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Digital Signal Processing

Digital Signal Processing

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2.SamplingofAnalogSignals:

Mostsignalsofpracticalinterest,suchasspeech,biologicalsignals,seismicsignals,radarsignals,

sonar signals, and various communications signals such as audio and video signals, are analog.

Toprocessanalogsignalsbydigitalmeans,itisfirstnecessarytoconvertthemintodigitalform,

that is, to convert them to a sequence of numbers having finite precision. This procedure is

called analogtodigital (A/D) conversion, and the corresponding devices are called A/D

converters(ADCs)

Conceptually, we view A/D conversion as a three step process. This process is illustrated in

figure2.1

1. Sampling

Thisistheconversionofacontinuoustimesignaltoadiscretetimesignalobtainedbytaking

samplesofcontinuoustimesignalatdiscretetimeinstants.Thus,ifx

a

(t)istheinputtothe

sampler,theoutputisx

a

(nT)x(n),whereTiscalledthesamplinginterval.

2. Quantization

Thisistheconversionofdiscretetimecontinuousvaluedsignalintoadiscretetimediscrete

valued (digital) signal. The value of each signal sample is represented by a value selected

from a finite set of possible values. The difference between the unquantized sample x(n)

andthequantizedoutputx

q

(n)iscalledthequantizederror.

3. Coding

Inthecodingprocess,eachdiscretevaluex

q

(n)isrepresentedbyabbitbinarysequence.

Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology

x

q

(n)

x(n) x

a

(t)

Coder Quantizer Sampler

01010...

Analog

signal

Discrete

time signal

Digital

signal

Quantized

signal

Figure2.1:Basicpartsofananalogtodigital(A/D)converter.

Therearemanywaystosampleananalogsignal.Welimitourdiscussiontoperiodicoruniform

sampling, which is the type of sampling used most often in practice. This is described by the

relation

( ) < < = n n x n x

a

, ) (

Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

Where x(n) is the discrete time signal obtained by taking samples of the analog signal ( ) t x

a

every T seconds. This procedure is illustrated in figure 2.2. The time interval T between

successive samples is called the sampling period or sample interval and its reciprocal 1/T=F

s

is

calledthesamplingrate(samplespersecond)orthesamplingfrequency(hertz).

x

a

(t)

1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9

T 2T 5T9T t=nT

t

x

a

(t)

x(n)=x

a

(nT)

n

0

x(n)

Figure2.2:Periodicsamplingofananalogsignal

Periodic sampling establishes a relationship between the time variables t and n of continuous

timeanddiscretetimesignalsrespectively.Indeed, thesevariablesarelinearlyrelatedthrough

thesamplingperiodTor,equivalently,throughthesamplingrateF

s

=1/T,as

s

F

n

nT t = =

There exists a relationship between the variables F (or ) for analog signals and the frequency

variable (or ) for discrete time signals. To establish this relationship, consider an analog

sinusoidalsignaloftheform

( ) ) 2 cos( + = Ft A t x

a

Which,whensampledperiodicallyatarate =1/Tsamplespersecond,yields

s

F

( ) ) 2 cos( ) ( + = FnT A n x nT x

a

)

2

cos(

+ =

s

F

nF

A

ThefrequencyvariablesFandarelinearlyrelatedas

s

F

F

f =

(2.1)

or,equivalently,as

T =

(2.2)

Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

Therelationin(2.1)justifiesthenamerelativeornormalizedfrequency,whichissometimes

usedtodescribethefrequencyvariable .As(2.1)implies,wecanuse todeterminethe

frequencyFinhertzonlyifthesamplingfrequency isknown.

f f

s

F

TherangeofthefrequencyvariableForforcontinuoustimesinusoidsare

< < F

< <

(2.3)

However,thesituationisdifferentfordiscretetimesinusoids.

2

1

2

1

< <

< <

(2.4)

Bysubstitutingfrom(2.1)and(2.2)into(2.4),wefindthatthefrequencyofthecontinuoustime

sinusoidwhensampledatarateFs=1/Tmustfallintherange

T

F

F

F

T

s s

2

1

2 2 2

1

= =

(2.5)

Or,equivalently,

T

F F

T

s s

= =

(2.6)

Fromtheserelationsweobservethatthefundamentaldifferencebetweenthecontinuoustime

anddiscretetimesignalsisintheirrangeofvaluesofthefrequencyvariablesFand ,orand

. Periodic sampling of a continuous time signal implies a mapping of the infinite frequency

rangeforthevariableF(or)intoafinitefrequencyrangeforthevariable (or).Sincethe

highest frequency in a discrete time signal is =

f

f

rateFs,thecorrespondinghighestvaluesofFandare

f

T

F

F

s

2

1

2

max

= =

T

F

s

= =

max

Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology

Digital Signal Processing Lab S2

Exercise:

Task#1:Writeascripttogenerateacontinuoustimesinusoidsignalwithamplitude=2foratime

0to1secandtakenthefrequencyasauserinputbyusinginputcommand.

Task#2: Writeascripttoconvertcontinuoustimesignaloftask#1toadiscretetimesignaland

take the sampling frequency as input which should be less than twice the maximum

signalfrequencyinHertz.

Task#3: Writeascripttoconvertcontinuoustimesignaloftask#1toadiscretetimesignaland

take the sampling frequency as input which should be equal to twice the maximum

signalfrequencyinHertz.

Task#4: Writeascripttoconvertcontinuoustimesignaloftask#1toadiscretetimesignaland

takethesamplingfrequencyasinputwhichshouldbegreaterthantwicethemaximum

signalfrequencyinHertz.

Task#5: Write a script using subplot command to generate task #1, task#2, task#3 and task#4

plots.Analyzethefourplots,whathappenbyincreasingthesamplingfrequency?

Task#6:Considertheanalogsignal

( ) ) 100 cos( 3 t t x

a

=

(i) Determinetheminimumsamplingraterequiredtoavoidaliasing.

(ii) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs=200 Hz. What is the discrete

timesignalobtainedaftersampling?Plotthediscretetimesignal.

(iii) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs=75 Hz. What is the discrete

timesignalobtainedaftersampling?Plotthediscretetimesignal.

(iv) What is the frequency 0<F<Fs/2 of a sinusoid that yields samples identical to

thoseobtainedinpart(iii)?GiveyourobservationregardingAliasingeffect.

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