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Submitted by NITISH BHARDWAJ Roll no.-RE3804B47 Reg no.-10808759 SUB:-DBMS SUB CODE:-CAP301 Submitted by AMANDEEP sir
Acknowledgement :I am extremely happy to present this term paper. I have divided the topics in small ways so that the topics can be arranged & understood properly .the object of this term papers is to bring out the subject matter in a most concise ,compact ,8 lucid manner. We are thankful to the following colleagues for their adequate guidance and encouragement during the preparation of the manuscript of this term paper like DBMS sir Amandeep ,friends ( shekhar, anand , rohit,mukesh etc), Some websites as google.com, yahoo.com, bing.com, Wikipedia.com, etc. Sir Amandeep give ideas about to thinking for making the term papers & tell about the pattern of my topic. Amandeep sir say about the pattern of term papers. i m also thankful to my room partner.
2. Table of contents
3. Introduction(Bus reservation system)
4. About functioning of topic
6. Bus budget & finances
7. E R Diagram
9. Snap shot
About Bus A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses vary in capacity from 8 to 300 passengers. Buses are widely used public transportation. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by doubledecker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midi buses and minibuses. A luxury, long distance bus is called a coach. A bus is powered by a combustion engine, although early buses were horse drawn and there were experiments with steam propulsion. Trolleybuses use overhead power lines. In parallel with the car industry bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same design appearing around the world.
Type of Bus
• • • •
Single-deckers Double-deckers Articulated buses Low-floor buses
Traveling is a large growing business in India and other countries also. It becomes very difficult to keep records for large no. of items, customers and calculating bills. This project is very useful in the Bus reservation system. I observed the working of the Bus reservation system and after going through it, I get to know that there are many operations, which they have to do manually. It takes a lot of time and cause many errors. Due to this, sometimes a lot of problems occur and they were facing many disputes with customers. To solve the above
problem, and further maintaining records of items, seat availability for customers, price of per/seat, bill generation and other things, I am offering this proposal of Bus reservation System.
Objective of this software is to computerize any traveling company to manage data, so that all the transactions become fast and there should not be any error in transactions like calculation mistake, bill generation and other things. It replaces all the paper work. It keeps records of all the bills also, given to the customers, so that user could update his daily accounts. allmost care and back-up procedures must be established to ensure 100% successful implementation of the computerized Bus reservation system.
TOOLS / PLATFORM USED
Hardware Requirements :
• PC Pentium IV with 2.6 GHZ processor. • Color Monitor. • Keyboard. • 40 GB Hard Disk or above. • 256 MB RAM or above. • Intel Mother Board.
Software Requirements :
• Operating System : • Front end • MS Office tools • Backend
Windows XP. : : : visual basic MS-Word, Excel, PowerPoint. PL/SQL
System analysis and design refers to the process of examining a business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods. System development can generally be thought of as having two major components: System Analysis and System Design.
1. IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS :
Drawbacks of current system: • Existing system is totally on book and thus a great amount of manual work has to be done. With the increase of manual work in Bus services and information needs, automation was necessary. • Needs a lot of working staff and extra attention on all the records. • In existing system, there are various problems like keeping records of items, seat available, prices of per/seat and fixing bill generation on each bill.
• Finding out the details regarding any information was very difficult, as the user has to go through all the books thoroughly. • Major problem was the lack of security check that was must to be applied.
2. STUDY METHODOLOGY :
System design is the process of planning a new system or replace or complement an existing system. But before this planning can be done, we must thoroughly understand the existing system and determine how computers can best be used to make its operation more effective. To obtain information about the current system and determine the requirements of the new system, study of the current system has been carried out. System analysis, then, is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and using the information to recommend improvement to the system. In brief, we can say that analysis specifies what the system should do. Design specifies how the system should do.
3. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PARADIGM :
To develop a software, software engineer must incorporate a development strategy that encompasses the processes, methods, tools and generic phases etc. This strategy is often referred to as a Process Model or Software Engineering Paradigm. Actually a paradigm specifies some activities that should be performed and the order in which they should be performed. A Software Development Paradigm is chosen based on the nature of the project and application, methods and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required.
i.) Business modeling :
In this phase, all the information about the business functioning of the Restaurant is collected, how the data and information is flow from one end to another end using the following questions: • What information drives the department process? • What information is generated? • Who generates it?
• Where does the information go? Who process it? The goal of business process engineering is to define architectures that will enable a business to use information effectively. In this project, I have determined three different architecture of business objectives and goals : a. Data architecture. b. Application architecture. c. Technology architecture.
ii.) Data modeling :
In this phase, the information collected in business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to support the project. The attributes of each object are identified and the relationships between these objects defined.
iii.) Process modeling :
In this phase, processing descriptions and functions like adding, modifying, deleting customer records, opening of new account, closing account, withdraw amount deposit amount, printing reports, providing information, file handling etc. are created.
iv.) Application generation :
The fourth generation techniques are used to generate application, like reusing the predefined functions or creating reusable components.
v.) Testing :
Most of the functions are already tested, as they are predefined functions. However, new components or functions are also tested after application generation. In the project process emphasizes reuse, many of the program components must be tested and all interfaces must be fully exercised.
