Flumarruzitg the

Narcissistic
Style
STEPHEN M.
JOHNSON,
Ph. D.
ffi
nxtl
wfly
W
.
W
.
NORTON & COMPANY
.
NEW YORK
.
LONDON
I NTRODUCTI ON
SouE op My BEST FRIENDS are narci ssi sts.
Much of my most
successful
and movi ng therapeuti c
work has been done wi th i ndi vi du-
al s who can most accuratel y be understood
by usi ng the concepts of
narci ssi sm.
But most of these fri ends and cl i ents are not most readi l y
recogni zed by thei r sel f-i nvol vement,
grandi osi ty,
pri de, enti tl ement'
mani pul ati veness,
etc., though these usual l y wel l -hi dden features of
thei r personal i ti es certai nl y do exi st.
They are not those very di s-
"g...rbl .,
sel f-centered,
often noncontri buti ng
ri p-off arti sts who
.o-. to mi nd when one thi nks of the narci ssi sti c character di sorder.
In the mai n, these
peopl e contri bute
a good deal to thei r fel l ow
human bei ngs, but they pay dearl y i n pai n and al i veness
for thei r
dri ven achi evements.
They are too busy
provi ng thei r worth-or
more properl y, di sprovi ng
thei r worrhl essness-to
feel
the l ove, ap-
preci ai i on, and
1oy
of human connectedness
whi ch thei r good works
Loul d potenri al l y sti mul are
i n themsel ves
and orhers. These peopl e
are not character di sordered.
They are peopl e tortured by narci ssi sti c
i nj ury and cri ppl ed by devel opmental
arresrs
i n functi oni ng whi ch
,.ot ,h.- of thsri chness
of l i fe they deserve. They are good peopl e,
contri buti ng
peopl e who are hurti ng - and often very badl y. They are
l i vi ng and sufferi n g rhe narci ssi sti c
styl e.
Thi s form of narci ssi sm
i s part and parcel of our l i fe-denyi ng
cul ture, whi ch pl aces accompl i shment
over pl easure' status over l ove'
appearance
over real i ty. It i s the endemi c
resul t of our cul ture' s mate-
,i ai perfecti oni sm.
It bri dl es a very si gni fi cant
proporti on of-our peo-
pl e and cri ppl es some of our most gi fted and gi vi ng i ndi vi dual s. Yet
while the iult.rt. reinforces it, its breeding
ground is the family.
Though Madi son Avenue pl ays on i ts exi stence
and fosters i ts devel -
opment, i ts roots are much deeper.
Indi vi dual s sufferi ns
from the narci ssi sti c styl e can be profoundl y
4
Humdnizing the Narcissistic Style
hel ped by those who trul y undersrand the underl yi ng psychi c
srruc-
ture of narci ssi sm and who possess
the human and techni cal ski l l s to
transform i t. vi th psychol ogi cal
rrearment whi ch i s abl e ro meer
them where they trul y are and gi ve
them what they trul y need,
they
can be brought to the experi ence of a real , emoti onal l y connected l i fe
i n whi ch thei r contri buti ons
to the rest of us are, i f anythi ng,
strengthened.
That i s not pedagogi cal psychoanal ysi s
or shorr-term
behavi oral
or cogni ti ve modi fi cati on
or superfi ci al scream therapy.
Rather, i t i s a therapy i nformed
by the deepest i nsi ghts
of psychoana-
l yti c theory and practi ce
and i ncorporati ng
acti ve as wel l as recepti ve
techni ques. These serve ro hel p the i ndi vi dual
both move
beyond
arrested devel opment
and work through emori onal i nj ury.
In a good deal of the l i terature,
the narci ssi sti c
characer di sorder,
as wel l as the narci ssi sti c
styl e, has been gi ven
a bum rap. Largel n
the
focus has been on those very di sagreeabl e
characteri sti cs
of the nar-
ci ssi sti cal l y di sordered person rarher than on rhe nature of hi s i nj ury,
the phenomenol ogy
of hi s pai n, and the fragi l i ty of hi s sel f. A focus
on these more phenomenol ogi cal
aspects of the narci ssi sti c
experi -
ence wi l l promote far more empathy and understandi ng,
an atti tude
whi ch must be the touchstone
of our therapeuti c approach
to al l
narci ssi sti c persons. In thi s book, I wi l l contrast the narci ssi sti c
char-
acter di sorder wi th the narci ssi sti c
styl e, focusi ng
on the si mi l ari ti es
and di fferences
al ong thi s conti nuum
of ego functi oni ng
and descri b-
i ng the essenti al el ements of the appropri ate
treatment for each.
I offer here an i ntegrated
psychoanal yti c
devel opmental
theory
whi ch provi des
the underpi nni ng for a synthesi s of therapeuti c tech-
ni ques to be used wi th the character di sorders and character
styl es. In
the fi rst book of thi s seri es, characterol ogi cal
' fi ansformati on:
Tbe
Hard' work
Mi racl e,I presented
thi s formul ati on for the psychol ogi -
cal probl ems
deri vi ng pri mari l y
from di ffi cul ti es i n human bondi ng
and attachment. The presenr vol ume deal s pri mari l y
wi th di sorderi
i n i ndi vi duati on
and the formari on
of sel f-the fai l ure of normal
narci ssi sm whi ch l eads to a pai nful l i fe of pathol ogi cal
narci ssi sm.
In thi s i ntegrated model , the presenti ng psychopathol ogy
i s under-
stood by appreci ati ng
the nature of the i nj ury on the one hand and
the nature of the arresr i n the devel opment
of ego and sel f on the
other. The nature of the i nj ury i s best el uci dated by more tradi ti onal
anal yti c understandi ngs, parti cul arl y
those offered by characer and
defense anal ysi s. The understandi ng of the devel opmenral
arresr
comes best from psychoanal yti c
devel opmenral psychol ogy,
whi ch I
Introducti on
5
use here as an umbrel l a l abel for obj ect rel ati ons, sel f, and ego psy-
chol ogy. Thi s uni f i ed
psychoanal yt i c t heory t hen provi des t he
groundwork for an i ntegrated treatment approach whi ch seeks to
heal the emoti onal i nj ury and work through to the maturati on of the
arrested ego.
Heal i ng the ori gi nal i nj ury, parti cul arl y i n i ts central pathol ogi cal
affects, often requi res the use of treatment
procedures whi ch empha-
si ze accessi ng and expressi ng these archai c and often catastrophi c
feel i ngs. Such techni ques range from cal m geneti c psychoanal yti c
i nterpretati ons to the more acti ve and often engagi ng i nterventi ons of
Gestal t and bi oenergeti c therapy. By contrast, therapeuti c procedures
ai med at remedyi ng the arrested devel opment of ego or sel f more
often rel y on expl anati on,
reconstructi on, and other supporti ve, cog-
ni ti ve, and behavi oral i nterventi ons, whi ch, whi l e they may certai nl y
access feel i ngs and produce frustrati on, do not rel y on unusual or
acti ve methods to del i beratel y do so.
It i s my posi ti on that devel opmental
psychoanal yti c psychol ogy
and character anal yti c approaches need to be i nformed by one anoth-
er. Each approach ri sks an overemphasi s on one si de of the eti ol ogi -
cal -treatment
pi cture. The perspecti ves of the devel opmental model
can l ead to an overemphasi s on expl anatory,
i nterpreti ve' and sup-
porti ve i nterventi ons, negl ecti ng the cruci al rol e of the awareness and
expressi on of pri mi ti ve affects. But the more affecti ve therapi es can
err i n the di recti on of overemphasi zi ng the i mportance of pri mi ti ve
emoti onal experi ence wi thout a ful l understandi ng of ego and sel f
devel opment, thereby mi ssi ng what i s not so much psychol ogi cal
defense as sef-preservi ng strategi es necessary to functi oni ng. Fi nal l y,
both of these
psychoanal yti c approaches can be greatl y enhanced
when i nformed by the nondepth psychol ogy strategi es whi ch come
from the cogni ti ve therapi es, behavi or
modi fi cati on, fami l y and sys-
tems therapy, strategi c therapy, neurol i ngui sti c
programmi ng, trans-
acti onal anal ysi s, Gestal t therapy, and others. What I am advocati ng
here i s not a hodge-podge ecl ecti ci sm.
Rather, thi s i s an i ntegrated
devel opmental theory and a synthesi s of treatment approaches ai med
at psychol ogi cal defi ci t and confl i ct resol uti on.
The i ntegrati on provi ded i n thi s book i s real l y at three l evel s' Fi rst,
i t represents an i ntegrati on of devel opmental
psychoanal yti c psychol -
ogy. Thi s i s the synthesi s of ego psychol ogy, obj ect rel ati ons, and sel f
psychol ogy. Thi s fi rst i ntegrati on i s the easi est because these three
school s share many si mi l ari ti es di fferi ng
mai nl y i n thei r poi nt of
6
Humdnizing tbe Narcissistic
Style
emphasi s. At thi s fi rst l evel , however, I hope to make a contri buti on
by di ssemi nati ng what I vi ew as i ncredi bl y i mportant materi al whi ch
i s very often i naccessi bl e to anyone but the most anal yti cal l y sophi sti -
cated reader. In both this work and Characterological Tiansforma-
ti on,I have endeavored to transl ate as wel l as i ntegrate the i nsi ghts of
devel opmental psychoanal yti c psychol ogy for those who mi ght not
otherwi se be exposed to thi s ri ch body of knowl edge.
The second l evel of i ntegrati on mai ntai ns a psychoanal yti c
base
but i ncorporates
the i nsi ghts of character and defense anal ysi s wi thi n
the more el aborate devel opmenral strucrure provi ded
by psychoana-
l yti c devel opmental psychol ogy. Here I hope ro parri cul arl y
serve
those who have taught me so much i n the area of character anal ysi s
and bi oenergeti c therapy by i ntegrati ng thi s i mporranr body of
knowl edge wi thi n the l arger theoreti cal conrext i n whi ch i t real l y
bel ongs. Rei chi an and bi oenergeri c therapi es real l y do nor need ro be
fri nge movements seen by tradi ti onal therapi sts of nearl y al l other
persuasi ons
as
j ust
one more "fl aky" fad of a l i berti ne cul ture. Rather,
character anal ysi s i s a branch of psychoanal ysi s
i ncorporati ng
ener-
geti c armori ng as apart of cl assi c defense anal ysi s-a central el ement
of tradi ti onal psychoanal yti c
theory. Indeed, wi thout thi s arm of
anal ysi s, the contemporary
emphasi s on devel opmental theory pul l s
i nexorabl y for a greater concentrati on
on theoreti cal and cogni ti ve
understandi ng of psychopathol ogy
ar rhe expense of the cri ti cal rol e
of pri mi ti ve affect i n determi ni ng psychopathol ogy
and i n effecti ng
i ts cure. Many of us i n the hi ghl y educated mental heal th professi ons
tend to gravi tate,
al most automati cal l y, to theoreti cal understandi ngs
and cogni ti ve (i .e.,
i nsi ght and expl anati on) i nrerventi ons,
for they
are safer than expl ori ng the dark caul drons of pri mi ti ve
emori on.
Even when we acknowl edge the cri ti cal rol es of sex, aggressi on, gri ef,
terror, etc., i t i s easi er to tal k about these feel i ngs rhan to
j ump
i n
among t hem.
I hope that the affeci ve therapi es
(e.g.,
Rei chi an, bi oenergeti c,
Gestal t, rebi rthi ng, etc.) wi l l persi st through conservati ve
ti mes be-
cause they are essenti al for keepi ng us i n the true human drama that
psychotherapy i s l argel y about. These therapi es are often necessary
for the very reasons they are resi sted. The restri cti ve, emoti on-deny-
i ng, l i fe-feari ng aspects of our domi nant
Judeo-Chri sti an
cul rure cre-
ate the very pathol ogi es that these affecti ve therapi es are desi gned to
remedy. They have been popul ar i n the expansi ve, experi mental , and
l ntroducti on
7
quesri oni ng peri ods of the pasr. Now they have l ost some of that
popul ari ty as the more reasonabl e and conservati ve forces i n our
i oci ety have become more domi nant. Our cul ture i s trendy.
But the
sci ence that i s psychotherapy must transcend trends and conti nue to
provi de a model for human growth whi ch i s both reasonabl e and yet
i rul y human. In thi s work, then, I hope to i ntegrate, l egi ti mi ze' and
contri bute to the repopul ari zati on
of these affecti ve or expressi ve
therapi es.
Thi s process i s easi est wi th Rei chi an and bi oenergeti c
ther-
,py b..rute the underl yi ng theory of character structure i s so sub-
stanti ve and compati bl e wi th the new psychoanal ysi s.
The thi rd l evel of i ntegrati on i nvol ves the synthesi s of vari ous ther-
apeuti c techni ques under thi s devel opmental -characterol ogi cal
um-
bi el l a, so that an ecl ecti c treatment approach
may be pursued wi th
rhe gui dance of a uni fi ed theory. I have endeavored
here to exempl i fy
the uti l i ty of thi s approach
- fi rst wi th a detai l ed practi cal descri pti on
of the confl i ct and defi ci t
probl ems of narci ssi sm, and second wi th a
theoreti cal l y consi stent set of therapeuti c
procedures whi ch may be
appl i ed to heal i t. In thi s thi rd l evel of i ntegrati on-psychotherapy
t echni que- l
am al so at t empt i ng t o appl y r i ch psychoanal yt i c con-
cepts to the more common once-a-week
therapeuti c hour'
\X/hen
the
pati ent i s seen onl y weekl y, the transference
wi thi n therapy
may be
i ess pervasi ve, bur the transference outsi de rherapy may be di fferen-
ti al l y more i mportanr. Addi ti onal l y,
where therapy i s l ess frequent
and probl ems of character styl e are i nvol ved, acti ve therapeuti c tech-
ni ques are often more appropri ate,
as the probl em tn these cases i s
more i n accessi ng and expressi ng
pri mi ti ve emoti ons than i n contai n-
i ng t hem.
In the devel opmental
model presenred here, characterol ogi cal
ad-
aptati ons represent achetypal
mani festati ons of core human i ssues.
For narci ssi sm, these archetypal i ssues are formed i n that cruci bl e
created when the i nfant begi ns to become
an i ndi vi dual , more auton-
omous and sel f-wi l l ed than the more passi ve and dependent suckl i ng'
As thi s i ndi vi duati on
process unfol ds, the chi l d requi res more free-
dom, more support for the devel opment of autonomous
functi ons,
greater permi ssi on to experi ence and react to the frustrati ons of l i fe,
but r,,,,i th appropri ate
l i mi ts attuned to hi s devel opmental
l evel . In
some ways, thi s i s the most di ffi cul t ti me for one ro be a good enough
parent i n that there are i nevi tabl e confl i cts,
both wi thi n the chi l d and
wi th the surroundi ng envi ronment.
Perhaps the most di ffi cul t
pol ari -
Humanizing the l,larcissistic Style
ti es of human exi stence are fi rst encountered at thi s ti me and, as a
consequence, somc of the most uni versal of human di l emmas are
often l eft chroni cal l y unresol ved.
The rapprochement ui th real i ty i s a most basi c task of human l i fe
fi rst encountered i n that subphase of i ndi vi duati on whi ch Mahl er
(1972)
has cal l ed rapprochement. Though i ni ti al l y thi s l abel was
used pri mari l y to hi ghl i ght the chi l d' s reemergi ng need to reconnect
wi th the mother after hi s stri ki ng i ndependence i n the pri or practi c-
i zg subphase of devel opment, the l abel has taken on a far more
profound and enduri ng meani ng for me. The rapprochement fi rst
cal l ed for by a mere 18-month-ol d chi l d i s real l y wi th some central
real i ti es of exi stence, i ncl udi ng uni ty versus separati on, dependence
versus i ndependence, grandi osi ty versus vul nerabi l i ty, the desi re to
control versus the need to be control l ed, l i mi tl essness versus real i sti c.
l i mi tati ons, etc. Many adul ts are sti l l havi ng temper tantrums, del u-
si ons, depressi ons, debi l i tati ng anxi eti es, perfecti oni sti c obsessi ons
and compul si ons, and other pai nful adaptati ons to the fai l ure to
real i ze thi s rapprochement wi th real i ty. Due to devel opmental arrest
duri ng thi s subphase of i ndi vi duati on, many of us are sti l l deal i ng
wi th these di l emmas wi th qui te l i mi ted and pri mi ti ve ego functi on-
i .rg.
Most i ndi vi dual s who suffer such di ffi cul ti es typi cal l y have l i ttl e i f
any understandi ng of what they are real l y deal i ng wi th as they begi n
psychotherapy. And they often possess l i ttl e i f any awareness of the
ways i n whi ch parental or other envi ronmental fi gures made thi s
rapprochement di ffi cul t or i mpossi bl e. The emoti ons of the unresol v-
ed rapprochement were usual l y too pai nful to sustai n, but they pro-
vi ded the powerful underl yi ng moti vati on for a characterol ogi cal ad-
aptati on
frozen
at a ti me of l i mi ted affecti ve, behavi oral , and
cogni ti ve resources. Through denyi ng the real i ti es of the sel f, the
fami l y, and the very i nsti nctual needs of the organi sm i tsel f, thi s
characterol ogi cal adaptati on has typi cal l y been supported, at l east i n
great measure, by the chi l d' s fami l y or i ts substi tute. Dri ven by the
unremi tti ng force of pai nful emoti on and supported by the surround-
i ng envi ronment, the characterol ogi cal adaptati on became securel y
fi xed. The emergi ng real sel f l i teral l y di d not have a chance.
