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l CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES
os. l3354 nnd l3356
SY!VIA I!!WI!!, SIC!ITA!Y OI HIA!TH
A H!MA SI!VICIS, IT A!., IITITIOI!S
l3354 t.
HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC., IT A!.
O W!IT OI CI!TIO!A!I TO THI !ITI STATIS CO!!T
OI AIIIA!S IO! THI TITH CI!C!IT
A
COISTOCA WOO SIICIA!TIIS CO!IO!ATIO
IT A!., IITITIOI!S
l3356 t.
SY!VIA I!!WI!!, SIC!ITA!Y OI HIA!TH
A H!MA SI!VICIS, IT A!.
O W!IT OI CI!TIO!A!I TO THI !ITI STATIS CO!!T
OI AIIIA!S IO! THI THI! CI!C!IT
|Juno 30, 20l4]
J!STICI CISI!!C, wIfh whom J!STICI SOTOMAYO!
joIns, nnd wIfh whom J!STICI I!IYI! nnd J!STICI
KACA joIn ns fo nII buf Inrf IIICl, dIssonfIng.
In n docIsIon of sfnrfIIng brondfh, fho Courf hoIds fhnf
commorcInI onforrIsos, IncIudIng corornfIons, nIong wIfh
nrfnorshIs nnd soIo rorIoforshIs, cnn of ouf of nny
Inw (snvIng onIy fnx Inws) fhoy judgo IncomnfIbIo wIfh
fhoIr sIncoroIy hoId roIIgIous boIIofs. Soo on/e, nf l649.
ComoIIIng govornmonfnI Inforosfs In unIform comIInnco
wIfh fho Inw, nnd dIsndvnnfngos fhnf roIIgIon-bnsod of-
oufs Imoso on ofhors, hoId no swny, fho Courf docIdos, nf
Ionsf whon fhoro Is n Ioss rosfrIcfIvo nIfornnfIvo. And
such nn nIfornnfIvo, fho Courf suggosfs, fhoro nIwnys wIII
bo whonovor, In IIou of foIIIng nn onforrIso cInImIng n



















2 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIon, fho govornmonf, i.e., fho gonornI
ubIIc, cnn Ick u fho fnb. Soo on/e, nf 4l43.
l
Tho Courf doos nof rofond fhnf fho IIrsf Amondmonf`s
Iroo IxorcIso CInuso domnnds roIIgIon-bnsod nccommodn-
fIons so oxfromo, for our docIsIons Ionvo no doubf on fhnf
scoro. Soo infro, nf 68. Insfond, fho Courf hoIds fhnf
Congross, In fho !oIIgIous Iroodom !osfornfIon Acf of
l993 (!I!A), 42 !. S. C. 2000bb e/ eeq., dIcfnfod fho
oxfrnordInnry roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIons fodny`s docIsIon
ondorsos. In fho Courf`s vIow, !I!A domnnds nccommo-
dnfIon of n for-rofIf corornfIon`s roIIgIous boIIofs no
mnffor fho Imncf fhnf nccommodnfIon mny hnvo on fhIrd
nrfIos who do nof shnro fho corornfIon ownors` roIIgIous
fnIfhIn fhoso cnsos, fhousnnds of womon omIoyod by
Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn or doondonfs of orsons
fhoso corornfIons omIoy. Iorsundod fhnf Congross
onncfod !I!A fo sorvo n fnr Ioss rndIcnI uroso, nnd
mIndfuI of fho hnvoc fho Courf`s judgmonf cnn Infroduco, I
dIssonf.
I
Tho nbIIIfy of womon fo nrfIcInfo oqunIIy In fho
oconomIc nnd socInI IIfo of fho nfIon hns boon fncIIIfnfod
by fhoIr nbIIIfy fo confroI fhoIr roroducfIvo IIvos.
PlonneJ Poren/looJ of Sou/leoe/ern Po. v. Coee,, 505
!. S. 833, 856 (l992). Congross ncfod on fhnf undorsfnnd-

l
Tho Courf InsIsfs If hns hoId nono of fhoso fhIngs, for nnofhor Ioss
rosfrIcfIvo nIfornnfIvo Is nf hnnd: oxfondIng nn oxIsfIng nccommodn-
fIon, curronfIy IImIfod fo roIIgIous nonrofIf orgnnIznfIons, fo oncom-
nss commorcInI onforrIsos. Soo on/e, nf 34. WIfh fhnf nccommodn-
fIon oxfondod, fho Courf nssorfs, womon wouId sfIII bo onfIfIod fo nII
|Iood nnd rug AdmInIsfrnfIon]-nrovod confrncofIvos wIfhouf cosf
shnrIng. An/e, nf 4. In fho ond, howovor, fho Courf Is nof so suro. In
sfnrk confrnsf fo fho Courf`s InIfInI omhnsIs on fhIs nccommodnfIon, If
uIfImnfoIy docIInos fo docIdo whofhor fho hIghIIghfod nccommodnfIon Is
ovon InwfuI. Soo on/e, nf 44 (Wo do nof docIdo fodny whofhor nn
nronch of fhIs fyo comIIos wIfh !I!A . . . .).

























3 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Ing whon, ns nrf of n nnfIonwIdo Insurnnco rogrnm
Infondod fo bo comrohonsIvo, If cnIIod for covorngo of
rovonfIvo cnro rosonsIvo fo womon`s noods. CnrryIng
ouf Congross` dIrocfIon, fho onrfmonf of HonIfh nnd
Humnn SorvIcos (HHS), In consuIfnfIon wIfh ubIIc honIfh
oxorfs, romuIgnfod roguInfIons roquIrIng grou honIfh
Inns fo covor nII forms of confrncofIon nrovod by fho
Iood nnd rug AdmInIsfrnfIon (IA). Tho gonosIs of fhIs
covorngo shouId onIIghfon fho Courf`s rosoIufIon of fhoso
cnsos.
A
Tho AffordnbIo Cnro Acf (ACA), In Ifs InIfInI form, socI-
fIod fhroo cnfogorIos of rovonfIvo cnro fhnf honIfh Inns
musf covor nf no nddod cosf fo fho Inn nrfIcInnf or
bonofIcInry.
2
InrfIcuInr sorvIcos woro fo bo rocommondod
by fho !. S. IrovonfIvo SorvIcos Tnsk Iorco, nn Indoond-
onf nnoI of oxorfs. Tho schomo hnd n Inrgo gn, how-
ovor; If Ioff ouf rovonfIvo sorvIcos fhnf mnny womon`s
honIfh ndvocnfos nnd modIcnI rofossIonnIs boIIovo nro
crIfIcnIIy Imorfnnf. l55 Cong. !oc. 2884l (2009) (sfnfo-
monf of Son. Ioxor). To corrocf fhIs ovorsIghf, Sonnfor
Inrbnrn MIkuIskI Infroducod fho Womon`s HonIfh
Amondmonf, whIch nddod fo fho ACA`s mInImum covorngo
roquIromonfs n now cnfogory of rovonfIvo sorvIcos socIfIc
fo womon`s honIfh.
Womon nId sIgnIfIcnnfIy moro fhnn mon for rovonfIvo
cnro, fho nmondmonf`s roononfs nofod; In fncf, cosf

2
Soo 42 !. S. C. 300ggl3(n)(l)(3) (grou honIfh Inns musf ro-
vIdo covorngo, wIfhouf cosf shnrIng, for (l) corfnIn ovIdonco-bnsod
Ifoms or sorvIcos rocommondod by fho !. S. IrovonfIvo SorvIcos Tnsk
Iorco; (2) ImmunIznfIons rocommondod by nn ndvIsory commIffoo of fho
Confors for Isonso ConfroI nnd IrovonfIon; nnd (3) wIfh rosocf fo
Infnnfs, chIIdron, nnd ndoIosconfs, ovIdonco-Informod rovonfIvo cnro
nnd scroonIngs rovIdod for In fho comrohonsIvo guIdoIInos suorfod
by fho HonIfh !osourcos nnd SorvIcos AdmInIsfrnfIon).


















4 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
bnrrIors oornfod fo bIock mnny womon from obfnInIng
noodod cnro nf nII. Soo, e.g., iJ., nf 290?0 (sfnfomonf of
Son. IoInsfoIn) (Womon of chIIdbonrIng ngo sond 68
orconf moro In ouf-of-ockof honIfh cnro cosfs fhnn
mon.); iJ., nf 29302 (sfnfomonf of Son. MIkuIskI) (co-
nymonfs nro |offon] so hIgh fhnf |womon] nvoId goffIng
|rovonfIvo nnd scroonIng sorvIcos] In fho fIrsf Inco).
And Incronsod nccoss fo confrncofIvo sorvIcos, fho son-
sors comrohondod, wouId yIoId Imorfnnf ubIIc honIfh
gnIns. Soo, e.g., iJ., nf 29?68 (sfnfomonf of Son. urbIn)
(ThIs bIII wIII oxnnd honIfh Insurnnco covorngo fo fho
vnsf mnjorIfy of |fho l? mIIIIon womon of roroducfIvo ngo
In fho !nIfod Sfnfos who nro unInsurod] . . . . ThIs ox-
nndod nccoss wIII roduco unInfondod rognnncIos.).
As nIforod by fho Womon`s HonIfh Amondmonf`s ns-
sngo, fho ACA roquIros now Insurnnco Inns fo IncIudo
covorngo wIfhouf cosf shnrIng of such nddIfIonnI rovon-
fIvo cnro nnd scroonIngs . . . ns rovIdod for In comrohon-
sIvo guIdoIInos suorfod by fho HonIfh !osourcos nnd
SorvIcos AdmInIsfrnfIon |(H!SA)], n unIf of HHS. 42
!. S. C. 300ggl3(n)(4). Thus chnrgod, fho H!SA dovoI-
ood rocommondnfIons In consuIfnfIon wIfh fho InsfIfufo
of ModIcIno (IOM). Soo ?? Iod. !og. 8?258?26 (20l2).
3
Tho IOM convonod n grou of Indoondonf oxorfs, IncIud-
Ing socInIIsfs In dIsonso rovonfIon |nnd] womon`s
honIfh; fhoso oxorfs ronrod n roorf ovnIunfIng fho
offIcncy of n numbor of rovonfIvo sorvIcos. IOM, CIInIcnI
IrovonfIon SorvIcos for Womon: CIosIng fho Cns 2 (20ll)
(horoInnffor IOM !oorf). ConsIsfonf wIfh fho fIndIngs of
|n]umorous honIfh rofossIonnI nssocInfIons nnd ofhor
orgnnIznfIons, fho IOM oxorfs doformInod fhnf rovon-

3
Tho IOM Is nn nrm of fho nfIonnI Acndomy of ScIoncos, nn orgnnI-
znfIon Congross osfnbIIshod for fho oxIIcIf uroso of furnIshIng
ndvIco fo fho Covornmonf. PuIlic Ci/icen v. Depor/nen/ of Jue/ice,
49l !. S. 440, 460, n. ll (l989) (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).




















5 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
fIvo covorngo shouId IncIudo fho fuII rnngo of IA-
nrovod confrncofIvo mofhods. 1J., nf l0. Soo nIso iJ.,
nf l02ll0.
In mnkIng fhnf rocommondnfIon, fho IOM`s roorf
oxrossod concorns sImIInr fo fhoso voIcod by congros-
sIonnI roononfs of fho Womon`s HonIfh Amondmonf. Tho
roorf nofod fho dIsroorfIonnfo burdon womon cnrrIod
for comrohonsIvo honIfh sorvIcos nnd fho ndvorso honIfh
consoquoncos of oxcIudIng confrncofIon from rovonfIvo
cnro nvnIInbIo fo omIoyoos wIfhouf cosf shnrIng. Soo,
e.g., iJ., nf l9 (|W]omon nro consIsfonfIy moro IIkoIy fhnn
mon fo roorf n wIdo rnngo of cosf-roInfod bnrrIors fo
rocoIvIng . . . modIcnI fosfs nnd fronfmonfs nnd fo fIIIIng
roscrIfIons for fhomsoIvos nnd fhoIr fnmIIIos.); iJ., nf
l03l04, l0? (rognnncy mny bo confrnIndIcnfod for
womon wIfh corfnIn modIcnI condIfIons, for oxnmIo, somo
congonIfnI honrf dIsonsos, uImonnry hyorfonsIon, nnd
Mnrfnn syndromo, nnd confrncofIvos mny bo usod fo
roduco rIsk of ondomofrInI cnncor, nmong ofhor sorIous
modIcnI condIfIons); iJ., nf l03 (womon wIfh unInfondod
rognnncIos nro moro IIkoIy fo oxorIonco dorossIon nnd
nnxIofy, nnd fhoIr chIIdron fnco Incronsod odds of roform
bIrfh nnd Iow bIrfh woIghf).
In IIno wIfh fho IOM`s suggosfIons, fho H!SA ndofod
guIdoIInos rocommondIng covorngo of |n]II |IA-]
nrovod confrncofIvo mofhods, sforIIIznfIon rocoduros,
nnd nfIonf oducnfIon nnd counsoIIng for nII womon wIfh
roroducfIvo cnncIfy.
4
Thoronffor, HHS, fho onrf-
monf of !nbor, nnd fho onrfmonf of Tronsury romuI-
gnfod roguInfIons roquIrIng grou honIfh Inns fo IncIudo
covorngo of fho confrncofIvo sorvIcos rocommondod In fho

4
H!SA, HHS, Womon`s IrovonfIvo SorvIcos CuIdoIInos, nvnIInbIo nf
hff://www.hrsn.gov/womonsguIdoIInos/ (nII Infornof mnforInIs ns
vIsIfod Juno 2?, 20l4, nnd nvnIInbIo In CIork of Courf`s cnso fIIo),
rorInfod In A. fo IrIof for IofIfIonors In o. l3354, . 4344n.
Soo nIso ?? Iod. !og. 8?258?26 (20l2).
