Business Modeling Business Modeling Data Modeling Data Modeling Process ModelingApplicatio n
Generatio Turnover n
Testing & Turnover
Near about 180 days
4. FEASIBILITY STUDY :
Feasibility is the determination of whether or not a project is worth doing the process followed and making this determination is called feasibility study. This determines whether a project can and should be taken. Once it has been determined that a project is feasible, the analyst can go ahead and prepare the project specification which finalizes project requirements. Generally, feasibility studies are undertaken within right time constraints and normally culminate in a written and oral feasibility report. The contents and recommendations of such a study will be used as a sound basis for deciding whether to proceed, postpone or cancel the project. Thus, since the feasibility study may lead to the commitment of large resources, it becomes necessary that it should be conducted competently and that no fundamental errors of judgment are made.
There are following types of inter-related feasibility :
i.) Technical feasibility :
This is concerned with specifying equipment, software and hardware that will successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the system may vary considerably, but might include: • The facility to produce output in a given time. • Response time under certain conditions. • Ability to process a certain volume of transactions at a particular speed. • Facility to communicate data to distant location. In examining technical feasibility, configuration of the system is given more importance than the actual make of hardware. The configuration should give the complete picture about the system requirements. What speeds of input and output should be achieved at particular quality of printing. According to the definition of technical feasibility the compatibility between front-end and back-end is very important. In our project the compatibility of both is very good. The degree of compatibility of visual basic and
PL/SQL is very good. The speed of output is very good when we enter the data and click button then the response time is very fast and give result very quickset. I never find difficulty when we use complex query or heavy transaction. The speed of transaction is always smooth and constant. This software provides facility to communicate data to distant location. The designing of front-end of a project is very important. So I have selected visual basic as front-end due to the following reasons : • Easy implementation of code. • Well defined interface with database. • Well defined hand shaking with PL/SQL . • Easy Compiling and Running. At present scenario, a number of back-end tools are available, but I have selected PL/SQL because of the following reasons : • Able to handle large amount of data. • Security.
• Robust RDBMS. • Backup & recovery. With the help of above support we remove defect of existing software. In future, we can easily switch over any platform to ensure that system does not halt in case of undesired situation or events. Problem affected of any module does not affect any other module of the system.
ii.) Operational Feasibility :
It is mainly related to human organizational and political aspects. The points to be considered are : • What changes will be brought with the system? • What organization structures are disturbed? • What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff members have these skills? At present stage all the work is done by manual. So, throughput and response time is too much. Major problem is lack of security check that was must to be applied. Finding out the detail regarding any information was very
difficult, because data is stored in different books and each book at different places. In case of any problem, no one can solve the problem until the master of this field is not present. I have not changed the structure of organization. I have delivered a system that looks like a current structure of organization. But, this system removes all the overheads. All the computational work will be done automatically in our system. Response time is very quick. Now, we will explain the last point of operational feasibility. It is a shop of hardware and it appoints engineer for hardware problem. So, he can’t face difficulty in hardware and all employees of company know about computer’s operation so the training of this software is not a difficult task.
iii.) Economical feasibility :
Economic analysis is the most frequently used technique for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed system. It is commonly known as cost/benefit analysis: the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a proposed system and compare them with cost. If benefits outweigh cost, a decision is taken to design and implement the system. Otherwise, further justification or alternative in the proposed system will have to
be made if it is to have a chance of being approved. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle.
Functioning of topic
This software is working with its employee very easy.it has facility to save data in its software.only write the command the data will save automatically.we can save record in the daily basic work that a daily basic employee and monthly basic employee,purchage of goods and parts. This software is work on query that is perform by the user and perform by the administrator.it is easy to query for database.
E R Diagram of BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM :-
Relation between Owner and Bus:-
Bus no. Rout e nam e
Body no. nno. ow ner shi p
name addre ss
Relation between owner and government:-
Linc enc es
Relation between Bus and passange:Bus no.
Tr av el
Bus Route name
Bus Route name
Relation between Agent and Owner:A-address
Coll ecti on
Database Structure :
FIVE tables have been used in this project : 1. PASSANGER : Keeps record of bills. S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Field Name PNO PNAME PADDRESS routenmae : : : : Datatype VARCHAR2(15 Varchar(30) Varchar2(20) Varchar(20) Description IT SHOW THAT NO OF PASSANGER It shows NAME OF PASSANGERl It shows address of passanger It shows the items name
owner : Keeps record of owner of record.
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5
Field Name ownername Ownerno Ownerphno Owneraddress Bus no
: : : : :
Datatype number(10) Varchar(20) Number(10) Varchar(34) Varchar2(7)
Description Name of owner Number of owner Phone number of owner Address of owner Bus no that has owner
3.government:Keep record of username or passward s.no. 1 2 3 Field name Dept no. Ownerno Tax no Datatype Varchar2(15) Varchar2(30) Varchar2(40) Description Show the dept no. Show No. of owner Show the taxno
4.BUS : Keeps record of username or password.
