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# Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

2.SamplingofAnalogSignals:

sonar signals, and various communications signals such as audio and video signals, are analog.
Toprocessanalogsignalsbydigitalmeans,itisfirstnecessarytoconvertthemintodigitalform,
that is, to convert them to a sequence of numbers having finite precision. This procedure is
called analogtodigital (A/D) conversion, and the corresponding devices are called A/D

Conceptually, we view A/D conversion as a three step process. This process is illustrated in
figure2.1

1. Sampling
samplesofcontinuoustimesignalatdiscretetimeinstants.Thus,ifx
a
(t)istheinputtothe
sampler,theoutputisx
a
(nT)x(n),whereTiscalledthesamplinginterval.

2. Quantization
valued (digital) signal. The value of each signal sample is represented by a value selected
from a finite set of possible values. The difference between the unquantized sample x(n)
andthequantizedoutputx
q
(n)iscalledthequantizederror.

3. Coding
Inthecodingprocess,eachdiscretevaluex
q
(n)isrepresentedbyabbitbinarysequence.

Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology

x
q
(n)
x(n) x
a
(t)

Coder Quantizer Sampler
01010...

Analog
signal
Discrete
time signal
Digital
signal
Quantized
signal

Figure2.1:Basicpartsofananalogtodigital(A/D)converter.

Therearemanywaystosampleananalogsignal.Welimitourdiscussiontoperiodicoruniform
sampling, which is the type of sampling used most often in practice. This is described by the
relation

( ) < < = n n x n x
a
, ) (

Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

Where x(n) is the discrete time signal obtained by taking samples of the analog signal ( ) t x
a

every T seconds. This procedure is illustrated in figure 2.2. The time interval T between
successive samples is called the sampling period or sample interval and its reciprocal 1/T=F
s
is
calledthesamplingrate(samplespersecond)orthesamplingfrequency(hertz).

x
a
(t)

1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9

T 2T 5T9T t=nT
t
x
a
(t)
x(n)=x
a
(nT)
n
0
x(n)

Figure2.2:Periodicsamplingofananalogsignal

Periodic sampling establishes a relationship between the time variables t and n of continuous
timeanddiscretetimesignalsrespectively.Indeed, thesevariablesarelinearlyrelatedthrough
thesamplingperiodTor,equivalently,throughthesamplingrateF
s
=1/T,as

s
F
n
nT t = =

There exists a relationship between the variables F (or ) for analog signals and the frequency
variable (or ) for discrete time signals. To establish this relationship, consider an analog
sinusoidalsignaloftheform

( ) ) 2 cos( + = Ft A t x
a

Which,whensampledperiodicallyatarate =1/Tsamplespersecond,yields
s
F

( ) ) 2 cos( ) ( + = FnT A n x nT x
a

)
2
cos(

+ =
s
F
nF
A

ThefrequencyvariablesFandarelinearlyrelatedas

s
F
F
f =
(2.1)
or,equivalently,as

T =
(2.2)

## Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology

Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

Therelationin(2.1)justifiesthenamerelativeornormalizedfrequency,whichissometimes
usedtodescribethefrequencyvariable .As(2.1)implies,wecanuse todeterminethe
frequencyFinhertzonlyifthesamplingfrequency isknown.
f f
s
F

TherangeofthefrequencyvariableForforcontinuoustimesinusoidsare

< < F

< <
(2.3)

However,thesituationisdifferentfordiscretetimesinusoids.
2
1
2
1
< <

< <
(2.4)

Bysubstitutingfrom(2.1)and(2.2)into(2.4),wefindthatthefrequencyofthecontinuoustime
sinusoidwhensampledatarateFs=1/Tmustfallintherange

T
F
F
F
T
s s
2
1
2 2 2
1
= =
(2.5)

Or,equivalently,

T
F F
T
s s

= =
(2.6)

Fromtheserelationsweobservethatthefundamentaldifferencebetweenthecontinuoustime
anddiscretetimesignalsisintheirrangeofvaluesofthefrequencyvariablesFand ,orand
. Periodic sampling of a continuous time signal implies a mapping of the infinite frequency
rangeforthevariableF(or)intoafinitefrequencyrangeforthevariable (or).Sincethe
highest frequency in a discrete time signal is =
f
f

## or =1/2, it follows that, with a sampling

rateFs,thecorrespondinghighestvaluesofFandare
f

T
F
F
s
2
1
2
max
= =

T
F
s

= =
max

Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology
Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

Exercise:

0to1secandtakenthefrequencyasauserinputbyusinginputcommand.

take the sampling frequency as input which should be less than twice the maximum
signalfrequencyinHertz.

take the sampling frequency as input which should be equal to twice the maximum
signalfrequencyinHertz.

takethesamplingfrequencyasinputwhichshouldbegreaterthantwicethemaximum
signalfrequencyinHertz.

plots.Analyzethefourplots,whathappenbyincreasingthesamplingfrequency?

( ) ) 100 cos( 3 t t x
a
=

(i) Determinetheminimumsamplingraterequiredtoavoidaliasing.
(ii) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs=200 Hz. What is the discrete
timesignalobtainedaftersampling?Plotthediscretetimesignal.
(iii) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs=75 Hz. What is the discrete
timesignalobtainedaftersampling?Plotthediscretetimesignal.
(iv) What is the frequency 0<F<Fs/2 of a sinusoid that yields samples identical to
thoseobtainedinpart(iii)?GiveyourobservationregardingAliasingeffect.