6 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
H!SA guIdoIInos, subjocf fo corfnIn oxcofIons, doscrIbod
infro, nf 252?.
5
ThIs oInIon rofors fo fhoso roguInfIons
ns fho confrncofIvo covorngo roquIromonf.
I
WhIIo fho Womon`s HonIfh Amondmonf succoodod, n
counformovo rovod unnvnIIIng. Tho Sonnfo vofod down
fho so-cnIIod conscIonco nmondmonf, whIch wouId hnvo
onnbIod nny omIoyor or Insurnnco rovIdor fo dony cov-
orngo bnsod on Ifs nssorfod roIIgIous boIIofs or mornI
convIcfIons. l58 Cong. !oc. S539 (Iob. 9, 20l2); soo iJ.,
nf Sll62Sll?3 (Mnr. l, 20l2) (dobnfo nnd vofo).
6
Thnf
nmondmonf, Sonnfor MIkuIskI obsorvod, wouId hnvo u|f]
fho orsonnI oInIon of omIoyors nnd Insurors ovor fho
rncfIco of modIcIno. 1J., nf Sll2? (Iob. 29, 20l2). !o-
jocfIng fho conscIonco nmondmonf, Congross Ioff honIfh
cnro docIsIonsIncIudIng fho choIco nmong confrncofIvo
mofhodsIn fho hnnds of womon, wIfh fho nId of fhoIr
honIfh cnro rovIdors.
II
Any IIrsf Amondmonf Iroo IxorcIso CInuso cInIm Hobby
!obby or Conosfogn
?
mIghf nssorf Is forocIosod by fhIs
Courf`s docIsIon In 1nplo,nen/ Dit., Dep/. of Hunon
Ieeourcee of Ore. v. Sni/l, 494 !. S. 8?2 (l990). In Sni/l,
fwo mombors of fho nfIvo AmorIcnn Church woro dIs-

5
45 CI! l4?.l30(n)(l)(Iv) (20l3) (HHS); 29 CI! 2590.?l5
2?l3(n)(l)(Iv) (20l3) (!nbor); 26 CI! 54.98l52?l3(n)(l)(Iv) (20l3)
(Tronsury).
6
SonrnfIng mornI convIcfIons from roIIgIous boIIofs wouId bo of quos-
fIonnbIo IogIfImncy. Soo Welel v. Ini/eJ S/o/ee, 398 !. S. 333, 35?358
(l9?0) (HnrInn, J., concurrIng In rosuIf).
?
As fho Courf oxInIns, soo on/e, nf lll6, fhoso cnsos nrIso from fwo
sonrnfo InwsuIfs, ono fIIod by Hobby !obby, Ifs nffIIInfod busInoss
(MnrdoI), nnd fho fnmIIy fhnf oornfos fhoso busInossos (fho Croons);
fho ofhor fIIod by Conosfogn nnd fho fnmIIy fhnf owns nnd confroIs fhnf
busInoss (fho Hnhns). !nIoss ofhorwIso socIfIod, fhIs oInIon rofors fo
fho rosocfIvo grous of InInfIffs ns Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn.





















? CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
mIssod from fhoIr jobs nnd donIod unomIoymonf bonofIfs
bocnuso fhoy Ingosfod oyofo nf, nnd ns nn ossonfInI oIo-
monf of, n roIIgIous coromony. Orogon Inw forbndo fho
consumfIon of oyofo, nnd fhIs Courf, roIyIng on fhnf
rohIbIfIon, rojocfod fho omIoyoos` cInIm fhnf fho donInI
of unomIoymonf bonofIfs vIoInfod fhoIr froo oxorcIso
rIghfs. Tho IIrsf Amondmonf Is nof offondod, Sni/l hoId,
whon rohIbIfIng fho oxorcIso of roIIgIon . . . Is nof fho
objocf of |govornmonfnI roguInfIon] buf moroIy fho IncI-
donfnI offocf of n gonornIIy nIIcnbIo nnd ofhorwIso vnIId
rovIsIon. 1J., nf 8?8; soo iJ., nf 8?88?9 (nn IndIvId-
unI`s roIIgIous boIIofs |do nof] oxcuso hIm from comIInnco
wIfh nn ofhorwIso vnIId Inw rohIbIfIng conducf fhnf fho
Sfnfo Is froo fo roguInfo). Tho ACA`s confrncofIvo covor-
ngo roquIromonf nIIos gonornIIy, If Is ofhorwIso vnIId,
If frnIns on womon`s woII boIng, nof on fho oxorcIso
of roIIgIon, nnd nny offocf If hns on such oxorcIso Is
IncIdonfnI.
Ivon If Sni/l dId nof confroI, fho Iroo IxorcIso CInuso
wouId nof roquIro fho oxomfIon Hobby !obby nnd Conos-
fogn sook. AccommodnfIons fo roIIgIous boIIofs or obsor-
vnncos, fho Courf hns cInrIfIod, musf nof sIgnIfIcnnfIy
ImIngo on fho Inforosfs of fhIrd nrfIos.
8

8
Soo Wieconein v. YoJer, 406 !. S. 205, 230 (l9?2) (ThIs cnso, of
courso, Is nof ono In whIch nny hnrm fo fho hysIcnI or monfnI honIfh of
fho chIId or fo fho ubIIc snfofy, onco, ordor, or woIfnro hns boon
domonsfrnfod or mny bo roorIy Inforrod.); 1e/o/e of Tlorn/on v.
ColJor, 1nc., 4?2 !. S. ?03 (l985) (InvnIIdnfIng sfnfo sfnfufo roquIrIng
omIoyors fo nccommodnfo nn omIoyoo`s Snbbnfh obsorvnnco whoro
fhnf sfnfufo fnIIod fo fnko Info nccounf fho burdon such nn nccommodn-
fIon wouId Imoso on fho omIoyor or ofhor omIoyoos). ofnbIy, In
consfruIng fho !oIIgIous !nnd !so nnd InsfIfufIonnIIzod Iorsons Acf of
2000 (!!!IIA), 42 !. S. C. 2000cc e/ eeq., fho Courf hns cnufIonod
fhnf ndoqunfo nccounf musf bo fnkon of fho burdons n roquosfod
nccommodnfIon mny Imoso on nonbonofIcInrIos. Cu//er v. Wil/ineon,
544 !. S. ?09, ?20 (2005); soo iJ., nf ?22 (nn nccommodnfIon musf bo
monsurod so fhnf If doos nof ovorrIdo ofhor sIgnIfIcnnf Inforosfs). A













8 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Tho oxomfIon soughf by Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn
wouId ovorrIdo sIgnIfIcnnf Inforosfs of fho corornfIons`
omIoyoos nnd covorod doondonfs. If wouId dony IogIons
of womon who do nof hoId fhoIr omIoyors` boIIofs nccoss
fo confrncofIvo covorngo fhnf fho ACA wouId ofhorwIso
socuro. Soo Co/lolic Clori/iee of Socronen/o, 1nc. v.
Superior Cour/, 32 CnI. 4fh 52?, 565, 85 I. 3d 6?, 93
(2004) (Wo nro unnwnro of nny docIsIon In whIch . . . |fho
!. S. Suromo Courf] hns oxomfod n roIIgIous objocfor
from fho oornfIon of n noufrnI, gonornIIy nIIcnbIo Inw
dosIfo fho rocognIfIon fhnf fho roquosfod oxomfIon
wouId dofrImonfnIIy nffocf fho rIghfs of fhIrd nrfIos.). In
sum, wIfh rosocf fo froo oxorcIso cInIms no Ioss fhnn froo
sooch cInIms, '|y]our rIghf fo swIng your nrms onds jusf
whoro fho ofhor mnn`s noso bogIns.` Chnfoo, Iroodom of
Sooch In Wnr TImo, 32 Hnrv. !. !ov. 932, 95? (l9l9).
III
A
!nckIng n fonnbIo cInIm undor fho Iroo IxorcIso CInuso,
Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn roIy on !I!A, n sfnfufo
InsfrucfIng fhnf |g]ovornmonf shnII nof subsfnnfInIIy
burdon n orson`s oxorcIso of roIIgIon ovon If fho burdon
rosuIfs from n ruIo of gonornI nIIcnbIIIfy unIoss fho
govornmonf shows fhnf nIIcnfIon of fho burdon Is fho
Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns fo furfhor n comoIIIng govorn-
monfnI Inforosf. 42 !. S. C. 2000bbl(n), (b)(2). In
!I!A, Congross ndof|od] n sfnfufory ruIo comnrnbIo fo
fho consfIfufIonnI ruIo rojocfod In Sni/l. Goncolee v. O
Cen/ro 1eplri/o Beneficen/e Inio Jo Vege/ol, 546 !. S.
4l8, 424 (2006).
!I!A`s uroso Is socIfIc nnd wrIffon Info fho sfnfufo
IfsoIf. Tho Acf wns crnffod fo rosforo fho comoIIIng

bnInncod nronch Is nII fho moro In ordor whon fho Iroo IxorcIso
CInuso IfsoIf Is nf sfnko, nof n sfnfufo dosIgnod fo romofo nccommodn-
fIon fo roIIgIous boIIofs nnd rncfIcos.




















9 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Inforosf fosf ns sof forfh In SlerIer/ v. Verner, 3?4 !. S.
398 (l963) nnd Wieconein v. YoJer, 406 !. S. 205
(l9?2) nnd fo gunrnnfoo Ifs nIIcnfIon In nII cnsos whoro
froo oxorcIso of roIIgIon Is subsfnnfInIIy burdonod.
2000bb(b)(l).
9
Soo nIso 2000bb(n)(5) (|T]ho comoIIIng
Inforosf fosf ns sof forfh In rIor IodornI courf ruIIngs Is
n worknbIo fosf for sfrIkIng sonsIbIo bnInncos bofwoon
roIIgIous IIborfy nnd comofIng rIor govornmonfnI In-
forosfs.); on/e, nf 48 (ngrooIng fhnf fho ro-Sni/l comoI-
IIng Inforosf fosf Is worknbIo nnd sfrIko|s] sonsIbIo
bnInncos).
Tho IogIsInfIvo hIsfory Is corrosondIngIy omhnfIc on
!I!A`s nIm. Soo, e.g., S. !o. o. l03lll, . l2 (l993)
(horoInnffor Sonnfo !oorf) (!I!A`s uroso wns onIy fo
ovorfurn fho Suromo Courf`s docIsIon In Sni/l, nof fo
unsoffIo ofhor nrons of fho Inw.); l39 Cong. !oc. 26l?8
(l993) (sfnfomonf of Son. Konnody) (!I!A wns dosIgnod
fo rosforo fho comoIIIng Inforosf fosf for docIdIng froo
oxorcIso cInIms.). In IIno wIfh fhIs rosfornfIvo uroso,
Congross oxocfod courfs consIdorIng !I!A cInIms fo
Iook fo froo oxorcIso cnsos docIdod rIor fo Sni/l for
guIdnnco. Sonnfo !oorf 8. Soo nIso H. !. !o. o. l03
88, . 6? (l993) (horoInnffor Houso !oorf) (snmo). In
shorf, fho Acf roInsfnfos fho Inw ns If wns rIor fo Sni/l,
wIfhouf cronf|Ing] . . . now rIghfs for nny roIIgIous rnc-
fIco or for nny ofonfInI IIfIgnnf. l39 Cong. !oc. 26l?8
(sfnfomonf of Son. Konnody). CIvon fho Acf`s modornfo
uroso, If Is hnrdIy surrIsIng fhnf !I!A`s onncfmonf In
l993 rovokod IIffIo confrovorsy. Soo IrIof for Sonnfor
Murrny of nI. ns Anici Curioe 8 (horoInnffor Sonnfors

9
!ndor SlerIer/ nnd YoJer, fho Courf roquIr|od] fho govornmonf fo
jusfIfy nny subsfnnfInI burdon on roIIgIousIy mofIvnfod conducf by n
comoIIIng sfnfo Inforosf nnd by monns nnrrowIy fnIIorod fo nchIovo
fhnf Inforosf. 1nplo,nen/ Dit., Dep/. of Hunon Ieeourcee of Ore. v.
Sni/l, 494 !. S. 8?2, 894 (l990) (O`Connor, J., concurrIng In
judgmonf).
























