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BIRD FLU IN BANGLADESH: GENERAL AWARENESS LEVEL OF THE PEOPLE AND
IMPACT ON CONSUMPTION ON POULTRY PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT REGIONS
Patuakhali Science and Technology University Dumki, Patuakhali
Lecturer Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Faculty of Business Administration and Management
05 (liberty) Level: 03; Semester: 01 Faculty of Business Administration and Management
01 Md. Mofizer Rahaman 02 Dipayan Chakma 03 K.M. Assaduzzaman 04 Tanjia Sultana 05 Azmery Khanam 06 Shofiq Uddin Khan
Member Member Member Member Member Member
12 17 06 10 20 23
00671 00676 00665 00669 00679 00682
Research Methodology Course code: AES-314
Date of Submission: 22 April, 2008 Patuakhali Science and Technology University Dumki, Patuakhali
AWARENESS LEVEL OF
THE PEOPLE AND IMPACT ON CONSUMPTION ON POULTRY PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT REGIONS
Table of contents3
Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
01 0103 03-
1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1.4 INTRODUCTION OF BIRD FLU
Chapter 2: Review of literature Chapter 3: Methodology of the study Chapter 4: Awareness level and precautionary measures
4.1 Awareness level
07 08 09-16
09 0911-13 11 11
4.1.1TIME DURATION OF RECOGNIZING BIRD FLU
4.1.2 WHERE HAVE BEEN HEARD 4.1.3 HOW IT EFFECT ON HUMAN BODY 10 4.2Precautionary measures 4.2.1HAND WASH 11 4.2.2 WASH OF POULTRY PRODUCT 4.2.3 USING MUSK AND GLOVES 4.2.4 AVOID TAKING 11-12 4.3 Process of cooking 4.3.1 BOILED MORE 13 4.3.2 AVOID TAKING HALF-BOILED 14
13-14 1315-16 15 15 15 15
4.4 Awareness about by product, temperature etc.
4.4.1ATTITUDE WITH BY PRODUCT 4.4.2 SYMPTOMS IN HUMAN BEINGS 4.4.3 MINIMUM TEMPERATURE 4.4.4 AWARENESS BY GOVERNMENT Chapter 5: Impact on consumption 5.1 CHANGES IN CONSUMPTION 5.2 CONSUMERS BEHAVIOR 18-20 5.2.1 CONSUMER ATTITUDE 18
5.2.2 DISCONTINUE TAKING 18 5.2.3 TAKING POULTRY MEANS BIRD FLU 5.2.4 CHANGE IN CONSUMPTION LEVEL
18 18 20-21
5.3 CONSUMPTION CHANGE IN OTHER PRODUCT
Table of contents (continue)Chapter-06 6.1SUMMARY 22-23 6.2 CONCLUSION 23 6.3 RECOMMENDATION 24-25 6.4 REFERENCE 26
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Birds Flu in Bangladesh is not new. It hampers the total national income, the GDP, in employment, and also to the overall economy of the country. So it is very much important. Under these circumstances, we have identified some objectives of the study. The objectives are as follows• To identify the importance of the poultry sector in our overall economic condition. • To identify the importance of poultry sector in employment and investment condition. • To know about the current situation of poultry industry after the out break of bird flu. • To identify the present condition in different region. • To identify the present condition of the poultry firm. • To gather some knowledge about bird flu. • To identify the general awareness level of peoples in different regions ( such as division, district, upzilla, union) • To identify the level of consumption of the consumers of different regions. • To identify the problems in consumption of poultry products.
