You are on page 1of 15

Class: B.Ed (hons.

Date: 26-March-2014
Submitted to: Dr. Saira Taj
Assignment of Classroom Assessment
Topic: Performance Based Assessment
Name Roll No
Durdana Saleem 1649
Tooba Rauf 1627
Meryam Sher 1621
Iqra Mumtaz 1623

Table of Contents
Performance based Assessment ...................................................................... 4
What is performance based assessment ......................................................... 4
Types of Performance based assessment .................................................... 5
Characteristics of Performance based assessment ............................... 6
Challenges in Performance based assessment ................................................... 8
Understanding the process .............................................................................. 8
The Framework .......................................................................................... 9
Challenges for Assessing Students ....................................................... 9
Challenges in Performance based assessment ............................. 10
How to design performance based assessment ............................................ 12
How to design rubric ...................................................................................... 13
Types of rubric .......................................................................................... 13

Topic: Performance based assessment
Name: Meryam Sher
Roll No: 1621
To: Dr. Saira Taj

Performance-Based Assessment

What is performance-based assessment?
Performance-based assessment is an approach to the monitoring of students'
progress in relationship to identified learner outcomes. This method of assessment requires
the student to create answers or products which demonstrate his/her knowledge or skills. This
differs from traditional testing methods which require a student to select a single correct
answer or to fill in the blanks.
Performance-based assessment is an alternative form of assessment that moves away from
traditional paper and pencil tests. Performance-based assessment involves having the students
produce a project, whether it is oral, written or a group performance. The students are
engaged in creating a final project that exhibits their understanding of a concept they have
A unique quality of performance-based assessment is that is allows the students to be
assessed based on a process. The teacher is able to see firsthand how the students produce
language in real-world situations. In addition, performance-based assessments tend to have a
higher content validity because a process is being measured. The focus remains on the
process, rather than the product in performance-based assessment.
There are two parts to performance-based assessments. The first part is a clearly defined
task for the students to complete. This is called the product descriptor. The assessments are
either product related, specific to certain content or specific to a given task. The second part
is a list of explicit criteria that are used to assess the students. Generally this comes in the
form of a rubric. The rubrics can either be analytical, meaning it assesses the final product in
parts, or holistic, meaning that is assesses the final product as a whole.
Performance-based assessment tasks are generally not as formally structured. There is
room for creativity and student design in performance-based tasks. Generally, these tasks
measure the students when they are actually performing the given task. Due to the nature of
these tasks, performance-based assessment is highly interactive. Students are interacting with
each other in order to complete real-world examples of language tasks. Also, performance-
based assessment tends to integrate many different skills. For example, reading and writing
can be involved in one task or speaking and listening can be involved in the same task.
Performance-based assessment is an opportunity to allow students to produce language in
real-world contexts while being assessed. This type of assessment is unique because it is not a
traditional test format. Some examples of performance-based assessment tasks are as follows:

Types of Performance-Based Assessment:
1. Journals
Students will write regularly in a journal about anything relevant to their
life, school or thoughts. Their writing will be in the target language. The
teacher will collect the journals periodically and provide feedback to the
students. This can serve as a communication log between the teacher and
2. Letters
The students will create original language compositions through
producing a letter. They will be asked to write about something relevant to
their own life using the target language. The letter assignment will be
accompanied by a rubric for assessment purposes.
3. Oral Reports
The students will need to do research in groups about a given topic. After
they have completed their research, the students will prepare an oral
presentation to present to the class explaining their research. The main
component of this project will be the oral production of the target language.
4. Original Stories
The students will write an original fictional story. The students will be
asked to include several specified grammatical structures and vocabulary
words. This assignment will be assessed analytically, each component will
have a point value.
5. Oral Interview
An oral interview will take place between two students. One student will
ask the questions and listen to the responses of the other student. From the
given responses, more questions can be asked. Each student will be
responsible for listening and speaking.
6. Skit
The students will work in groups in order to create a skit about a real-
world situation. They will use the target language. The vocabulary used
should be specific to the situation. The students will be assessing
holistically, based on the overall presentation of the skit.
7. Poetry Recitations
After studying poetry, the students will select a poem in the target
language of their choice to recite to the class. The students will be assessed
based on their pronunciation, rhythm and speed. The students will also
have an opportunity to share with the class what they think the poem
8. Portfolios
Portfolios allow students to compile their work over a period of time. The
students will have a checklist and rubric along with the assignment
description. The students will assemble their best work, including their
drafts so that the teacher can assess the process.
9. Puppet Show
The students can work in groups or individually to create a short puppet
show. The puppet show can have several characters that are involved in a
conversation of real-world context. These would most likely be assessed
10. Art Work/ Designs/Drawings
This is a creative way to assess students. They can choose a short story
or piece or writing, read it and interpret it. Their interpretation can be
represented through artistic expression. The students will present their art
work to the class, explaining what they did and why.
What are the characteristics of an effective performance
assessment task?
Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress defines performance assessment as
any form of testing that requires a student to create an answer or a product that demonstrates
his or her knowledge or skills. According to Stephen The K. Hess, Director or Criterion
Referenced Evaluation and Testing for Frederick County Public Schools, the goal of effective
performance assessment is to develop important tasks that are worthwhile and engaging for
student, requiring the application of skills and knowledge learned prior to the assessment.
Experts in the field emphasize that any effective performance assessment task should have
the following design features:
Students should be active participants, not passive selectors of the single right
Intended outcomes should be clearly identified and should guide the design of a
performance task.
Students should be expected to demonstrate mastery of those intended outcomes when
responding to all facets of the task.
Students must demonstrate their ability to apply their knowledge and skills to reality-
based situations and scenarios.
A clear, logical set of performance-based activities that students are expected to
follow should be evident.
A clearly presented set of criteria should be available to help judge the degree of
proficiency in a student response.

Topic: Challenges in performance based
Name: Durdana Saleem
Roll No: 1649
To: Dr. Saira Taj

The Challenge of Performance Assessment
In practice, performance assessment systems may or may not work this way. The
projects in our Collaborative have supplied numerous instances of performance assessment data
that were used to improve the coordination of programs for special-needs students with their
counterparts in mainstream classrooms. They were also used to make obvious the need for
specialized professional development programs. Unfortunately, however, performance
assessments were also sometimes used like final exams, with teachers and students showing no
inclination to make use of the data the assessment revealed.

In short, performance assessment could become a new way to make old mistakes or a
powerful vehicle for thinking about teaching and schools. The real challenge of assessment
reform is not determining what to put in a portfolio, how to score it, or even what professional
development teachers need to use portfolios effectively. The most important reason to develop
and implement performance assessment is that it provides an impetus to explore questions at the
very heart of the purposes and processes of schooling:

What do we want students to know and be able to do?
How will we know they can do it?
What resources must be available to ensure that all students succeed?
How do we structure and pace an instructional program that prepares all students to
perform well?
What should teachers, administrators, parents, and policymakers do to ensure appropriate
opportunities for all students?

These central questions must be answered by everyone with direct responsibility for
making schools work. They will not be answered by some ad hoc alternative assessment
committee or by implanting the latest performance assessments in the same schools that we have
today. Site-level performance assessment development is of greatest value when the work is
defined, not just as churning out performance assessment tasks, but as inciting all those
connected with schools to examine and restructure the work that they do.

Challenges in Performance-Based Assessment
Students today have instant access to information through technology and the web,
manage their own acquisition of knowledge through informal learning, and have progressed
beyond consumers of content to become producers and publishers. As a result, traditional
teaching and learning methods are becoming less effective at engaging students and motivating
them to achieve. Todays students are presented with content-centric assignments that meet
standards but lack a real-world context and opportunities for active participation. Because these
assignments often fail to engage students, they can lead to uninspired work and a gradual process
of disengagement.
To address this need, Apple Inc. worked with teachers and leaders in the education
community to develop a new approach to teaching and learning called Challenge Based Learning
(challenges in performance based assessment ), an engaging, multidisciplinary approach that
starts with standards based content and lets students leverage the technology they use in their
daily lives to solve complex, real-world problems. Challenge Based Learning is collaborative
and hands on, asking students to work with other students, their teachers, and experts in their
communities and around the world to develop deeper knowledge of the subjects they are
studying, identify and solve challenges, make a difference in their community, and share their
results with the world.
Understanding the Process
Challenge Based Learning begins with a big idea and cascades to the following: the
essential question; the challenge; guiding questions, activities, and resources; determining and
articulating the solution; taking action by implementing the solution; assessment; and publishing
the solution and sharing it with the world. Reflection and informative assessment are an
important part of the process at every stage as they reinforce learning and prepare students for
what is coming next.

