1. Inferior deities or demigods in polytheistic religion 2. The philosophical consideration of pure intelligences, spiritual substances, suprahuman persons 2a. The celestial motors or secondary prime movers: the intelligences attached to the celestial bodies 2b. Our knowledge of immaterial beings 3. The conception of angels in Judeo-Christian doctrine 3a. The first creatures of God: their place in the order of creation 3b. The angelic nature 3c. The aeviternity and incorruptibility of angels 3d. The angelic intellect and angelic knowledge 3e The angelic will and angelic love 3f. Angelic action: its characteristics in general 3g. The angelic hierarchy: the inequality, order, and number of the angels and their relation to one another 4. Comparison of angels with men and with disembodied souls: their relation to the blessed in the heavenly choir 5. The distinction and comparison of the good and the bad angels 5a. The origin of the division between angels and demons: the sin of Lucifer or Satan 5b. The society of the demons: the rule of Satan over the powers of darkness 6. The role of the angels in the government of the universe 6a. The ministry of the good angels in the affairs of men: guardianship 6b. The intervention of the demons in the affairs of men: temptation, possession 7. God and Satan 7a. Warfare between the powers of light and darkness: their struggle for dominion over man 7b. Lucifer in the service of God 8. Criticism and satire with respect to the belief in angels and demons

1. General theories about the animal nature 1a. Characteristics of animal life: the animal soul (1) Animal sensitivity: its degrees and differentiations (2) Animal memory, imagination, and intelligence (3) Animal appetite: desire and emotion in animals (4) Locomotion: degrees of animal motility (5) Sleeping and waking in animals 1b. The distinction between plants and animals in faculty and function: cases difficult to classify 1c. The distinction between animal and human nature (1) Comparison of brutes and men as animals (2) Comparison of animal with human intelligence 1d. The habits or instincts of animals: specifically animal behavior 1e. The conception of the animal as a machine or automaton 2. The classification of animals 2a. General schemes of classification: their principles and major divisions 2b. Analogies of structure and function among different classes of animals 2c. Continuity and discontinuity in the scale of animal life: gradation from lower to higher forms 3. The anatomy of animals 3a. Physical elements of the animal body: cellular structure and the formation of tissue 3b. The skeletal structure 3 c. The visceral organs 3d. The utility or adaptation of bodily structures 4. Animal movement 4a. Comparison of animal movement with other kinds of local motion 4b. The cause of animal movement: voluntary and involuntary movements 4c. The organs, mechanisms, and characteristics of locomotion 5. Local motion within the animal body 5a. The ducts, channels, and conduits involved in interior bodily motions 5b. The circulatory system: the motions of the heart, blood, and lymph 5c. The glandular system: the glands of internal and external secretion 5d. The respiratory system: breathing, lungs, gills 5e. The alimentary system: the motions of the digestive organs in the nutritive process 5f. The excretory system: the motions of elimination 5g. The brain and nervous system: the excitation and conduction of nervous impulses 6. Animal nutrition 6a. The nature of the nutriment 6b. The process of nutrition: ingestion, digestion, assimilation 7. Animal growth or augmentation: its nature, causes, and limits



8. The generation of animals 8a. The origin of animals: creation or evolution 8b. Diverse theories of animal generation: procreation and spontaneous generation 8c. Modes of animal reproduction: sexual and asexual (1) Sexual differentiation: its origins and determinations; primary and secondary characteristics (2) The reproductive organs: their differences in different classes of animals (3) The reproductive cells and secretions: semen and catamenia, sperm and egg (4) The mating of animals: pairing and copulation; the breeding of new varieties (5) Factors affecting fertility and sterility 8d. Comparison of human with animal reproduction 9. The development of the embryo: birth and infancy 9a. Oviparous and viviparous development 9b. The nourishment of the embryo or foetus 9c. The process of embryogeny: meiosis, fertilization, and mitosis; the stages of foetal growth 9d. Multiple pregnancy: superfoetation 9e The period of gestation: parturition, delivery, birth 9f. The care and feeding of infant offspring: lactation 9g. Characteristics of the offspring at birth 10. Heredity and environment: the genetic determination of individual differences and similarities; RNA, DNA, genes, chromosomes, cistrons 11. The habitat of animals 11a. The geographical distribution of animals: their natural habitats 11b. The relation between animals and their environments 12. The treatment of animals by men 12a. The taming of animals: domestic breeds 12b. The use and abuse of animals 12c Friendship or love between animals and men 13. The attribution of human qualities or virtues to animals: personification in allegory and satire; the transformation of humans into animals

III. Aristocracy
1. The general theory and evaluation of aristocracy 1a.Aristocracy as a good form of government 1b.Criticisms of aristocracy as unrealizable or unjust 2. The relation of aristocracy to other forms of government 2a.Aristocracy and monarchy 2b.Aristocracy and constitutional government: the polity or mixed constitution 2c.Aristocracy and democracy 2d.Aristocracy and oligarchy 2e.Aristocracy and tyranny 3. The causes of degeneration or instability in aristocracies: aristocracy and revolution 4. Aristocracy and the issue of rule by men as opposed to rule by law 5. The training of those fitted for rule: aristocratic theories of education 6. The selection of the best men for public office: the aristocratic theory of representation modern constitutional government 7. Historic and poetic exemplifications of aristocracy

1. The generic notion of art: skill of mind in making 2. Art and nature 2a. Causation in art and nature: artistic production compared with natural generation 2b. The role of matter and form in artistic and natural production: beauty versus utility 2c. The natural and the artificial as respectively the work of God and man 3. Art as imitation 4. Diverse classifications of the arts: useful and fine, liberal and servile 5. The sources of art in experience, imagination, and inspiration 6. Art and science 6a. The comparison and distinction of art and science 6b. The liberal arts as productive of science: means and methods of achieving knowledge 6c. Art as the application of science: the productive powers of knowledge 7. The enjoyment of the fine arts 7a. Art as a source of pleasure or delight 7b. The judgment of excellence in art 8. Art and emotion: expression, purgation, sublimation 9. The useful arts

IV. Art

9a. The use of nature by art: agriculture, medicine, teaching 9b. The production of wealth: the industrial arts 9c. The arts of war 9d. The arts of government 10. The moral and political significance of the arts 10a. The influence of the arts on character and citizenship: the role of the arts in the training of youth 10b. The regulation of the arts by the state or by religion: the problem of censorship 11. Myths and theories concerning the origin of the arts 12. The history of the arts: progress in art as measuring stages of civilization


Astronomy and Cosmology

1. Astronomy as the study of the solar system and the empyrean: its dignity and utility 2. The method of astronomy 2a. Observation and measurement: instruments and tables 2b. The use of hypotheses: the heliocentric and geocentric theories 2c. The relation of astronomy to mathematics: the use of mathematics by astronomy 3. Causes in astronomy 3a. Formal archetypal causes: the number and the music of the spheres 3b. Physical efficient causes: gravitation and action-at-a-distance 4. Astronomy, cosmology, and theology: astronomy as affecting views of God, creation, the divine plan, and the moral hierarchy 5. Astronomy, cosmology, and the measurement of time 6. The solar system and the Milky Way 6a. The special character of matter in the supra-lunar spheres 6b. Soul and intellect in the heavenly bodies 6c. Celestial motion: periodicity and the great year (1) The eternity of celestial motion (2) The form of celestial motion: circles, the equant, ellipses (3) The laws of celestial motion: celestial mechanics 6d. The creation of the heavens 7. The particular heavenly bodies in the solar system and the Milky Way 7a. The sun: its position, distance, size, and mass 7b. The moon: its irregularities 7c. The planets: their eccentricities, retrogradations, and stations 7d. The earth: its origin, position, shape, and motions 7e. The fixed stars: the precession of the equinoxes 7f. The comets and meteors 8. The influence of the heavenly bodies upon terrestrial phenomena 8a. The influence of the heavenly bodies on living matter: generation and corruption 8b. The influence of the heavenly bodies on the tides 9. The influence of the stars and planets upon the character and actions of men 10. The worship of the earth, sun, moon, and stars 11. Astronomy as the study of the universe as a whole: cosmology 11a. The special methods of cosmology 11b. Cosmological theories concerning the origins and evolution of the universe 11c. The size, extent, and expansion of the universe: the receding galaxies; the universe as finite or infinite 11d. The principal components of the universe: galaxies and nebulas 12. The relation of astronomy to the other liberal arts and sciences: the place of astronomy in the educational curriculum 13. The history of astronomy