S. No. Field Name Datatype Description 1. Busno : varchar(7) No. of bus 2. busroutename : Varchar(20) Route of the bus
5.AGENT: : Keeps record of username or password.
Sno 1 2 3
Field name Aname Aaddress Ano
Datatype Varchar2(15) Varchar2(30) Varchar2(20)
Description Agent name Address of agent No of agent
Table creation :Bus table create table bus(Bus no. varchar2(10),body no. varchar2(8),route name varchar2(20));
create table passanger(pno varchar2(15),Pname varchar2(30),Paddess varchar2(30),routename varchar2(23));
create table agent(Aname varchar2(15),Aaddess varchar2(30),Ano varchar2(40));
Government table create table government(deptname varchar2(15),ownerno varchar2(30),taxno varchar2(40));
Owner table create table owner(ownerno varchar2(11),name varchar2(30),address varchar2(40),mobileno number(20),busno varchar2(10));
View structure of the database:
Query: Desc bus; Desc passanger; Desc owner; Desc agent; Desc government; TABLE:BUS: NAME Busno Bodyno Routename TYPE VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(8) Varchar2(20)
TABLE: passanger: NAME TYPE
Pno Pname ADDRESS Routename
VARCHAR2(15) Varchar2(30) VARCHAR2(30) Varchar2(23)
TABLE: owner: NAME Ownerno NAME Address Mobileno Busno TYPE Varchar2(11) VARCHAR2(30) VARCHAR2(40) number(10) VARCHAR2(10)
TABLE: agent: NAME Aname Aaddress Ano TYPE Varchar2(15) VARCHAR2(30) VARCHAR2(40)
TABLE:government NAME Deptname Ownerno Taxno TYPE Varchar2(15) Varchar2(30) Varchar2(40)
Insert record into table: BUS: Query: Insert into bus values (‘pb21 1234’, ‘br2315’,’jala to ldh’); Output: 1 row created.
Insert record into table: passanger: Query: Insert into passanger values (‘an1234’, ‘mohit’, ’12,sector-2,jal’, ‘jal to ldh’); Output: 1 row created. Insert record into table: owner: Query: Insert into owner values 9988776655,’pb211234’); (‘10802432’, ‘Anand shankar jha’, ‘17/2 noida’,
Insert into owner jal’,9977886655,’pb211234’);
Insert into owner values (10802343, ‘Nitish Bhardwaj’, ‘12/2 mohali,9988221133, ’pb211234’);
Insert into owner values (108968, ‘Sandip’, ‘19/2 nalwa road jalandhar cantt’, 9977646321,’pb211234’); Insert into owner values (10812344, ‘Vipul behal’, ’12,main road abohar’, 9878456721,’pb211234’);
NAME ANAND SHANKAR JHA SAKSHI SHARMA NITISH BHARDWAJ SANDIP VIPUL BEHAL GAURAV GUPTA SARABJIT THAKUR ANIMESH TIWARI ADDRESS 17/2 noida mobilenoT busno Pb21123 4 PB21123 4 PB21123 4 PB21123 4 PB21123 4 PB21123 4 PB21123 4 Pb21123 4
Owner no 108024 32
9988776655 9977886655 9988221133 9977646321
9779045078 9888067078 9326067578 9888967889
108100 85 108023 43 108968
12/3, JALA 12/2 mohali 19.2 NALWA ROAD JALANDHAR CANTT 12, MAIN ROAD ABOHAR 34, JAWAHAR COLONY, JALANDHAR 23, RAMA MANDI, JALANDHAR, PUJAB 45/3 SIKANDARPUR, BHAGALPUR, BIHAR
108123 44 108026 36 108069 68 108089 68
Insert into passanger values (10802636, ‘Gaurav gupta’,’34, jawahar colony, jaladhar’, ‘ldh to jal);
Insert into passanger values (10806968, ‘sarabjit thakur’, ’23, rama mandi, jalandhar, pujab’, ‘jal to phw’); Insert into passanger values (10808968, sikandarpur,Bhagalpur,Bihar’,’ldh to amrit); Output: 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. 1 row created. ‘Animesh Tiwari’, ‘169’, ’45/3,
Insert record into table: agent: Query: Insert into agent values (‘nitish kumar’, 12/2,jal’, ‘998877662’); Insert into agent values (‘mohit kumar’, ‘15/3 phw’, ‘9876543215’); Output: 1 row created. 1 row created.
This project is designed to meet the requirements of a Bus reservation system. It has been developed in visual basic and the database has been built in PL/SQL only, keeping in mind the specifications of the system. Apart from MSAccess we could have also implemented other database software like Oracle or SQL.
For designing the system we have used simple data flow diagrams and E/R diagrams.
Overall the project teaches us the essential skills like:
Using system analysis and design techniques like data flow diagram and E/R diagram in designing the system.
Understanding programming logic and language along with utilities like reports, forms, queries etc. in Visual Basic and PL/SQL.
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