 40°
0.5
(
Fy 0.15 ) = (120 sin 40°)
9.81
Fy = 26 .21 N

F = 64.03 N; Θ = 24.16°
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
The initial velocity of the block in position A is 9 m/s.
Knowing that the coefficient of kinetic friction
between the block and the plane is 0.30, determine the
time it takes for the block to reach B with zero
velocity, if (a) θ = 0, (b) θ =20°.

A) θ = 0

t = 3.05 s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


b) θ = 20

t = 0.96 s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A light train made of two cars travels at 72 km/h. The mass of 72 km/hr
car A is 18 Mg and the mass of car B is 13 Mg. When the
brakes are suddenly applied, a constant braking force of 19
kN is applied to each car. Determine (a) the time required for
the train to stop after the brakes are applied, (b) the force in
the coupling between the cars while the train is slowing 18Mg 13Mg
down.

(a) Entire train: 72 km/h = 20 m/s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


b) Car A: mA = 18 Mg = 18x103 kg; t1-2 = 16.32 s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Impact
• Impact: Collision between two bodies which
occurs during a small time interval and during
which the bodies exert large forces on each other.

• Line of Impact: Common normal to the surfaces


in contact during impact.

• Central Impact: Impact for which the mass


Direct Central centers of the two bodies lie on the line of impact;
Impact otherwise, it is an eccentric impact..

• Direct Impact: Impact for which the velocities of


the two bodies are directed along the line of
impact.

• Oblique Impact: Impact for which one or both of


the bodies move along a line other than the line of
impact.
Oblique Central Impact
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Direct central impact
• Bodies moving in the same straight line, vA > vB .
• Upon impact the bodies undergo a period of
Before impact deformation, at the end of which, they are in
contact and moving at a common velocity.

• A period of restitution follows during which the


bodies either regain their original shape or remain
At maximum permanently deformed.
deformation
• Wish to determine the final velocities of the
VA’ VB’ two bodies. The total momentum of the
two body system is preserved,

mAvA + mBvB = mAvA’ + mBvB’


(In scalar, same direction)
After impact
• A second relation between the final velocities is
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
required.
Particle A

• Period of deformation: m A v A − ∫ Pdt = m Au

During period of deformation, P is the impulse force exerted on A


by B

• Period of restitution: m Au − ∫ Rdt = m Av′A

During period of restitution, R is the impulse force exerted on A by B

In general, R and P are different; Impulse of R < Impulse of P


e = coefficient of restitution
Rdt u − v′A
=∫ =
∫ Pdt v A − u
0 ≤ eR.Ganesh
≤1 Narayanan, IITG
Particle B
v′ − u
• A similar analysis of particle B yields e= B
u − vB

• Combining the relations leads to the desired


second relation between the final velocities. v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B )

The relative velocity of two particles after impact can be obtained by


multiplying relative velocity of two particles before impact with ‘e’.
=> This property is used to find ‘e’ of particles experimentally

mAvA + mBvB = mAvA’ + mBvB’


FINAL:
v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B ) + ve sign = right motion

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG - ve sign = left motion


mAvA + mBvB = mAvA’ + mBvB’ v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B )

1. Perfectly plastic impact, e =0 => vB’ = vA’


=> No period of restitution; Particles stay together after impact
Let vB’ = vA’ = v’ => mAvA + mBvB = (mA+ mB) v’ ;
=> v’ can be solved
2. Perfectly elastic impact, e =1 => vB’ - vA’ = vA - vB
=> Relative velocities before and after impact are equal; Impulses
received by each particle during period of deformation and
restitution are same; Particles move with same velocity but
opposite in nature
=> Total energy and total momentum conserved (not in general case)
=> vA’ and vB’ can be solved
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Oblique central impact
VB’
Velocities of particles are not directed along
VA’
the line of impact => Oblique impact
Final velocities VA’ and VB’ and directions
are un-known
n axis => along line of impact; t axis => common tangent

-F ∆t

F ∆t

Frictionless, smooth surface; Impulses due to internal forces


directed along the line of impact – n axis
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
1) Tangential component of momentum
(v A )t = (v ′A )t (v B )t = (v ′B )t
for each particle considered separately
is conserved.

