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com Secondary Education Policy: Efforts to Improve Academic Achievement Welcome to National Textbook Company's debate topics website. This site is dedicated to providing all the information you need to prepare arguments for the 1999 National Forensic League debate resolution. There are no books to purchase. This information is provided to free of charge online from National Textbook Company. For this purpose, National Textbook Company has provided two valuable online resources: the Resolution Overview, which provides background on the issues surrounding this year's topic, and the Resolution Evidence, which provides a jumping-off point to the large body of literature available on this year's topic. "Resolved: That the federal government should establish an education policy to significantly increase academic achievement in secondary schools in the United States." Generic Negative Arguments Part 1: Politics I. Clinton Good A. Clinton can win his agenda now (insert specific current agenda item) B. Links 1. The plan is unpopular with the public (insert specific link) 2. The plan is unpopular with Congress (insert specific link) C. Clinton gets the blame D. Internal Links 1. Popularity key to Clinton's agenda 2. Political capital key to Clinton's agenda E. Impact: Clinton's agenda is good (insert specific current agenda item) II. Clinton Bad A. Clinton pushing for his agenda now (insert specific current agenda item) B. Link: 1. Plan is popular with the public (insert specific link) 2. The plan is popular with Congress (insert specific link) C. Clinton gets the credit D. Internal Link: Winners win-Clinton needs a legislative victory to secure agenda (G1.1) E. Impact Clinton's agenda is bad (insert specific current agenda item) III. Clinton Focus A. Clinton focusing on foreign policy now (insert specific current foreign policy issue)

B. Domestic focus trades off with foreign policy focus (G1.2) C. Clinton focus on foreign policy good (insert specific current foreign policy issue) IV. GOP Unity Good A. GOP will win their agenda now (insert specific current agenda item) B. Plan divides the GOP (insert specific link) C. Unity key to GOP agenda D. GOP agenda is good (insert specific current agenda item) V. GOP Moderation Bad A. GOP looking to moderate their image to win their agenda B. Plan helps GOP rehabilitate their image (insert specific link) C. GOP agenda is bad (insert specific current agenda item) VI. Uniqueness A. Winners Win 1. Clinton looking for legislative victories now to save his agenda (G1.3) 2. Clinton hasn't put federal money where his mouth is on education reform (G1.4) B. Foreign Policy Focus: Clinton is spending all of his political captial on Kosovo now-all domestic legislation being shelved. Each initiative costs time and capital for the president (G1.5-6) C. GOP Unity Now 1. Hastert unifying GOP now-party scoring numerous recent victories due to unity and Hastert's leadership (G1.7) 2. Hastert quelling opposition now (G1.8) D. Moderation Uniqueness 1. Democrats leading on education issue-public behind Democratic agenda (G1.9-10) 2. Democrats united on education policy (G1.11) 3. Battle between moderates and conservatives over control of agenda now allows Democrats take the lead (G1.12) 4. Moderation Brink: Control of the education issue is up for grabs (G1.13) VII. Links and Link Boosters A. Generic Links 1. Popularity: Education is the public's top priority (G1.14) 2. Political Capital a. Education is a political lightning rod-both sides seek to score political points (G1.15) b. Credit for education policy zero sum-it's a hot button issue (G1.16) c. Education reform is a political football-both sides will vie for credit (G1.17) d. Answer to Our Bill Is Popular: Even popular bills expend political

