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the mass of the body, and the motion of the body

• Newton’s first law and third law are sufficient for studying bodies at

rest (- statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration

Ist law: A particle remains at rest or continues to move with uniform velocity

(in a straight line with const. speed) if there is no unbalanced force acting on it

Newton’s second law is required to relate the motion of the body to the

forces acting on it

zero, the particle will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude

of resultant and in the direction of the resultant.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Consider a particle subjected to constant forces,

F1 F2 F3 constant

= = = = mass, m

a1 a 2 a 3

Characteristic of

particle considered

acceleration of the particle must satisfy

F = ma

Magnitudes of F & a are proportional; F & a vectors are in

same direction

If force acting on particle is zero, particle will not accelerate, i.e., it will

remain stationary or continue on a straight line at constant velocity –

Newton’s Ist law R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Linear momentum of a particle

Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the velocity yield

Σ F = m dv

dt

d dL

= (mv ) = Mass is constant

dt dt

L = linear momentumof theparticle

the resultant force acting on the particle is zero, linear momentum of the

particle ‘L’ is constant, in magnitude and direction

This is called as Principle of conservation of momentum => another version

of Newton’s 1st law R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Equations of motion

In rectangular components,

∑(Fxi + Fy j + Fz k )= m(axi + ay j + az k )

∑ Fx = max ∑ Fy = may ∑ Fz = maz

∑ Fx = mx ∑ Fy = my ∑ Fz = mz

0 -W 0 For a projectile without air

resistance

For tangential and normal components,

∑ F t = mat ∑ F n = man

dv v2

∑ t

F = m ∑Fn = m

dt ρ Narayanan, IITG

R.Ganesh

Dynamic equilibrium

∑ F − ma = 0

− ma = inertial vector

– called Dynamic equilibrium

In coplanar force system, all forces can be made into closed vector

polygon and can be solved (OR)

Sum of force components including inertia vector can be equated to zero

Tangential components can also be

used, -mat & -man

particle to change in speed

Normal component: Tendency of particle to leave

its path

that particles offer for motion

These forces are not considered like g, contact forces etc. and

hence dynamic equilibrium method is not used

Beer/Johnston, 12.3

The two blocks shown start from rest. The horizontal

plane and the pulley are frictionless, and the pulley is

assumed to be of negligible mass. Determine the

acceleration of each block and the tension in the cord.

Write the kinematic relationships for the dependent motions and

accelerations of the blocks.

x

yB = 1x aB = 1a

2 A 2 A

∑ Fy = m B a B : T1 = (100 kg )a A

m B g − T2 = m B a B

(300 kg )(9.81 m s 2 )− T2 = (300 kg )a B

T2 = 2940 N - (300 kg )a B

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

T2 = 2940-150 aA

T2 − 2T1 = 0

T2 = 2 (840) 1680 N

Beer/Johnston, 12.14 88 km/h

A light train made up of two cars is traveling at 88 km/h A B

when the brakes are applied to both cars. Knowing that car

A has a weight of 24947.56 kg and carB has a weight of Fb

19958 kg and that the braking force is 31137.5 N on each

car, determine (a) the distance traveled by the train before it

comes to a stop, (b) the force in the coupling between the

cars while the train is slowing down.

Find ax

(a) Relate ‘ax’ to ‘Xf’ by ax = v (dv/dx); Apply BCs and by integration of ‘x’

and ‘v’; Find ‘Xf’

Fb Fc

A

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

12.36

constant speed of 1.5 m/s. Knowing that L = 600 mm,

determine (a) the angle θ that the cord forms with the

vertical, (b) the tension in the cord.

θ

T ΣFy = m (ay) = 0 =>T cos θ-w = 0

ΣFx = m (ax) => T sinθ = ma

ma

W

12.53

A curve in a speed track has a radius of 200 m and a rated

speed of 180 km/h. Knowing that a racing car starts

skidding on the curve when traveling at a speed of 320

km/h, determine (a) the banking angle θ, (b) the coefficient

of static friction between the tires and the track under the

prevailing conditions

friction force is to be exerted on its wheels

ma

F

Y

θ

N

w

R.Ganesh µ from µIITG

= F/N

Angular momentum of particle

momentum of the particle about O.

• H O is perpendicular to plane containing r and mV

i j k

HO = x y z We have Hx, Hy, Hz

mv x mv y mv z

H O = r × mV + r × mV = V × mV + r × ma

= r×∑ F

0

= ∑ MO

• It follows from Newton’s second law that the sum of the moments about O of

the forces acting on the particle is equal to the rate of change of the angular

momentum of the particle about O

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Eqs of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components

∑ Fr = mar = m(r r θ )

2

away from a fixed point O, the particle is said to be moving

under a central force.

through O, ∑ M O = H O = 0 and

r × mV = H O = constant

R.Ganesh

The 2.7 kg collar B slides on the frictionless arm AA′.

The arm is attached to drum D and rotates about O in

a horizontal plane at the rate θ = 0.8t,

where θ and t are expressed in rad/s and seconds,

respectively. As the arm-drum assembly rotates, a

mechanism within the drum releases cord so that the

collar moves outward from O with a constant speed of

0.457 m/s. Knowing that at t = 0, r = 0, determine the

time at which the tension in the cord is equal to the

magnitude of the horizontal force exerted on B by arm

AA′.

r t

dr/dt = r = 0.457 m/s; ∫dr = ∫0.457 dt => r = 0.457t; r = 0

0 0

(

∑ Fr = mar = m r r θ )

2

ar = -0.292 t3 m/s2; aθ = 1.09 m/s2

M aθ

M ar

=

T

Q

T = Q => -m ar = m aθ

0.292 t3 = 1.09 => t = 1.66 s

Energy and momentum methods

solved through the fundamental equation of motion, F = ma

• We introduce two additional methods of analysis

and displacement

velocity, and time

Method of Work & energy

Work of a force

• Work of the force is

dU = F • dr

= F ds cos α

= Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

• Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and sign but not direction.

1 J ( joule ) = (1 N )(1 m )

•Work of force of gravity

•Work of the force exerted by a spring

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Kinetic energy of particle

• Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force, F

dv

Ft = mat = m

dt

dv ds dv

=m = mv

ds dt ds

F t ds = mv dv

• Integrating from A1 to A2 ,

s2 v2

= = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 2 KE:

∫ t

F ds m ∫ v dv 2 2 2 1

s1 v1

Unit: Nm or Joule

U1→2 = T2 − T1 T = 12 mv 2 = kinetic energy

Scalar quantity

of the particle => Principle of work & energy

T2 = T1 + U (1-2)

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

T1

at A2. Consider work & kinetic energy.

• Force P acts normal to path and does no work.

T2

T1 + U 1→ 2 = T 2

1W 2

0 + Wl = v2

2 g

v2 = 2 gl

Advantages:

integrating

• All quantities are scalars and can be added directly

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

• Principle of work and energy cannot be applied to

directly to determine the acceleration of the

pendulum bob

supplementing the method of work and energy with

an application of Newton’s second law

can be obtained for each particle

∑ Fn = m a n ΣFt = m at = 0 separately and KE can be added for

W v 22 all particles

P −W =

g l T1 + U (1-2) = T2

W 2 gl

P =W + = 3W T – arithmetic sum of the KEs of

g l particles involved; U (1-2) = work of

all the forces acting on the particles

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Power: Rate at which work is done

Power = dU/dt = F.dr/dt = F.v

Unit: Nm/s

Two blocks are joined by an inextensible cable as

shown. If the system is released from rest, determine

the velocity of block A after it has moved 2 m. Assume

that the coefficient of friction between block A and the

plane is µk = 0.25 and that the pulley is weightless and

frictionless.

blocks A and B.