1.2 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
IMPORTANCE ON EMPLOYMENT
Bangladesh is a third world country. Our per capita income is about to $450. The overall economic condition of our country is not good. For this reason one of the great problem we face in our country that unemployment. About 40% of educated young people are suffering from unemployment problem. To solve the unemployment problem it is needed to increase the job opportunity or to increase the self-employment scope. Bangladesh don’t have enough resource to increase the employment opportunity. Therefore, the second alternative is to increase the scope of self-employment. In our country, different private bank (such as BRAC bank) and Bangladesh government directed Jubo Unnoyon Adidoptor helps the needy people for self-employment. For that, they give loan at a lowest interest rate, training for better performance and gives advice what they can do, and what should they do. Different private bank and government bank gives loan at the purpose of small scale and middle scale business. In that, category poultry business also included. Still it is a profitable business. In addition, it is easy to operate a small-scale poultry business. For the reason a huge portion of people involved in poultry sector and enlarges, their investment opportunity as well as unemployment condition of our country reduces. About 5 million Bangladeshis are directly or indirectly associated with poultry farming. IMPORTANCE OF POULTRY SECTOR IN INVESTMENT From the decade of ninety to today almost 15 thousand crore taka is invested in this sector. These are mainly happened for the self-employment of the educated unemployed person. To establish as his own in a quick time it is great path for every one. 1 kg broiler hen produce cost is 81-83 taka but it can be sell about 120-125 taka. So from 1kg hen almost 39-42 taka profit can be earned within 2 month. For that reason, there are more than 100,000 small poultry farms in Bangladesh, producing $400 million worth of chickens and $300 million worth of eggs every year. Bangladesh has about 220 million chickens and 37 million ducks. Five million people are directly employed by the poultry industry; millions of households rely on poultry production for income generation and nutrition. Officials say, “There are around 150,000 poultry farms in Bangladesh, with an annual turnover of $750 million.”
CURRENT SITUATION AND IMPACT OF BIRD FLU
The first officially announced bird flu outbreak in Bangladesh occurred in February 2007. Bird flu has been confirmed in at least 45 of Bangladesh's 64 districts and to check the spread of the virus, the Bangladesh government has raised compensation for poultry farmers to encourage them to report and kill sick birds as part of efforts to stamp out the outbreak. Nearly 600,000 birds have been culled across the country against the virus since March 2007, but it continues to spread and now covers nearly two-thirds of the country. No
cases of human infection have been reported. Bangladesh recently tightened controls along its porous border with India, with authorities ordering officials to block all imports of poultry and eggs from that country. Bangladeshi government also has decided to ban import of chicks from four European countries — Turkey, Greece, Romania and Russia — where bird flu has broken out recently. Movement of chickens has been banned outside a 10 sq km (3.9 sq miles) area around the affected farms, officials said. Bangladesh's poultry industry has counted a loss of more than 41 billion taka (about 586 million U.S. dollars) in the last one year due to the outbreak of avian influenza or bird flu.
1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY There was limitation of time. Due to shortage of time, the study could not include a large number of consumers. Again to get satisfactory and reliable data sufficient time was needed. But the data were collected and analyzed within very short time. • The data which have been collected may not be free from error. • Necessary data were collected from a limited area covering small numbers of samples. Result obtained from 48 samples may be inadequate.
1.4 INTRODUCTION OF BIRD FLU HISTORY Bird flu is nothing new or uncommon. It first pandemically occurred in 1918 immediately after World War I and killed more than 40 million people. The later outbreaks were in 1957 and 1968. All of the attacks from bird flu killed about 100 million people around the world. Though this is not actually a human disease but its scourge of killing 10 crore people in only 87 years is a fearful matter. ABOUT BIRD FLU What is bird flu? What is avian influenza?
• Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals caused by type A (H5N1) strains of the influenza virus that normally infects only birds and less commonly, pigs. The disease, first identified in Italy more than 100 years ago, occurs worldwide. • Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. However, bird flu is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very sick and kill them. • It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often within 48 hours. Migratory wildfowl, notably wild ducks, are natural carriers of the viruses, but are unlikely to actually develop an infection. • Domestic birds are particularly susceptible in epidemics.
How are avian, pandemic, and seasonal flu different? Avian flu is caused by avian influenza viruses, which occur naturally among birds. Pandemic flu is flu that causes a global outbreak, or pandemic, of serious illness that spreads easily from person to person. Currently there is no pandemic flu. Seasonal flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses.
Do bird flu viruses infect humans? Bird flu viruses do not usually infect humans, but several cases of human infection with bird flu viruses have occurred since December 2003. How does bird flu spread? Infected birds shed flu virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated excretions or surfaces that are contaminated with excretions. It is believed that most cases of bird flu infection in humans have resulted from contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces. The spread of avian influenza viruses from one ill person to another has been reported very rarely, and transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person. How do humans catch bird flu?