capital-education is a zero-sum issue-politicians will vie for control of the spin (G1.18) e. Federal education spending sparks politicized debate (G1.19) 3. Winners Win: Education reform would reinvigorate Clinton's leadership (G1.20) 4. GOP Unity a. Fiat links i. Avoiding surprises and building consensus before action critical to successful GOP push in Congress-The plan wrecks Hastert's strategy through fiat, destroying GOP cohesion (G1.21) ii. Hastert working diligently to unite the GOP-the plan upsets his effort, guaranteeing disunity (G1.22) b. Hastert standing up to Clinton administration now-caving in destroys his leadership (G1.23) c. Conservative flight i. GOP unified now but unity could collapse if conservatives get frustrated with Hastert (G1.24) ii. GOP deviation from conservative stances risks the flight of core support (G1.25) iii. Education puts a wedge between social conservatives and GOP Congress (G1.26) iiii. Education issues divide GOP Congress and social conservatives, resulting in more home-schooling (G1.27) iv. Failure to implement Christian education policies causes split between conservatives and GOP (G1.28) v. Religious right has enormous political influence (G1.29) vi. Family Resource Council regrouping for a fresh assault on their hot button issues-like education (G1.30) 5. GOP Moderation a. Plan is a defeat for the conservative wing, boosting the party's power (G1.31) b. GOP looking to soften its image-they would seize on the plan in order to moderate their image (G1.32) c. GOP focus on procedural distinctions instead of substantive differences over education policy rehabilitates their image (G1.33) B. Specific Links 1. Clinton's Policies a. FYI: Clinton's education plan described (G1.34-6) 2. Federal/State Policy a. GOP strongly opposed to federal education mandates (G1.37) b. GOP wants any increases in education funding to be in block grant form (G1.38) c. Clinton wants to make states accountable for academic achievement under the ESEA (G1.39-40) d. ESEA mandates will provoke fight with Congress (G1.41) e. Ed-Flex program massively popular with politicians (G1.42) 3. Vouchers: GOP has removed vouchers from its list of education priorities (G1.43) 4. Charter Schools: Clinton gets the credit for charter school progress (G1.44) 5. Teachers a. Funding to hire new teachers provokes partisan bickering (G1.45) b. Funds for hiring new teachers massively popular (G1.46) c. Clinton beholden to the teachers' union (G1.47) d. Gore pushing school renovations and hiring more teachers (G1.48) e. Gore pushing reduced class size (G1.49) 6. Social Promotion: Both Clinton and GW Bush pushing an end to social promotion (G1.50) 7. Multicultualism

a. Multicultural tolerance curriculum sparks conservative backlash (G1.51) b. Gay rights groups support tolerance curriculum (G1.52) 8. Abortion: Abortion issue sparks firestorm within the GOP (G1.53) 9. Special Education: Special education funding is a hot-button issue (G1.54) 10. School Security: School safety is a top priority for Clinton (G1.55) 11. Office of Educational Research and Improvement: Office of Educational Research and Improvement is unpopular with everyone-media, politicians and public (G1.56) C. Salience and Spin 1. Link Threshold: Small issues are perceived (G1.57) 2. Spin a. Tying the plan to popular issues ensures political support-voting against it would be political suicide (G1.58) b. GOP attacks on education spending fail-Clinton spins them as mean-spirited (G1.59) c. Education is a hot button-inevitable political spin undermines credibility of federal education research and evaluation (G1.60) VIII. Internal Links A. Blame and Credit 1. Presidency is the focal point of politics (G1.61) 2. Media coverage of politics is president-centered (G1.62) 3. Zero-sum politics ensure Clinton gets the blame (G1.63) 4. President is held accountable, regardless of culpability (G1.64) B. Popularity 1. Popularity critical to maintaining congressional support for Clinton's agenda (G1.65) 2. President lives and dies by the polls (G1.66) 3. Approval ratings critical to presidential power (G1.67) 4. Internal Link Threshold a. High popularity uniquely critical for Clinton's agenda-he needs it at the margins (G1.68) b. Link threshold is low-public will become frenzied over the policy (G1.69) c. Popularity can collapse rapidly (G1.70) C. Political Capital 1. Influence and favor-trading are implicit in proposing policy-congressional backlash against the plan prevents quid pro quo necessary to pass other agenda items (G1.71) 2. Internal link threshold low: Congressional support can collapse quickly, crushing Clinton's agenda (G1.72) 3. Political capital key to foreign policy a. Domestic political capital insulates Clinton from GOP assaults on foreign policy (G1.73) b. Political capital key to Clinton's foreign policy leadership-it's the only place he can apply his political capital (G1.74) D. Foreign Policy Focus: The future of foreign policy is up for grabs now-isolationism lurking in GOP camps with Democrats weakly defending the president (G1.75) E. GOP Unity 1. Hastert must keep the GOP unified to stave off Democratic agenda