+ ve

( )

W A = (200 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 1962 N

FA = µ k N A = µ k W A = 0.25(1962 N ) = 490 N

T1 + U1→2 = T2 :

0 + FC (2 m ) − FA (2 m ) = 12 m A v 2

( )

WB = (300 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 2940 N

T1 + U1→2 = T2 :

0 − Fc (2 m ) + WB (2 m ) = 12 m B v 2

• When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel.

Solve for the velocity

4900 J = 12 (500 kg )v 2

v = 4 .43 m s

A 40.8 kg package is at rest on an incline when a constant force P is applied to it. The

coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and the incline is 0.35. Knowing that

the speed of the package is 0.6m/s after it has moved 0.9 m up the incline, determine the

magnitude of the force P.

400

P 20°

50°

F = 0.35 N

T1 = 0 N

A 2000-kg automobile starts from rest at point A on a 6°

incline and coasts through a distance of 150 m to point B.

The brakes are then applied, causing the automobile to 6°

come to a stop at point C, 20 m from B. Knowing that

slipping is impending during the braking period and

neglecting air resistance and rolling resistance, determine

(a) the speed of the automobile at point B, (b) the

coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road

w

VA = 0; Vc = 0; w = 19620 N

U (A-B) = TB – TA F

VB =17.5 m/s

U (A-C) = TC – TA

19620 (170) Sin 6 – F (20) = 0

19620 (170) Sin 6 – 19620 (µ) cos 6 (20) = 0

µ = 0.89 R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Car B is towing car A with 4.6 m cable at a constant speed

of 9 m/s on an uphill grade when the brakes of car B are

fully applied causing it to skid to a stop. Car A, whose driver

had not observed that car B was slowing down, then strikes

the rear of car B. Neglecting air resistance and rolling

resistance and assuming a coefficient of kinetic friction of

0.9, determine the speed of car A just before the collision.

mg

0 Car B

F = 0.9 N

F = 0.9 mg cos 5

N = mg cos 5

=> d = 4.2 m

Car A

N

(-mg sin 5) (4.6+4.2) = ½ m VA2 – ½ (m) 92 =>

VA = 8.22 m/s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Potential energy

PE due to spring deformation; U (1-2) = ½ k(x1)2 – ½ k (x2)2

Conservative forces

Forces whose work done is independent of path followed; depends

only on initial and final positions => conservative forces

work of the force is independent of the path

followed by its point of application.

U1→2 = V ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) − V ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 )

∫ F. dr = 0

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

• Elementary work corresponding to displacement between two

neighboring points,

dU = V ( x , y , z ) − V ( x + dx , y + dy , z + dz )

= − dV ( x , y , z )

The elementary work of a

du = -dv (x, y, z) conservative force is exact

differential

∂V ∂V ∂V

Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = − dx + dy + dz

∂x ∂y ∂z

r ∂V ∂V ∂V

F = − + + = −grad V

∂x ∂y ∂z Differential of a function

of several variables

Fx = -∂v/∂x; Fy = -∂v/∂y; Fz = -∂v/∂z

of point of application

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITGforce

Conservation of energy

U (1-2) = T2 – T1; T – KINETIC ENERGY

V1 – V2 = T2 – T1

T1+V1 = T2+V2

When a particle moves under the action of conservative forces, the sum of

kinetic energy and potential energy of particle remains constant

At A1; T1 = 0; V1 = Wl; T1 + V1 = Wl

At A2; T2 = ½ (W/g) v22 = ½ (W/g) (2gl) = Wl; V2 = 0

T2 + V2 = Wl

E = T + V = CONSTANT

same in A, A’

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

A B C

particle and normal reaction of path are the two forces acting;

without friction

Weight of particle, forces exerted by spring – conservative

forces

Friction force => Non-conservative force; work done by friction

force can not be expressed as change in potential energy as it

depends on path followed by point of application

A mechanical system involving friction will have decrease in

total mechanical energy;R.Ganesh

dissipated

Narayanan,as

IITGheat etc.

A 20 N collar slides without friction along a vertical

rod as shown. The spring attached to the collar has an

undeflected length of 4 cm and a constant of 3 N/cm. If

the collar is released from rest at position 1, determine

its velocity after it has moved 6 cm. to position 2.