l0 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
IrIof ) (!I!A wns nrovod by n 9?-fo-3 vofo In fho Sonnfo
nnd n voIco vofo In fho Houso of !orosonfnfIvos).
I
osIfo fhoso nufhorIfnfIvo IndIcnfIons, fho Courf soos
!I!A ns n boId InIfInfIvo donrfIng from, rnfhor fhnn
rosforIng, ro-Sni/l jurIsrudonco. Soo on/e, nf 6, n. 3, ?,
l?, 252?. To suorf Ifs concofIon of !I!A ns n mons-
uro dofnchod from fhIs Courf`s docIsIons, ono fhnf sofs n
now courso, fho Courf oInfs fIrsf fo fho !oIIgIous !nnd
!so nnd InsfIfufIonnIIzod Iorsons Acf of 2000 (!!!IIA),
42 !. S. C. 2000cc e/ eeq., whIch nIforod !I!A`s dofInI-
fIon of fho form oxorcIso of roIIgIon. !I!A, ns orIgInnIIy
onncfod, dofInod fhnf form fo monn fho oxorcIso of roII-
gIon undor fho IIrsf Amondmonf fo fho ConsfIfufIon.
2000bb2(4) (l994 od.). Soo on/e, nf 6?. As nmondod by
!!!IIA, !I!A`s dofInIfIon now IncIudos nny oxorcIso of
roIIgIon, whofhor or nof comoIIod by, or confrnI fo, n
sysfom of roIIgIous boIIof. 2000bb2(4) (20l2 od.) (cross-
roforoncIng 2000cc5). Thnf dofInIfIonnI chnngo, nccord-
Ing fo fho Courf, rofIocfs nn obvIous offorf fo offocf n
comIofo sonrnfIon from IIrsf Amondmonf cnso Inw.
An/e, nf ?.
Tho Courf`s rondIng Is nof InusIbIo. !!!IIA`s nIforn-
fIon cInrIfIos fhnf courfs shouId nof quosfIon fho confrnIIfy
of n nrfIcuInr roIIgIous oxorcIso. Iuf fho nmondmonf In
no wny suggosfs fhnf Congross monnf fo oxnnd fho cInss
of onfIfIos qunIIfIod fo mounf roIIgIous nccommodnfIon
cInIms, nor doos If roIIovo courfs of fho obIIgnfIon fo In-
quIro whofhor n govornmonf ncfIon subsfnnfInIIy burdons
n roIIgIous oxorcIso. Soo Ioeul v. M,ere, 563 I. 3d 52?,
535 (CAC 2009) (Irown, J., concurrIng) (Thoro Is no
doubf fhnf !!!IIA`s drnffors, In chnngIng fho dofInIfIon
of 'oxorcIso of roIIgIon,` wnnfod fo brondon fho scoo of fho
kInds of rncfIcos rofocfod by !I!A, nof Incronso fho
unIvorso of IndIvIdunIs rofocfod by !I!A.); H. !. !o.

























ll CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
o. l062l9, . 30 (l999). Soo nIso GilorJi v. Ini/eJ
S/o/ee Dep/. of Heol/l onJ Hunon Serte., ?33 I. 3d l208,
l2ll (CAC 20l3) (!I!A, ns nmondod, rovIdos us wIfh
no hoIfuI dofInIfIon of 'oxorcIso of roIIgIon.` ); HenJereon
v. KenneJ,, 265 I. 3d l0?2, l0?3 (CAC 200l) (Tho
|!!!IIA] nmondmonfs dId nof nIfor !I!A`s bnsIc rohI-
bIfIon fhnf fho '|g]ovornmonf shnII nof subsfnnfInIIy bur-
don n orson`s oxorcIso of roIIgIon.` ).
l0
oxf, fho Courf hIghIIghfs !I!A`s roquIromonf fhnf fho
govornmonf, If Ifs ncfIon subsfnnfInIIy burdons n orson`s
roIIgIous obsorvnnco, musf domonsfrnfo fhnf If choso fho
Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns for furfhorIng n comoIIIng Infor-
osf. |I]y ImosIng n Ionsf-rosfrIcfIvo-monns fosf, fho
Courf suggosfs, !I!A wonf boyond whnf wns roquIrod by
our ro-Sni/l docIsIons. An/e, nf l?, n. l8 (cIfIng Ci/, of
Boerne v. Iloree, 52l !. S. 50? (l99?)). Soo nIso on/e, nf 6,
n. 3. Iuf ns !I!A`s sfnfomonfs of uroso nnd IogIsInfIvo
hIsfory mnko cIonr, Congross Infondod onIy fo rosforo, nof
fo scrn or nIfor, fho bnInncIng fosf ns fhIs Courf hnd
nIIod If ro-Sni/l. Soo eupro, nf 89. Soo nIso Sonnfo
!oorf 9 (!I!A`s comoIIIng Inforosf fosf gonornIIy
shouId nof bo consfruod moro sfrIngonfIy or moro IonIonfIy
fhnn If wns rIor fo Sni/l.); Houso !oorf ? (snmo).
Tho Congross fhnf nssod !I!A corrocfIy rond fhIs
Courf`s ro-Sni/l cnso Inw ns IncIudIng wIfhIn fho com-
oIIIng Inforosf fosf n Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns roquIro-
monf. Soo, e.g., Sonnfo !oorf 5 (Whoro |n subsfnnfInI]
burdon Is Incod uon fho froo oxorcIso of roIIgIon, fho
Courf ruIod |In SlerIer/], fho Covornmonf musf domon-

l0
!!!IIA, fho Courf nofos, IncIudos n rovIsIon dIrocfIng fhnf |f]hIs
chnfor |i.e., !!!IIA] shnII bo consfruod In fnvor of n brond rofocfIon
of roIIgIous oxorcIso, fo fho mnxImum oxfonf ormIffod by fho forms of
|fho Acf] nnd fho ConsfIfufIon. 42 !. S. C. 2000cc3(g); soo on/e, nf
6?, 26. !I!A Incorornfos !!!IIA`s dofInIfIon of oxorcIso of roII-
gIon, ns !!!IIA doos, buf confnIns no omnIbus ruIo of consfrucfIon
govornIng fho sfnfufo In Ifs onfIrofy.















l2 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
sfrnfo fhnf If Is fho Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns fo nchIovo n
comoIIIng govornmonfnI Inforosf.). And fho vIow fhnf
fho ro-Sni/l fosf IncIudod n Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns
roquIromonf hnd boon nIrod In fosfImony boforo fho Son-
nfo JudIcInry CommIffoo by oxorfs on roIIgIous froodom.
Soo, e.g., HonrIng on S. 2969 boforo fho Sonnfo CommIffoo
on fho JudIcInry, l02d Cong., 2d Soss., ?8?9 (l993)
(sfnfomonf of Irof. ougIns !nycock).
Our docIsIon In Ci/, of Boerne, If Is fruo, sfnfos fhnf fho
Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns roquIromonf wns nof usod In fho
ro-Sni/l jurIsrudonco !I!A urorfod fo codIfy. Soo
on/e, nf 6, n. 3, l?, n. l8. As jusf IndIcnfod, howovor, fhnf
sfnfomonf doos nof nccurnfoIy convoy fho Courf`s ro-
Sni/l jurIsrudonco. Soo SlerIer/, 3?4 !. S., nf 40? (|I]f
wouId InInIy bo Incumbonf uon fho |govornmonf] fo
domonsfrnfo fhnf no nIfornnfIvo forms of roguInfIon wouId
combnf |fho robIom] wIfhouf InfrIngIng IIrsf Amondmonf
rIghfs.); Tlonoe v. Ietieu BJ. of 1nJiono 1nplo,nen/
Securi/, Dit., 450 !. S. ?0?, ?l8 (l98l) (Tho sfnfo mny
jusfIfy nn Inrond on roIIgIous IIborfy by showIng fhnf If Is
fho Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns of nchIovIng somo comoIIIng
sfnfo Inforosf.). Soo nIso Iorg, Tho ow Affncks on !oII-
gIous Iroodom !ogIsInfIon nnd Why Thoy Aro Wrong, 2l
Cnrdozo !. !ov. 4l5, 424 (l999) (In Boerne, fho Courf
orronoousIy snId fhnf fho Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns fosf 'wns
nof usod In fho ro-Sni/l jurIsrudonco.` ).
ll
C
WIfh !I!A`s rosfornfIvo uroso In mInd, I furn fo fho

ll
Tho Courf oInfs ouf fhnf I joInod fho mnjorIfy oInIon In Ci/, of
Boerne nnd dId nof fhon quosfIon fho sfnfomonf fhnf Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo
monns . . . wns nof usod |ro-Sni/l]. An/e, nf l?, n. l8. ConcornIng
fhnf obsorvnfIon, I romInd my coIIonguos of JusfIco Jnckson`s sngo
commonf: I soo no ronson why I shouId bo conscIousIy wrong fodny
bocnuso I wns unconscIousIy wrong yosfordny. Moeeocluee//e v.
Ini/eJ S/o/ee, 333 !. S. 6ll, 639640 (l948) (dIssonfIng oInIon).



















l3 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Acf`s nIIcnfIon fo fho Insfnnf InwsuIfs. Thnf fnsk, In
vIow of fho osIfIons fnkon by fho Courf, roquIros consId-
ornfIon of sovornI quosfIons, onch ofonfInIIy dIsosIfIvo of
Hobby !obby`s nnd Conosfogn`s cInIms: o for-rofIf coro-
rnfIons rnnk nmong orson|s] who oxorcIso . . . roII-
gIon AssumIng fhnf fhoy do, doos fho confrncofIvo
covorngo roquIromonf subsfnnfInIIy burdon fhoIr roII-
gIous oxorcIso If so, Is fho roquIromonf In furfhornnco of
n comoIIIng govornmonf Inforosf And Insf, doos fho
roquIromonf rorosonf fho Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns for
furfhorIng fhnf Inforosf
MIsguIdod by Ifs orrnnf romIso fhnf !I!A movod
boyond fho ro-Sni/l cnso Inw, fho Courf fnIfors nf onch
sfo of Ifs nnnIysIs.
l
!I!A`s comoIIIng Inforosf fosf, ns nofod, soo eupro, nf
8, nIIos fo govornmonf ncfIons fhnf subsfnnfInIIy bur-
don o pereon`e exerciee of religion. 42 !. S. C. 2000bb
l(n) (omhnsIs nddod). ThIs roforonco, fho Courf submIfs,
Incorornfos fho dofInIfIon of orson found In fho Ic-
fIonnry Acf, l !. S. C. l, whIch oxfonds fo corornfIons,
comnnIos, nssocInfIons, fIrms, nrfnorshIs, socIofIos, nnd
joInf sfock comnnIos, ns woII ns IndIvIdunIs. Soo on/e, nf
l920. Tho IcfIonnry Acf`s dofInIfIon, howovor, confroIs
onIy whoro confoxf doos nof IndIcnf|o] ofhorwIso. l.
Horo, confoxf doos so IndIcnfo. !I!A sonks of n orson`s
exerciee of religion. 42 !. S. C. 2000bbl(n) (omhnsIs
nddod). Soo nIso 2000bb2(4), 2000cc5(?)(n).
l2
Whofhor

l2
As onrIIor oxInInod, soo eupro, nf l0ll, !!!IIA`s nmondmonf of
fho dofInIfIon of oxorcIso of roIIgIon doos nof bonr fho woIghf fho
Courf Incos on If. Moroovor, If Is nssIng sfrnngo fo nffrIbufo fo
!!!IIA nny uroso fo covor onfIfIos ofhor fhnn roIIgIous ns-
sombI|Ios] or InsfIfufIon|s]. 42 !. S. C. 2000cc(n)(l). Iuf cf. on/e, nf
26. Thnf Inw nIIos fo Innd-uso roguInfIon. 2000cc(n)(l). To ormIf
commorcInI onforrIsos fo chnIIongo zonIng nnd ofhor Innd-uso roguIn-























l4 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
n corornfIon qunIIfIos ns n orson cnnbIo of oxorcIs-
Ing roIIgIon Is nn InquIry ono cnnnof nnswor wIfhouf rofor-
onco fo fho fuII body of ro-Sni/l froo-oxorcIso cnsoInw.
GilorJi, ?33 I. 3d, nf l2l2. Thoro Is In fhnf cnso Inw no
suorf for fho nofIon fhnf froo oxorcIso rIghfs orfnIn fo
for-rofIf corornfIons.
!nfII fhIs IIfIgnfIon, no docIsIon of fhIs Courf rocognIzod
n for-rofIf corornfIon`s qunIIfIcnfIon for n roIIgIous ox-
omfIon from n gonornIIy nIIcnbIo Inw, whofhor undor
fho Iroo IxorcIso CInuso or !I!A.
l3
Tho nbsonco of such
rocodonf Is jusf whnf ono wouId oxocf, for fho oxorcIso of
roIIgIon Is chnrncforIsfIc of nnfurnI orsons, nof nrfIfIcInI
IognI onfIfIos. As ChIof JusfIco MnrshnII obsorvod nonrIy
fwo confurIos ngo, n corornfIon Is nn nrfIfIcInI boIng,
InvIsIbIo, InfnngIbIo, nnd oxIsfIng onIy In confomInfIon of
Inw. True/eee of Dor/nou/l College v. WooJuorJ, 4
Whonf. 5l8, 636 (l8l9). CorornfIons, JusfIco Sfovons
moro roconfIy romIndod, hnvo no conscIoncos, no boIIofs,
no fooIIngs, no fhoughfs, no dosIros. Ci/icene Ini/eJ v.
IeJerol 1lec/ion Conn`n, 558 !. S. 3l0, 466 (20l0) (oIn-
Ion concurrIng In nrf nnd dIssonfIng In nrf).
Tho IIrsf Amondmonf`s froo oxorcIso rofocfIons, fho

fIons undor !!!IIA wouId drnmnfIcnIIy oxnnd fho sfnfufo`s ronch
nnd dooIy Infrudo on IocnI rorognfIvos, confrnry fo Congross` Infonf.
IrIof for nfIonnI !onguo of CIfIos of nI. ns Anici Curioe 26.
l3
Tho Courf rognrds Gollogler v. Croun Koeler Super Mor/e/ of
Moee., 1nc., 366 !. S. 6l? (l96l), ns suggosf|Ing] . . . fhnf for-rofIf
corornfIons ossoss |froo-oxorcIso] rIghfs. An/e, nf 262?. Soo nIso
on/e, nf 2l, n. 2l. Tho suggosfIon Is bnroIy fhoro. Truo, ono of fho fIvo
chnIIongors fo fho Sundny cIosIng Inw nssnIIod In Gollogler wns n
corornfIon ownod by four Orfhodox Jows. Tho ofhor chnIIongors woro
humnn IndIvIdunIs, nof nrfIfIcInI, Inw-cronfod onfIfIos, so fhoro wns no
nood fo doformIno whofhor fho corornfIon couId InsfIfufo fho IIfIgn-
fIon. AccordIngIy, fho IurnIIfy sfnfod If couId roformIf fho quosfIon
whofhor noIIoos hn|d] sfnndIng bocnuso BrounfelJ v. Broun, 366
!. S. 599 (l96l), whIch uhoId n sImIInr cIosIng Inw, wns fnfnI fo fhoIr
cInIm on fho morIfs. 366 !. S., nf 63l.






