The synthesi s of characterol ogi cal , obj ect rel ati ons, ego, and sel f
psychol ogy provi des the best avai l abl e map for current understandi ng
of thi s common human tragedy. The task of contemporary psycho-
Introducti on
therapy i s to devel op from thi s understandi ng
an envi ronment
i n
whi ch the real sel f may be recl ai med and the rapprochement wi th
real i ty achi eved.
one cenrral posi ti on set forth i n these vol umes i s that achi evi ng
these
goal s requi res an i ntegrati on of therapeuti c techni ques so as to
accompl i sh the bui l di ng of ego resources' the phenomenol ogy of a
sol i d sel f, and the resol uti on of i ntrapsychi c core emoti onal confl i cts
as requi red by cl assi cal psychoanal ysi s.
Thi s i nregrari ve, broad-spec-
trum approach to psychotherapy
requi res maxi mum fl exi bi l i ty i n
therapeuti c techni que.
It demands that the therapi st be comfortabl e
wi th the most acti ve of i nterventi ons characteri sti c of bi oenergeti c
anal ysi s, behavi or modi fi cati on' or neurol i ngui sti c programmi ng, on
the one hand, and equal l y adept at the most recepti ve si l ence of
psychoanal ysi s, whi ch respects the necessari l y creati ve
process of sel f-
discovern on the other.
Thi s approach
i ntegrates what, rn Cbaracterol ogi cal
Transforma-
ti on,Irefer to as the confl i ct model of human pathol ogy suggested by
tradi ti onal
psychoanal yti c theory wi th the defi ci t model contri buted
by the understandi ngs
of ego psychol ogy, obi ect rel ati ons, and sel f
psychol ogy. Thi s i ntegrati on al l ows one to consi stentl y empl oy ego
bui l di ng techni ques from cogni ti ve and behavi oral approaches
on the
one hand and confl i ct resol uti on techni ques
from psychoanal ysi s,
Gestal t therapy, and bi oenergeti cs on the other. Thi s vol ume
del i ne-
ates the possi bl e appl i cati ons of thi s mi xed model to the narci ssi sti c
character structure, whi ch devel ops out of fai l ures both i n i ndi vi dua-
ti on and i n the necessary rapprochement wi th real i ty.
In Chapter I, I have bri efl y sketched the enti re devel opmental -
characterol ogi cal
model , provi di ng a uni fi ed theory to i nform thera-
peuti c i nterventi on wi th the character di sorders and character styl es.
Though thi s book i s devoted to narci ssi sm, at l east some basi c under-
standi ng of the whol e model i s ne.cessary for effecti ve therapeuti c
operati on
i n any speci fi c case. Thi s i s so, i n part, because
pure narci s-
si sm, unaffected by other characterol ogi cal
i ssues, i s extremel y rare,
i f i t exi sts at al l . So, i t i s essenti al i n any gi ven case to be aware of the
other i nteracti ve characterol ogi cal
i ssues whi ch surround the narci s-
si sti c expressi on.
In a sense, al l characterol ogi cal
adaptati ons are
narci ssi si i c, i n that they are defensi ve compensati ons
to earl y i nj ury.
Understandi ng
each of the basi c types of i nj ury and the characterol o-
gi cal adaptati ons
whi ch they typi cal l y create i s necessary for di fferen-
10 Humani zi ng the I' l arci ssi sti c Styl e
ti al di agnosi s and treatment. In addi ti on, thi s overal l devel opmental
vi ew assi sts the therapi st i n determi ni ng the i ndi vi dual ' s resources, as
wel l as hi s defi ci ts. To do psychotherapy from the poi nt of vi ew of
psychoanal yti c devel opmental psychopathol ogy, i t i s necessary to op-
erate from an understandi ng of the enti re devel opmental -charactero-
l ogi cal model .
In thi s fi rst chapter, as i n al l that fol l ows, I have rel i ed more heav-
i l y than i n my pri or rvork on the i nsi ghts of Hei nz Kohut. Kohut' s
perspecti ve i s parti cul arl y useful when approachi ng the phenomeno-
Iogi cal understandi ng of the devel opment of sel f - so cri ti cal i n un-
derst andi ng narci ssi sm. I n addi t i on, t hi s more i nt ernal , phenomeno-
l ogi cal approach assi sts us i n understandi ng the experi ence of the
narci ssi st i c cl i ent and hel ps us humani ze our approach t o hi m.