items-he's succeeding now but new legislation could derail his project (G1.76) 2. Tough fights ahead-Hastert must rally the troops (G1.77) F. GOP Moderation 1. GOP placing education at the top of their priorities-they would claim credit (G1.78) 2. GOP looking to moderate on education issue to win back support (G1.79) 3. GOP moderation wins over new constituents (G1.80) IX. Answers to Internal Links A. Popularity: Presidential popularity does not affect roll call votes (G1.81) B. Political Capital 1. Clinton lacks any political power-his word is worthless with the Congress-there's zero risk of an internal link (G1.82) 2. Clinton's political capital useless-he has no leverage with Congress (G1.83) C. Focus 1. Clinton continuing work on domestic agenda now (G1.84-5) 2. Focus inevitably becomes skewed-modern president precludes single policy focus (G1.86) D. GOP Unity: Hastert ensuring moderate coalition support now, supplanting the need for conservative base support (G1.87) E. GOP Moderation 1. GOP moderation will fail-Democrats will call them on it (G1.88) 2. Moderation fails-only weakens support as opponents call them out for it-women's rights groups prove (G1.89) 3. Media focuses on extreme wing of the GOP, ensuring the moderate message gets obscured (G1.90) 4. Compromising on their values will only hurt the GOP (G1.91) 5. Moderation provokes conservative backlash-abortion issue proves (G1.92) Part 2: Spending I. Shell A. Clinton and Congress adhering to budget deal: Congress and Clinton adhering to spending caps (G2.1) B. Links 1. The plan spends money (insert or assert specific link) 2. Enshrining spending policies violates spirit of compromise in the budget process, breaking down budget deal (G2.2) C. Impacts 1. Collapse of budget discipline crushes the economy (G2.3) 2. Economic decline risks nuclear war (G2.4) II. Uniqueness A. Clinton winning the battle for the future of the surplus (G2.5)

B. Clinton and Democrats satisfying public concerns on budget matters (G2.6) III. Links A. Generic Links 1. Fiat Links a. In budget process, everything has to be on the table-perpetual funding due to fiat poisons budget negotiations (G2.7) b. Fiat makes the plan a non-negotiable sacred cow, ensuring budget negotiations become gridlocked (G2.8) c. Earmarking one program opens the floodgates, destroying budget policy (G2.9) d. Fiat makes plan untouchable-distorting budget agreement (G2.10) 2. Spending Caps Links a. Budget caps incredibly tight now-Kosovo has added pressure to the appropriations process-new spending disastrous for budget now (G2.11) b. Any new spending will force breaking of budget caps-enraging conservative Republicans (G2.12) 3. Political Links a. Any new spending will be used as a fiscal litmus test to score political points in the larger budget battle (G2.13) b. GOP looking to bash Clinton for any new spending (G2.14) c. New domestic spending by Democrats will backfire-GOP will claim they are raiding Social Security (G2.15) d. Clinton's fiscal credibility key to budget cooperation (G2.16) 4. Answers to Affirmative Arguments a. Answers to plan is funded using unallocated funds: Unallocated money is supposed to go to the states-spending it sparks a backlash (G2.17) b. Answers to plan is funded using the surplus: Spending the surplus destroys budget discipline (G2.18) c. Answer to public doesn't perceive spending: Public is scrutinizing budget-they are dubious about surplus (G2.19) B. Specific Links 1. Increased bureaucracy and centralization extremely costly (G2.20) 2. 100,000 new teachers costs 11.4 billion over seven years (G2.21) 3. More classrooms expensive-could cost $50 million per state, Indiana proves (G2.22) 4. Security measures extremely expensive (G2.23-4) IV. Impacts: Budget discipline key to the economy A. Balanced budget key to sustaining the economy (G2.25) B. Budget restraint ensures stable growth (G2.26) C. Budget discipline key to keeping economy stable (G2.27) D. Budget agreement key to the stability of the US economy (G2.28) V. Affirmative Answers A. Public wants new budget expenditures to be on education and health care first (G2.29) B. Education budget chair willing to break caps for large increases in education spending (G2.30) C. Republican leadership willing to break caps for large increases in education spending

(G2.31) D. Kosovo effort spending the surplus now (G2.32) E. Bipartisan consensus is caps will inevitably be broken-they will hold for the short-term, causing gridlock (G2.33) F. Clinton and Congress will inevitably break the spending caps (G2.34) G Spending caps bad-they crush crucial discretionary spending (G2.35) Part 3: Local reforms disadvantage I. Local authority increasing A. State funding for education compensates for property tax limitations(G3.1) B. States coming under pressure to devolve authority to local governments(G3.2) C. Local education control is expanding in the status quo(G3.3) D. Federal programs are increasing district flexibility(G3.4) II. Links to undermining local reforms A. Federal programs generally 1. Federal accountability requirements inhibit local control(G3.5) 2. Federal program implementation imposes large costs on school districts(G3.6) 3. Federal education programs coopt local reforms(G3.7) 4. Federal program funding increases resistance to local reform(G3.8) 5. Targeted federal programs impose large administrative costs on districts(G3.9) 6. Federal timelines complicate district compliance efforts(G3.10) B. Federal flexibility programs 1. Flexibility programs increase information costs on school districts(G3.11) 2. Federal flexibility programs increase information demands on districts(G3.12) 3. Flexibility efforts increase administrative demands on school districts(G3.13) C. State action 1. Local school districts rely on property taxes for funding(G3.14) 2. State taxes directly trade off with local property taxes(G3.15) 3. State education legislation undermines local autonomy(G3.16) 4. Standards programs undermine local control(G3.17) D. Class size reduction programs undermine local flexibility(G3.18) III. Local reforms are superior A. Program funds 1. Loss of local autonomy risks funding shortfalls in state appropriations(G3.19) 2. Local autonomy is necessary for taxpayer support of education programs(G3.20)

B. Democracy 1. Local control of public education enhances democracy(G3.21) 2. Local control of education policy is most democratic(G3.22) C. Local control promotes diversity and innovation in education(G3.23) D. Local school districts block major reform programs(G3.24) IV Answers to the local reforms disadvantage A. Local authority decreasing 1. States are encroaching on local control over education funding(G3.25) 2. States are increasing control over local governments in education funding(G3.26) 3. States are cutting back on local education funding sources(G3.27) 4. Trend toward state centralization unlikely to reverse in the status quo(G3.28) 5. States are expanding their role in local education decisions(G3.29) 6. State accountability for local education is growing(G3.30) B. Answers to local control links 1. Local education agencies prefer direct federal aid(G3.31) 2. Direct federal aid improves Title I programs and local control(G3.32) C. Local reform fails 1. Unique state interest in education justifies limited local control(G3.33) 2. Local governments welcome state control(G3.34) 3. Many local school districts lack precise program goals(G3.35) 4. Lack of knowledge limits school district innovation(G3.36) Part 4: Teacher backlash I. Links to teacher backlash A. Charter schools programs cause teacher opposition 1. Teachers oppose charter schools(G4.1) 2. Teachers unions oppose charter schools as union-busters(G4.2) 3. Teachers oppose competition introduced by charter schools(G4.3) 4. Answers to link turn: teachers support charter schools a. Teacher unions only support restrictive charter school laws(G4.4) b. Teacher unions tolerate charters to strengthen opposition to vouchers(#G4.5) c. Charter school support could split teacher's unions(G4.6) d. Charter schools provide less job security than public schools(G4.7) B. Teacher-based reforms cause teacher backlash 1. Teacher assessment programs are opposed a. Teachers oppose teacher standards programs(G4.8) b. Teacher evaluation mandates fail and provoke resistancE(G4.9) c. Teacher standards undermine teacher autonomy(G4.10) 2. Teacher training programs are strongly resisted by teachers(G4.11) 3. Salary reforms to attract teachers cause union crises(G4.12) 4. Teachers unions resist attempts to ease the removal of teachers(G4.13)

C. Vouchers and choice programs are opposed by teachers groups 1. Teachers unions fiercely resist school competition programs(G4.14) 2. NEA opposes any steps toward school choice and vouchers(G4.15, G4.16) 3. Teachers unions use substantial political power to oppose vouchers(G4.17) D. Teachers oppose programs to promote home schooling 1. Teacher unions oppose home schooling(G4.18) 2. School administrators oppose home schooling because of revenue loss(G4.19) 3. Teachers unions strongly oppose home schooling(G4.20) 4. Teachers oppose home schooling without regulation(G4.21) E. Educational organizations resist performance mandates(G4.22) II. Impacts to teacher backlash A. Teacher cooperation is key to success 1. Federal education programs fail when they ignore teacher compliance(G4.23) 2. Standards fail absent educator commitment to reform(G4.24) 3. Marginalization of teachers in school reform ensures program failure(G4.25) 4. Teacher opposition will doom any federal reform program(G4.26) B. Union opposition blocks reforms 1. Teacher's labor rights can block school reform(G4.27) 2. Teacher bargaining can prevent school choice programs from succeeding(G4.28) 3. Unions will cause voucher schools to be covered by public labor laws(G4.29) C. Teacher opposition blocks solvency 1. Teacher opposition undercuts reform effectiveness(G4.30) 2. Coercive program mandates fail(G4.31) D. Program loyalties limit the opportunity for total school reform(G4.32) III. Link answers to teacher backlash A. Teachers unions now support statewide student assessments(G4.33) B. Teacher union opposition cannot stop privatization(G4.34) C. Unions are working within the charter schools movement to shape reform(G4.35) D. Teacher unions are warming to charter schools(G4.36) E. Teacher unions are beginning to support limited reforms(G4.37) F. Teachers support education decentralization and local control(G4.38) Part 5: Kritiks I. Moral Panic

A. School violence as a moral panic: 1. Links a. Seeing violence as rooted in schools is a moral panic (G5.1) b. Crime statistics take on extra value to school districts with little bearing to the actual occurrence (G5.2) 2. Implications a. The moral panic over school violence is feeding the public fear and diverting attention from non-school causes (G5.3) b. Most violence is away from school (G5.4) c. It's impossible to create docile bodies. The aff can't solve (G5.5) d. The notion of fighting violence is counter-productive. Using violence to combat violence is like throwing gasoline on a fire (G5.6) B. The panic over educational crises 1. Most reforms are solutions in search of problems. Most critics will only discuss schools as if they are in crisis (G5.7) 2. The aff's educational crisis is a rhetorically used to justify their vision of schools: Their harms authors strategically underplay that America has the highest productivity in the world, IQ scores are up, and more students are graduating (G5.8) 3. Criticism of education ignores gains in desegregation and graduates (G5.9) 4. Today's critics pay little attention to actual composition of schools (G5.10) C. Implications 1. Panics prevent intelligent policies. The aff's solution arises out of a panic like justification (G5.11) 2. Resistance to new reforms run deep (G5.12) 3. History disproves their harm and solvency a. Quick fixes ignore the history of previous educational reform and underestimate the difficulty of change (G5.13) b. History proves schools never live up to reforms (G5.14) c. Education reform historically has little impact: kindergarten and junior high failed just like high school (G5.15) 4. Most reform is not really about school. It's real concern is other societal issues (G5.16) D. Affirmative turn- media panics good. Empirically, the over reporting of crime caused actual crime to decrease (G5.17) II. Child-Centerness A. Links 1. National standards links a. National standards/school choice ignore children's needs. Children are being excluded from reform efforts (G5.18) b. Higher standards do not address the needs of the youth or democratic participation (G5.19) c. Most reforms ignore the invisible school crimes which have a chilling effect on learning (G5.20) 2. Pushing responsibility for the welfare of children on to schools is inconsistent with their educational roles (G5.21) 3. Parental reforms links a. Most recent wave of reform favors parental interests (G5.22) b. Parental reform over-focuses on the parents, ignoring the students themselves (G5.23)