VI. Beauty
1. The general theory of the beautiful 1a. The beautiful and the good: beauty as a kind of fitness or order 1b. Beauty and truth: the beautiful as an object of contemplation or adoration 1c. The elements of beauty: unity, proportion, clarity 1d. The distinction between the beautiful and the sublime 2. Beauty in nature and in art 3. Beauty in relation to desire and love, as object or cause 4. Beauty and ugliness in relation to pleasure and pain or good and evil 5. Judgments of beauty: the objective and the subjective in aesthetic judgments or judgments of taste; judgments of style or fashion based on wealth or honor 6. The role of the beautiful in education 7. Intelligible beauty 7a. The beauty of God 7b. The beauty of the universe 7c. Beauty in the order of ideas 7d. Beauty in the moral order

1. Diverse conceptions of being and nonbeing: being as a term or concept; the meanings of is and is not; nothingness 2. Being and the one and the many 2a. Infinite being and the plurality of finite beings 2b. The unity of a being 3. Being and good 3a. The hierarchy of being: grades of reality, degrees of intelligibility 3b. Being as the object of love and desire 4. Being and truth 4a. Being as the pervasive object of mind, and the formal object of the first philosophy, metaphysics, or dialectic 4b. Being as the measure of truth in judgments of the mind: clarity and distinctness as criteria of the reality of an idea 5. Being and becoming: the reality of change; the nature of mutable being 6. The cause of existence 7. The divisions or modes of being 7a. The distinction between essence and existence: existence as the act of being 7b. The distinction between substance and attribute, accident or modification: independent and dependent being (1) The conceptions of substance (2) Corporeal and spiritual substances, composite and simple substances: the kinds of substance in relation to matter and form (3) Corruptible and incorruptible substances (4) Extension and thought as dependent substances or as attributes of infinite substance (5) Substance as subject to change and to different kinds of change: the role of accidents or modifications (6) The nature and kinds of accidents or modifications 7c. The distinction between potentiality and actuality: possible and actual being (1) The order of potentiality and actuality (2) Types of potency and degrees of actuality (3) Potentiality and actuality in relation to matter and form 7d. The distinction between real and ideal being, or between natural being and being in mind (1) The being of the possible (2) The being of ideas, universals, rights (3) The being of mathematical objects (4) The being of relations (5) The being of fictions and negations 7c The distinction between appearance and reality, between the sensible and supra-sensible, between the phenomenal and noumenal orders 8. Being and knowledge 8a. Being and becoming in relation to sense: perception and imagination 8b. Being and becoming in relation to intellect: abstraction and intuition 8c. Essence or substance as the object of definition: real and nominal essences 8d. The role of essence in demonstration: the use of essence, property, and accident in inference 8e. The accidental in relation to science and definition 8f. Judgments and demonstrations of existence: their sources and validity

VII. Being



1. The general theory of causation 1a. The kinds of causes: their distinction and enumeration 1b. The order of causes: the relation of cause and effect 2. Comparison of causes in animate and inanimate nature 3. Causality and freedom 4. The analysis of means and ends in the practical order 5. Cause in relation to knowledge 5a. Cause as the object of our inquiries 5b. Cause in philosophical and scientific method: the role of causes in definition, demonstration, experiment, hypothesis 5c. The nature and sources of our knowledge of causes 5d. The limits of our knowledge of causes 6. The existence and operation of final causes 7. The causality of God or the gods 7a. Divine causality in the origin and existence of the world: creation and conservation 7b. Divine causality in the order of nature or change: the first cause in relation to all other causes 7c. Divine causality in the government of the universe: providence and free will 7d. Divine causality in the supernatural order: grace, miracles 8. The operation of causes in the process of history

IX. Chance

1. The conception of chance 1a. Chance as the coincidence of causes 1b. Chance as the absolutely fortuitous, the spontaneous or uncaused 2. The issue concerning the existence of chance or fortune 2a. The relation of chance to causality: philosophical or scientific determinism 2b. The relation of chance to fate, providence, and predestination 3. Chance, necessity, and design or purpose in the origin and structure of the world: probability functions in quantum mechanics 4. Cause and chance in relation to knowledge and opinion: the theory of probability 5. The control of chance or contingency by art 6. Chance and fortune in human affairs: the mythology of Fortune 6a. Chance and fortune in the life of the individual: gambling and games of chance 6b. Chance and fortune in politics and history

1. The nature and reality of change or motion 2. The unchanging principles of change 2a. The constituents of the changing thing 2b. The factor of opposites or contraries in change 3. Cause and effect in motion: the relation of mover and moved, or action and passion 4. Motion and rest: contrary motions 5. The measure of motion 5a. Time or duration as the measure of motion 5b. The divisibility and continuity of motion 6. The kinds of change 6a. The reducibility of all modes of motion to one kind of change 6b. The primacy of local motion 6c. Comparison of change in living and nonliving things 6d. Comparison of the motions of matter with changes in the order of mind 7. The analysis of local motion 7a. Space, place, and void 7b. Natural and violent motion 7c. Kinds of local motion (1) Rectilinear and rotary or circular motion (2) Uniform or variable motion (3) Absolute or relative motion (4) Terrestrial and celestial motion 7d. The properties of variable motion: the laws of motion 8. Change of size 8a. The increase and decrease of inanimate bodies 8b. Growth in living organisms 9. Change of quality 9a. Physical and chemical change: compounds and mixtures 9b. Biological change: vital alterations 10. Substantial change: generation and corruption 10a. Substantial change in the realm of bodies: the transmutation of the elements 10b. Plant, animal, and human reproduction 10c. The corruptibility or incorruptibility of atoms, the heavenly bodies, and spiritual substances 11. The apprehension of change: by sense, by reason 12. Emotional aspect of change 12a. Rest and motion in relation to pleasure and pain 12b. The love and hatred of change and the unchanging 13. The problem of the eternity of motion or change 14. The theory of the prime mover: the order and hierarchy of movers and moved 15. The immutable 15a. The immutability of the objects of thought: the realm of truth 15b. The unalterability of the decrees of fate 15c. The immutability of God



1. The individual in relation to the state 2. The conception of citizenship 2a. The status or office of citizenship in relation to the principle of constitutional government 2b. The distinction between citizen and subject: the distinction between the subjects of a constitutional monarchy and of a despotism

XI. Change

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

2c. The character and extent of citizenship under different types of constitutions The qualifications for citizenship: extent of suffrage The rights, duties, privileges, and immunities of citizenship The virtues of the citizen and the virtues of the good man Education for citizenship Political citizenship and membership in the city of God The idea of world citizenship: the political brotherhood of man Historical episodes and stages in the struggle for citizenship

1. The difference between government by law and government by men: the nature of constitutional government 2. The notion of a constitution 2a. The constitution as the form or organization of a political community: arrangement offices; division of functions 2b. The constitution as the fundamental law: its relation to other laws, as a source or measure of legality or justice; judicial review 2c. The Constitution of the United States as the first federal constitution: its antecede 3. The relation of constitutional government to other forms of government 3a. The combination of constitutional with absolute government: the mixed regime; constitutional or limited monarchy 3b. The merits of constitutional government compared with royal government and the mixed regime 4. The constitutional conception of political office: the qualifications and duties of public officials 5. The diversity of constitutions among the forms of government 5a. The justice of different constitutions: the extent and character of citizenship under each 5b. The mixed constitution: its advantages 6. The origin of constitutions: the lawgiver, the social contract, the constituent assembly 7. The preservation of constitutions: factors tending toward their dissolution 7a. The relative stability of different types of constitutions 7b. The safeguards of constitutional government: bills of rights; separation of powers; impeachment 8. The change of constitutions 8a. Methods of changing a constitution: revolution, amendment 8b. The violation and overthrow of constitutional government 9. The theory of representation 9a. The functions and duties of representatives: their relation to their constituents 9b. Types of representation: diverse methods of selecting representatives 10. The origin, growth, and vicissitudes of constitutional government