Humans catch the disease through close contact with live infected birds. Birds excrete the virus in their faeces, which dry and become pulverized, and are then inhaled. Do migratory birds spread highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses? Recent events make it likely that some migratory birds are now directly spreading the H5N1 virus in its highly pathogenic form. Further spread to new areas is expected. What are the symptoms of bird flu in humans? Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms (fever, cough, sore throat and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress), and other severe and life-threatening complications. The symptoms of bird flu may depend on which virus caused the infection. Is there a vaccine to protect humans from H5N1 virus? There currently is no commercially available vaccine to protect humans against the H5N1 virus that is being seen in Asia and Europe. However, vaccine development efforts are taking place. Research studies to test a vaccine to protect humans against H5N1 virus began in April 2005, and a series of clinical trials is underway. Is it safe to eat poultry and poultry products? Yes, though certain precautions should be followed in countries currently experiencing outbreaks. In areas free of the disease, poultry and poultry products can be prepared and consumed as usual, with no fear of acquiring infection with the H5N1 virus. In areas experiencing outbreaks, poultry and poultry products can also be safely consumed provided these items are properly cooked and properly handled during food preparation. The H5N1 virus is sensitive to heat. Normal temperatures used for cooking (70oC in all parts of the food) will kill the virus. Consumers need to be sure that all parts of the poultry are fully cooked and that eggs, too, are properly cooked.
How serious is the current pandemic risk? The risk of pandemic influenza is serious. With the H5N1 virus now firmly entrenched in large parts of Asia, the risk that more human cases will occur will persist. Each additional human case gives the virus an opportunity to improve its transmissibility in humans, and thus develop into a pandemic
strain. The recent spread of the virus to poultry and wild birds in new areas further broadens opportunities for human cases to occur. While neither the timing nor the severity of the next pandemic can be predicted, the probability that a pandemic will occur has increased.
Is there any treatment of Bird Flu? There currently is no vaccine to protect Avian Influenza, but discover a drug named ‘Tamiflu’ in limited amount, which is very costly and not easily available. But the drug is highly effective to protect the disease. What should be taken? • In each and every winter season, different type of migratory birds visit in some lacks, Beel in Bangladesh mainly from Siberia and China. But it observed cautiously, our countries domestic poultry or poultry in farm no comes in contact with them. • Strictly forbid to hunting migratory birds by any means. • If a bird died in any place, burn/grave in the earth very cautiously without delay. • Watching it to prohibited hunting, purchasing-selling migratory bird in market or any other places. And also avoid this type of work by us. • Should be Avoid to touching of infected poultry or contaminated surface. • Wearing mask, washing hands, if possible bathing should be done after look after poultry. • To keep safe distance poultry farm from migratory birds. • To prohibit importing poultry, even pet birds from bird flu infected country.
Chapter 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of literature is very much important in any type of research report. It shows the past researched analysis. The past researched analysis helps the newer one to compare with the current situation. “Bird flu in Bangladesh: General awareness level of the people and impact on consumption on poultry products.” There are some fewer reports around us. In 1995: A.T.M Rezaul Haque, Assistant Professor, Department of Agro economics and rural sociology, faculty of agriculture, Hazi Mohammad Danesh Science and technology University-Dinajpur, has conducted a research about bird flu. In 1998: M Juel Ahmed, project director, Aso Nije Kori, Dinajpur, conducted a research on the consumer preference on the broiler.
In 2000: M Sultan Ahmed, assistant manager,TMSS, Bogura, also conducted a research on the effect of bird flu in Bangladesh. In 2002: M Nuruddin Ahmed, research officer, Rural Development Program, Bhola, conducted a research on about bird flu.
Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY of the Study
Importance of methodology in conducting any research can hardly be over emphasized. Improper methodology very often leads to erroneous result. So methodology in any systematic study deserves careful consideration. 3.1 SELECTION OF SAMPLE In a complete survey, the required in formation is collected from each and every element of the population. But it become costly and time consuming. So it is necessary to select samples. The sample should be representative. Otherwise the purpose of preparing the report will be invalid. We consider different regions of Barisal division to select samples. 3.2 SAMPLE TYPE Sample type is also important for preparing a good report. Our sample type is region base such as in division, in district, in upzilla and in union level. 3.3 SAMPLE AREA
The area of taking sample is also played an important role to make any kind of report. Our report is mainly based on the Barisal division. In terms of taking sample and collecting data we don’t consider the other regions or divisions or districts. 3.4 DATA COLLECTION Collection of accurate and reliable data and other necessary information from the field level is not an easy work. It must be done in a reliable, proper and systematic way. we have collected the data from the personal contact with the people in the field with the help of questionnaire. The secondary data are collected from internet, newspaper, and so on. 3.5 TIME OF THE STUDY This repot is made for the partial fulfillment of our course Research Methodology. We have started to prepared this report at the end of our semester. So we don’t have sufficient time to prepare it. Chapter 4: AWARENESS LEVEL AND PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
4.1AWARENESS LEVEL 4.1.1TIME DURATION OF RECOGNIZING BIRD FLU To determine the awareness level of the consumers it is very much important to determine the time duration that is whenever they have heard about the bird flu. In our survey, we have used 48 samples in different regions. We take this sample in a disproportional way. From the tabulation we have come to know that the people from different region are very much similar about heard the name of the bird flu. In Upzilla and in Union the people who have heard the name of bird flu is very lower than that of division or district region. 4.1.2 WHERE HAVE BEEN HEARD In this modern era people for different region are habituated with television activity. The use of radio and the hearing of radio is decreasing. Educated peoples read newspapers, and magazines. They use it as a source of knowledge. But the people who live in unions are deprived from this facility.
They have to depend on the people who live in district or division. They get the news from any tea stall, any hat or from any bazaar. 4.1.3 HOW IT EFFECT ON HUMAN BODY Birds flu what kind of diseases it is or how it affect on human body is an important for the determination of the awareness level of different region. It can be affected the human body by having broiler and with the close contact of affected birds. From our survey we have found that a great number of percentage of people don’t know about the bird flu how it affects on human body. The people of division and district are some where aware about this matter. But there is great number of people in Upzilla and union who do not know about this affect. We can show the level of awareness of different region such as division, district, upzilla and union through the use of table, bar diagram, pie chart, flow chart and so on. But first we have to make the percentage of awareness of different region from the tabulated data which we have gathered from our field survey.
The table is accompanied with different region and answers of several questions to construct that one. Table no:1
All figures in percentage
Name Time duration of of the recognizing bird Where have been heard region flu ( figures in month) 01- 04 07 12 T. Ra Ne Ma othe 03 + V dio wsp gazi rs 06 12 aper ne Divisio 50 n District 25 12. 5 37. 5 Upzilla 71.4 23. 4 8 Union 72.7 9.1 9. 1 37 .5 37 .5 4. 76 9. 1 75 62 .5 38 .1 63 .6 4 12. 5 19. 05 9.1
How it effect on human body By close conta ct 37.5 45.5 Don ’t kno w 25 17
Havi ng broile r 37.5 12.5 12.5 50 37.5 47.6 2 18.2 12.5 37.5 19.0 9.52 5 18.2 9.1
47.62 42.8 6 45.5 27.3
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 001-003 004-006 007-012 12+ Division District Upzilla Union
Figure: 1 shows the percentage of awareness level in different region in terms of hearing about bird flu
4.2Precautionary measures “Prevention is better than cure.” But to prevent any thing it is must to be awarded in full. Other wise it is not possible to prevent any thing in any sector. 4.2.1HAND WASH We know that bird flu can be affected to the human body by the close contact and with the handling of bird flu affected poultry. It can affect the woman and the children by not to wash their hand properly. According to our survey we found that a good number of people are aware of this thing. More than 90% or about to 100% people of district and division people are aware to wash their hand properly after handling the poultry. The percentage in upzilla and union is also in good position. 4.2.2 WASH OF POULTRY PRODUCT To avoid the birds flu in affecting the human body it is very much important to wash the poultry product properly. From our survey we have come to know that in general sense people wash the poultry meat properly but incase of egg they are not aware enough to wash it properly. Though, we have