l5 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Courf hns Indood rocognIzod, shoIfor churchos nnd ofhor
nonrofIf roIIgIon-bnsod orgnnIznfIons.
l4
Ior mnny IndI-
vIdunIs, roIIgIous ncfIvIfy dorIvos monnIng In Inrgo mons-
uro from nrfIcInfIon In n Inrgor roIIgIous communIfy,
nnd furfhornnco of fho nufonomy of roIIgIous orgnnIzn-
fIons offon furfhors IndIvIdunI roIIgIous froodom ns woII.
Corporo/ion of PreeiJing Bielop of Clurcl of Jeeue Clrie/
of Lo//er-Jo, Soin/e v. Anoe, 483 !. S. 32?, 342 (l98?)
(Ironnnn, J., concurrIng In judgmonf). Tho Courf`s so-
cInI soIIcIfudo fo fho rIghfs of roIIgIous orgnnIznfIons,
Hoeonno-ToIor 1tongelicol Lu/leron Clurcl onJ Sclool
v. 11OC, 565 !. S. ___, ___ (20l2) (sII o., nf l4), how-
ovor, Is jusf fhnf. o such soIIcIfudo Is frndIfIonnI for com-
morcInI orgnnIznfIons.
l5
Indood, unfII fodny, roIIgIous

l4
Soo, e.g., Hoeonno-ToIor 1tongelicol Lu/leron Clurcl onJ Sclool
v. 11OC, 565 !. S. ___ (20l2); Goncolee v. O Cen/ro 1eplri/o Benefi-
cen/e Inio Jo Vege/ol, 546 !. S. 4l8 (2006); Clurcl of Lu/uni BoIolu
A,e, 1nc. v. Hioleol, 508 !. S. 520 (l993); Jinn, Suoggor/ Minie/riee
v. BoorJ of 1quolico/ion of Col., 493 !. S. 3?8 (l990).
l5
TyIcnIIy, Congross hns nccordod fo orgnnIznfIons roIIgIous In chnr-
ncfor roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIons from sfnfufos of gonornI nIIcnfIon.
1.g., 42 !. S. C. 2000ol(n) (TIfIo VII oxomfIon from rohIbIfIon
ngnInsf omIoymonf dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on roIIgIon for n roIIgIous
corornfIon, nssocInfIon, oducnfIonnI InsfIfufIon, or socIofy wIfh rosocf
fo fho omIoymonf of IndIvIdunIs of n nrfIcuInr roIIgIon fo orform
work connocfod wIfh fho cnrryIng on . . . of Ifs ncfIvIfIos); 42 !. S. C.
l2ll3(d)(l) (nrnIIoI oxomfIon In AmorIcnns WIfh IsnbIIIfIos Acf of
l990). If cnn scnrcoIy bo mnInfnInod fhnf !I!A onInrgos fhoso oxom-
fIons fo nIIow Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn fo hIro onIy orsons who
shnro fho roIIgIous boIIofs of fho Croons or Hnhns. or doos fho Courf
suggosf ofhorwIso. Cf. on/e, nf 28.
Tho Courf doos IdonfIfy fwo sfnfufory oxomfIons If ronds fo covor
for-rofIf corornfIons, 42 !. S. C. 300n?(b)(2) nnd 238n(n), nnd
Infors from fhom fhnf Congross sonks wIfh socIfIcIfy whon If Infonds
n roIIgIous nccommodnfIon nof fo oxfond fo for-rofIf corornfIons,
on/e, nf 28. Tho Courf`s Inforonco Is unwnrrnnfod. Tho oxomfIons fho
Courf cIfos covor corfnIn modIcnI orsonnoI who objocf fo orformIng or
nssIsfIng wIfh nborfIons. Cf. on/e, nf 28, n. 2? (fho rofocfIon rovIdod
by 238n(n) dIffors sIgnIfIcnnfIy from fho rofocfIon rovIdod by




























l6 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
oxomfIons hnd novor boon oxfondod fo nny onfIfy oornf-
Ing In fho commorcInI, rofIf-mnkIng worId. Anoe, 483
!. S., nf 33?.
l6
Tho ronson why Is hnrdIy obscuro. !oIIgIous orgnnIzn-
fIons oxIsf fo fosfor fho Inforosfs of orsons subscrIbIng fo
fho snmo roIIgIous fnIfh. of so of for-rofIf corornfIons.
Workors who susfnIn fho oornfIons of fhoso corornfIons
commonIy nro nof drnwn from ono roIIgIous communIfy.
Indood, by Inw, no roIIgIon-bnsod crIforIon cnn rosfrIcf fho

!I!A). ofnbIy, fho Courf doos nof nssorf fhnf fhoso oxomfIons hnvo
In fncf boon nffordod fo for-rofIf corornfIons. Soo 238n(c) (honIfh
cnro onfIfy covorod by oxomfIon Is n form dofInod fo IncIudo nn
IndIvIdunI hysIcInn, n osfgrndunfo hysIcInn frnInIng rogrnm, nnd n
nrfIcInnf In n rogrnm of frnInIng In fho honIfh rofossIons); TozzI,
WhIfhor Iroo IxorcIso: 1nplo,nen/ Ditieion v. Sni/l nnd fho !obIrfh
of Sfnfo ConsfIfufIonnI Iroo IxorcIso CInuso JurIsrudonco, 48 J.
CnfhoIIc !ognI SfudIos 269, 296, n. l33 (2009) (CnfhoIIc hysIcInns,
buf nof nocossnrIIy hosIfnIs, . . . mny bo nbIo fo Invoko |238n(n)]
. . . .); cf. S. l3?, ll3fh Cong., lsf Soss. (20l3) (ns Infroducod) (AborfIon
on-IscrImInnfIon Acf of 20l3, whIch wouId nmond fho dofInIfIon of
honIfh cnro onfIfy In 238n fo IncIudo hosIfnI|s], honIfh Insurnnco
Inn|s], nnd ofhor honIfh cnro fncIIIfIos). Thoso rovIsIons nro rovonI-
Ing In n wny fhnf dofrncfs from ono of fho Courf`s mnIn nrgumonfs.
Thoy show fhnf Congross Is nof confonf fo rosf on fho IcfIonnry Acf
whon If wIshos fo onsuro fhnf nrfIcuInr onfIfIos nro nmong fhoso
oIIgIbIo for n roIIgIous nccommodnfIon.
Moroovor, fho oxomfIon codIfIod In 238n(n) wns nof onncfod unfII
fhroo yonrs nffor !I!A`s nssngo. Soo OmnIbus ConsoIIdnfod !oscIs-
sIons nnd ArorInfIons Acf of l996, 5l5, ll0 Sfnf. l32l245. If, ns
fho Courf boIIovos, !I!A oonod nII sfnfufory schomos fo roIIgIon-
bnsod chnIIongos by for-rofIf corornfIons, fhoro wouId bo no nood for n
sfnfufo-socIfIc, osf-!I!A oxomfIon of fhIs sorf.
l6
Thnf Is nof fo sny fhnf n cnfogory of InInfIffs, such ns rosIdonf
nIIons, mny brIng !I!A cInIms onIy If fhIs Courf oxrossIy nddrossod
fhoIr |froo-oxorcIso] rIghfs boforo Sni/l. An/e, nf 2?. ConfInuIng wIfh
fho Courf`s oxnmIo, rosIdonf nIIons, unIIko corornfIons, nro fIosh-nnd-
bIood IndIvIdunIs who InInIy counf ns orsons shoIforod by fho IIrsf
Amondmonf, soo Ini/eJ S/o/ee v. VerJugo-IrquiJec, 494 !. S. 259, 2?l
(l990) (cIfIng BriJgee v. Wixon, 326 !. S. l35, l48 (l945)), nnd
o for/iori, !I!A.



















l? CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
work forco of for-rofIf corornfIons. Soo 42 !. S. C.
2000o(b), 2000ol(n), 2000o2(n); cf. Trone WorlJ Air-
linee, 1nc. v. HorJieon, 432 !. S. 63, 808l (l9??) (TIfIo
VII roquIros ronsonnbIo nccommodnfIon of nn omIoyoo`s
roIIgIous oxorcIso, buf such nccommodnfIon musf nof como
nf fho oxonso of ofhor| omIoyoos]). Tho dIsfIncfIon
bofwoon n communIfy mndo u of boIIovors In fho snmo
roIIgIon nnd ono ombrncIng orsons of dIvorso boIIofs, cIonr
ns If Is, consfnnfIy oscnos fho Courf`s nffonfIon.
l?
Ono
cnn onIy wondor why fho Courf shufs fhIs koy dIfforonco
from sIghf.
!ondIng !I!A, ns fho Courf doos, fo roquIro oxfonsIon
of roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIons fo for-rofIf corornfIons
suroIy Is nof groundod In fho ro-Sni/l rocodonf Con-
gross soughf fo rosorvo. Hnd Congross Infondod !I!A fo
InIfInfo n chnngo so hugo, n cInrIon sfnfomonf fo fhnf
offocf IIkoIy wouId hnvo boon mndo In fho IogIsInfIon. Soo
Wli/non v. Anericon Truc/ing Aeene., 1nc., 53l !. S. 45?,
468 (200l) (Congross doos nof hIdo oIohnnfs In mouso-
hoIos). Tho foxf of !I!A mnkos no such sfnfomonf nnd
fho IogIsInfIvo hIsfory doos nof so much ns monfIon for-
rofIf corornfIons. Soo HoII, LoII, S/oree, 1nc. v. SeIe-
liue, ?23 I. 3d lll4, ll69 (CAl0 20l3) (IrIscoo, C. J.,
concurrIng In nrf nnd dIssonfIng In nrf) (IogIsInfIvo
rocord Incks nny suggosfIon fhnf Congross forosnw, Iof
nIono Infondod fhnf, !I!A wouId covor for-rofIf cororn-
fIons). Soo nIso Sonnfors IrIof l0l3 (nono of fho

l?
I nrf wnys wIfh J!STICI KIIY on fho confoxf roIovnnf horo.
Ho soos If ns fho omIoyors` oxorcIso |of] fhoIr roIIgIous boIIofs wIfhIn
fho confoxf of fhoIr own cIosoIy hoId, for-rofIf corornfIons. An/e, nf 2
(concurrIng oInIon). Soo nIso on/e, nf 4546 (oInIon of fho Courf)
(sImIInrIy conconfrnfIng on roIIgIous fnIfh of omIoyors wIfhouf rofor-
onco fo fho dIfforonf boIIofs nnd IIborfy Inforosfs of omIoyoos). I soo ns
fho roIovnnf confoxf fho omIoyors` nssorfod rIghf fo oxorcIso roIIgIon
wIfhIn n nnfIonwIdo rogrnm dosIgnod fo rofocf ngnInsf honIfh hnz-
nrds omIoyoos who do nof subscrIbo fo fhoIr omIoyors` roIIgIous
boIIofs.






















l8 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
cnsos cIfod In Houso or Sonnfo JudIcInry CommIffoo
roorfs nccomnnyIng !I!A, or monfIonod durIng fIoor
soochos, rocognIzod fho froo oxorcIso rIghfs of for-rofIf
corornfIons).
Tho Courf nofos fhnf for-rofIf corornfIons mny su-
orf chnrIfnbIo cnusos nnd uso fhoIr funds for roIIgIous
onds, nnd fhoroforo quosfIons fho dIsfIncfIon bofwoon such
corornfIons nnd roIIgIous nonrofIf orgnnIznfIons. Soo
on/e, nf 2025. Soo nIso on/e, nf 3 (KIIY, J., concur-
rIng) (crIfIcIzIng fho Covornmonf for dIsfInguIshIng bo-
fwoon dIfforonf roIIgIous boIIovorsburdonIng ono whIIo
nccommodnfIng fho ofhorwhon If mny fronf bofh oqunIIy
by offorIng bofh of fhom fho snmo nccommodnfIon).
l8
AgnIn, fho Courf forgofs fhnf roIIgIous orgnnIznfIons oxIsf
fo sorvo n communIfy of boIIovors. Ior-rofIf corornfIons
do nof fIf fhnf bIII. Moroovor, hIsfory Is nof on fho Courf`s
sIdo. !ocognIfIon of fho dIscrofo chnrncfors of occIosInsfI-
cnI nnd Iny corornfIons dnfos bnck fo IIncksfono, soo l
W. IIncksfono, CommonfnrIos on fho !nws of IngInnd 458
(l?65), nnd wns roIfornfod by fhIs Courf confurIos boforo
fho onncfmonf of fho InfornnI !ovonuo Codo. Soo Terre//
v. To,lor, 9 Crnnch 43, 49 (l8l5) (doscrIbIng roIIgIous
corornfIons); True/eee of Dor/nou/l College, 4 Whonf., nf
645 (dIscussIng oIoomosynnry corornfIons, IncIudIng
fhoso cronfod for fho romofIon of roIIgIon). To roIfornfo,
for-rofIf corornfIons nro dIfforonf from roIIgIous non-

l8
AccordIng fo fho Courf, fho Covornmonf concodos fhnf nonrofIf
corornfIon|s] nro rofocfod by !I!A. An/e, nf l9. Soo nIso on/e, nf
20, 24, 30. Thnf Is nof nn nccurnfo doscrIfIon of fho Covornmonf`s
osIfIon, whIch oncomnssos onIy churchos, religioue InsfIfufIons,
nnd religioue non-rofIfs. IrIof for !osondonfs In o. l3356, . 28
(omhnsIs nddod). Soo nIso !oIy IrIof In o. l3354, . 8 (!I!A
Incorornfos fho IongsfnndIng nnd common-sonso dIsfIncfIon bofwoon
roIIgIous orgnnIznfIons, whIch somofImos hnvo boon nccordod nccom-
modnfIons undor gonornIIy nIIcnbIo Inws In rocognIfIon of fhoIr
nccofod roIIgIous chnrncfor, nnd for-rofIf corornfIons orgnnIzod fo do
busInoss In fho commorcInI worId.).























l9 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
rofIfs In fhnf fhoy uso Inbor fo mnko n rofIf, rnfhor fhnn
fo orofunfo |fho] roIIgIous vnIuo|s] |shnrod by n commu-
nIfy of boIIovors]. GilorJi, ?33 I. 3d, nf l242 (Idwnrds,
J., concurrIng In nrf nnd dIssonfIng In nrf) (omhnsIs
doIofod).
CIfIng BrounfelJ v. Broun, 366 !. S. 599 (l96l), fho
Courf quosfIons why, If n soIo rorIoforshI fhnf sooks fo
mnko n rofIf mny nssorf n froo-oxorcIso cInIm, |Hobby
!obby nnd Conosfogn] cnn`f . . . do fho snmo An/e, nf 22
(foofnofo omIffod). Soo nIso on/e, nf l6l?. Iuf ovon
nccofIng, orguenJo, fho romIso fhnf unIncorornfod
busInoss onforrIsos mny gnIn roIIgIous nccommodnfIons
undor fho Iroo IxorcIso CInuso, fho Courf`s concIusIon Is
unsound. In n soIo rorIoforshI, fho busInoss nnd Ifs
ownor nro ono nnd fho snmo. Iy IncorornfIng n busInoss,
howovor, nn IndIvIdunI sonrnfos horsoIf from fho onfIfy
nnd oscnos orsonnI rosonsIbIIIfy for fho onfIfy`s obIIgn-
fIons. Ono mIghf nsk why fho sonrnfIon shouId hoId onIy
whon If sorvos fho Inforosf of fhoso who confroI fho coro-
rnfIon. In nny ovonf, BrounfelJ Is hnrdIy ImrossIvo
nufhorIfy for fho onfIfIomonf Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn
sook. Tho froo oxorcIso cInIm nssorfod fhoro wns romfIy
rojocfod on fho morIfs.
Tho Courf`s doformInnfIon fhnf !I!A oxfonds fo for-
rofIf corornfIons Is bound fo hnvo unfownrd offocfs.
AIfhough fho Courf nffomfs fo cnbIn Ifs Inngungo fo
cIosoIy hoId corornfIons, Ifs IogIc oxfonds fo corornfIons
of nny sIzo, ubIIc or rIvnfo.
l9
!IffIo doubf fhnf !I!A

l9
Tho Courf doos nof ovon bogIn fo oxInIn how ono mIghf go nbouf
nscorfnInIng fho roIIgIous scruIos of n corornfIon whoro shnros nro
soId fo fho ubIIc. o nood fo socuInfo on fhnf, fho Courf snys, for If
sooms unIIkoIy fhnf Inrgo corornfIons wIII offon nssorf !I!A
cInIms. An/e, nf 29. Iorhns so, buf ns Hobby !obby`s cnso domon-
sfrnfos, such cInIms nro Indood ursuod by Inrgo corornfIons, omIoy-
Ing fhousnnds of orsons of dIfforonf fnIfhs, whoso ownorshI Is nof
dIffuso. CIosoIy hoId Is nof synonymous wIfh smnII. Hobby !obby Is






















20 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
cInIms wIII roIIfornfo, for fho Courf`s oxnnsIvo nofIon of
corornfo orsonhoodcombInod wIfh Ifs ofhor orrors
In consfruIng !I!AInvIfos for-rofIf onfIfIos fo sook
roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIons from roguInfIons fhoy doom
offonsIvo fo fhoIr fnIfh.
2
Ivon If Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn woro doomod !I!A
orson|s], fo gnIn nn oxomfIon, fhoy musf domonsfrnfo
fhnf fho confrncofIvo covorngo roquIromonf subsfnn-
fInIIy burdon|s] |fhoIr] oxorcIso of roIIgIon. 42 !. S. C.
2000bbl(n). Congross no doubf monnf fho modIfIor
subsfnnfInIIy fo cnrry woIghf. In fho orIgInnI drnff of
!I!A, fho word burdon nonrod unmodIfIod. Tho word
subsfnnfInIIy wns Insorfod ursunnf fo n cInrIfyIng
nmondmonf offorod by Sonnfors Konnody nnd Hnfch. Soo

hnrdIy fho onIy onforrIso of sIznbIo scnIo fhnf Is fnmIIy ownod or
cIosoIy hoId. Ior oxnmIo, fho fnmIIy-ownod cnndy gInnf Mnrs, Inc.,
fnkos In $33 bIIIIon In rovonuos nnd hns somo ?2,000 omIoyoos, nnd
cIosoIy hoId CnrgIII, Inc., fnkos In moro fhnn $l36 bIIIIon In rovo-
nuos nnd omIoys somo l40,000 orsons. Soo Iorbos, AmorIcn`s !nrg-
osf IrIvnfo ComnnIos 20l3, nvnIInbIo nf hff://www.forbos.com/
Inrgosf-rIvnfo-comnnIos/.
or doos fho Courf offor nny InsfrucfIon on how fo rosoIvo fho dIs-
ufos fhnf mny cro u nmong corornfo ownors ovor roIIgIous vnIuos
nnd nccommodnfIons. Tho Courf Is snfIsfIod fhnf |s]fnfo corornfo Inw
rovIdos n rondy monns for rosoIvIng nny confIIcfs, on/e, nf 30, buf fho
nufhorIfIos cIfod In suorf of fhnf roosIfIon nro hnrdIy hoIfuI. Soo
oI. Codo Ann., TIf. 8, 35l (20ll) (corfIfIcnfos of IncorornfIon mny
socIfy how fho busInoss Is mnnngod); l J. Cox & T. Hnzon, TronfIso on
fho !nw of CorornfIons 3:2 (3d od. 20l0) (socfIon onfIfIod SoIocfIng
fho sfnfo of IncorornfIon); iJ., l4:ll (obsorvIng fhnf |d]osIfo fho
froquoncy of dIssonsIon nnd dondIock In cIoso corornfIons, In somo
sfnfos noIfhor IogIsInfuros nor courfs hnvo rovIdod snfIsfncfory soIu-
fIons). And ovon If n dIsufo soffIomonf mochnnIsm Is In Inco, how Is
fho nrbIfor of n roIIgIon-bnsod Infrncorornfo confrovorsy fo rosoIvo fho
dIsngroomonf, gIvon fhIs Courf`s InsfrucfIon fhnf courfs hnvo no
busInoss nddrossIng |whofhor nn nssorfod roIIgIous boIIof] Is subsfnn-
fInI, on/e, nf 36



























2l CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
l39 Cong. !oc. 26l80. In roosIng fho nmondmonf,
Sonnfor Konnody sfnfod fhnf !I!A, In nccord wIfh fho
Courf`s ro-Sni/l cnso Inw, doos nof roquIro fho Covorn-
monf fo jusfIfy ovory ncfIon fhnf hns somo offocf on roII-
gIous oxorcIso. 1IiJ.
Tho Courf bnroIy nusos fo InquIro whofhor nny burdon
Imosod by fho confrncofIvo covorngo roquIromonf Is
subsfnnfInI. Insfond, If rosfs on fho Croons` nnd Hnhns`
boIIo|f ] fhnf rovIdIng fho covorngo domnndod by fho
HHS roguInfIons Is connocfod fo fho dosfrucfIon of nn
ombryo In n wny fhnf Is suffIcIonf fo mnko If ImmornI for
fhom fo rovIdo fho covorngo. An/e, nf 36.
20
I ngroo wIfh
fho Courf fhnf fho Croon nnd Hnhn fnmIIIos` roIIgIous
convIcfIons rognrdIng confrncofIon nro sIncoroIy hoId.
Soo Tlonoe, 450 !. S., nf ?l5 (courfs nro nof fo quosfIon
whoro nn IndIvIdunI dr|nws] fho IIno In dofInIng whIch
rncfIcos run nfouI of hor roIIgIous boIIofs). Soo nIso 42
!. S. C. 2000bbl(n), 2000bb2(4), 2000cc5(?)(A).
2l
Iuf fhoso boIIofs, howovor dooIy hoId, do nof suffIco fo
susfnIn n !I!A cInIm. !I!A, roorIy undorsfood, dIs-
fInguIshos bofwoon fncfunI nIIognfIons fhnf |InInfIffs`]

20
Tho Courf dIsmIssos fho nrgumonf, ndvnncod by somo onici, fhnf
fho $2,000-or-omIoyoo fnx chnrgod fo corfnIn omIoyors fhnf fnII fo
rovIdo honIfh Insurnnco Is Ioss fhnn fho nvorngo cosf of offorIng honIfh
Insurnnco, nofIng fhnf fho Covornmonf hns nof rovIdod fho sfnfIsfIcs
fhnf couId suorf such nn nrgumonf. Soo on/e, nf 3234. Tho Courf
ovorIooks, howovor, fhnf If Is nof fho Covornmonf`s obIIgnfIon fo rovo
fhnf nn nssorfod burdon Is insubsfnnfInI. Insfond, If Is Incumbonf uon
InInfIffs fo domonsfrnfo, In suorf of n !I!A cInIm, fho subsfnnfInI-
Ify of fho nIIogod burdon.
2l
Tho Courf IovoIs n crIfIcIsm fhnf Is ns wronghondod ns cnn bo. In
no wny doos fho dIssonf foII fho InInfIffs fhnf fhoIr boIIofs nro fInwod.
An/e, nf 3?. !Ighf or wrong In fhIs domnIn Is n judgmonf no Mombor of
fhIs Courf, or nny cIvII courf, Is nufhorIzod or oquIod fo mnko. Whnf
fho Courf musf docIdo Is nof fho InusIbIIIfy of n roIIgIous cInIm, on/e,
nf 3? (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod), buf whofhor nccommodnfIng
fhnf cInIm rIsks dorIvIng ofhors of rIghfs nccordod fhom by fho Inws of
fho !nIfod Sfnfos. Soo eupro, nf ?8; infro, nf 2?.





