XII. Constitution

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The The The The The The The


nature of courage vices opposed to courage: cowardice, foolhardiness passions in the sphere of courage: fear, daring, anger, hope, despair relation and comparison of courage with other virtues motivations of courage: fame or honor, happiness, love, duty, religious faith formation or training of the courageous man political or civic significance of courage 7a. The courage required of citizens and statesmen: the political recognition of courage 7b. Courage in relation to law and liberty 7c. Courage in war

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The distinction between nature and convention: its application to the origin of the state and of language The origin, development, and transmission of customs The conflict of customs: their variation from place to place The change of customs: their variation from time to time Custom and convention in the moral order 5a. The conventional determination of moral judgments: the moral evaluation of conventions 5b. The effect of custom on the training and character of men 6. Custom in relation to law 6a. Constitutions, social contracts, positive laws, and manners as conventions 6b. The force of custom with respect to law 7. Custom in social life 7a. Custom as unifying a community: conformity in manners and etiquette 7b. Custom as a barrier between communities 7c. Custom as determining economic needs or standards 7d. The influence of custom on the liberty of the individual: the force of discipline 8. Custom in relation to order and progress: the factors of tradition and invention

XIV. Custom and Convention

9. The bearing of custom on thought 9a. Custom as a source of opinion and belief: its influence on judgments of beauty 9b. The conventionality of truth: postulation, choice among hypotheses

XV. Definition
1. The theory of definition 1a. The object of definition: definitions as arbitrary and nominal or real and concerned with essence 1b. The purpose of definition: the clarification of ideas 1c. The limits of definition: the definable and the indefinable 1d. The unity of a definition in relation to the unity of the thing defined 1e. The truth and falsity of definitions 2. The various methods of definition or classification 2a. The use of division or dichotomy in definition 2b. Definition by genus and differentia: properties 2c. Definition by accidental or extrinsic signs or by component parts: ostensive definition 2d. The appeal to genesis, origin, cause, or end in definition: genetic or genealogical definitions 2e. Definition by reference to purpose or interest 3. The grammatical or verbal aspects of definition 4. The search for definitions and the methods of defending them 5. Definition and demonstration: definitions as principles and as conclusions 6. The character of definitions in diverse disciplines 6a. The role of definitions in physics, mathematics, and metaphysics 6b. The use of definition in speculative philosophy and empirical science 6c. The role of definitions in practical or moral philosophy and the social sciences

XVI. Democracy
1. Conceptions of democracy: the comparison of democracy with other forms of government 2. The derogation of democracy: the anarchic tendency of freedom and equality 2a. The tyranny of the majority: lawless mob rule 2b. The incompetence of the people and the need for leadership: the superiority of monarchy and aristocracy; the rise of the demagogue 3. The acceptance of democracy as one of several good forms of government 3a. Comparison of democratic and oligarchic justice: the mixed constitution as a compromise between the interests of the poor and rich 3b. Comparison of the political wisdom of the many and the few: the mixed regime as including both 3c. Comparison of democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy with respect to efficiency 4. The praise of democracy: the ideal state 4a. Liberty and equality for all under law (1) Universal suffrage: the abolition of privileged classes (2) The problem of economic justice: the choice between capitalism and socialism 4b. The democratic realization of popular sovereignty: the safeguarding of natural rights 4c. The infirmities of democracy in practice and the reforms or remedies for these defects 4d. The suitability of democratic constitutions to all men under all circumstances: conditions favorable to democracy; progress toward democracy 5. Democracy and representative government 5a. The distinction between direct democracy and representative, or republican, government: the territorial limits of democracy 5b. The theory of representation (1) Majority rule and minority or proportional representation (2) Ultimate limitations on the franchise (3) Methods of election and voting (4) The role of political parties: factions 5c. The distribution of functions and powers: checks and balances in representative democracy; the uses of patronage 6. The educational task of democracy: the training of all citizens 7. The growth and vicissitudes of democracy: factors supporting its growth 7a. Demagoguery and the danger of revolution 7b. The dangers of imperialism: the treatment of dependencies 7c. The challenge of war and peace: the citizen army 8. Equality of conditions as the essence of a democratic society: its effect upon the character of the people and its institutions

XVII. Desire
1. Desire and the order of change: eros and telos 2. The analysis of desire or appetite 2a. The roots of desire in need, privation, or potency: the instinctual sources of the libido






2b. The objects of desire: the good and the pleasant 2c. Desire as a cause of action: motivation, purpose, ambition; voluntariness 2d. The satisfaction of desire: possession and enjoyment ) The modes of desire or appetite 3a. Natural appetite: desires determined by nature or instinct 3b. Desires determined by knowledge or judgment (1) The distinction between sensitive and rational desire: emotional tendencies and acts of the will (2) Conscious and unconscious desires: habitual desire 3c. Desire and love: their distinction and connection 3d. Desire and aversion as emotional opposites The economy of desire in human life 4a. The conflict of desires with one another 4b. The attachment of desires: fixations, projections, identifications, transferences 4c. The focusing of desires: emotional complexes 4d. The discharge of desires: catharsis and sublimation Desire as ruler 5a. Desire ruling imagination: daydreaming and fantasy 5b. Desire ruling thought: rationalization and wishful thinking 5c. Desire ruling action: the unchecked expression of desires; incontinence Desire as subject to rule 6a. The regulation of desire by reason: the discipline of moral virtue or duty 6b. The restraint or renunciation of desire: abstention, inhibition, repression 6c. The results of repression: dreaming, symbolic overreactions, neuroses Desire and infinity 7a. The infinite tendency of desires (1) The pursuit of pleasure (2) The lust for power (3) The accumulation of wealth 7b. The restless search for the infinite: the desire for the vision of God

XVIII. Dialectic
1. Definitions of dialectic 2. Diverse theories of dialectic 2a. Dialectic as the pursuit of truth and the contemplation of being (1) The ascent from appearance to reality, or from opinion to knowledge: the upward and downward paths of dialectic (2) Definition, division, hypothesis, and myth in the service of dialectic 2b. Dialectic as the method of inquiry, argument, and criticism in the sphere of opinion (1) Divisions of dialectic: the theory of the predicables (2) The technique of question and answer 2c. Dialectic as the logic of semblance and as the critique of the illusory employment of reason beyond experience (1) The division of logic into analytic and dialectic: the distinction between general and transcendental dialectic (2) The natural dialectic of human reason: the resolution of antinomies 2d. Dialectic as the evolution of spirit or matter (1) The distinction between subjective and objective dialectic: the realization of the moral will; the paradoxes of faith (2) The dialectic of nature and of history: the actualization of freedom 3. Types of dialectical opposition 3a. The opposition between being and becoming, the one and the many, the same and the other 3b. The opposed premises of dialectical argument: dialectical problems and theses; the conflict of probabilities 3c. The opposed conclusions of dialectical reasoning: the antinomies and paralogisms of a transcendental dialectic 3d. Thesis and antithesis as moments in the advance toward a dialectical synthesis I 4. Dialectic in relation to philosophy and science, religion and culture 5. The spheres of dialectic and rhetoric: proof and persuasion 6. The evaluation of dialectic: the line between dialectic and sophistry

1. 2. 3. 4.