2

PE: V1 = Ve + V g = 24 N ⋅ cm + 0

KE: T1 = 0

2 2

Vg = Wy = (20 N )(− 6 cm ) = −120 N ⋅ cm

PE: V2 = Ve + Vg = 54 − 120 = −66 N ⋅ cm

1 20 2

KE: T2 = 12 mv22 = v2

2 10

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Conservation of Energy:

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

0 + 24 N ⋅ cm = v22 − 66 N ⋅ cm

v2 = 9.5 m s ↓

13.55

attached to two springs and causes a deflection

x0. In each of the two cases shown, derive an

expression for the constant , ‘ke’ in terms of k1

and k2 , of the single spring equivalent to the

given system, that is, of the single spring which

will undergo the same deflection x0 when

subjected to the same force P.

X0 = X1 + X2

=> Ke = (K1.K2)/(K1+K2)

P = P1 + P2 = K1 X0 + K2 X0

P = Ke X0 => Ke = K1 + K2

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

13.59

A 750-g collar can slide along the horizontal rod shown. It

is attached to an elastic cord with an undeformed length of

300 mm and a spring constant of 150 N/m. Knowing that

the collar is released from rest at A and neglecting friction,

determine the speed of the collar (a) at B, (b) at E.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

A 2.7 kg collar can slide without friction on a vertical rod

and is held so it just touches an undeformed spring.

Determine the maximum deflection of the spring (a) if the

collar is slowly released until it reaches an equilibrium

position, (b) if the collar is suddenly released.

2.7 kg

a) Collar in equilibrium

Xmax = 0.01 m

T1+V1 = T2+V2

0+0 = 0 + (-Wh+1/2x2627xh2)

h = 2 (26.5)/2627 = 0.02 m

A spring is used to stop a 90.7 kg package which is moving

down a 20° incline. The spring has a constant k = 22 kN/m

and is held by cables so that it is initially compressed 15 cm.

Knowing that the velocity of the package is 2.4 m/s when it is

7.6 m from the spring and neglecting friction, determine the

maximum additional deformation of the spring in bringing

the package to rest.

Position 1 is at the top of the incline; position 2 is when the spring has maximum

deformation

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

½ (90.7) (2.4) + [1/2 (22000) (0.15)2 + 890 (7.6+X) sin 20] =

0 + [0 + ½ (22000) (X+0.15)2]

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Method of impulse and momentum

• Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, mass,

velocity, and time.

F = d (mv) / dt

FX

Fdt = d (mv)

t2

∫ F dt = mv2 - mv1

t1

t2

t mv1 + ∫F dt = mv2

t1

t1 t2

of force, F (Imp1-2) Unit : N.s

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

t2

mv1 + ∫F dt = mv2

t1

vectorially its initial momentum and the impulse of the force

during the time interval.

vector quantities

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Several forces acting on one particle mv1 + Σ Imp1-2 = mv2

out; Only the impulses of external forces need be considered

• If sum of external forces is zero, then Σ mv1 = Σ mv2. This says

that total momentum of the particles is conserved. (discussed later)

Impulsive motion

Force acting on a particle during a very short time interval that is large

enough to cause a significant change in momentum is called an

impulsive force and resulting motion is called impulsive motion

m v1 + ∑ F ∆ t = m v 2

interval but force is large enough to change sense of ball motion

therefore, may be neglected; Eg.,

R.Ganesh weight

Narayanan, IITGof body, spring force etc.

Impulse motion of several particles

∑m v1 + ∑ F ∆ t =∑ m v 2

Second term involves only impulse and external forces

not energy; Eg., Two particles moving freely collide each other

A 0.5 kg baseball is pitched with a velocity of 80 m/s.