2) Normal component of total


momentum of the two m A (v A )n + m B (v B )n = m A (v′A )n + mB (v′B )n
particles is conserved.

3) Normal components of (v′B )n − (v′A )n = e[(v A )n − (v B )n ]


relative velocities before and
after impact are related by the
coefficient of restitution.
We have 4 independent equations to solve for components
of velocities of A and B after impact
Particles canR.Ganesh
move Narayanan,
in space;IITGno constraints
One or two particles have constraints

• Block constrained to move along horizontal


surface.

• Impulses from internal forces F and − F


along the n axis and from external force Fext
exerted by horizontal surface and directed
along the vertical to the surface.

• Three unknowns: i) Final velocity of ball in direction and


magnitude and ii) unknown final block velocity magnitude.
Three equations required.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


1) Tangential momentum of ball is (v B )t = (v′B )t
conserved.

2) Total horizontal momentum of block m A (v A ) + m B (v B ) x = m A (v′A ) + m B (v′B ) x


and ball is conserved.

3) Normal component of relative (v′B )n − (v′A )n = e[(v A )n − (v B )n ]


velocities of block and ball are related
by coefficient of restitution.
Not extension of central impact case

mava - ∫ Pdt cos θ = mau; mAu - ∫ Rdt cos θ = mAvA’

Period of deformation Period of restitution

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


e = coefficien t of restitutio n
Rdt u − v ′A
=∫ =
∫ Pdt v A − u
0 ≤ e ≤1

Multiply all velocities by cos θ to obtain their projections on line of


impact
e = un – (vA’)n / (va)n - un

Similar to the central impact case, ‘e’ can be derived between


initial and final velocities

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A 20 Mg railroad car moving at a speed of 0.5 m/s to right collides
with a 35 Mg car which is at rest. If after collision 35 Mg car is
observed to move to the right at a speed of 0.3 m/s. find the coefft.
of restitution between the two cars

mAvA + mBvB = mAvA’ + mBvB’


(20 x 0.5) + 0 = 20 x vA’ + (35 x 0.3)
vA’ = -0.025 m/s

v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B ) e = 0.3 – (-0.025)/0.5-0 = 0.65

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


The magnitude and direction of the velocities of
two identical frictionless balls before they strike
each other are as shown. Assuming e = 0.9,
determine the magnitude and direction of the
velocity of each ball after the impact.

(v A )n = v A cos 30° = 26.0 m s (v A )t = v A sin 30° = 15.0 m s


(vB )n = −vB cos 60° = −20.0 m s (v B )t = v B sin 60° = 34.6 m s

We know that, (v A )t = (v′A )t (v B )t = (v′B )t Find vA’ t, vB’ t

m A (v A )n + m B (v B )n = m A (v′A )n + mB (v′B )n

(v′B )n − (v′A )n = e[(v A )n − (v B )n ] Find vA’n & vB’n

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Two steel blocks slide without friction on a horizontal surface;
immediately before impact their velocities are as shown. Knowing
that e = 0.75, determine (a) their velocities after impact, (b) the
energy loss during impact.

a) Put given input values and solve these two


equations; find final velocities

b) ∆E = T1 – T2
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Application of three methods
• Three methods for the analysis of kinetics problems:
- Direct application of Newton’s second law
- Method of work and energy
- Method of impulse and momentum

• Select the method best suited for the problem or part of a


problem under consideration.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


(b) (c) (d)

(b) Pendulum A from A1 to A2: Apply conservation of energy


principle, find vA2 at A2
(c) A hits B: Total momentum of two pendulums is conserved; use
relation between relative velocities; find vA3, vB3 after impact
(d) B from B3 to B4: Apply conservation of energy principle to
pendulum B

