“When ever there is a ‘gap’ between where you are now and where you want to be, you have

a problem”
(Hayes 1989)

Problem Solving: Mental activity leading from where you are to a more desired ‘goal state’
(Kurfiss 1988)

( and learning from the experience)

Meningitis
Dr. Venaktesh M. Shashidhar
Associate Professor of Pathology Fiji School of Medicine

Meningitis:
Inflammation of Meninges - Leptomeningitis Meningoencephalitis – Brain & meninges Types:
Infective – Septic & Aseptic (B, F, TB & V)  Chemical – Drugs  Carcinomatous - metastasis

Headache + Neck stiffness. Neurological deficits Complications: Encephalitis, Infarction, Abscess, Hydrocephalus & empyema.

Septic Meningitis

Septic Meningitis

Septic Meningitis

Septic Meningitis

Septic Meningitis

Septic Meningitis

Septic Meningitis-Microscopy

Septic Meningitis-Microscopy

Septic Meningitis-Spinal fluid

Septic Meningitis-Spinal fluid

Septic Meningitis - Organisms
O R G A N I S M E A K A G E I N C GI DR EA NM C E T A P S

E s c h e r i c h i a c oN l ei o n a t e s G r a m n e g a t i v e r H e m o p h i l u s i nI nf lf au ne t ns z aa n ed CG hr ial dm r e nn e g a t i v e c N e i s s e r i a m e nA i n o liet is dc i es n t s G ar n m Yn oe ug na gt i vae d d dg ad u S t r e p t o c o c c u sO pl dn eer ua m uo l tns iGao rera C h pl do rse i tn i v e c d m i

Brain Abscess:

Brain Abscess: CT Scan

Hydrocephalus:

Infarction Meningoencephalitis:
Mucormycosis in a Diabetic.

CSF-Examination
Cells Protein Glucose Appearance

N

0-4 lympho 0.1-0.4(n) 2.7-4.0 (n) Clear colourless High High High Low normal Low Turbid Clear Opalescent (cob-web)

Septic> Poly Viral TB
> Lymph > lymph

Clinical details:
38 Year Fijian male Severe headache 2 months, Photophobia, Drowsy, seizure, vomiting. Bil. Papillary edema Responded to Mannitol + steroids Died in hospital Brain sections after limited autopsy.

Autopsy
Marked inflammtory infiltrate in meninges Superficial Cerebral edema (cortex)

Meningitis - Cryptococci
Round capsulated fungal organisms Lymphocytic infiltrate around

Summary:
Leptomeningitis Infective, Chemical Carcinomatous Head ache, Neck stiff ness. Septic & Aseptic types – CSF diagnosis Common causes, organisms. Complications:

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful