This is to certify that …………………………. of class XII A has satisfactorily competed the project work in chemistry as prescribed by CBSE for the course in A.I.S.S.C.E in the year 2009-2010.

Date: Place:

Signature of teacher in charge: Signature of Principal: Signature of External Examiner:

Name of candidate: Registration no :

Examination center: Date of practical examination:

I express my sincere gratitude to my teacher Mrs. Nisha for her support and constant encouragement in

completing this project. My thanks are also in full measure to our respected principal Mrs. Lalitha Nair

who provided necessary facilities and ample time to carry out this project. I also wish to place on record

my thanks to our affable lab assistant Mr.Unni Adiyodi. Last but not least I express my thank to all my

friends for their immense help and assistance endured.


Introduction Aim Requirements Theory Procedure Observations Conclusion


Detergents are substances used for cleaning. these are sodium salt of long chin sulphonates or sulphates.the are manufactured from materials other than animal fats for e.g. these are obtained from alkyl benzene sulphonates and hydrogen sulphates.

The cleaning action of detergents can be explained keeping in mind that a soap molecule contain nonpolar lyophobic and a polar lyophobic group . dirt is held on the surface by the oil which is present there .when detergent is applied a non polar group dissolves in oil droplet while the polar COONa remains dissolves in water in this way each oil droplets cannot coalesce and a stable emulsion is formed.these oil droplets containing dirt can be washed away by water.


Compare the foaming capacities of different samples of detergents.


100 ml conical flasks

20ml test tubes

100ml measuring cylinder

Weight box

Test tube stands


Distilled water

Samples of detergents

THEORY There is no quantitative method for the determination of foaming capacity of a detergent. However It can be qualitatively determined by following way.

Solution of different detergents are prepared by dissolving their weight in equal volumes of distilled water These solutions are shaken vigorously to produce foam and then they are allowed to stand .longer the time taken for foam to disappear greater is the foaming capacity.

PROCEDURE Dissolve each of these weighed samples in 50 ml of distilled water separately in different conical flasks

label them as 1,2,3.take three test tubes and add 10ml of distilled water to each of them .

Then add 1ml of different detergents solution separately

In different Test tubes and correspondingly mark the test tubes 1, 2&3.

Cork the test tube tightly and shake it vigorously

For a minute place the test tube on the stand and start the stop watch immediately

Note the time in which the foam just disappear. Similarly record all the observations.

OBSERVATIONS Weight of each detergent taken=0.5g

Volume of distilled water taken for preparing solution =50ml

Tabular observation:

Test tube no

Brand name of detergents

Time taken for disappearance Of foam(min)








The detergent for which the time taken for disappearance of foam has the maximum foaming capacity and is of best quality among the sample tested.

There fore from our list of samples __________is the best quality and __________ is of least quality (considering the foaming capacity)

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