found a better number of percentage in washing the poultry products, it is not their awareness but the general washing activity with any kind of food. 4.2.3 USING MUSK AND GLOVES Using mask is important to free from the bird flu affection. Because, human can affected by bird flu virus through nostril and mouth. Mask will prevent us from the virus. But the number of using mask is very and very lower in different region. Only a few percentage of people in division is used mask. Where no percent of people in district, upzilla and union use mask. From our survey we have come to know that not in every firm but in the few firms the workers use the mask. So it is very much absurd that people use musk in their home. As like mask people do not use the hand gloves when they handle with the poultry product. 4.2.4 AVOID TAKING Bird flu is a treat to our poultry industry. A great number of consumers avoid taking poultry product for bird flu. We observed that the people who live in the district and the divisional level know about bird flu and take broiler but in a decrease percentage. But the people of union and upzilla, their condition is not good. Some people who know about bird flu have stopped consuming it. And the people who are consuming it are not following the proper way of having it. But the people of division and district level, some people are avoiding taking the broiler and some people are taking the broiler by following some procedure. The information regarding hand wash, wash of poultry product, using musk and gloves, avoid taking are given bellow through table 2. Table 2 : Precautionary measures
All figures in percentage
Name Hand wash of the region Yes No Division 97.5 District Upzilla Union 100 90.4 8 81.1 1 2.5 0 9.52 18.18
Wash of Using musk Avoid to take poultry product and gloves Yes No Yes No Yes No 85 87.5 66.67 63.64 15 12.5 12.5 0 87.5 100 37.5 37.5 62.5 62.5 54.5 40
33.33 36.36 0
90.48 45.5 100 60
100 80 60 40 20 0 Division District Upzilla Union yes no
Figure: 2 shows the percentage of awareness level in different region in terms wash the poultry product
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Division District Upz Union Figure: 3 shows the percentage of awareness illa in different region in level terms avoid to take. 0
ye s no
4.3 Process of cooking 4.3.1 BOILED MORE
This is also a general phenomena that people boiled the poultry meat properly. So in division, district, upzilla and union the major number of people boiled the poultry meat properly. They have told us that it is very general to boiled any kind of food. So not by the awareness they boil the products properly. 4.3.2 AVOID TAKING HALF-BOILED There are some precautionary measures in terms of bird flu. Avoid taking half-boiled eggs is one of them. The virus of bird flu die or inactive after boiling full. But taking the half-boiled egg and meat is not free from the virus. That is why there is probability of affecting the human being by taking broiler if they are not fully boiled. Peoples in different region mainly in divisional and district level people are somewhere aware not to take halfboiled egg and meat. But the situation in Upzilla and union is not same. Some people avoid taking the meat and the eggs of the broiler. The percentage of avoiding half-boiled eggs and meat are not sufficient enough. It shows the lower awareness of the people of upazilla and union. We can construct a table by the information we have collected in terms of process of cooking. This is given bellow— Table no 3: Process of cooking
All figures in percentage
Boiled more Name of the region Yes Division 100 District 100 Upzilla 95.24 Union 81.81 4.76 -00 00 No
Wash clearly Yes 75 100 85.71 63.63 No 25 00 14.29 18.18
Avoid boiled Yes 55.5 55.5 27.36 18.18
taking No 44.5 44.5 72.64 63.63
Division District Upzilla Union
Division District Upzilla Union
Showing yes Showing no Figure: 4 shows the percentage of awareness level in different region in terms avoid to taking half-boiled
4.4 Awareness about by product, temperature, etc. 4.4.1ATTITUDE WITH BY PRODUCT Birds flu can be spread through the country by their by product. We saw in the television and read the newspaper that people through the by product here and there. It seems the lower awareness of the people. In our survey we also observed that may be in division or in district or even in union they don’t think of buried or fired the by product. Generally, they throw it to the drain or dustbin. That is why bird’s flu is spreading in alarming way in Bangladesh. 4.4.2 SYMPTOMS IN HUMAN BEINGS People are in dilution of the symptom of the bird flu. Different people give different opinion regarding the symptom. It is true that no one have the actual information and the current situation. 4.4.3 MINIMUM TEMPERATURE Most of the people generally know that 100 centigrade is optimum temperature for boiling any food. But the people don’t know 100 centigrade kill or inactive the bird flu virus. But the answer it frequently that they use 100 centigrade temperature for boiling meat and egg of broiler.