The concept of duty or obligation: its moral significance Comparison of the ethics of duty with the ethics of happiness, pleasure, or utility The divisions of duty: internal and external duty; the realms of ethics and jurisprudence The sense of duty 4a. The moral and social development of conscience: its dictates 4b. The emotional development of conscience: its morbid manifestations 5. The derivation of duty from divine, natural, and civil law, and from the categorical imperative of reason

XIX. Duty

6. Conflicts between duties of diverse origins 7. The relation of duty to justice and to rights: oaths and promises 8. The tension between duty and instinct, desire, or love 9. The duties of command and obedience in family life 10. Political obligation: cares, functions, loyalties 11. Duty to God: piety and worship

1. The means and ends of education 1a. The ideal of the educated person 1b. The education of women 1c. The disadvantages of being educated 2. The kinds of education: physical, moral, liberal, professional, religious 3. The training of the body and the cultivation of bodily skills: gymnastics, manual work 4. The formation of a good character, virtue, a right will: the cultivation of aesthetic taste 4a. The possibility and limits of moral education: knowledge and virtue 4b. The influence of the family in moral training 4c. The role of the state in moral education: law, custom, public opinion 4d. The effect upon character of poetry, music, and other arts: the role of history and examples 5. The improvement of the mind by teaching and learning 5a. The profession of teaching: the relation of teacher and student 5b. The means and methods of teaching 5c. The nature of learning: its several modes 3d. The order of learning: the organization of the curriculum 5c The emotional aspect of learning: pleasure, desire, interest 5f. Learning apart from teachers and books: the role of experience 6. The acquisition of techniques: preparation for the vocations, arts, and professions 7. Religious education 7a. God as teacher: divine revelation and inspiration 7b. The teaching function of the church, of priests and prophets 8. Education and the state 8a. The educational responsibility of the family and the state 8b. The economic support of educational institutions 8c. The political regulation and censorship of education 8d. The training of the prince, the statesman, the citizen, the proletariat: aristocratic and democratic theories of education 9. Historical and biographical observations concerning the institutions and practices of education

XX. Education

XXI. Element
1. The concept of element 2. The comparison of element, principle, and cause 3. The theory of the elements in natural philosophy, physics, and chemistry 3a. Element and atom: qualitative and quantitative indivisibility 3b. The enumeration of the elements: their properties and order 3c. The mutability or transmutation of the elements: radioactive decay 3d. Combinations of the elements: compounds and mixtures 4. The discovery of elements in other arts and sciences 5. The conception of atoms as indivisible, imperceptible, and indestructible 5a. Arguments for and against the existence of atoms: the issue concerning the infinite divisibility of matter 5b. Atoms and the void as the ultimate constituents of reality 5c. The number, variety, and properties of atoms: the production of sensible things by their collocation 5d. The atomistic account of sensation and thought: the idola 5c The atomic constitution of mind and soul: its bearing on immortality 5f. The explanation of natural phenomena by reference to the properties and motions of atoms 5g. The atomistic account of the origin and decay of the world, its evolution and order 6. The conception of atoms as divisible, detectable but not perceptible, and composed of elementary particles: theories of atomic structure; the properties of subatomic particles

1. The nature and causes of the emotions or passions 1a. Emotion in relation to feelings of pleasure and pain 1b. Bodily changes during emotional excitement 1c. Instinctive emotional reactions in animals and men 2. The classification and enumeration of the emotions 2a. Definitions of particular passions

XXII. Emotion

2b. The order and connection of the passions 2c. The opposition of particular emotions to one another 2d. Dread and despair: the courage of faith 3. The disorder or pathology of the passions 3a. Madness or frenzy due to emotional excess: excessively emotional or emotionally determined behavior 3b. Rationalization or the emotional determination of thought 3c. Particular emotional disorders: psychoneuroses due to repression (1) Hysterias (2) Obsessions and compulsions (3) Phobias and anxieties (4) Traumas and traumatic neuroses 3d The alleviation and cure of emotional disorders 4. The moral consideration of the passions 4a The conflict between reason and emotion (1) The force of the passions (2) The strength of reason or will 4b. The treatment of the emotions by or for the sake of reason (1) Moderation of the passions by reason: virtue, continence, avoidance of sin (2) Attenuation and atrophy of the passions: the liberation of reason 4c. Inherited or acquired emotional dispositions: the moral significance of temperamental types; emotional torpor or lethargy 5. The passions in society, politics, and history 5a. The causes of political association: fear or need 5b. The acquisition and retention of power: love or fear 5c. The coercive force of law: fear of punishment 3d. The devices of oratory: emotional persuasion 5e. The regulation of art for the sake of training the passions

XXIII. Eternity
1. Eternity as timelessness and immutability or as endless and infinite time: the distinction between eternity and time 1a. The priority of eternity to time 1b. Aeviternity as intermediate between eternity and time 2. The issue concerning the infinity of time and the eternity of the world or of motion 3. The eternity of God 4. The things which partake of eternity 4a. The imperishability of angels, spiritual substances, souls 4b. The imperishable in the physical order: matter, atoms, celestial bodies 4c. The immutability of truth and ideas 4d. The eternity of Heaven and Hell: everlasting life and death 5. The knowledge and imagery of eternity

XXIV. Evolution
1. The classification of animals 1a. Comparison of genealogical classification with other types of taxonomy: the phylogenetic series 1b. The criteria for distinguishing races or varieties, species, genera, and all higher tax-onomic groupings 2. The mechanisms of evolution: the science of genetics 2a. Theories of heredity: the structure and function of DNA; the existence of genes; chromosomes as the carriers of genes 2b. The process of heredity (1) The inheritance of acquired characteristics: the use and disuse of parts (2) The inheritance and variability of instincts (3) Interbreeding and crossbreeding: hybridism and sterility; polyploidy (4) Atavisms and reversions to ancestral type 2c. The sources of organic diversity: mutations (1) The nature and causes of mutations: changes in gene structure and their occurrence under natural and artificial conditions (2) The frequency of mutations: marked and abrupt mutations in a single generation as opposed to the continuous accumulation of slight and imperceptible variations 2d. Genetic variation in the course of generations: the genetics of populations (1) Comparison of variation under conditions of natural and artificial breeding (2) Characteristics which are more or less variable genetically: their bearing on the distinction of races, species, and genera (3) Factors influencing the genetics of populations: the interplay of heredity and environment; the emergence of new races and species 3. The problem of evolution: the origin of plant and animal species

3a. The question of ultimate origins: the creation of primordial life in one or many forms; the original generation of life from inorganic matter; the fundamental unity of all organisms 3b. The fixity or the mutability of species 3c. The origin of new forms of life: special creation, spontaneous generation, or descent with modification from older forms 3d. The direction of evolution: progress and recession 4. The theory of evolution: the origin of new species from a common ancestry 4a. The struggle for existence: its causes and consequences (1) Natural selection: the survival of the fittest (2) The extinction of intermediate varieties (3) Difficulties with the theory of natural selection: its limitations 4b. Competing in mating: sexual selection 4c. The geographical and physiological isolating mechanisms influencing breeding and race formation: accessibility, fertility, and sterility 5. The facts of evolution: evidences bearing on the history of life on earth 5a. The geological record: the significance of fossil remains 5b. The geographical distribution of the forms of life in relation to the genealogy of existing species: evidences of adaptation and natural selection 5c. Comparative anatomy and embryology: the meaning of rudimentary or vestigial organs and functions 6. The origin and development of man 6a. The doctrine of man's special creation: in body, in soul 6b. The theory of the evolutionary origin of man from lower forms of animal life: descent from an ancestor common to man and the anthropoids (1) Anatomical, physiological, and embryological evidences of an organic affinity between man and other mammalian forms of life (2) Paleontological evidences: the missing link in man's ancestry (3) Psychological evidences: the human mind in relation to animal intelligence 6c. Biological evolution in the course of human generation: from prehistoric to historic man 7. The influence of the theory of evolution upon other disciplines: social Darwinism

1. Various conceptions of experience 2. Experience in relation to the acts of the mind 2a. Memory and imagination as factors in or products of experience 2b. The empirical sources of induction, abstraction, generalization 2c. The transcendental or innate structure of the mind as a condition of experience 2d. The a priori and a posteriori in judgment and reasoning 3. Experience in relation to organized knowledge: art and science 3a. Particular experiences and general rules as conditions of expertness or skill: the contrast between the empiric and the artist 3b. The issue concerning the role of experience in science 4. Experience as measuring the scope of human knowledge 4a. The knowability of that which is outside experience: the supra-sensible, the noumenal or transcendent 4b. Verification by experience: experience as the ultimate test of truth 5. The theory of experimentation in scientific method 5a. Experimental exploration and discovery: the formulation of hypotheses 5b. Experimental verification: the testing of hypotheses 5c. Experimental measurement: the application of mathematics 6. The man of experience in practical affairs 6a. Experience as indispensable to sound judgment and prudence 6b. The role of experience in politics: the lessons of history 7. Mystical or religious experience: experience of the supernatural or transcendental 8. Variety of experience as an ideal of human life



XXVI. Family
1. The nature and necessity of the family: systems of kinship 2. The family and the state 2a. Comparison of the domestic and political community in origin, structure, and function 2b. Comparison of the domestic and political community in manner of government 2c. The place and rights of the family in the state: the control and education of children 3. The economics of the family 3a. The wealth of families: the maintenance of the domestic economy 3b. The effects of political economy: the family in the industrial system 4. The institution of marriage: its nature and purpose 4a. Monogamy and polygamy





4b. The religious view of marriage: the sacrament of matrimony 4c. Matrimony and celibacy 4d. The laws and customs regulating marriage 4c Divorce The position of women 5a. The role of women in the society and the family: the relation of husband and wife in domestic government 5b. The status of women in the tribe or state: the right to citizenship, property, education 5c. Women in relation to war Parents and children: fatherhood, motherhood 6a. The desire for offspring: the birthrate 6b. Eugenics: control of breeding; birth control 6c. The condition of immaturity 6d. The care and government of children: the rights and duties of the child; parental despotism and tyranny 6e. The initiation of children into adult life The life of the family 7a. Marriage and love: romantic, conjugal, and illicit love 7b. The continuity of the family: the veneration of ancestors; family pride, feuds, curses 7c. Patterns of friendship in the extended family 7d. The emotional impact of family life upon the child: the domestic triangle; the symbolic roles of father and mother Observations in history or literature on the institution of marriage and the family

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The decrees of fate and the decisions of the gods The fated or inevitable in human life The antitheses of fate: fortune, freedom, natural necessity, chance or contingency Fatalism in relation to the will of God: the doctrine of predestination The secularization of fate: scientific or philosophical determinism The historian's recognition of fate: the destiny of cities, nations, empires




1. Form in relation to becoming or change 1a. Forms as immutable models or archetypes: the exemplar ideas 1b. Forms as indwelling causes or organizing principles 1c. The transcendental or a priori forms as constitutive of order in experience 1d. The realization of forms in the sensible order (1) Imitation or participation: the role of the receptacle (2) Creation, generation, production: embodiment in matter or substratum (3) The ingression of eternal objects in the sensible order 2. The being of forms 2a. The existence of forms: separately, in matter, in mind 2b. The eternity of forms, the perpetuity of species: the divine ideas 2c. Form in the composite being of the individual thing (1) The union of matter and form: potentiality and actuality (2) The distinction between substantial and accidental forms (3) The unity of substantial form: prime matter in relation to substantial form 2d. Angels and human souls as self-subsistent forms: the substantiality of thought or in separation from extension or body 3. Form in relation to knowledge 3a. Sensible forms, intelligible forms: the forms of intuition and understanding 3b. The problem of the universal: knowledge of the individual 3c. Form and definition: the formulable essence; the problem of matter in relation to definition 4. The denial of form as a principle of being, becoming, or knowledge

1. The polytheistic conception of the supernatural order 1a. The nature and existence of the gods 1b. The hierarchy of the gods: their relation to one another 1c. The intervention of the gods in the affairs of men: their judgment of the desert 2. The existence of one God 2a. The revelation of one God 2b. The evidences and proofs of God's existence 2C Criticisms of the proofs of God's existence: agnosticism 2d. The postulation of God: practical grounds for belief 3. Man's relation to God or the gods 3a. The fear of God or the gods

3b. The reproach or defiance of God or the gods 3c. The love of God or the gods 3d. Obedience to God or the gods: the trials of individuals by God 3e. The worship of God or the gods: prayer, propitiation, sacrifice 3f. The imitation of God or the gods: the divine element in human nature; the deification of men; man as the image of God 4. The divine nature in itself: the divine attributes 4a. The identity of essence and existence in God: the necessity of a being whose essence involves its existence 4b. The unity and simplicity of the divine nature 4c. The immateriality of God 4d. The eternity and immutability of God 4e. The infinity of God: the freedom of an infinite being 4f. The perfection or goodness of God 4g. The intellect of God 4h. The happiness and glory of God 5. The divine nature in relation to the world of creatures 5a. God as first and as exemplar cause: the relation of divine to natural causation 5b. God as final cause: the motion of all things toward God 5c. The power of God: the divine omnipotence 5d. The immanence of God; the divine omnipresence 5e. The transcendence of God: the divine aseity 5f. God's knowledge: the divine omniscience; the divine ideas 5g. God's will: divine choice 5h. God's love: the diffusion of the divine goodness 5i. Divine justice and mercy: the righteousness of God in relation to divine rewards and punishments 6. Man’s knowledge of God 6a. The names of God: the metaphoric and symbolic representations of God; the anthropomorphic conception of God 6b. Natural knowledge: the use of analogies; the evidences of nature; the light of reason 6c. Supernatural knowledge (1) God as teacher: inspiration and revelation (2) The light of faith (3) Mystical experience (4) The beatific vision 7. Doctrines common to the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian conceptions of God and His relation to the world and man 7a. Creation 7b. Providence 7c. Divine government and law 7d. Grace 7e. Miracles 7f. The Book of Life 7g. The resurrection of the body 7h. The Last Judgment and the end of the world 8. Specifically Jewish doctrines concerning God and His people 8a. The Chosen People: Jew and gentile 8b. God's Covenant with Israel: circumcision as sign of the Covenant 8c. The Law: its observance as a condition of righteousness and blessedness 8d. The Temple: the Ark of the Torah 8e. The messianic hope 9. Specifically Christian dogmas concerning the divine nature and human destiny 9a. The persons of the Trinity: Father, Son, Holy Spirit 9b. The Incarnation: the God-man (1) The divinity of Christ (2) The humanity of Christ (3) Mary, the Mother of God 9c. Christ the Saviour and Redeemer: the resurrection and ascension of Christ; the doctrines of original sin and salvation 9d. The Church: the mystical body of Christ; the Apostolate 9e. The sacraments 9f. The second coming of Christ and the Last Judgment 10. The denial of God or the gods, or of a supernatural order: the position of the atheist 11. The denial of God as completely transcending the world or nature: the position of the pantheist 12. The denial of a revealed and providential God: the position of the deist 13. God as a conception invented by man: its emotional basis 14. The worship of false gods: deification and idolatry; the antichrist

1. The general theory of good and evil


Good and Evil

2. 3.




ia. The idea of the good: the notion of finality ib. Goodness in proportion to being: the grades of perfection and the goodness of order ic. The good, the true, and the beautiful id. The origin, nature, and existence of evil The goodness or perfection of God: the plenitude of the divine being 2a. God's goodness as diffusive, causing the goodness of things: God's love 2b. The divine goodness and the problem of evil The moral theory of the good: the distinction between the moral and the metaphysical goa 3a. Human nature and the determination of the good for man: the real and the apparent good; particular goods and the good in general 3b. Goodness in the order of freedom and will (1) The prescriptions of duty (2) The good will: its conditions and consequences 3c. The good and desire: goodness causing movements of desire and desire causing estimations of goodness 3d. Pleasure as the good, a good, or feeling good 3e. Right and wrong: the social incidence of the good; doing or suffering good and evil 3f. The sources of evil in human life Divisions of the human good 4a. Sensible and intelligible goods 4b. Useful and enjoyable goods: good for an end and good in itself 4c. Goods of the body and goods of the soul: the scale of values 4d. Intrinsic and external goods: intrinsic worth and extrinsic value 4e. Individual and common goods The order of human goods 5a. The supreme good or summum bonum: its existence and nature 5b. The judgment of diverse types of good: their subordination to one another 5c. The dialectic of means and ends: mere means and ultimate ends 5d. The supremacy of the individual or the common good: the relation of the good of the individual person to the good of other persons and to the good of the state Knowledge and the good 6a. Knowledge, wisdom, and virtue: the relation of being good and knowing what is good 6b. The need for experience of evil 6c. The goodness of knowledge or wisdom: the use of knowledge 6d. The possibility of moral knowledge: the subjectivity or conventionality of judgments of good and evil

1. The general theory of government 1a. The origin and necessity of government: the issue concerning anarchy 1b. Comparison of political or civil government with ecclesiastical government and with paternal or despotic rule 1c. The ends and limits of government: the criteria of legitimacy and justice 1d. The elements of government: authority and power, or coercive force; the distinction between de jure and de facto government 1e. The attributes of good government 1f. The abuses and corruptions to which government is subject 1g. The sovereignty of government: the unity and disposition of sovereignty (1) The sovereign person: sovereignty vested in the individual ruler (2) The sovereign office: the partition of sovereignty among the offices created by a constitution (3) The sovereign people: the community as the source of governmental sovereignty 1h. Self-government: expressions of the popular will; elections; voting 2. The forms of government: their evaluation and order 2a. The distinction and comparison of good and bad forms of government 2b. The combination of different forms of government: the mixed constitution, the mixed regime 2c. The absolute and relative evaluation of forms of government: by reference to the nature of man or to historic circumstances 2d. The influence of different forms of government on the formation of human character 2e. The ideal form of government: the distinction between practicable and utopian 3. The powers, branches, or departments of constitutional government: enumerations, definitions, and orderings of these several powers 3a. The separation and coordination of the several powers: usurpations and infringements by one branch of government upon another 3b. The relation of the civil to the military power 3c. The legislative department of government: the making of law (1) The powers and duties of the legislature (2) Legislative institutions and procedures 3d. The judicial department of government: the application of law

XXXI. Government

(1) The powers and duties of the judiciary (2) Judicial institutions and procedures 3e. The executive department of government: the enforcement of law; administrative 3 decrees (1) The powers and duties of the executive (2) Administrative institutions and procedures: bureaucracy and civil service 4. The support and the expenditures of government: taxation and budget; the role of government in the economy 5. The relation of governments to one another: sovereign princes or states as in a condition of anarchy 5a. Foreign policy: the making of treaties; the conduct of war and peace 5b. The government of dependencies: colonial government; the government of conquered peoples 5c. The relation of local to national government: the centralization and decentralization of governmental functions 5d. Confederation and federal union: the division of jurisdiction between state and federal governments 6. Historical developments in government: revolution and progress

1. Diverse conceptions of habit: as second nature, perfection of power, retained modification of matter 1a. Habit in relation to potency and act 1b. Habit in relation to the plasticity of matter 2. The kinds of habit: the distinction of habit from disposition and other qualities 2a. Differentiation of habits according to origin and function: innate and acquired, entitative and operative habits 2b. Differentiation of habits according to the capacity habituated or to the object of the habit's activity 3. The instincts or innate habits of animals and men 3a. Instinctual needs or drives 3b. The innate sense of the beneficial and harmful: the estimative power 3c. Instinct in relation to reason 3d. The instinctive basis of habit-formation: the modification of instincts and reflexes through experience or learning 3e. The genesis, transmission, and modification of instincts in the course of generations 4. Habit formation 4a. The causes of habit: practice, repetition, discipline, teaching, and the law 4b. The growth and decay of habits: ways of strengthening and breaking habits 5. The analysis of specifically human habits 5a. Habits of body: manual arts and the skills of play 5b. Habits of appetite and will: the moral virtues as good habits 5c. The natural habits of reason: innate predispositions of the mind 5d. The acquired habits of mind: the intellectual virtues 5e. The supernatural habits 5f. Supernatural habits (1) Grace as an entitative habit of the person (2) The infused virtues and the supernatural gifts (3) The theological virtues 6. The force of habit in human life 6a. The automatic or unconscious functioning of habits: addiction 6b. The contribution of habit to the perfection of character and mind 6c. Habit and freedom 7. The social significance of habit: habit in relation to law

XXXII. Habit



1. The desire for happiness: its naturalness and universality 2. The understanding of happiness: definitions and myths 2a. The marks of a happy man, the quality of a happy life 2b. The content of a happy life: the parts or constituents of happiness (1) The contribution of the goods of fortune to happiness: wealth, health, longevity (2) Pleasure and happiness (3) Virtue in relation to happiness (4) The role of hone- in happiness (5) The importance of friendship and love for happiness (6) The effect of political power or status on happiness (7) The function of knowledge and wisdom in the happy life: the place of speculative activity and contemplation 3. The argument concerning happiness as a first principle of morality: the conflicting claims of duty and happiness 4. The pursuit of happiness 4a. Man's capacity for happiness: differences in human nature with respect to happiness 4b. The attainability of happiness: the fear of death and the tragic view of human life 5. The social aspects of happiness: the doctrine of the common good 5a. The happiness of the individual in relation to the happiness or good of other men

5b. The happiness of the individual in relation to the welfare of the state: happiness in relation to government and diverse forms of government 6. The happiness of men in relation to the gods or the afterlife 7. The distinction between temporal and eternal happiness 7a. The effects of original sin: the indispensability of divine grace for the attainment of natural happiness 7b. The imperfection of temporal happiness: its failure to satisfy natural desire 7c. Eternal beatitude: the perfection of human happiness (1) The beatific vision (2) The joy of the blessed: the communion of saints (3) The misery of the damned 7d. The beatitude of God



1. History as knowledge and as literature: its kinds and divisions; its distinction from poetry, myth, philosophy, and science 2. The light and lesson of history: its role in the education of the mind and in the guidance of human conduct 3. The writing of history: research and narration; the influence of poetry 3a. The determination and choice of fact: the classification of historical data 3b. The explanation or interpretation of historic fact: the historian's treatment of causes 4. The philosophy of history 4a. Theories of causation in the historical process (1) The alternatives of fate or freedom, necessity or chance (2) Material forces in history: economic, physical, and geographic factors (3) World history as the development of Spirit: the stages of the dialectic of history (4) The role of the individual in history: the great man, hero, or leader 4b. The laws and patterns of historical change: cycles, progress, evolution 4c. The spirit of the time as conditioning the politics and culture of a period 5. The theology of history 5a. The relation of the gods or God to human history: the dispensations of providence 5b. The city of God and the city of man; church and state

1. The relation of honor and fame: praise and reputation 2. Honor and fame in the life of the individual 2a. The sense of honor and of shame: loyalty to the good 2b. Honor as an object of desire and as a factor in virtue and happiness: flattery, imitation, or emulation 2c. Honor as due self-esteem: magnanimity or proper pride 2d. Honor or fame as a mode of immortality 2e. Honor as the pledge of friendship: the codes of honor among social equals 3. The social realization of honor and fame 3a. The reaction of the community to its good or great men 3b. The conditions of honor or fame and the causes of dishonor or infamy 4. Honor in the political community and in government 4a. Honor as a principle in the organization of the state: timocracy and monarchy 4b. The scale of honor in the organization of the state: the just distribution of honors 4c. Honor as a political technique: the uses of praise, prestige, public opinion 5. Honor, fame, and the heroic 5a. Honor as a motivation of heroism 5b. Hero-worship: the exaltation of leaders 5c. The occasions of heroism in war and peace 5d. The estimation of the role of the hero in history 6. The idea of glory: its distinction from honor and fame 6a. The glory of God: the signs and the praise of the divine glory 6b. The reflected glory of angels, saints, and martyrs

XXXV. Honor

1. 2. 3. 4.


The use of hypotheses in the process of dialectic Hypothetical reasoning and hypothetical constructions in philosophy The foundations of mathematics: postulates, assumptions The role of hypotheses in science 4a. Theories, provisional assumptions, fictions, reifications 4b. The purpose of hypotheses: saving the appearances; the formulation of predictions 4c. Consistency, simplicity, and beauty as standards in the construction of hypotheses 4d. The task of verification: the plurality of hypotheses; the experimental testing of hypotheses 5. Hypothetical propositions and syllogisms: the distinction between the hypothetical and the categorical

1. Doctrines of idea 1a. Ideas, or relations between ideas, as objects of thought or knowledge: the ideas as eternal forms 1b. Ideas or conceptions as that by which the mind thinks or knows 1c. Ideas as the data of sense-experience or their residues 1d. Ideas as the pure concepts of reason: regulative principles 1e. Ideas in the order of suprahuman intelligence or spirit: the eternal exemplars and archetypes; the modes of the divine mind 1f. Idea as the unity of determinate existence and concept: the Absolute Idea 2. The origin or derivation of ideas in the human mind 2a. The infusion of ideas: divine illumination 2b. The innate endowment or retention of ideas: the activation of the mind's native content or structure by sense, by memory, or by experience 2c. The acquirement of ideas by perception or intuition: simple ideas or forms as direct objects of the understanding 2d. Reflection as a source of ideas: the mind's consideration of its own acts or content 2e. The genesis of ideas by the recollection of sense impressions: the images of sense 2f. The production of ideas by the reworking of the materials of sense: the imaginative construction of concepts or the formation of complex from simple ideas 2g. The abstraction of ideas from sense-experience: the concept as the first act of the mind; the grades of abstraction 2h. The derivation of transcendental ideas from the three syllogisms of reason 3.The division of ideas according to their objective reference 3a. Ideas about things distinguished from ideas about ideas: the distinction between first and second intentions 3b. Adequate and inadequate ideas: clear and distinct ideas as compared with obscure and confused ideas 3c. Real and fantastic or fictional ideas: negations and chimeras 4. The logic of ideas 4a. The verbal expression of ideas or concepts: terms 4b. The classification of terms: problems in the use of different kinds of terms (1) Concrete and abstract terms (2) Particular and universal terms (3) Specific and generic terms: infimae species and summa genera (4) Univocal and analogical terms 4c. The correlation, opposition, and order of terms 5. Ideas or concepts in the process of thought 5a. Concept and judgment: the division of terms as subjects and predicates; kinds of subjects and predicates 5b. The position and sequence of terms in reasoning 5c. The dialectical employment of the ideas of reason 5d. The order of concepts in the stages of learning: the more and the less general 5c The association, comparison, and discrimination of ideas: the stream of thought or consciousness 6. The being and truth of ideas 6a. The distinction between real and intentional existence, between thing and idea: ideas as symbols, or intentions of the mind 6b. The nature and being of ideas in relation to the nature and being of the mind 6c. The agreement between an idea and its object: the criterion of adequacy in correspondence 6d. Clarity and distinctness in ideas as criteria of their truth 6e. The criterion of genesis: the test of an idea's truth or meaning by reference to its origin 6f. The truth and falsity of simple apprehensions, sensations, or conceptions: contrasted with the truth and falsity of judgments or assertions





1. The desire for immortality: the fear of death 2. The knowledge of immortality: arguments for and against personal survival 3. Belief in immortality 3a. The postulation of immortality: practical grounds for belief in immortality 3b. The revelation of immortality: immortality as an article of religious faith 4. The moral significance of immortality: rewards and sanctions 5. Conceptions of the afterlife 5a. The transmigration of souls: reincarnation 5b. The state of the soul apart from the body 5c. The judgment of souls 5d. The process of purification: the state of purgatory 5e. The state of the damned: hell 5f. The state of the blessed: heaven 5g. The resurrection of the body

6. Doctrines of impersonal survival 6a. Immortality through offspring: the perpetuation of the species 6b. Enduring fame: survival in the memory 6c. Participation in the eternity of truth, ideas, or love

1. The theory of induction: generalization from particulars 1a. Induction and intuition: their relation to reasoning or demonstration 1b. Inductive reasoning: the issue concerning inductive and deductive proof 2. The conditions or sources of induction: memory, experience, experiment 3. The products of induction: definitions, axioms, principles, laws 4. The use of induction in argument 4a. Dialectical induction: securing assumptions for disputation 4b. Rhetorical induction: inference from example in the process of persuasion 5. The role of induction in the development of science: the methods of experimental and enumerative induction



1. The general theory of infinity 1a. The definite and indefinite: the measured and the indeterminate 1b. The infinite in being and quantity: the actual and potential infinite; the formal and the material infinite 2. Infinity in the logical order 2a. The infinity of negative and indefinite terms 2b. The distinction between negative and infinite judgments 2c. Infinite regression in analysis and reasoning 3. The infinite in quantity: infinite magnitudes and multitudes 3a. Number: the infinite of division and addition 3b. The infinite divisibility of continuous quantities: the infinitesimal; the method of exhaustion and the theory of limits 3c. The infinity of asymptotes and parallels 3d. The infinite extent of space or space as finite yet unbounded 3e. The infinite duration of time and motion 4. The infinity of matter 4a. The infinite quantity or extent of matter: the problem of an actually infinite 4b. The infinite divisibility of matter: the issue concerning atoms or elementary particles 4c. The infinite potentiality of matter: the conception of prime or formless matter 5. Infinity in the world 5a. The infinite number of things and the infinite number of kinds 5b. The number of causes 6. The finite and the infinite in the nature of man 6a. The infinity of desire and will: the limits of human capacity 6b. The infinity of the intellect: man's knowledge of the infinite 7. The infinity of God 7a. The infinite being or essence of God 7b. The infinite power of God 7c. God's infinite goodness and love 7d. God's infinite knowledge

XL. Infinity

XLI. Judgement
1. Judgment as an act or faculty of the mind: its contrast with the act of conception or with the faculties of understanding and reason 2. The division of judgments in terms of the distinction between the theoretical and the practical 3. The analysis of practical or moral judgments: value judgments; judgments of good and evil, means and ends; categorical and hypothetical imperatives 4. The distinction between the aesthetic and the teleological judgment 5. The nature of theoretical judgments 5a. The linguistic expression of judgments: sentences and propositions 5b. The judgment as a predication: the classification of subjects and predicates 5c. The judgment as relational: types of relation 6. The division of theoretical judgments according to formal criteria 6a. The division of judgments according to quantity: universal, particular, singular, and indefinite propositions 6b. The division of judgments according to quality: positive, negative, and infinite propositions 6c. The division of judgments according to modality: necessary and contingent propositions; problematic, assertoric, and apodictic judgments 6d. The classification of judgments by reference to relation: simple and composite propositions; categorical, hypothetical, and disjunctive judgments 7. The order and connection of judgments

7a. The formal opposition of judgments: the square of opposition 7b. The conversion of propositions: the problem of immediate inference 7c. Reasoning as a sequence of judgments: the chain of reasoning 8. The differentiation of judgments according to origin, ground, or import 8a. Self-evident and demonstrable propositions: immediate and mediated, intuitive and reasoned judgments 8b. Analytic and synthetic judgments: trifling and instructive propositions 8c. A priori and a posteriori, nonexistential and existential judgments: the problem of a priori synthetic judgments 8d. The division of judgments into the determinant and the reflective: judgments as constitutive or as regulative 9. Degrees of assent: certainty and probability 10. The truth and falsity of judgments

1. Diverse conceptions of justice 1a. Justice as the interest of the stronger or conformity to the will of the sovereign 1b. Justice as harmony or right order in the soul: original justice 1c. Justice as a moral virtue directing activity in relation to others and to the community the distinction between the just man and the just act 1d. Justice as the whole of virtue and as a particular virtue: the distinction between the lawful and the fair 1e. Justice as an act of will or duty fulfilling obligations to the common good: the harmonious action of individual wills under a universal law of freedom 1f. Justice as a custom or moral sentiment based on considerations of utility 2. The precepts of justice: doing good, harming no one, rendering to each his own, treating equals equally 3. The duties of justice compared with the generosity of love and friendship 4. The comparison of justice and expediency: the choice between doing and suffering injustice-the relation of justice to happiness 5. Justice and equality: the kinds of justice in relation to the measure and modes of equality and inequality 6. Justice and liberty: the theory of human rights 6a. The relation between natural law and natural justice 6b. The relation between natural and positive rights, innate and acquired rights, private and public rights: their correlative duties 6c. The inalienability of natural rights: their violation by tyranny and despotism 6d. Justice as the basis for the distinction between liberty and license 6e. Justice and natural rights as the source of civil liberty 7. Domestic justice: the problems of right and duty in the family 8. Economic justice: justice in production, distribution, and exchange 8a. Private and public property: the just distribution of economic goods 8b. Fair wages and prices: the just exchange of goods and services 8c. Justice in the organization of production (1) Economic exploitation: chattel slavery and wage slavery (2) Profit and unearned increment 8d. Justice and the use of money: usury and interest rates 9. Political justice: justice in government 9a. The natural and the conventional in political justice: natural law and the general will 9b. Justice as the moral principle of political organization: the bond of men in states 9c. The criteria of justice in various forms of government and diverse constitutions 9d. The relation of ruler and ruled: the justice of the prince or statesman and of the subject or citizen 9e. The just distribution of honors, ranks, offices, suffrage 9f. Justice between states: the problem of right and might in the making of war and peace 9g. The tempering of political justice by clemency: amnesty, asylum, and pardon 10. Justice and law 10a. The measure of justice in laws made by the state: natural and constitutional standards 10b. The legality of unjust laws: the extent of obedience required of the just man in the unjust society 10c. The justice of punishment for unjust acts: the distinction between retribution and vengeance 10d. The correction of legal justice: equity in the application of human law 11. Divine justice: the relation of God or the gods to man 11a. The divine government of man: the justice and mercy of God or the gods 11b. Man's debt to God or the gods: the religious acts of piety and worship