In Chapter II, I descri be the narci ssi sti c character structure. As i n
Cbaracterol ogi cal Transformati on, the narci ssi sti c condi ti ons are di s-
cussed empl oyi ng the fol l owi ng outl i ne:
o
Et i ol ogy
o
Af f ect , behavi or, cogni t i on
o
Energet i c expressi on
o
Therapeuti c obj ecti ves
o
Therapeuti c techni ques
Thus, i n Chapter II, the archetypal eti ol ogi cal pi cture deri ved from
character anal ysi s, obj ect rel ati ons, ego, and sel f psychol ogy i s pre-
sented i n detai l . Thi s i s fol l owed by a descri pti on of the archetypal
presentati on of character as demonstrated i n the i ndi vi dual ' s appar-
ent and l atent affect, characteri sti c behavi ors, and characteri sti c atti -
tudes, bel i efs, and defenses. Fol l owi ng thi s, the i nsi ghts of the bi oen-
ergeti c therapi sts are used i n a di scussi on of the energeti c armori ng
characteri sti c of narci ssi sm. Fol l owi ng thi s descri pti on, an outl i ne of
therapeuti c obj ecti ves i s offered. Fi nal l y, the greater substance of the
book i s devoted to the psychotherapy appropri ate to narci ssi sm.
Relative to Characterological Transformation, however, this book
i s l ess a basi c text; i t assumes more practi cal knowl edge of psycho-
therapy and i s l ess expl i ci tl y techni que ori ented. Here I present mod-
el s of human pathol ogy and formul as for therapeuti c techni que.
However, I want
you to know that I know that these models and
formul as are onl y that-maps of the terri tory to be understood, not
Introducti on
11
the terri tory i tsel f. Whi l e they may gui de the l argel y i mprovi sati onal
i nteracti on of psychotherapy, they fai l to ful l y capture the essenti al l y
arti sti c form that i s the therapeuti c
process. It i s rny i ntent to free up,
rather than to constrai n, our understandi ng and practi ce of psycho-
therapy, so that more and more \^/e are l i mi ted onl y by the real i ty of
what our cl i ents can use and l ess and l ess by the i nherent constral nts
of our model s.
The materi al on treatment techni que i s organi zed around the
tri adi c presentati on of sel f shown by the narci ssi sti c person. Chapter
III di scusses therapeuti c responses to the syfttptomati c sel f
,
whi ch
i ncl udes depressi ve, somati c, and cogni ti vel y di sordered symptoma-
tol ogy. Chapter IV i s devoted to treati ng the mobi l i zati on of the
narci ssi sti c defenses-the fal se sel f. Chapter V el uci dates the treat-
ment of the emoti ons and demands of the archai c real sel f functi on-
i ng i n t he mat ur i ng pat i ent .
Chapters VI and VII i l l ustrate, through transcri pts of recorded
sessi ons, the group and i ndi vi dual therapy of narci ssi sti c
pati ents.
These extended case reports present an i ntegrati on of group and
i ndi vi dual treatment modal i ti es i n two cases-one exempl i fyi ng the
narci ssi sti c styl e and the other the narci ssi sti c character di sorder. For
me, rhi s i s the ri chest part of the book because i t gi ves a moment-to-
moment account of a dramati c process that otherwi se can onl y be
conceptual i zed.
Further, the chapters are l argel ,v wri tten b.v those
peopl e I menti oned at the outset-my
narci ssi sti c cl i ents rvho have
gi ven to one another and to me so freel y, who have shared thei r pai n
so openl y, and who i n that process have found thei r l ong-l osr sel ves.
Chapter VIII addresses the i ssue of transformati on.
I now know
that the transformati on
of narci ssi sm i s possi bl e through a usual l y
l ong and often pai nful process of psychotherapy empl oyi ng
the mi xed
model of confl i ct resol uti on and defi ci t
repai r. Is thi s
possi bl e rvi th
l ess pai n and i n l ess t i me? Or i s t he promi se of t hat si mpl y t he
narci ssi sti cal l y
moti vated, sel f-servi ng
del usi on of a few con arti sts?
These are good questi ons better consi dered at the cl ose of the w' ork
you wi l l be doi ng by engagi ng,
not
j ust
readi ng, thi s book.

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