4.4.4 AWARENESS BY GOVERNMENT To stop the spreading condition of bird flu virus government has some responsibility to aware the people. Government has a large hand to do any short of work. Government can use television, radio, newspaper, and so on to increase the awareness of the people. It is tuff for any other organizations and NGO ‘s to create the general awareness level. But government and NGO’s along can’t do this. They have to help each other and work simultaneously.
With the help of this information, we can construct a table and the table is given bellow— Table no: 4
All figures in percentage
Name of the regio n
Attitude with by product Thro Thr Buri w ow ed dust drai bin n Divisi 30 30 40 on Distri 37.5 ct Upzill 23.8 a Union 27.2 7 37.5 25
Symptoms in human beings Do Fev Infl n’t er uen kno za w 25 50 25 0 100 0
Minimum temperature 70 10 Don 0 ’t kno w 12. 70. 17 5 5 10 0 -
Awareness by government Publici Promot ty ional activity 37.5 50 62.5 50
14. 28 18. 18
71. 4 54. 54
14. 32 27. 28
4.7 57. 38.1 28.57 6 14 9 63. 27.2 63.63 63 7
63.6 9 3
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Division District Upzilla Union Throw dustbin Throw drain Buried
Figure: 5 shows the percentage of awareness level in different region in terms attitude with by product. Chapter 5: IMPACT ON CONSUMPTION 5.1 CHANGE IN CONSUMPTION From our survey, we saw that a great number of people change their habit towards broiler. It affect on their food list. Here each and every region the consumption of broiler after bird flu is changing in alarming way. For the impact of changing the food behavior and decrease the consumption of broiler about 60% poultry firms has been shut down. From our survey, we gather information of egg, broiler, duck, pigeon and indigenous chicken etc. and we found that in every sector there is changing consumption. Though, full boiled egg and meat is free from 100% anxiety but people are not fully aware and try to avoid broiler. This is not only bad for the poultry sector but also for the overall country economy. Table: 5
All figures in percentage
Name of Egg the region (decrease) Division District Upzilla Union 17 11.57 18.23 9.2
Broiler (decrease) 32 17.44 25.96 10.81
Duck Pigeon Indigenous (decrease) (decrease) chicken (decrease) 33.33 33.33 18.8 12.5 23 26.08 46.15 36.11 23.33 66.67 66.67
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Division District Upzilla Union Egg Broiler Duck Pigeon Indigenous chicken
Figure: 6 shows the percentage of consumption level in different region in terms change in consumption (decrease). 5.2 Consumers behavior 5.2.1 CONSUMER ATTITUDE Consumers are the blood of any business. If any business looses its consumers than there is nothing rest for the business. Every time consumers should be taken in the highest consideration. For bird flu, a number of consumers reject the broiler and a large number or the whole consumers decrease their consumption. According to our survey, in different region people response defiantly. We have observed that in district level the percentage of rejection is low, as well as in union level the percentage of rejection is very high. Side by side in every region, the consumption level decrease with a significant level. This also shows that may be in division or in district or may be in the Upzilla and union level people try to avoid broiler. 5.2.2 DISCONTINUE TAKING For the outbreak of bird flu, it is very simple to discontinue taking the broiler. In divisional level the percentage of discontinue is lower than any other region as like Upzilla and union. That is why we can say that the consumer of division are more conscious than the others. 5.2.3 TAKING POULTRY MEANS BIRD FLU
The people of union and Upzilla don’t know well about the bird flu. They think that taking poultry means bird flu. But in divisional or district level though consumption decrease but the major portion of people think that taking broiler is not the cause for bird flu. 5.2.4 CHANGE IN CONSUMPTION LEVEL The people who are in the divisional area most of them think that birds flu make a mild change in our consumption. Others think that there is alarming change in consumption. In district level it is very much similar with the divisional level. But in union or Upzilla level people are not aware of this. Some of them don’t know about the change in consumption level. A greater percentage think that this change are alarming. So from the table we can say that the percentage change in consumption of broiler in district and division level is in a mild change position and the opposite position is occurred in Upzilla and union level.