After the ball is hit by the bat, it has a velocity of 120

m/s in the direction shown. If the bat and ball are in

contact for 0.15 s, determine the average impulsive

force exerted on the ball during the impact.

x component equation:

− mv1 + Fx ∆t = mv2 cos 40°

0.5

− (80)+ Fx (0.15) = 0.5 (120 cos 40°)

9.81 9.81

Fx = 58.42 N y

y component equation:

x

0 + Fy ∆t = mv2 sin 40°

0.5

(

Fy 0.15 ) = (120 sin 40°)

9.81

Fy = 26 .21 N

F = 64.03 N; Θ = 24.16°

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

The initial velocity of the block in position A is 9 m/s.

Knowing that the coefficient of kinetic friction

between the block and the plane is 0.30, determine the

time it takes for the block to reach B with zero

velocity, if (a) θ = 0, (b) θ =20°.

A) θ = 0

t = 3.05 s

b) θ = 20

t = 0.96 s

A light train made of two cars travels at 72 km/h. The mass of 72 km/hr

car A is 18 Mg and the mass of car B is 13 Mg. When the

brakes are suddenly applied, a constant braking force of 19

kN is applied to each car. Determine (a) the time required for

the train to stop after the brakes are applied, (b) the force in

the coupling between the cars while the train is slowing 18Mg 13Mg

down.

b) Car A: mA = 18 Mg = 18x103 kg; t1-2 = 16.32 s

Impact

• Impact: Collision between two bodies which

occurs during a small time interval and during

which the bodies exert large forces on each other.

in contact during impact.

Direct Central centers of the two bodies lie on the line of impact;

Impact otherwise, it is an eccentric impact..

the two bodies are directed along the line of

impact.

the bodies move along a line other than the line of

impact.

Oblique Central Impact

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Direct central impact

• Bodies moving in the same straight line, vA > vB .

• Upon impact the bodies undergo a period of

Before impact deformation, at the end of which, they are in

contact and moving at a common velocity.

bodies either regain their original shape or remain

At maximum permanently deformed.

deformation

• Wish to determine the final velocities of the

VA’ VB’ two bodies. The total momentum of the

two body system is preserved,

(In scalar, same direction)

After impact

• A second relation between the final velocities is

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

required.

Particle A

by B

e = coefficient of restitution

Rdt u − v′A

=∫ =

∫ Pdt v A − u

0 ≤ eR.Ganesh

≤1 Narayanan, IITG

Particle B

v′ − u

• A similar analysis of particle B yields e= B

u − vB

second relation between the final velocities. v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B )

multiplying relative velocity of two particles before impact with ‘e’.

=> This property is used to find ‘e’ of particles experimentally

FINAL:

v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B ) + ve sign = right motion

mAvA + mBvB = mAvA’ + mBvB’ v′B − v′A = e(v A − v B )

=> No period of restitution; Particles stay together after impact

Let vB’ = vA’ = v’ => mAvA + mBvB = (mA+ mB) v’ ;

=> v’ can be solved

2. Perfectly elastic impact, e =1 => vB’ - vA’ = vA - vB

=> Relative velocities before and after impact are equal; Impulses

received by each particle during period of deformation and

restitution are same; Particles move with same velocity but

opposite in nature

=> Total energy and total momentum conserved (not in general case)

=> vA’ and vB’ can be solved

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Oblique central impact

VB’

Velocities of particles are not directed along

VA’

the line of impact => Oblique impact

Final velocities VA’ and VB’ and directions

are un-known

n axis => along line of impact; t axis => common tangent

-F ∆t

F ∆t

directed along the line of impact – n axis

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

1) Tangential component of momentum

(v A )t = (v ′A )t (v B )t = (v ′B )t

for each particle considered separately

is conserved.

momentum of the two m A (v A )n + m B (v B )n = m A (v′A )n + mB (v′B )n

particles is conserved.

relative velocities before and

after impact are related by the

coefficient of restitution.

We have 4 independent equations to solve for components

of velocities of A and B after impact

Particles canR.Ganesh

move Narayanan,

in space;IITGno constraints

One or two particles have constraints

surface.

along the n axis and from external force Fext

exerted by horizontal surface and directed

along the vertical to the surface.

magnitude and ii) unknown final block velocity magnitude.