4. Local decision making links a. Shifting power to local decision making has removed decision making authority from school boards (G5.24) b. Transferring power locally is only politically expedient. It hasn't resulted in improving student outcomes (G5.25) 5. Children's rights approach fails to incorporate children's concerns (G5.26) B. Implications 1. Educational rights deflect concern from the issue of who controls the content of the education (G5.27) 2. Failure to reconsider who controls the nature of education dooms future reform efforts (G5.28) 3. Students reject schools because curriculums are irrelevant to their lives (G5.29) III. Citizenship/Deliberation A. Links 1. School officials depend on failed models of reform because they are politically easier (G5.30) 2. The "one best school" model ignores the democratic imperative of schools (G5.31) 3. Current school reforms debates ignores the primary goal of schooling (G5.32) 4. Testing takes the easy way out by measuring what can be counted, not what is important (G5.33) B. Internal links of sorts 1. Schools produce and reproduce publics (G5.34) 2. Schools will always emphasize a pedagogy suited to autocratic society (G5.35) C. Implications 1. The affirmative cannot solve a. Don't be fooled by their specific solvency. The affirmative's small reform obscures the larger issue of what education's goal should be. Their claims for specific solvency are really just ideological statements validating one perspective on education. Our kritik should be evaluated prior to their advantages (G5.36) b. Schooling doesn't liberate (G5.37) c. Inculcative education fails for four reasons: failure to comport with student's cognitive learning, compels obedience to predetermined values, is contrary with democratic values, and doesn't teach well (G5.38) d. Can't create good schools without a reprioritization of goals (G5.39) 2. Conventional education inhibits participatory citizenship a. Conventional education teaches children to be docile and obedient. True democratic ideals can never succeed (G5.40) b. Schools stifle citizenship (G5.41) c. Inculcative model of education stifles student questioning and conceptual development (G5.42) d. Schools cause intellectual dysfunction-the language used to teach in schools is unnatural (G5.43) e. Ordinary schooling can't connect students to the history of humanity (G5.44) 3. Conventional education is anti-democratic a. The inculcative model allows arbitrary opinion to guide curriculums. Schools can get away with antidemocratic behavior (like hiding rules in order

to suppress free speech) (G5.45) b. Inculcative model allows greater control of students (G5.46) c. Inculcation model aids school rationalizations to restrict speech and avoid controversy (G5.47) d. School officials will always bow down to the community, guaranteeing the suppression of free expression (G5.48) D. Alternatives 1. Education needs to prepare students to participate democratically through deliberation (G5.49) 2. Fundamental duty of schools is to prepare students to be citizens (G5.50) 3. Providing deliberation is the key to democratic education (G5.51) 4. Principles of nonrepression are needed to ensure deliberation (G5.52) 5. Students need higher-order skills to develop critical thought (G5.53) 6. Cognitive model is preparation intensive (G5.54) E. Responses to various affirmative arguments 1. A transformation to a Dewey like curriculum doesn't come overnight (G5.55) 2. Don't condemn Dewey for a lack of a detailed reform. His work is like an experimental scientist (G5.56) 3. Dewey's critics are wrong: children centered learning is critical to education (G5.57) 4. Our responsibility as democratic citizens demand that we prioritize our goals. We have a responsibility to reject these knee-jerk permutations and debate the goal for education (G5.58) 5. Most goals of school are opposed to each other. Resources and internal contradictions prevent their permutation (G5.59) F. Affirmative responses 1. Why would the schools follow? Dewey's reform isn't feasible (G5.60) 2. Dewey didn't think about how to implement his strategy (G5.61) 3. Turn-Public deliberation can be harmful a. Democracy requires the exercise of popular sovereignty (G5.62) b. Extending popular sovereignty is a blueprint for totalitarian witchhunts (G5.63) IV. Marxism A. Links 1. The social relationships of education replicate the hierarchical divisions of labor (G5.64) 2. Public education only prepares the cream of the crop for management jobs. Corporations also need low skilled workers (G5.65) 3. Purpose of education is to preserve the existing class structure (G5.66) 4. Bad teaching isn't the problem. Capitalist competition is (G5.67) 5. Schools teach competitive selfishness (G5.68) 6. National standards see the school like a factory (G5.69) 7. Vouchers are framed in terms of market ideology (G5.70) B. Implications 1. The idea of "learning to earn" prevents broader learning (G5.71) 2. Most reform will systematically fail (G5.72) 3. Factory like schools act as if individuality should be taught only at home (G5.73)