From the information we have collected can construct the table 2 which is given below. Table: 6
All figures in percentage
Nam Consumer attitude e of the regio n Rej Decreas No ect e impa broi consum ct ler ption Divis 15 85 0 ion Distri 20 ct 80 0 4.8
Disconti Taking nue poultry taking means bird flu Yes N Yes N o o 65 80 95. 2 35 25 20 30 4. 8
Change in consumption level No cha nge Mild Alar chang ming e 62.5 55 38.5 37.5 45 56.7 Don ’t kno w 0 0 4.8
75 0 70 0 0
Upzil 45.5 54.5 la
95.2 4. 8
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Division District Upzilla Union no impact decrease reject
Figure: 7 shows the percentage of consumption level in different region in terms of consumer attitude.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Division District Upzilla Union no change mild change alarming don't know
Figure: 8 shows the percentage of consumption level in different region in terms of change in consumption level. 5.3 Consumption change in other product Due to bird flu there is recognized change in consumption level of other product. Incase of the division the percentage change in cattle meat, fish, milk and others have a lower percentage than that of union and upzilla. For this reason, the other product price in different sub-urban area is increasing relatively than that of division or district level.
We can constract a table according to this information. Table 7:
All figures in percentage
Name Cattle meat of the (Increase) region Division 28.13 District Upzilla Union 24.24 40.85 30.92
Fish (Increase) 28.13 18.75 30.88 32.67
Milk (Increase) 13.51 15.91 12.87 20
others (Increase) 0 60 16 15.79
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Division District Upzilla Union cattle meat fish milk others
Figure: 9 shows the percentage of consumption level in different region in terms of change in consumption change in other product (increase).
6.1SUMMARY It is not a past history, just before few days or few month ago birds flu caused a serious damage in Bangladesh. Thousands of poultry products have been destroyed due to bird flu. But it consequences in different region was not same. For bird flu marketing of broiler product was in a treating condition. We can’t see the broiler meat in different restaurant and hotels. In our country in different region the poultry firms is constructed here and there. They not very big. In our country, generally we found the poultry firms consist of 200-500 hens. Here the ventilation facility, the wastes facility and the hygienic facility is not sufficient so that it is very much easy to affect bird flu to any poultry firm’s. Bird flu virus is very serious, it spread very easily. So in every step we should be very careful to protect the bird flu. That is why we must be aware of this matter and think about our poultry industry to not to let it tern in to destruction. The first precautionary measure to prevent the bird flu is to create or to increase the general awareness of the people. But it is matter of sorrow that in our country in different region the percentage of aware people is very low. The people generally heard the name of the bird flu may be from the television or radio or news paper or in other way. But they don’t have clear idea about it. Any short of steps taken by any individual person is very rare. People of different region don’t have enough knowledge for the precautionary measure of bird flu. There in a dilution that what should they do. In terms of eating the people of different region also don’t have enough knowledge to how to cook the bird flu
affected poultry. This situation is very much similar in different region. Divisions are big town. A large number of people live there. They have better facility in respect of union and upazilla. Under this circumstances, the people of division and district a little bit conscious as compare to upazilla and union. The major portion of people in different region don’t know the symptom of bird flu infected poultry. So they can’t take any measures or steps to prevent bird flu. Side by side bird flu has a greater impact on our consumption level. Many people in different region has rejected the poultry meat and egg. Without some exceptional cases the percentage of consumption of poultry has seriously been affected. Due to this, the price of other collateral products such as cattle meat, fish, milk and vegetable have also been increased. The price of broiler is lower than that of cattle meat and others. In every region may be in a division, or in a district, or may be in upazilla and union the consumption of poultry has been decrease in alarming rate. This rate of decrease is high in upazilla and in union. Due to some general knowledge and some general awareness program by the local authority the people of division and district are some how in a good position. But the overall position is not well enough. The people of union or upazilla reject the broiler other than decrease in consumption. It should be include that here we use the Barisal district as a divisional town, Patuakhali district as a district town, Dumki,Bauphal,Dosmina,Bakergong etc. as like upzilla town and different unions of these upzilla as union regions.