Three equations required.

1) Tangential momentum of ball is (v B )t = (v′B )t

conserved.

and ball is conserved.

velocities of block and ball are related

by coefficient of restitution.

Not extension of central impact case

e = coefficien t of restitutio n

Rdt u − v ′A

=∫ =

∫ Pdt v A − u

0 ≤ e ≤1

impact

e = un – (vA’)n / (va)n - un

initial and final velocities

A 20 Mg railroad car moving at a speed of 0.5 m/s to right collides

with a 35 Mg car which is at rest. If after collision 35 Mg car is

observed to move to the right at a speed of 0.3 m/s. find the coefft.

of restitution between the two cars

(20 x 0.5) + 0 = 20 x vA’ + (35 x 0.3)

vA’ = -0.025 m/s

The magnitude and direction of the velocities of

two identical frictionless balls before they strike

each other are as shown. Assuming e = 0.9,

determine the magnitude and direction of the

velocity of each ball after the impact.

(vB )n = −vB cos 60° = −20.0 m s (v B )t = v B sin 60° = 34.6 m s

m A (v A )n + m B (v B )n = m A (v′A )n + mB (v′B )n

Two steel blocks slide without friction on a horizontal surface;

immediately before impact their velocities are as shown. Knowing

that e = 0.75, determine (a) their velocities after impact, (b) the

energy loss during impact.

equations; find final velocities

b) ∆E = T1 – T2

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Application of three methods

• Three methods for the analysis of kinetics problems:

- Direct application of Newton’s second law

- Method of work and energy

- Method of impulse and momentum

problem under consideration.

(b) (c) (d)

principle, find vA2 at A2

(c) A hits B: Total momentum of two pendulums is conserved; use

relation between relative velocities; find vA3, vB3 after impact

(d) B from B3 to B4: Apply conservation of energy principle to

pendulum B

A 7.9 kg sphere A of radius 11.4 cm moving with a

velocity v0 of magnitude 1.8 m/s strikes a 0.73 kg

sphere B of radius 5 cm which was at rest. Both

spheres are hanging from identical light flexible

cords. Knowing that the coefficient of restitution is

0.8, determine the velocity of each sphere

immediately after impact.

F∆t

Ball A θ θ

+ = 0.064

mAvA’ 0.164

mAvA

Θ =22.9°

mAvA - F∆t cos θ = mAvA’

θ mBvB’

Ball B

θ = F∆t = mBvB’

F∆t

vA’ cosθ – vB’ = e (-v0 cos θ)

R.Ganesh Narayanan, v

IITG

A’ = +1.56 m/s; vB’ = 2.76 m/s

System of particles

Motion of large number of particles considered together

system of n particles,

n

Fi + ∑ fij = mi ai

j =1

∑ (ri × fij )= ri × mi ai

n

ri × Fi +

j =1

mi ai = effectiveforce

Repeat this for ‘n’ number of particles & will get ‘n’ equations. The vectors miai

are called effective forces of the particles; The external forces Fi and internal

forces fij acting on the various particles form a system equivalent to the

system of the effective forces miai.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

The external forces Fi and internal forces fij acting on the various particles

form a system equivalent to the system of the effective forces miai.

n n n n

∑ Fi + ∑ ∑ f ij = ∑ mi ai

i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

n n n n

i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

• Since the internal forces occur in equal and opposite

collinear pairs, the resultant force and couple due to the

internal forces are zero,

∑ Fi = ∑ m i a i

∑ (r i × F i ) = ∑ ( r i × m i a i )

The system of the external forces acting on the particles and the

system of the effective forces of the particles are equipollent

Linear & angular momentum

n

Linear momentum of the system of particles, L = ∑ mi vi

i =1

n n

L = ∑ mi vi = ∑ mi ai

i =1 i =1

n

H O = ∑ (ri × mi vi )

i =1 collinear

n n

H O = ∑ (ri × mi vi )+ ∑ (ri × mi vi )

i =1 i =1

n

ΣF = L; ΣMo = Ho = ∑ (ri × mi ai )

i =1

Resultant of the external forces is equal to rate of change of linear momentum of the

system of particles; Moment resultant about fixed point O of the external forces is

equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of the system of particles