22 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
boIIofs nro sIncoro nnd of n roIIgIous nnfuro, whIch n courf
musf nccof ns fruo, nnd fho IognI concIusIon . . . fhnf
|InInfIffs`] roIIgIous oxorcIso Is subsfnnfInIIy burdonod,
nn InquIry fho courf musf undorfnko. Koennerling v.
Loppin, 553 I. 3d 669, 6?9 (CAC 2008).
Thnf dIsfIncfIon Is n fncof of fho ro-Sni/l jurIsru-
donco !I!A Incorornfos. Bouen v. Io,, 4?6 !. S. 693
(l986), Is InsfrucfIvo. Thoro, fho Courf rojocfod n froo
oxorcIso chnIIongo fo fho Covornmonf`s uso of n nfIvo
AmorIcnn chIId`s SocInI SocurIfy numbor for urosos of
ndmInIsforIng bonofIf rogrnms. WIfhouf quosfIonIng fho
sIncorIfy of fho fnfhor`s roIIgIous boIIof fhnf uso of |hIs
dnughfor`s SocInI SocurIfy] numbor mny hnrm |hor] sIrIf,
fho Courf concIudod fhnf fho Covornmonf`s InfornnI
usos of fhnf numbor Inco|d] |no] rosfrIcfIon on whnf |fho
fnfhor] mny boIIovo or whnf ho mny do. 1J., nf 699.
!ocognIzIng fhnf fho fnfhor`s roIIgIous vIows mny nof
nccof fho osIfIon fhnf fho chnIIongod usos concornod
onIy fho Covornmonf`s InfornnI nffnIrs, fho Courf ox-
InInod fhnf for fho ndjudIcnfIon of n consfIfufIonnI cInIm,
fho ConsfIfufIon, rnfhor fhnn nn IndIvIdunI`s roIIgIon,
musf suIy fho frnmo of roforonco. 1J., nf ?00?0l, n. 6.
Soo nIso HernonJec v. Connieeioner, 490 !. S. 680, 699
(l989) (dIsfInguIshIng bofwoon, on fho ono hnnd, quos-
fIon|s] |of] fho confrnIIfy of nrfIcuInr boIIofs or rncfIcos
fo n fnIfh, or fho vnIIdIfy of nrfIcuInr IIfIgnnfs` Inforrofn-
fIons of fhoso croods, nnd, on fho ofhor, whofhor fho
nIIogod burdon Imosod |by fho chnIIongod govornmonf
ncfIon] Is n subsfnnfInI ono). InnffonfIvo fo fhIs guIdnnco,
fodny`s docIsIon oIIdos onfIroIy fho dIsfIncfIon bofwoon fho
sIncorIfy of n chnIIongor`s roIIgIous boIIof nnd fho subsfnn-
fInIIfy of fho burdon Incod on fho chnIIongor.
!ndorfnkIng fho InquIry fhnf fho Courf forgoos, I wouId
concIudo fhnf fho connocfIon bofwoon fho fnmIIIos` roII-
gIous objocfIons nnd fho confrncofIvo covorngo roquIro-
monf Is foo nffonunfod fo rnnk ns subsfnnfInI. Tho ro-





















23 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
quIromonf cnrrIos no commnnd fhnf Hobby !obby or Con-
osfogn urchnso or rovIdo fho confrncofIvos fhoy fInd
objocfIonnbIo. Insfond, If cnIIs on fho comnnIos covorod
by fho roquIromonf fo dIrocf monoy Info undIfforonfInfod
funds fhnf fInnnco n wIdo vnrIofy of bonofIfs undor com-
rohonsIvo honIfh Inns. Thoso Inns, In ordor fo comIy
wIfh fho ACA, soo eupro, nf 36, musf offor confrncofIvo
covorngo wIfhouf cosf shnrIng, jusf ns fhoy musf covor nn
nrrny of ofhor rovonfIvo sorvIcos.
ImorfnnfIy, fho docIsIons whofhor fo cInIm bonofIfs
undor fho Inns nro mndo nof by Hobby !obby or Conos-
fogn, buf by fho covorod omIoyoos nnd doondonfs, In
consuIfnfIon wIfh fhoIr honIfh cnro rovIdors. ShouId nn
omIoyoo of Hobby !obby or Conosfogn shnro fho roIIgIous
boIIofs of fho Croons nnd Hnhns, sho Is of courso undor no
comuIsIon fo uso fho confrncofIvos In quosfIon. Iuf
|n]o IndIvIdunI docIsIon by nn omIoyoo nnd hor hysI-
cInnbo If fo uso confrncofIon, fronf nn InfocfIon, or hnvo
n hI roIncodIs In nny monnIngfuI sonso |hor omIoy-
or`s] docIsIon or ncfIon. Gro/e v. SeIeliue, ?08 I. 3d 850,
865 (CA? 20l3) (!ovnor, J., dIssonfIng). If Is doubffuI fhnf
Congross, whon If socIfIod fhnf burdons musf bo sub-
sfnnfIn|I], hnd In mInd n IInkngo fhus Inforrufod by
Indoondonf docIsIonmnkors (fho womnn nnd hor honIfh
counsoIor) sfnndIng bofwoon fho chnIIongod govornmonf
ncfIon nnd fho roIIgIous oxorcIso cInImod fo bo InfrIngod.
Any docIsIon fo uso confrncofIvos mndo by n womnn
covorod undor Hobby !obby`s or Conosfogn`s Inn wIII nof
bo rooIIod by fho Covornmonf, If wIII bo fho wo-
mnn`s nufonomous choIco, Informod by fho hysIcInn sho
consuIfs.
3
Ivon If ono woro fo concIudo fhnf Hobby !obby nnd
Conosfogn moof fho subsfnnfInI burdon roquIromonf, fho
Covornmonf hns shown fhnf fho confrncofIvo covorngo

















24 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
for whIch fho ACA rovIdos furfhors comoIIIng Inforosfs
In ubIIc honIfh nnd womon`s woII boIng. Thoso Inforosfs
nro concrofo, socIfIc, nnd domonsfrnfod by n wonIfh of
omIrIcnI ovIdonco. To rocnIfuInfo, fho mnndnfod confrn-
cofIon covorngo onnbIos womon fo nvoId fho honIfh rob-
Ioms unInfondod rognnncIos mny vIsIf on fhom nnd fhoIr
chIIdron. Soo IOM !oorf l02l0?. Tho covorngo hoIs
snfogunrd fho honIfh of womon for whom rognnncy mny
bo hnznrdous, ovon IIfo fhronfonIng. Soo IrIof for AmorI-
cnn CoIIogo of ObsfofrIcInns nnd CynocoIogIsfs of nI. ns
Anici Curioe l4l5. And fho mnndnfo socuros bonofIfs
whoIIy unroInfod fo rognnncy, rovonfIng corfnIn cnncors,
monsfrunI dIsordors, nnd oIvIc nIn. IrIof for OvnrInn
Cnncor nfIonnI AIIInnco of nI. ns Anici Curioe 4, 6?, l5
l6; ?8 Iod. !og. 398?2 (20l3); IOM !oorf l0?.
Thnf Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn rosIsf covorngo for
onIy 4 of fho 20 IA-nrovod confrncofIvos doos nof
Iosson fhoso comoIIIng Inforosfs. ofnbIy, fho cororn-
fIons oxcIudo InfrnuforIno dovIcos (I!s), dovIcos sIgnIfI-
cnnfIy moro offocfIvo, nnd sIgnIfIcnnfIy moro oxonsIvo
fhnn ofhor confrncofIvo mofhods. Soo iJ., nf l05.
22
Moroovor, fho Courf`s ronsonIng nonrs fo ormIf com-
morcInI onforrIsos IIko Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn fo
oxcIudo from fhoIr grou honIfh Inns nII forms of confrn-
cofIvos. Soo Tr. of OrnI Arg. 3839 (counsoI for Hobby
!obby ncknowIodgod fhnf hIs nrgumonf . . . wouId nIy
jusf ns woII If fho omIoyor snId 'no confrncofIvos` (In-
fornnI quofnfIon mnrks nddod)).
Iorhns fho grnvIfy of fho Inforosfs nf sfnko hns Iod fho

22
I!s, whIch nro nmong fho mosf roIInbIo forms of confrncofIon,
gonornIIy cosf womon moro fhnn $l,000 whon fho oxonsos of fho offIco
vIsIf nnd InsorfIon rocoduro nro fnkon Info nccounf. Soo IIsonborg,
McIchoIns, & IoIorf, Cosf ns n InrrIor fo !ong-AcfIng !ovorsIbIo
ConfrncofIvo (!A!C) !so In AdoIosconfs, 52 J. AdoIosconf HonIfh S59,
S60 (20l3). Soo nIso WInnor of nI., IffocfIvonoss of !ong-AcfIng !o-
vorsIbIo ConfrncofIon, 366 ow Ing. J. ModIcIno l998, l999 (20l2).

















25 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Courf fo nssumo, for urosos of Ifs !I!A nnnIysIs, fhnf
fho comoIIIng Inforosf crIforIon Is mof In fhoso cnsos. Soo
on/e, nf 40.
23
If bonrs nofo In fhIs rognrd fhnf fho cosf of
nn I! Is nonrIy oquIvnIonf fo n monfh`s fuII-fImo ny for
workors onrnIng fho mInImum wngo, IrIof for Cuffmnchor
InsfIfufo of nI. ns Anici Curioe l6; fhnf nImosf ono-fhIrd
of womon wouId chnngo fhoIr confrncofIvo mofhod If cosfs
woro nof n fncfor, Irosf & nrroch, Incfors AssocInfod
WIfh ConfrncofIvo ChoIco nnd InconsIsfonf Mofhod !so,
!nIfod Sfnfos, 2004, 40 IorsocfIvos on SoxunI & !oro-
ducfIvo HonIfh 94, 98 (2008); nnd fhnf onIy ono-fourfh of
womon who roquosf nn I! ncfunIIy hnvo ono Insorfod
nffor fIndIng ouf how oxonsIvo If wouId bo, CnrIoy,
SImon, InfoI, CroInIn, & Schwnrz, Tho Imncf of Ouf-of-
Iockof Ixonso on I! !fIIIznfIon Among Womon WIfh
IrIvnfo Insurnnco, 84 ConfrncofIon o39, o40 (20ll). Soo
nIso IIsonborg, eupro, nf S60 (roconf sfudy found fhnf
womon who fnco ouf-of-ockof I! cosfs In oxcoss of $50
woro ll-fImos Ioss IIkoIy fo obfnIn nn I! fhnn womon
who hnd fo ny Ioss fhnn $50); IosfIofhwnIfo, TrussoII,
ZooInkIs, Shnbonr, & IofIffI, A ComnrIson of Confrnco-
fIvo Irocuromonf Iro- nnd Iosf-IonofIf Chnngo, ?6 Con-
frncofIon 360, 36l362 (200?) (whon ono honIfh sysfom
oIImInnfod nfIonf cosf shnrIng for I!s, uso of fhIs form
of confrncofIon moro fhnn doubIod).
SfoIng bnck from Ifs nssumfIon fhnf comoIIIng
Inforosfs suorf fho confrncofIvo covorngo roquIromonf,
fho Courf nofos fhnf smnII omIoyors nnd grnndfnfhorod
Inns nro nof subjocf fo fho roquIromonf. If fhoro Is n
comoIIIng Inforosf In confrncofIvo covorngo, fho Courf

23
AIfhough fho Courf`s oInIon mnkos fhIs nssumfIon grudgIngIy,
soo on/e, nf 3940, ono Mombor of fho mnjorIfy rocognIzos, wIfhouf
rosorvnfIon, fhnf fho |confrncofIvo covorngo] mnndnfo sorvos fho
Covornmonf`s comoIIIng Inforosf In rovIdIng Insurnnco covorngo fhnf
Is nocossnry fo rofocf fho honIfh of fomnIo omIoyoos. An/e, nf 2
(oInIon of KIIY, J.).












26 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
suggosfs, Congross wouId nof hnvo cronfod fhoso oxcIu-
sIons. Soo on/e, nf 3940.
IodornI sfnfufos offon IncIudo oxomfIons for smnII
omIoyors, nnd such rovIsIons hnvo novor boon hoId fo
undormIno fho Inforosfs sorvod by fhoso sfnfufos. Soo,
e.g., InmIIy nnd ModIcnI !onvo Acf of l993, 29 !. S. C.
26ll(4)(A)(I) (nIIcnbIo fo omIoyors wIfh 50 or moro
omIoyoos); Ago IscrImInnfIon In ImIoymonf Acf of
l96?, 29 !. S. C. 630(b) (orIgInnIIy oxomfIng omIoyors
wIfh fowor fhnn 50 omIoyoos, 8l Sfnf. 605, fho sfnfufo
now govorns omIoyors wIfh 20 or moro omIoyoos); Amor-
Icnns WIfh IsnbIIIfIos Acf, 42 !. S. C. l2lll(5)(A) (n-
IIcnbIo fo omIoyors wIfh l5 or moro omIoyoos); TIfIo
VII, 42 !. S. C. 2000o(b) (orIgInnIIy oxomfIng omIoyors
wIfh fowor fhnn 25 omIoyoos, soo ArIougl v. Y & H
Corp., 546 !. S. 500, 505, n. 2 (2006), fho sfnfufo now
govorns omIoyors wIfh l5 or moro omIoyoos).
Tho ACA`s grnndfnfhorIng rovIsIon, 42 !. S. C. l80ll,
nIIows n hnsIng-In orIod for comIInnco wIfh n numbor
of fho Acf`s roquIromonfs (nof jusf fho confrncofIvo cov-
orngo or ofhor rovonfIvo sorvIcos rovIsIons). Onco socI-
fIod chnngos nro mndo, grnndfnfhorod sfnfus consos. Soo
45 CI! l4?.l40(g). Hobby !obby`s own sIfunfIon Is
IIIusfrnfIvo. Iy fho fImo fhIs IIfIgnfIon commoncod, Hobby
!obby dId nof hnvo grnndfnfhorod sfnfus. Askod why by
fho IsfrIcf Courf, Hobby !obby`s counsoI oxInInod fhnf
fho grnndfnfhorIng roquIromonfs monn fhnf you cnn`f
mnko n whoIo monu of chnngos fo your Inn fhnf InvoIvo
fhIngs IIko fho nmounf of co-nys, fho nmounf of co-
Insurnnco, doducfIbIos, fhnf sorf of fhIng. A. In o. l3
354, . 3940. CounsoI ncknowIodgod fhnf, jusf bocnuso
of oconomIc ronIIfIos, our Inn hns fo shIff ovor fImo. I
monn, Insurnnco Inns, ns ovoryono knows, shIf|f] ovor
fImo. 1J., nf 40.
24
Tho orconfngo of omIoyoos In grnnd-