The Framework

The Challenges of Assessing Young Children Appropriately
Negative History of Testing Young Children
Principles for Assessment and Testing
Matching the Why and How of Assessment
Identifying Children with Special Needs
Monitoring National and State Trends

How to Design a Rubric
Classroom Assessment
Tooba Rauf Butt ,1627
How to design a Rubric
A rubric is an easily applicable form of authentic assessment. A rubric simply lists a set of
criteria, which defines and describes the important components of the work being planned or
evaluated. For example, students giving a research presentation might be graded in three areas,
content, display, and presentation.
There are two common types of rubrics:
1) Analytic Rubrics
2) Holistic Rubrics
Analytic Rubric:
An analytic rubric resembles a grid with the criteria for a student product listed in the leftmost
column and with levels of performance listed across the top row often using numbers and/or
descriptive tags. The cells within the center of the rubric may be left blank or may contain
descriptions of what the specified criteria look like for each level of performance. When scoring
with an analytic rubric each of the criteria is scored individually.
Holistic Rubric:
A holistic rubric consists of a single scale with all criteria to be included in the evaluation being
considered together (e.g., clarity, organization, and mechanics). With a holistic rubric the rater
assigns a single score (usually on a 1 to 4 or 1 to 6 point scale) based on an overall judgment of
the student work. The rater matches an entire piece of student work to a single description on
the scale.

Rubrics take many different forms. Some rubrics describe only three levels of performance;
others have more. Sometimes the terminology used to describe the various parts of the
rubric will differ. None of this really matters. The important thing is that the purpose of the
rubric remains the same: it is used to make levels of performance explicit for both teacher
and student.
The first step in designing a rubric is to identify the skills, knowledge and understanding
that the teacher wishes the students to demonstrate. These become the success criteria.
The next step is to decide how many levels are to be described and then to write the
performance descriptors for each of those criteria. In the following there is a brief
description on how design two types of rubric.
o Analytic Rubric
o Holistic Rubric
Analytic Rubrics:
An analytic rubric resembles a grid or matrix in which the criteria representing the essential
learning being assessed is organized in the leftmost column and the levels of achievement are
represented in the top row.
The following steps illustrate how an analytical rubric is created.
a) Determine the various skills and abilities that students should demonstrate to show
achievement of the learning outcome(s). These skills and abilities are the various criteria.
Each criterion should focus on a different skill identified by a phrase or brief statement,
and each criterion should be measureable through the examination of student work. The
criteria become the leftmost column of the grid.
b) The next step is to determine the levels of achievement possible given the expectations of
what students are to be able to demonstrate. The levels can be numerical categories but
more frequently are descriptions, sometimes with an associated number. It is at this stage
that the number of columns is determined and the levels of achievement are listed across
the top row.
c) The next step in the creation of an analytic rubric is to create descriptions for the criteria
along each level of achievement. While sometimes this step is skipped, this is not
recommended as the descriptions are valuable for helping to increase reliability among
multiple raters and even for a single rater as s/he assesses the work of different students.

Holistic Rubrics:
When using a holistic rubric the assessor judges the level of performance across all criteria
together, instead of separately as is done with an analytic rubric. The steps for creating a
holistic rubric are similar to that of the analytical, but do not describe each criteria and level of
achievement separately as the scorer will be selecting one holistic score for the entire
assignment rather than separate scores for each criterion. In general holistic rubrics are
considered faster to create and implement, however, they do not facilitate analysis and
feedback in the same way as analytical rubrics.
1. Determine all the skills and abilities students need to demonstrate in order to achieve
the learning outcome. ( Clarity, organization, and grammar)
2. Determine the appropriate levels of accomplishment. (Needs improvement, developing,
sufficient, and above average)
3. Write an overall description of how a student would demonstrate the learning outcome
for each level of accomplishment. When creating a holistic rubric this step cannot be