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Motion of the mass center of a system of particles

Mass center G of system of particles is defined by position vector rG

which satisfies

n

mrG = ∑ mi ri Where ‘m’ is the total mass Σmi of the

i =1 particles

n

Differentiating, mrG = ∑ mi ri

i =1

n

mvG = ∑ mi vi = L

i =1

Differentiating, ma = L = ∑ F

G

This defines motion of mass center G of the system of particles; The mass center of

a system of particles moves as if the entire mass of the system and all the external

forces were concentrated at that point; MOTION OF EXPLODING SHELL

center can be obtained R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Conservation of momentum for a system of particles

momentum and angular momentum about the fixed point O are conserved.

L = ∑F = 0 HO = ∑ M O = 0

L = constant H O = constant

mass center motion

L = mv = constant vG = Constant

G

Similarly, HG = Constant

Kinetic energy of system of particles

particles of the system

n

T =1

2

∑ mi vi2

i =1

motion of mass center G of the system and

the motion of the system relative to a moving

frame attached to G

n

1 mv 2 ′2

T=

2 G + 1

2

∑ mi vi

i =1

plus kinetic energy relative to the centroidal frame Gx’y’z’.

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Work-energy principle for system of particles

Principle of work and energy can be applied to each particle Pi ,

T1 + U1→2 = T2

where U1→2 represents the work done by the internal forces,

fij and the resultant external force Fi acting on Pi .

Principle of work and energy can be applied to the entire system by

adding the kinetic energies of all particles and considering the

work done by all external and internal forces

Although fij and fji are equal and opposite, the work of these forces

will not, in general, cancel out.

If the forces acting on the particles are conservative, the work is

equal to the change in potential energy and

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

conservation of energy

Narayanan, IITG for the system of particles.

Principle of impulse & momentum for system of particles

ΣF = L; ΣMo = Ho

t2 t2

∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 − L1 ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2 − H1

t1 t1

t2 t2

L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 H1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2

t1 t1

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

t2 t2

∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 − L1 ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2 − H1

t1 t1

t2 t2

L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 H1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2

t1 t1

forces from t1 to t2 form a system of vectors equipollent to the

system of momenta of the particles at time t2 .

particles are conserved

Variable systems of particles

• Kinetics principles established so far were derived for

constant systems of particles, i.e., systems which neither

gain nor lose particles.

• A large number of engineering applications require the

consideration of variable systems of particles, e.g., hydraulic

turbine, rocket engine, etc.

• For analyses, consider auxiliary systems which consist of

the particles instantaneously within the system plus the

particles that enter or leave the system during a short time

interval. The auxiliary systems, thus defined, are constant

systems of particles.

Steady stream of particles

Air flow

through duct

or blower

through a duct.

• Define auxiliary system which includes particles which

flow in and out over ∆t.

• The auxiliary system is a constant system of particles over ∆t.

t2

L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L 2

t1

[∑ mi vi + (∆m )v A ]+ ∑ F ∆t = [∑ mi vi + (∆m)vB ]

dm

∑ F = (v B − v A )

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

dt

Applications

or Duct

• Fan

• Fluid Flowing Through a Pipe

• Jet Engine

• Helicopter

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Systems gaining or losing mass

of mass m within system at time t plus the

particles of mass ∆m which enter the system

over time interval ∆t.

• The auxiliary system is a constant system of

particles.

t2

L1 + ∑ ∫ F dt = L 2

t1

negligible

u = va - v

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

∑ F ∆ t = m ∆ v - (∆ m) u

ΣF = m (dv/dt)-u (dm/dt)

ΣF + u (dm/dt) = ma

A 20 N projectile is moving with a

velocity of 100 m/s when it explodes

into 5 and 15 N fragments.