24
Hobby !obby`s onicue nfIonnI !oIIgIous Irondcnsfors sImIInrIy


















2? CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
fnfhorod Inns Is sfondIIy docIInIng, hnvIng drood from
56 In 20ll fo 48 In 20l2 fo 36 In 20l3. KnIsor InmIIy
IoundnfIon & HonIfh !osonrch & Iduc. Trusf, ImIoyor
IonofIfs 20l3 AnnunI Survoy ?, l96. In shorf, fnr from
rnnkIng ns n cnfogorIcnI oxomfIon, fho grnndfnfhorIng
rovIsIon Is fomornry, Infondod fo bo n monns for grndu-
nIIy frnnsIfIonIng omIoyors Info mnndnfory covorngo.
GilorJi, ?33 I. 3d, nf l24l (Idwnrds, J., concurrIng In
nrf nnd dIssonfIng In nrf).
Tho Courf uIfImnfoIy ncknowIodgos n crIfIcnI oInf:
!I!A`s nIIcnfIon nue/ fnko ndoqunfo nccounf of fho
burdons n roquosfod nccommodnfIon mny Imoso on non-
bonofIcInrIos. An/e, nf 42, n. 3? (quofIng Cu//er v. Wil-
/ineon, 544 !. S. ?09, ?20 (2005); omhnsIs nddod). o
frndIfIon, nnd no rIor docIsIon undor !I!A, nIIows n
roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIon whon fho nccommodnfIon wouId
bo hnrmfuI fo ofhorshoro, fho vory orsons fho confrn-
cofIvo covorngo roquIromonf wns dosIgnod fo rofocf. Cf.
eupro, nf ?8; Prince v. Moeeocluee//e, 32l !. S. l58, l??
(l944) (Jnckson, J., dIssonfIng) (|Tho] IImIfnfIons whIch of
nocossIfy bound roIIgIous froodom . . . bogIn fo oornfo
whonovor ncfIvIfIos bogIn fo nffocf or coIIIdo wIfh IIborfIos
of ofhors or of fho ubIIc.).
4
Affor nssumIng fho oxIsfonco of comoIIIng govornmonf
Inforosfs, fho Courf hoIds fhnf fho confrncofIvo covorngo
roquIromonf fnIIs fo snfIsfy !I!A`s Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns
fosf. Iuf fho Covornmonf hns shown fhnf fhoro Is no Ioss
rosfrIcfIvo, oqunIIy offocfIvo monns fhnf wouId bofh (l)
snfIsfy fho chnIIongors` roIIgIous objocfIons fo rovIdIng

sfnfos fhnf, |g]Ivon fho nnfuro of omIoyors` noods fo moof chnngIng
oconomIc nnd sfnffIng cIrcumsfnncos, nnd fo ndjusf Insurnnco covorngo
nccordIngIy, fho ncfunI bonofIf of fho 'grnndfnfhor` oxcIusIon Is Je
nininie nnd frnnsIfory nf bosf. IrIof for nfIonnI !oIIgIous Irond-
cnsfors ns Anicue Curioe In o. l3354, . 28.



















28 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
Insurnnco covorngo for corfnIn confrncofIvos (whIch fhoy
boIIovo cnuso nborfIons); nnd (2) cnrry ouf fho objocfIvo of
fho ACA`s confrncofIvo covorngo roquIromonf, fo onsuro
fhnf womon omIoyoos rocoIvo, nf no cosf fo fhom, fho
rovonfIvo cnro noodod fo snfogunrd fhoIr honIfh nnd woII
boIng. A Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns cnnnof roquIro omIoy-
oos fo roIInquIsh bonofIfs nccordod fhom by fodornI Inw In
ordor fo onsuro fhnf fhoIr commorcInI omIoyors cnn
ndhoro unrosorvodIy fo fhoIr roIIgIous fonofs. Soo eupro,
nf ?8, 2?.
25
Thon Iof fho govornmonf ny (rnfhor fhnn fho omIoyoos
who do nof shnro fhoIr omIoyor`s fnIfh), fho Courf sug-
gosfs. Tho mosf sfrnIghfforwnrd |nIfornnfIvo], fho Courf
nssorfs, wouId bo for fho Covornmonf fo nssumo fho cosf
of rovIdIng . . . confrncofIvos . . . fo nny womon who nro
unnbIo fo obfnIn fhom undor fhoIr honIfh-Insurnnco oII-
cIos duo fo fhoIr omIoyors` roIIgIous objocfIons. An/e, nf
4l. Tho ACA, howovor, roquIros covorngo of rovonfIvo
sorvIcos fhrough fho oxIsfIng omIoyor-bnsod sysfom of
honIfh Insurnnco so fhnf |omIoyoos] fnco mInImnI IogIsfI-
cnI nnd ndmInIsfrnfIvo obsfncIos. ?8 Iod. !og. 39888.
ImodIng womon`s rocoIf of bonofIfs by roquIrIng fhom
fo fnko sfos fo Ionrn nbouf, nnd fo sIgn u for, n now
|govornmonf fundod nnd ndmInIsforod] honIfh bonofIf
wns scnrcoIy whnf Congross confomInfod. 1IiJ. Moro-
ovor, TIfIo X of fho IubIIc HonIfh SorvIco Acf, 42 !. S. C.
300 e/ eeq., Is fho nnfIon`s onIy dodIcnfod sourco of fodornI

25
As fho Courf mndo cIonr In Cu//er, fho govornmonf`s IIconso fo
grnnf roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIons from gonornIIy nIIcnbIo Inws Is
consfrnInod by fho IsfnbIIshmonf CInuso. 544 !. S., nf ?20?22. |W]o
nro n cosmooIIfnn nnfIon mndo u of ooIo of nImosf ovory concoIvn-
bIo roIIgIous roforonco, BrounfelJ, 366 !. S., nf 606, n rIch mosnIc of
roIIgIous fnIfhs, Toun of Greece v. Gollouo,, 5?2 !. S. ___, ___ (20l4)
(KACA, J., dIssonfIng) (sII o., nf l5). ConsoquonfIy, ono orson`s
rIghf fo froo oxorcIso musf bo kof In hnrmony wIfh fho rIghfs of hor
foIIow cIfIzons, nnd somo roIIgIous rncfIcos |musf] yIoId fo fho com-
mon good. Ini/eJ S/o/ee v. Lee, 455 !. S. 252, 259 (l982).















29 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
fundIng for snfofy nof fnmIIy InnnIng sorvIcos. IrIof
for nfIonnI HonIfh !nw Irogrnm of nI. ns Anici Curioe
23. Snfofy nof rogrnms IIko TIfIo X nro nof dosIgnod fo
nbsorb fho unmof noods of . . . Insurod IndIvIdunIs. 1J., nf
24. ofo, foo, fhnf Congross docIInod fo wrIfo Info Inw fho
roforonfInI fronfmonf Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn do-
scrIbo ns n Ioss rosfrIcfIvo nIfornnfIvo. Soo eupro, nf 6.
And whoro Is fho sfoIng oInf fo fho Iof fho govorn-
monf ny nIfornnfIvo Suoso nn omIoyor`s sIncoroIy
hoId roIIgIous boIIof Is offondod by honIfh covorngo of
vnccInos, or nyIng fho mInImum wngo, soo Ton, onJ
Sueon Alono IounJo/ion v. Secre/or, of LoIor, 4?l !. S.
290, 303 (l985), or nccordIng womon oqunI ny for sub-
sfnnfInIIy sImIInr work, soo Dole v. SlenonJool Bop/ie/
Clurcl, 899 I. 2d l389, l392 (CA4 l990) oos If rnnk ns
n Ioss rosfrIcfIvo nIfornnfIvo fo roquIro fho govornmonf fo
rovIdo fho monoy or bonofIf fo whIch fho omIoyor hns
n roIIgIon-bnsod objocfIon
26
Iocnuso fho Courf cnnnof
onsIIy nnswor fhnf quosfIon, If roosos somofhIng oIso:
IxfonsIon fo commorcInI onforrIsos of fho nccommodnfIon
nIrondy nffordod fo nonrofIf roIIgIon-bnsod orgnnIznfIons.
Soo on/e, nf 34, 9l0, 4345. Af n mInImum, nccordIng
fo fho Courf, such nn nronch wouId nof ImIngo on
|Hobby !obby`s nnd Conosfogn`s] roIIgIous boIIof. An/e, nf
44. I hnvo nIrondy dIscussod fho socInI soIIcIfudo gon-
ornIIy nccordod nonrofIf roIIgIon-bnsod orgnnIznfIons fhnf
oxIsf fo sorvo n communIfy of boIIovors, soIIcIfudo novor
boforo nccordod fo commorcInI onforrIsos comrIsIng
omIoyoos of dIvorso fnIfhs. Soo eupro, nf l4l?.
!IfImnfoIy, fho Courf hodgos on Ifs roosnI fo nIIgn for-
rofIf onforrIsos wIfh nonrofIf roIIgIon-bnsod orgnnIzn-

26
Cf. Aelcrof/ v. Anericon Citil LiIer/iee Inion, 542 !. S. 656, 666
(2004) (In confoxf of IIrsf Amondmonf Sooch CInuso chnIIongo fo n
confonf-bnsod sooch rosfrIcfIon, courfs musf doformIno whofhor fho
chnIIongod roguInfIon Is fho Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns nmong otoiloIle,
offocfIvo nIfornnfIvos (omhnsIs nddod)).






















30 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
fIons. Wo do nof docIdo fodny whofhor |fho] nronch
|fho oInIon ndvnncos] comIIos wIfh !I!A for urosos of
nII roIIgIous cInIms. An/e, nf 44. CounsoI for Hobby
!obby wns sImIInrIy noncommIffnI. Askod nf ornI nrgu-
monf whofhor fho Courf-roosod nIfornnfIvo wns nc-
cofnbIo,
2?
counsoI rosondod: Wo hnvon`f boon offorod
fhnf nccommodnfIon, so wo hnvon`f hnd fo docIdo whnf
kInd of objocfIon, If nny, wo wouId mnko fo fhnf. Tr. of
OrnI Arg. 868?.
Conosfogn suggosfs fhnf, If Ifs omIoyoos hnd fo ncquIro
nnd ny for fho confrncofIvos (fo whIch fho corornfIon
objocfs) on fhoIr own, n fnx crodIf wouId qunIIfy ns n Ioss
rosfrIcfIvo nIfornnfIvo. Soo IrIof for IofIfIonors In o. l3
356, . 64. A fnx crodIf, of courso, Is ono vnrIofy of Iof fho
govornmonf ny. In nddIfIon fo donrfIng from fho oxIsf-
Ing omIoyor-bnsod sysfom of honIfh Insurnnco, Conosfo-
gn`s nIfornnfIvo wouId roquIro n womnn fo ronch Info hor
own ockof In fho fIrsf Insfnnco, nnd If wouId do nofhIng
for fho womnn foo oor fo bo nIdod by n fnx crodIf.
In sum, In vIow of whnf Congross soughf fo nccomIIsh,

2?
On brIof, Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn bnroIy nddrossod fho oxfon-
sIon soIufIon, whIch wouId brnckof commorcInI onforrIsos wIfh non-
rofIf roIIgIon-bnsod orgnnIznfIons for roIIgIous nccommodnfIons ur-
osos. Tho hosIfnfIon Is undorsfnndnbIo, for chnIIongos fo fho ndoquncy
of fho nccommodnfIon nccordod roIIgIous nonrofIf orgnnIznfIons nro
curronfIy euI juJice. Soo, e.g., Li//le Sie/ere of /le Poor Hone for /le
AgeJ v. SeIeliue, ___ I. Su. 2d ___, 20l3 W! 6839900 (CoIo., oc. 2?,
20l3), InjuncfIon ondIng nonI grnnfod, 5?l !. S. ___ (20l4). Af
nnofhor oInf In fodny`s docIsIon, fho Courf rofusos fo consIdor nn
nrgumonf noIfhor rnIsod boIow |nor] ndvnncod In fhIs Courf by nny
nrfy, gIvIng Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn |no] oorfunIfy fo rosond
fo |fhnf] novoI cInIm. An/e, nf 33. Yof fho Courf Is confonf fo docIdo
fhIs cnso (nnd fhIs cnso onIy) on fho ground fhnf HHS couId mnko nn
nccommodnfIon novor suggosfod In fho nrfIos` rosonfnfIons. !I!A
cnnnof sonsIbIy bo rond fo roquIr|o] fho govornmonf fo . . . rofufo onch
nnd ovory concoIvnbIo nIfornnfIvo roguInfIon, Ini/eJ S/o/ee v. Wilgue,
638 I. 3d l2?4, l289 (CAl0 20ll), osocInIIy whoro fho nIfornnfIvo on
whIch fho Courf soIzos wns nof rossod by nny chnIIongor.