C. Alternatives: The Homeschooling movement (G5.74) D. Affirmative Answers 1. Permutation-embrace the paradox. Curriculum changes don't have to be expressions of capitalism (G5.75) 2 .Schooling can repair the problems of capitalism (G5.76) 3. Capitalist modernization has helped circulate knowledge and improve tolerance (G5.77) 4. Schools can repair the damage done by the Industrial Revolution (G5.78) 5. Bowles and Gintis are overly reductionistic (G5.79) 6. Marxists fail to see power relations emanating from non-economic relations (G5.80) Part 6: Federalism disadvantage I. States are gaining authority over education policy A. Now is a key time to redefine the federal role 1. Federal role in education is uncertain(G6.1) 2. ESEA reauthorization provides a unique opportunity to reform federalism(G6.2) 3. No major reform of the ESEA likely, but opportunity does exist(G6.3) 4. ESEA reauthorization will determine federal-state power balance(G6.4) 5. ESEA reauthorization is a unique chance to redefine the federal role(G6.5) 6. ESEA reauthorization will not be complete until after October, 1999(G6.6) B. State authority is increasing 1. States are claiming education policy a. State authority to limit federal intrusions is growing(G6.7) b. State and local autonomy is increasing in the status quo(G6.8) 2. Federal education programs will not grow a. No further expansion of federal education entitlements is likely(G6.9) b. Congress will not expand the reach of federal programs(G6.10) 3. Federal education funding is shrinking a. Trends reveal decreasing federal education funding(G6.11) b. Federal share of education funding is declining(G6.12) c. Federal education spending does not outpace enrollment increases(G6.13) 4. Federal role in education is limited a. Federal education role is limited, has no great impact(G6.14) b. Federal role in education is limited to five statutes(G6.15) 5. Supreme Court decisions protect federalism(G6.16) 6. Current ESEA structure allows substantial state flexibility(G6.17) C. State flexibility is causing education reform 1. States are rapidly innovating to reform education a. States are actively innovating on education (G6.18) b. State level education reform is widespread(G6.19) 2. States are increasing funding for K-12 education(G6.20) 3. State innovation precedes federal reform a. State innovations outpace federal education programs(G6.21) b. State innovation on education is outpacing federal efforts(G6.22) c. Ed-flex is an exception, states are leading on education(G6.23) 4. States are funding class size reduction efforts(G6.24) 5. Florida examples prove state education activism is high(G6.25)