Immediately after the explosion, the

fragments travel in the directions θA =

45o and θB = 30o. Determine the

velocity of each fragment.

y

• Write separate component equations for the conservation of linear

momentum.

m Av A + mB vB = mv0

(5 g )v A + (15 g )vB = (20 g )v0

x components:

5v A cos 45° + 15vB cos 30° = 20(100)

y components:

5v A sin 45° − 15vB sin 30° = 0

fragment velocities.

v A = 207 m s v B = 97.6 m s

Grain falls onto a chute at the rate of 240 N/s. It

hits the chute with a velocity of 20 m/s and leaves

with a velocity of 15 m/s. The combined weight of

the chute and the grain it carries is 600 N with the

center of gravity at G. Determine the reactions at C

and B.

∆m 240 N/s

= 2

= 24 kg/s

∆t 10 m /s

the chute is same at ‘t’ and ‘t+∆t’

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

Apply impulse-momentum principle,

L1 + ∑ ∫ F dt = L 2

In x-axis: C x ∆t = (∆m )vB cos10°

In y-axis: ( )

− (∆m )v A + C y − W + B ∆t = −(∆m )vB sin 10°

H C ,1 + ∑ ∫ M C dt = H C ,2

− 3(∆m )v A + (− 7W + 12 B )∆t

= 6(∆m )vB cos10° − 12(∆m )vB sin 10°

r r r

B = 584 .75 N C = ( 354 .5 i + 432 .75 j ) N

A bullet is fired with a horizontal velocity of 500 m/s

through a 3-kg block A and becomes embedded in a

2.5-kg block B. Knowing that blocks A and B start

moving with velocities of 3 m/s and 5 m/s,

respectively, determine (a) the mass of the bullet, (b)

its velocity as it travels from block A to block B

mv0+mA(0)+mB(0) = mvB+mAvA+mBvB

m = mAvA+mBvB / (v0-vb) = (3) (3) + (2.5) (5) / (500-5) = 43.434 x10-3 kg

= 43.434 x10-3 (500) – (3) (3) / 43.434 x10-3 = 292.8 m/s

A system consists of three particles A, B, and C. We

know that WA = WB = 17.79 N and Wc = 124.55 N

and that the velocities of the particles, expressed in

m/s are, respectively, vA = 42i + 63j, vB = −42i +

63j, and vC = −9j − 6k. Determine the angular

momentum HO of the system about O.

In a game of pool, ball A is moving with a velocity v0 of vA vC

magnitude v0 = 4.57 m/s when it strikes balls B and C,

which are at rest and aligned as shown. Knowing that

after the collision the three balls move in the directions

indicated and assuming frictionless surfaces and perfectly

vB

elastic impact (that is, conservation of energy), determine

v0

the magnitudes of the velocities vA, vB and vC.

X-axis:

Find VB and Vc in

y-axis: terms of V0 and VA

Put VB and Vc

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

The nozzle shown discharges a stream of water at a v1

flow rate Q= 1.8 m3/min with a velocity v of

magnitude 18.29 m/s. The stream is split into two

streams with equal flow rates by a wedge which is

kept in a fixed position. Determine the components

j

of the force exerted by the stream on the wedge.

i v2

Impulse-momentum principle

∆m (v) + F ∆t = ∆m/2 (v1) + ∆m/2 (v2)

F = ∆m / ∆t (1/2 v1+1/2 v2 – v)

Velocity

vectors:

R.Ganesh Narayanan, IITG

F

F = - 117.17 i - 56.8 j N

Sand falls from three hoppers onto a conveyor

belt at a rate of 40 kg/s for each hopper. The sand a a a a

hits the belt with a vertical velocity v1 = 3 m/s

and is discharged at A with a horizontal velocity

v2 = 4 m/s. Knowing that the combined mass of

the beam, belt system, and the sand it supports is h

E 2 4 F

reaction at E.

R = 4040 N (+)

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