3l CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
i.e., comrohonsIvo rovonfIvo cnro for womon furnIshod
fhrough omIoyor-bnsod honIfh Inns, nono of fho rof-
forod nIfornnfIvos wouId snfIsfncforIIy sorvo fho comoI-
IIng Inforosfs fo whIch Congross rosondod.
IV
Among fho nfhmnrkIng ro-Sni/l docIsIons !I!A
rosorvod Is Ini/eJ S/o/ee v. Lee, 455 !. S. 252 (l982).
!oo, n soIo rorIofor ongngod In fnrmIng nnd cnronfry,
wns n mombor of fho OId Ordor AmIsh. Ho sIncoroIy
boIIovod fhnf wIfhhoIdIng SocInI SocurIfy fnxos from hIs
omIoyoos or nyIng fho omIoyor`s shnro of such fnxos
wouId vIoInfo fho AmIsh fnIfh. ThIs Courf hoId fhnf,
nIfhough fho obIIgnfIons Imosod by fho SocInI SocurIfy
sysfom confIIcfod wIfh !oo`s roIIgIous boIIofs, fho burdon
wns nof unconsfIfufIonnI. 1J., nf 26026l. Soo nIso iJ., nf
258 (rocognIzIng fho Imorfnnf govornmonfnI Inforosf In
rovIdIng n nnfIonwIdo . . . comrohonsIvo Insurnnco
sysfom wIfh n vnrIofy of bonofIfs nvnIInbIo fo nII nrfIcI-
nnfs, wIfh cosfs shnrod by omIoyors nnd omIoyoos).
28
Tho Covornmonf urgos fhnf Lee shouId confroI fho chnI-
Iongos broughf by Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn. Soo IrIof
for !osondonfs In o. l3356, . l8. In confrnsf, fodny`s
Courf dIsmIssos Lee ns n fnx cnso. Soo on/e, nf 464?.
Indood, If wns n fnx cnso nnd fho Courf In Lee homod In on
|f]ho dIffIcuIfy In nffomfIng fo nccommodnfo roIIgIous
boIIofs In fho nron of fnxnfIon. 455 !. S., nf 259.
Iuf fho Lee Courf mndo fwo koy oInfs ono cnnnof
confIno fo fnx cnsos. Whon foIIowors of n nrfIcuInr socf
onfor Info commorcInI ncfIvIfy ns n mnffor of choIco, fho
Courf obsorvod, fho IImIfs fhoy nccof on fhoIr own con-
ducf ns n mnffor of conscIonco nnd fnIfh nro nof fo bo

28
As n soIo rorIofor, !oo wns subjocf fo orsonnI IInbIIIfy for vIoInf-
Ing fho Inw of gonornI nIIcnfIon ho oosod. HIs cInIm fo n roIIgIon-
bnsod oxomfIon wouId hnvo boon ovon fhInnor hnd ho conducfod hIs
busInoss ns n corornfIon, fhus nvoIdIng orsonnI IInbIIIfy.




















32 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
suorImosod on sfnfufory schomos whIch nro bIndIng on
ofhors In fhnf ncfIvIfy. 1J., nf 26l. Tho sfnfufory schomo
of omIoyor-bnsod comrohonsIvo honIfh covorngo In-
voIvod In fhoso cnsos Is suroIy bIndIng on ofhors ongngod
In fho snmo frndo or busInoss ns fho corornfo chnIIongors
horo, Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn. Iurfhor, fho Courf
rocognIzod In Lee fhnf nIIowIng n roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIon
fo n commorcInI omIoyor wouId oornf|o] fo Imoso fho
omIoyor`s roIIgIous fnIfh on fho omIoyoos. 1IiJ.
29
o
doubf fho Croons nnd Hnhns nnd nII who shnro fhoIr
boIIofs mny docIIno fo ncquIro for fhomsoIvos fho confrn-
cofIvos In quosfIon. Iuf fhnf choIco mny nof bo Imosod
on omIoyoos who hoId ofhor boIIofs. WorkIng for Hobby
!obby or Conosfogn, In ofhor words, shouId nof dorIvo
omIoyoos of fho rovonfIvo cnro nvnIInbIo fo workors nf
fho sho noxf door,
30
nf Ionsf In fho nbsonco of dIrocfIons
from fho !ogIsInfuro or AdmInIsfrnfIon fo do so.
Why shouId docIsIons of fhIs ordor bo mndo by Congross
or fho roguInfory nufhorIfy, nnd nof fhIs Courf Hobby
!obby nnd Conosfogn suroIy do nof sfnnd nIono ns com-
morcInI onforrIsos sookIng oxomfIons from gonornIIy
nIIcnbIo Inws on fho bnsIs of fhoIr roIIgIous boIIofs. Soo,
e.g., Aeunon v. Piggie Por/ 1n/erprieee, 1nc., 256 I. Su.

29
Congross nmondod fho SocInI SocurIfy Acf In rosonso fo Lee. Tho
nmondod sfnfufo ormIfs AmIsh soIo rorIofors nnd nrfnorshIs (buf
nof AmIsh-ownod corornfIons) fo obfnIn nn oxomfIon from fho obIIgn-
fIon fo ny SocInI SocurIfy fnxos onIy for omIoyoos who nro co-
roIIgIonIsfs nnd who IIkowIso sook nn oxomfIon nnd ngroo fo gIvo u
fhoIr SocInI SocurIfy bonofIfs. Soo 26 !. S. C. 3l2?(n)(2), (b)(l). Thus,
omIoyors wIfh sIncoro roIIgIous boIIofs hnvo no rIghf fo n roIIgIon-
bnsod oxomfIon fhnf wouId dorIvo omIoyoos of SocInI SocurIfy
bonofIfs wIfhouf fho omIoyoo`s consonfnn oxomfIon nnnIogous fo
fho ono Hobby !obby nnd Conosfogn sook horo.
30
Cf. Ton, onJ Sueon Alono IounJo/ion v. Secre/or, of LoIor, 4?l
!. S. 290, 299 (l985) (dIsnIIowIng roIIgIon-bnsod oxomfIon fhnf wouId
undoubfodIy gIvo |fho commorcInI onforrIso sookIng fho oxomfIon]
nnd sImIInr orgnnIznfIons nn ndvnnfngo ovor fhoIr comofIfors).















33 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
94l, 945 (SC l966) (ownor of rosfnurnnf chnIn rofusod fo
sorvo bInck nfrons bnsod on hIs roIIgIous boIIofs oosIng
rncInI InfogrnfIon), nff `d In roIovnnf nrf nnd rov`d In nrf
on ofhor grounds, 3?? I. 2d 433 (CA4 l96?), nff `d nnd
modIfIod on ofhor grounds, 390 !. S. 400 (l968); 1n re
Minneeo/o ex rel. McClure, 3?0 . W. 2d 844, 84? (MInn.
l985) (born-ngnIn ChrIsfInns who ownod cIosoIy hoId, for-
rofIf honIfh cIubs boIIovod fhnf fho IIbIo roscrIbod
hIrIng or rofnInIng nn IndIvIdun|I] IIvIng wIfh buf nof
mnrrIod fo n orson of fho oosIfo sox, n young, sIngIo
womnn workIng wIfhouf hor fnfhor`s consonf or n mnrrIod
womnn workIng wIfhouf hor husbnnd`s consonf, nnd nny
orson nnfngonIsfIc fo fho IIbIo, IncIudIng fornIcnfors
nnd homosoxunIs (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod)),
nonI dIsmIssod, 4?8 !. S. l0l5 (l986); 1lone Plo/og-
ropl,, LLC v. Willoc/, 20l3MSC040, ___ . M. ___,
309 I. 3d 53 (for-rofIf hofogrnhy busInoss ownod by n
husbnnd nnd wIfo rofusod fo hofogrnh n IosbInn couIo`s
commIfmonf coromony bnsod on fho roIIgIous boIIofs of fho
comnny`s ownors), corf. donIod, 5?2 !. S. ___ (20l4).
WouId !I!A roquIro oxomfIons In cnsos of fhIs IIk And
If nof, how doos fho Courf dIvIno whIch roIIgIous boIIofs
nro worfhy of nccommodnfIon, nnd whIch nro nof Isn`f
fho Courf dIsnrmod from mnkIng such n judgmonf gIvon
Ifs rocognIfIon fhnf courfs musf nof rosumo fo doformIno
. . . fho InusIbIIIfy of n roIIgIous cInIm An/e, nf 3?.
WouId fho oxomfIon fho Courf hoIds !I!A domnnds
for omIoyors wIfh roIIgIousIy groundod objocfIons fo fho
uso of corfnIn confrncofIvos oxfond fo omIoyors wIfh
roIIgIousIy groundod objocfIons fo bIood frnnsfusIons
(Johovnh`s WIfnossos); nnfIdorossnnfs (ScIonfoIogIsfs);
modIcnfIons dorIvod from Igs, IncIudIng nnosfhosIn,
Infrnvonous fIuIds, nnd IIIs confod wIfh goInfIn (corfnIn
MusIIms, Jows, nnd HIndus); nnd vnccInnfIons (ChrIsfInn


















34 I!!WI!! t. HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC.
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
ScIonfIsfs, nmong ofhors)
3l
AccordIng fo counsoI for
Hobby !obby, onch ono of fhoso cnsos . . . wouId hnvo fo
bo ovnIunfod on Ifs own . . . nIy|Ing] fho comoIIIng
Inforosf-Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo nIfornnfIvo fosf. Tr. of OrnI Arg.
6. of much hoI fhoro for fho Iowor courfs bound by
fodny`s docIsIon.
Tho Courf, howovor, soos nofhIng fo worry nbouf. To-
dny`s cnsos, fho Courf concIudos, nro concornod soIoIy
wIfh fho confrncofIvo mnndnfo. Our docIsIon shouId nof
bo undorsfood fo hoId fhnf nn Insurnnco-covorngo mnndnfo
musf nocossnrIIy fnII If If confIIcfs wIfh nn omIoyor`s
roIIgIous boIIofs. Ofhor covorngo roquIromonfs, such ns
ImmunIznfIons, mny bo suorfod by dIfforonf Inforosfs
(for oxnmIo, fho nood fo combnf fho srond of InfocfIous
dIsonsos) nnd mny InvoIvo dIfforonf nrgumonfs nbouf fho
Ionsf rosfrIcfIvo monns of rovIdIng fhom. An/e, nf 46.
Iuf fho Courf hns nssumod, for !I!A urosos, fhnf fho
Inforosf In womon`s honIfh nnd woII boIng Is comoIIIng
nnd hns como u wIfh no monns ndoqunfo fo sorvo fhnf
Inforosf, fho ono mofIvnfIng Congross fo ndof fho Wom-
on`s HonIfh Amondmonf.
Thoro Is nn ovorrIdIng Inforosf, I boIIovo, In kooIng fho
courfs ouf of fho busInoss of ovnIunfIng fho roInfIvo mor-
Ifs of dIfforIng roIIgIous cInIms, Lee, 455 !. S., nf 263, n. 2
(Sfovons, J., concurrIng In judgmonf), or fho sIncorIfy wIfh
whIch nn nssorfod roIIgIous boIIof Is hoId. Indood, nrov-
Ing somo roIIgIous cInIms whIIo doomIng ofhors unworfhy
of nccommodnfIon couId bo orcoIvod ns fnvorIng ono
roIIgIon ovor nnofhor, fho vory rIsk fho IsfnbIIshmonf
CInuso wns dosIgnod fo rocIudo. 1IiJ. Tho Courf, I fonr,

3l
!oIIgIous objocfIons fo ImmunIznfIon rogrnms nro nof hyofhof-
IcnI. Soo Plillipe v. Aeu Yor/, ___ I. Su. 2d ___, 20l4 W! 254?584
(IY, Juno 5, 20l4) (dIsmIssIng froo oxorcIso chnIIongos fo ow
York`s vnccInnfIon rncfIcos); !Iborfy CounsoI, ComuIsory VnccInn-
fIons Thronfon !oIIgIous Iroodom (200?), nvnIInbIo nf hff://www.Ic.org/
modIn/9980/nffnchmonfs/momo_vnccInnfIon.df.










35 CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
CISI!!C, J., dIssonfIng
hns vonfurod Info n mInofIoId, cf. Spencer v. WorlJ Vieion,
1nc., 633 I. 3d ?23, ?30 (CA9 20l0) (O`ScnnnInIn, J., con-
currIng), by Ifs Immodornfo rondIng of !I!A. I wouId
confIno roIIgIous oxomfIons undor fhnf Acf fo orgnnIzn-
fIons formod for n roIIgIous uroso, ongngo|d] rImnrIIy
In cnrryIng ouf fhnf roIIgIous uroso, nnd nof ongngod
. . . subsfnnfInIIy In fho oxchnngo of goods or sorvIcos for
monoy boyond nomInnI nmounfs. Soo iJ., nf ?48 (KIoIn-
foId, J., concurrIng).
* * *
Ior fho ronsons sfnfod, I wouId rovorso fho judgmonf of
fho Courf of AonIs for fho Tonfh CIrcuIf nnd nffIrm fho
judgmonf of fho Courf of AonIs for fho ThIrd CIrcuIf.



_________________

_________________

















l CIfo ns: 5?3 !. S. ____ (20l4)
I!IYI! nnd KACA, JJ., dIssonfIng
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES
os. l3354 nnd l3356
SY!VIA I!!WI!!, SIC!ITA!Y OI HIA!TH
A H!MA SI!VICIS, IT A!., IITITIOI!S
l3354 !"
HOIIY !OIIY STO!IS, IC., IT A!.
O W!IT OI CI!TIO!A!I TO THI !ITI STATIS CO!!T
OI AIIIA!S IO! THI TITH CI!C!IT
A
COISTOCA WOO SIICIA!TIIS CO!IO!ATIO
IT A!., IITITIOI!S
l3356 !"
SY!VIA I!!WI!!, SIC!ITA!Y OI HIA!TH
A H!MA SI!VICIS, IT A!.
O W!IT OI CI!TIO!A!I TO THI !ITI STATIS CO!!T
OI AIIIA!S IO! THI THI! CI!C!IT
|Juno 30, 20l4]
J!STICI I!IYI! nnd J!STICI KACA, dIssonfIng.
Wo ngroo wIfh J!STICI CISI!!C fhnf fho InInfIffs`
chnIIongo fo fho confrncofIvo covorngo roquIromonf fnIIs
on fho morIfs. Wo nood nof nnd do nof docIdo whofhor
oIfhor for-rofIf corornfIons or fhoIr ownors mny brIng
cInIms undor fho !oIIgIous Iroodom !osfornfIon Acf of
l993. AccordIngIy, wo joIn nII buf Inrf IIICl of J!STICI
CISI!!C`s dIssonfIng oInIon.