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A 7.9 kg sphere A of radius 11.4 cm moving with a
velocity v0 of magnitude 1.8 m/s strikes a 0.73 kg
sphere B of radius 5 cm which was at rest. Both
spheres are hanging from identical light flexible
cords. Knowing that the coefficient of restitution is
0.8, determine the velocity of each sphere
immediately after impact.
F∆t
Ball A θ θ
+ = 0.064
mAvA’ 0.164
mAvA
Θ =22.9°
mAvA - F∆t cos θ = mAvA’
θ mBvB’
Ball B
θ = F∆t = mBvB’
F∆t

Solve three equns,


vA’ cosθ – vB’ = e (-v0 cos θ)
R.Ganesh Narayanan, v
IITG
A’ = +1.56 m/s; vB’ = 2.76 m/s
System of particles
Motion of large number of particles considered together

Application of Newton’s second law for system of particles

• Newton’s second law for each particle Pi in a


system of n particles,
n
Fi + ∑ fij = mi ai
j =1

∑ (ri × fij )= ri × mi ai
n
ri × Fi +
j =1

Fi = external force fij = internal forces


mi ai = effectiveforce
Repeat this for ‘n’ number of particles & will get ‘n’ equations. The vectors miai
are called effective forces of the particles; The external forces Fi and internal
forces fij acting on the various particles form a system equivalent to the
system of the effective forces miai.
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
The external forces Fi and internal forces fij acting on the various particles
form a system equivalent to the system of the effective forces miai.

• Summing over all the elements,


n n n n
∑ Fi + ∑ ∑ f ij = ∑ mi ai
i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

∑ (ri × Fi )+ ∑ ∑ (ri × f ij )= ∑ (ri × mi ai )


n n n n

i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


• Since the internal forces occur in equal and opposite
collinear pairs, the resultant force and couple due to the
internal forces are zero,

∑ Fi = ∑ m i a i
∑ (r i × F i ) = ∑ ( r i × m i a i )

The system of the external forces acting on the particles and the
system of the effective forces of the particles are equipollent

NOTE: Equipollent system of vectors: ΣF = ΣF’; ΣMo = ΣMo’

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Linear & angular momentum
n
Linear momentum of the system of particles, L = ∑ mi vi
i =1
n n
L = ∑ mi vi = ∑ mi ai
i =1 i =1

Angular momentum about fixed point O of system of particles,


n
H O = ∑ (ri × mi vi )
i =1 collinear
n n
H O = ∑ (ri × mi vi )+ ∑ (ri × mi vi )
i =1 i =1
n
ΣF = L; ΣMo = Ho = ∑ (ri × mi ai )
i =1

Resultant of the external forces is equal to rate of change of linear momentum of the
system of particles; Moment resultant about fixed point O of the external forces is
equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of the system of particles
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Motion of the mass center of a system of particles
Mass center G of system of particles is defined by position vector rG
which satisfies
n
mrG = ∑ mi ri Where ‘m’ is the total mass Σmi of the
i =1 particles
n
Differentiating, mrG = ∑ mi ri
i =1

n
mvG = ∑ mi vi = L
i =1
Differentiating, ma = L = ∑ F
G

This defines motion of mass center G of the system of particles; The mass center of
a system of particles moves as if the entire mass of the system and all the external
forces were concentrated at that point; MOTION OF EXPLODING SHELL

Similarly angular momentum of a system of particles about mass


center can be obtained R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Conservation of momentum for a system of particles

• If no external forces act on the particles of a system, then the linear


momentum and angular momentum about the fixed point O are conserved.