6.2 CONCLUSION Over the last decade, the consumption of poultry products in Bangladesh has grown by 5.8 percent per annum, faster than that of human population growth, and has created a great increase in demand. But bird flu has stopped the growth of poultry industry and consumption of poultry product in a alarming rate. About 60% of poultry industry has been stopped due to this phenomenon. We should be very much aware about bird flu. To increase our awareness government should take proper and earlier stage. The NGO’s of our country should come to help the government to take necessary steps regarding awareness of bird flu regarding the country. Government is the major authority of any country. With the help of newspaper, television, radio, government should give advertisement. The people of sub-urban region face the scarcity of the information. Due to lack of information, they are in a dilution what they do in any kind of abnormal situation. They just hear news from here and there. So it is must to provide right information to
the people who are in the remote area. More than 70% people of our total population live in the village. That is why the large and greatest market is in the sub-urban area. If we want to protect our poultry industry or want to ensure the increase that we have achieved before, it is must to make our village people aware of bird flu. If any one is not aware of bird flu than he can spread bird flu and he can reject bird flu, which we have observed in our study.
6.3 RECOMMENDATION The impact of bird flu in our overall economy makes a serious damage. Through this the GDP, national income, personal income, and the employment opportunity of our country has been decreased. In divisional, in district, and in upazilla and union level it strikes a serious consequences. That is why
1. We have to increase the awareness level of the people. 2. Awareness level is very much related with educational qualification.
The educated people are aware enough than that of illiterate people.
3. Generally, the village people are less educated than the urban region
people. So government should take proper steps to educate the village people.
4. Not only the remote area people but also the urban area people are in a
dilution of current situation of poultry industry and the bird flu. This is not good. It is the right of the people and duty of the government to disclose all types of information about the bird flu to every class of people in every region.
5. People of divisional or district town has greater opportunity of having
any information from television or in other ways. But the village people has less opportunity of having information by such way. So
government should take such kind of steps which must include the village people for their information.
6. Postering, rally, discussion program should be arranged not only in
urban area but also in village area.
7. Seminar, symposium, conference, etc. should be arranged in urban
area due to increase the awareness of people.
8. Village people are busy in their daily work in field. So it is very much
difficult to take them in a conference or seminar. So to aware them door to door program should be taken. And this program can be handle by the students.
9. The people of Bangladesh are very religious. So with the help of
religious institutions such as Mosque, Mandir, Church etc. we can increase the awareness of both urban and village people.
10. To increase the awareness level of the village people the union council
chairman and the members of union council can work as a intermediately between the government and village people.
11. The poultry industry owner must work side by side with the
government to increase the awareness of the people and maintain the stability in poultry sector. As like those, there are so many measures to increase the awareness level of the consumers of different region. We should and must apply this due to protect our poultry industry from destruction.
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Search result from Google, Yahoo, and MSN: Bangladesh _ Information on Avian Influenza_files. Bird flu outbreaks in Bangladesh - Pravda_Ru_files. Bird flu spreads to northwest Bangladesh, birds culled Reuters_files. Bird flu strikes Bangladesh again DoctorNDTV Health news on Bird flu strikes Bangladesh again_files. Bird flu strikes farm in northeastern Bangladesh Reuters_files. India, Bangladesh try to contain bird flu outbreak - The China Post_files. IRIN Asia Asia Bangladesh BANGLADESH Bird flu “spreading fast”, says expert Avian Flu Early Warning Health & Nutrition News Item_files. The Hindu International Bangladesh bird flu situation alarming, says official_files.
• U_S_ Provides Additional Funding For Avian Flu Fight In India_files
Small-scale poultry production_files. • Interviews of different people of Barisal region.
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