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Combustion

Biological Molecules • Glucose + Oxygen


-> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

• How do cells “burn” glucose?


Topic 1.2:
Enzymes

Properties Properties
• Enzymes are biological catalysts • Highly specific in action Active
Sites
• Most are protein (produced by living cells) – Lipases only break down
• Function as catalysts: lipids, not proteins
– Alter rate of chemical reactions – Amylase digests starch not
– Not changed at the end of the reaction sucrose
– Can be reused • Has active site that fits a
• Small amounts required particular substrate

Activation Energy Enzyme Catalysed Reactions


• How do Breakdown: Synthesis:
enzymes help Catabolic Reactions Anabolic Reactions
to alter the rate
of chemical
reactions?

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Catabolic Reactions Anabolic Reactions
• Breakdown of complex
substances to simple
substances
• Cellular Respiration:
Oxidation of glucose to
release energy and forms • Building of complex substances from simpler ones
carbon dioxide & water • Protein synthesis

Amino acids Proteins

Photosynthesis Digestion
• Breakdown of complex food substances into
simpler, smaller, soluble & diffusible substances
• Hydrolases: Carry out hydrolysis

Detoxification
What is the
‘Lock & Key’
Hypothesis?

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Fischer’
Fischer’s Lock and
Key hypothesis Lock & Key Hypothesis
Active • Enzyme action depends on
Product
Sites
active site
• Each enzyme has a specific
Substrates
Active site shape / configuration at its
active site
• Enzyme will only bind to a
enzyme substrate that has a
complementary shape to fit
Enzyme-substrate complex fits like
a key into a lock
into its active site

Lock & Key


Hypothesis

• Upon substrate binding, the necessary reactions


occur in the enzyme-substrate complex
• The product formed separates, leaving the
enzyme molecule unchanged
• Enzyme is free to combine again with more
substrate molecules

Induced-fit Hypothesis Rate of Reactions


• Activity of the enzyme can
be measured by
calculating rate of enzyme
reaction:
– Amount of substrate used
up (eg. Starch)
Enzyme need not provide exact fit to
– Amount of product formed
substrate. Instead, it would change its
(eg. Oxygen)
shape slightly to fit the substrate.
– Over a fixed period of time