L = ∑F = 0 HO = ∑ M O = 0
L = constant H O = constant

• Concept of conservation of momentum also applies to the analysis of the


mass center motion
L = mv = constant vG = Constant
G

Similarly, HG = Constant

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Kinetic energy of system of particles

KE of system of particles is defined as sum of KEs of various


particles of the system
n
T =1
2
∑ mi vi2
i =1

It is convenient to consider separately the


motion of mass center G of the system and
the motion of the system relative to a moving
frame attached to G
n
1 mv 2 ′2
T=
2 G + 1
2
∑ mi vi
i =1

Kinetic energy is equal to kinetic energy of mass center ‘G’


plus kinetic energy relative to the centroidal frame Gx’y’z’.
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Work-energy principle for system of particles
Principle of work and energy can be applied to each particle Pi ,
T1 + U1→2 = T2
where U1→2 represents the work done by the internal forces,
fij and the resultant external force Fi acting on Pi .
Principle of work and energy can be applied to the entire system by
adding the kinetic energies of all particles and considering the
work done by all external and internal forces
Although fij and fji are equal and opposite, the work of these forces
will not, in general, cancel out.
If the forces acting on the particles are conservative, the work is
equal to the change in potential energy and
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

which expresses the principle ofR.Ganesh


conservation of energy
Narayanan, IITG for the system of particles.
Principle of impulse & momentum for system of particles

ΣF = L; ΣMo = Ho

t2 t2
∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 − L1 ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2 − H1
t1 t1
t2 t2
L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 H1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2
t1 t1
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
t2 t2
∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 − L1 ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2 − H1
t1 t1
t2 t2
L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 H1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2
t1 t1

• The momenta of the particles at time t1 and the impulse of the


forces from t1 to t2 form a system of vectors equipollent to the
system of momenta of the particles at time t2 .

With no external forces acting, L1 = L2; H1 = H2

The linear momentum & angular momentum of system of


particles are conserved

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Variable systems of particles
• Kinetics principles established so far were derived for
constant systems of particles, i.e., systems which neither
gain nor lose particles.
• A large number of engineering applications require the
consideration of variable systems of particles, e.g., hydraulic
turbine, rocket engine, etc.
• For analyses, consider auxiliary systems which consist of
the particles instantaneously within the system plus the
particles that enter or leave the system during a short time
interval. The auxiliary systems, thus defined, are constant
systems of particles.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Steady stream of particles

Air flow
through duct
or blower

• System consists of a steady stream of particles against a vane or


through a duct.
• Define auxiliary system which includes particles which
flow in and out over ∆t.
• The auxiliary system is a constant system of particles over ∆t.
t2
L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L 2
t1
[∑ mi vi + (∆m )v A ]+ ∑ F ∆t = [∑ mi vi + (∆m)vB ]
dm
∑ F = (v B − v A )
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
dt
Applications

• Fluid Stream Diverted by Vane


or Duct
• Fan
• Fluid Flowing Through a Pipe

• Jet Engine
• Helicopter
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Systems gaining or losing mass

• Define auxiliary system to include particles


of mass m within system at time t plus the
particles of mass ∆m which enter the system
over time interval ∆t.
• The auxiliary system is a constant system of
particles.
t2
L1 + ∑ ∫ F dt = L 2
t1

[mv + (∆m )va ]+ ∑ F ∆t = (m + ∆m )(v + ∆v )

∑ F ∆t = m∆v + ∆m(v − va )+ (∆m )∆v


negligible
u = va - v
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
∑ F ∆ t = m ∆ v - (∆ m) u

ΣF = m (dv/dt)-u (dm/dt)
ΣF + u (dm/dt) = ma

In the case of losing mass case, rate of change of mass is negative

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A 20 N projectile is moving with a
velocity of 100 m/s when it explodes
into 5 and 15 N fragments.
Immediately after the explosion, the
fragments travel in the directions θA =
45o and θB = 30o. Determine the
velocity of each fragment.
y

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


• Write separate component equations for the conservation of linear
momentum.
m Av A + mB vB = mv0
(5 g )v A + (15 g )vB = (20 g )v0
x components:
5v A cos 45° + 15vB cos 30° = 20(100)

y components:
5v A sin 45° − 15vB sin 30° = 0

• Solve the equations simultaneously for the


fragment velocities.
v A = 207 m s v B = 97.6 m s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Grain falls onto a chute at the rate of 240 N/s. It
hits the chute with a velocity of 20 m/s and leaves
with a velocity of 15 m/s. The combined weight of
the chute and the grain it carries is 600 N with the
center of gravity at G. Determine the reactions at C
and B.
∆m 240 N/s
= 2
= 24 kg/s
∆t 10 m /s

The sum Σmivi of the momenta of the particles supported by


the chute is same at ‘t’ and ‘t+∆t’
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
Apply impulse-momentum principle,
L1 + ∑ ∫ F dt = L 2
In x-axis: C x ∆t = (∆m )vB cos10°

In y-axis: ( )
− (∆m )v A + C y − W + B ∆t = −(∆m )vB sin 10°

H C ,1 + ∑ ∫ M C dt = H C ,2

− 3(∆m )v A + (− 7W + 12 B )∆t
= 6(∆m )vB cos10° − 12(∆m )vB sin 10°

Put input values in three equations and solve for B, Cx, Cy


r r r
B = 584 .75 N C = ( 354 .5 i + 432 .75 j ) N

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A bullet is fired with a horizontal velocity of 500 m/s
through a 3-kg block A and becomes embedded in a
2.5-kg block B. Knowing that blocks A and B start
moving with velocities of 3 m/s and 5 m/s,
respectively, determine (a) the mass of the bullet, (b)
its velocity as it travels from block A to block B

(a) the mass of the bullet

mv0+mA(0)+mB(0) = mvB+mAvA+mBvB
m = mAvA+mBvB / (v0-vb) = (3) (3) + (2.5) (5) / (500-5) = 43.434 x10-3 kg

(b) velocity as it travels from block A to block B

mv0+mA(0) = mv1+mAvA => v1 = mv0 - mAvA / m =


= 43.434 x10-3 (500) – (3) (3) / 43.434 x10-3 = 292.8 m/s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


A system consists of three particles A, B, and C. We
know that WA = WB = 17.79 N and Wc = 124.55 N
and that the velocities of the particles, expressed in
m/s are, respectively, vA = 42i + 63j, vB = −42i +
63j, and vC = −9j − 6k. Determine the angular
momentum HO of the system about O.

H0 = ZERO R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


In a game of pool, ball A is moving with a velocity v0 of vA vC
magnitude v0 = 4.57 m/s when it strikes balls B and C,
which are at rest and aligned as shown. Knowing that
after the collision the three balls move in the directions
indicated and assuming frictionless surfaces and perfectly
vB
elastic impact (that is, conservation of energy), determine
v0
the magnitudes of the velocities vA, vB and vC.

X-axis:
Find VB and Vc in
y-axis: terms of V0 and VA

Put VB and Vc
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
The nozzle shown discharges a stream of water at a v1
flow rate Q= 1.8 m3/min with a velocity v of
magnitude 18.29 m/s. The stream is split into two
streams with equal flow rates by a wedge which is
kept in a fixed position. Determine the components
j
of the force exerted by the stream on the wedge.
i v2

Q = 1.8 m3/min = 0.03 m3/s

Impulse-momentum principle
∆m (v) + F ∆t = ∆m/2 (v1) + ∆m/2 (v2)
F = ∆m / ∆t (1/2 v1+1/2 v2 – v)

Velocity
vectors:
R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG
F

F = - 117.17 i - 56.8 j N

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


Sand falls from three hoppers onto a conveyor
belt at a rate of 40 kg/s for each hopper. The sand a a a a
hits the belt with a vertical velocity v1 = 3 m/s
and is discharged at A with a horizontal velocity
v2 = 4 m/s. Knowing that the combined mass of
the beam, belt system, and the sand it supports is h

600 kg with a mass center at G, determine the


E 2 4 F
reaction at E.

W = mg = 600 x 9.81 = 5886 N

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG


R = 4040 N (+)