6. States are acting to improve performance and accountability(G6.26) II. Links to undermining state education flexibility A. Generic links 1. Federal education programs are unconstitutional a. Education is a state-level responsibility(G6.27) b. States have constitutional authority over education policy(G6.28) 2. Federal programs stop innovation a. Federal education programs undercut state and local innovations(G6.29) b. Federal education programming stifles innovation(G6.30) c. New federal education programs block state innovations(G6.31) d. Federal program mandates prevent state and local innovation(G6.32) 3. Federal programs waste state resources a. Federal program administration drains state education resources(G6.33) b. Federal education programs consume state programming(G6.34) c. Federal education mandates perpetuate ineffective bureaucracy(G6.35) d. Federal education funding causes regulatory entanglement(G6.36) 4. Federal education programs inherently preclude state flexibility(G6.37) 5. Conditioning federal aid on a variety of issues undermines state control(G6.38) B. Specific links 1. Direct to district federal programs undermine states a. Direct federal funding of local education agencies stops state reform(G6.39) b. Direct federal aid to school districts uniquely federalizes education(G6.40) 2. Federal performance standards hurt states a. Federal performance standards undermine state autonomy(G6.41) b. Performance objectives preserve a federal role in education programs(G6.42) c. National program standards boost accountability but limit flexibility(G6.43) d. National standards would be a large intervention into state authority(G6.44) 3. Facility funding and construction programs hurt states a. Federal school construction mandates increase compliance costs on states(G6.45) b. Federal facility funding chokes state efforts, waivers solve best(G6.46) 4. Federal targeted funding programs undermine state solutions a. Federal funding specification stifles state and local innovation(G6.47) b. Federal categorical programs stifle state reform(G6.48) 5. Federal teacher standards programs hurt states a. Teacher standards are under state control in the status quo(G6.49) b. Tying education aid to standards encroaches on state authority(G6.50) 6.Federal special education mandates interfere with state flexibility(G6.51) 7. Clinton agenda education programs will undermine state control(G6.52) 8. ESEA is central to the federal role in education(G6.53) 9. Federal class size reduction programs undermine state and local reform(G6.54) 10. Limited Ed-Flex waiver authority constrains state and local flexibility(G6.55) 11. State officials oppose fiscal devolution(G6.56) C. Answers to link turns: we promote state innovation 1. Unilateral federal flexibility programs do not promote federalism(G6.57) 2. Federal waivers exact substantial administrative costs on states(G6.58)

D. Answer to: no link: Unfunded Mandates Reform Act prevents intrusion(G6.59) III. Impacts to undermining federalism A. Federalism prevents U.S. ethnic conflict and war(G6.60) B. Limiting federal authority is modelled, solving conflicts(G6.61) C. Federalism prevents tyranny(G6.62) D. Federalism is the paramount constitutional principle(G6.63) E. Federalism prevents succession(G6.64) F. Wars of succession are inevitable absent federalism(G6.65) IV. Answers to the federalism disadvantage A. Federal intrusions on states are inevitable 1. Federal education legislation is encroaching on state control(G6.66) 2. Pace of devolution slowing (G6.67) 3. Budget surplus causes federal activism in education (G6.68) 4. Federalism cannot be reformed a. Entrenched interests prevent federalist reform(G6.69) b. Federal control of education funding is entrenched(G6.70) 5. Federal program funding is being distributed a. Federal school funding proposals will pass this year(G6.71) b. Federal technology subsidies are flowing to schools now(G6.72) 6. The Clinton administration ensures federal activism on education a. Clinton proposal includes multiple high visibility programs(G6.73) b. Clinton is pushing to expand the federal role in education(G6.74) 7. Federal education programming is extensive a. There are numerous Federal education programs(G6.75) b. Federal education programming is massive(G6.76) c. Federal government education policy interventions occur at all levels(G6.77) d. There are a wide range of federal requirements on school policy(G6.78) B. Federal education programs do not infringe on state flexibility 1. Federal education bureaucracy is not cumbersome(G6.79) 2. State regulations do more damage to flexibility a. State education regulations overwhelm the impact of federal mandates(G6.80) b. State mandates eliminate advantages to reduced federal mandates(G6.81) c. State program regulations are more restrictive than federal mandates(#G6.82) d. States regulate schools beyond the range of federal mandates(G6.83) e. State level program regulations are more intrusive than federal mandates(G6.84) 3. State governments will accept federal control with funding(G6.85) 4. States like block grants that increase access to funds without strings(G6.86) C. Answers to federalism impacts 1. Federal structures fail more often than succeed(G6.87) 2. Specific U.S. actions are not modelled(G6.88) 3. American federalism does not translate(G6.89)

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