XLIII. Knowledge
1. The nature of knowledge: the relation between knower and known; the issue concerning the representative or intentional character of knowledge 2. Man's natural desire and power to know 3. Principles of knowledge 4. Knowledge in relation to other states of mind 4a. Knowledge and truth: the differentiation of knowledge, error, and ignorance





4b. Knowledge, belief, and opinion: their relation or distinction 4c. The distinction between knowledge and fancy or imagination 4d. Knowledge and love The extent or limits of human knowledge 5a. The knowable, the unknowable, and the unknown: the knowability of certain objects (1) God as an object of knowledge (2) Matter and the immaterial as objects of knowledge (3) Cause and substance as objects of knowledge (4) The infinite and the individual as objects of knowledge (5) The past and the future as objects of knowledge (6) The self and the thing in itself as objects of knowledge 5b. The distinction between what is more knowable in itself and what is more know-able to us 5c. Dogmatism, skepticism, and the critical attitude with respect to the extent, certainty, and finality of human knowledge 5d. The method of universal doubt as prerequisite to knowledge: God's goodness as the assurance of the veracity of our faculties 5e. Knowledge about knowledge as the source of criteria for evaluating claims to knowledge The kinds of knowledge 6a. The classification of knowledge according to diversity of objects (1) Being and becoming, the intelligible and the sensible, the necessary and the contingent, the eternal and the temporal, the immaterial and the material as objects of knowledge (2) Knowledge of natures or kinds distinguished from knowledge of individuals (3) Knowledge of matters of fact or real existence distinguished from knowledge of our ideas or of the relations between them (4) Knowledge in relation to the distinction between the phenomenal and the noumenal, the sensible and suprasensible 6b. The classification of knowledge according to the faculties involved in knowing (1) Sensitive knowledge: sense perception as knowledge; judgments of perception and judgments of experience; private and public knowledge (2) Memory as knowledge (3) Rational or intellectual knowledge: rationalism (4) Knowledge in relation to the faculties of understanding, judgment, and reason; and to the work of intuition, imagination, and understanding 6c. The classification of knowledge according to the methods or means of knowing (1) Vision, contemplation, or intuitive knowledge distinguished from discursive knowledge: knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description (2) The distinction between immediate and mediated judgments: induction and reasoning, principles and conclusions (3) The doctrine of knowledge as reminiscence: the distinction between innate and acquired knowledge (4) The distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge: the transcendental, or speculative, and the empirical (5) The distinction between natural and supernatural knowledge: knowledge based on sense or reason distinguished from knowledge by faith or through grace and inspiration 6d. The classification of knowledge according to the degrees of assent (1) The distinction between certain and probable knowledge (2) The types of certainty and the degrees of probability (3) The distinction between adequate and inadequate, or perfect and imperfect knowledge 6e. The classification of knowledge according to the end or aim of the knowing (1) The distinction between theoretical and practical knowledge: knowing for the sake of knowledge and for the sake of action or production (2) The types of practical knowledge: the use of knowledge in production and in the direction of conduct; technical and moral knowledge Comparison of human with other kinds of knowledge 7a. Human and divine knowledge 7b. Human and angelic knowledge 7c. Knowledge in this life compared with knowledge in the state of innocence and know ledge hereafter 7d. The knowledge of men and brutes The use and value of knowledge 8a. The technical use of knowledge in the sphere of production: the applications of science in art 8b. The moral use of knowledge and the moral value of knowledge (1) The knowledge of good and evil: the relation of knowledge to virtue and sin (2) Knowledge as a condition of voluntariness in conduct (3) Knowledge in relation to prudence and continence (4) The possession or pursuit of knowledge as a good or satisfaction: its relation to pleasure and pain; its contribution to happiness 8c. The political use of knowledge: the knowledge requisite for the statesman, legislator, or I citizen; the role of ideology; journalism

9. The communication of knowledge 9a. The means and methods of communicating knowledge: incommunicable knowledge 9b. The value of the dissemination of knowledge: freedom of discussion; the uses of secrecy 10. The growth of human knowledge: the history of man's progress and failures in the pursuit of knowledge

XLIV. Labor
1. Labor in human life 1a. The curse of labor: myths of a golden age and the decay of the world 1b. Labor, leisure, and happiness: the servile, political, and contemplative life 1c. The pain of labor and the expiation of sin: the disciplinary and penal use of labor 1d. The social necessity of labor and the moral obligation to work 1e. The honor of work and the virtue of productivity: progress through the invention of arts for the conquest of nature 1f. The degradation of labor: the alienation of the laborer's work in chattel slavery, serfdom, and industrial wage slavery 2. The nature of work 2a. The ends of work: the good of the product and the good of the workman 2b. The process of work: the relations of art, hand, machine, and matter 3. The kinds of work and the relationship of different types of workers 3a. The differentiation of work according to the human talent or ability required: skilled and unskilled labor; manual and mental work; labor and management 3b. The differentiation of work according to the social status of the worker: servile and free, menial and honorable work 3c. The classification of occupations by reference to bodily and mental concomitants of the work: healthy and unhealthy occupations; pleasant and unpleasant tasks 3d. Types of work distinguished by reference to the manner in which the work is done: solitary and group work; the relation of master craftsmen and helpers 3e. Types of work distinguished by reference to their effect on the increase of wealth: productive and nonproductive labor 3f. The differentiation of work in terms of its relation to the common welfare: socially useful and wasteful or superfluous work 4. The division of labor 4a. The economic causes and effects of the division of labor: its relation to the exchange, production, and distribution of goods and services; its bearing on opulence 4b. The social consequences of the division of labor: the development of classes 4c. The moral aspects of the division of labor: the acquisition of the virtue of art; the attenuation of art by insignificant tasks 5. The organization of production: the position of labor in different economies 5a. Domestic or chattel slavery in a slave economy 5b. Serfdom or agrarian peonage in a feudal economy 5c. The wage earner or industrial proletariat in a capitalist economy: factors affecting overall employment 5d. The condition of the worker in a socialist economy 6. The wages of labor: kinds of wage payments 6a. Labor as a commodity: the labor market 6b. The iron law of wages: the subsistence level and the minimum wage 6c. The distinction between real and nominal wages: variable factors affecting wage levels; the effect of wage levels on employment 6d. The natural wages of labor and the labor theory of value 7. Economic and political justice to the laborer 7a. Fair wages, hours, and working conditions: labor legislation 7b. The right to property: the ownership of the means of production 7c. The consequences of economic inequality or oppression: the class war (1) The economic determination of antagonistic social classes: slaves versus freemen; laboring versus leisure classes; propertyless versus propertied classes (2) The organization of workmen and the formation of trade unions to protect labor's rights and interests (3) The proletariat as a revolutionary class: its revolutionary aims 7d. The underprivileged condition of workers: the exclusion of slaves from citizenship; the disfranchisement of the laboring classes 7e. The problem of poverty and pauperism: unemployment and the right to work 7f. The relation of economic to political freedom: economic democracy 8. Historical and fictional observations on the condition of labor

1. The nature and functions of language: the speech of men and brutes 1a. The role of language in thought and behavior 1b. The service of language to society: linguistic forms and social structure 2. Theories of the origin of language

2a. The hypothesis of one natural language for all men 2b. The genesis of conventional languages: the origin of alphabets 3. The growth of language 3a. The acquisition of language: the invention of words and the proliferation of meanings 3b. The spoken and written word in the development of language 3c. Tradition and the life of languages: language games 4. The art of grammar 4a. Syntax: the parts and units of speech 4b. Standards of correctness in the use of language: grammatical errors 5. The imperfections of language: failures in communication 5a. The abuse of words: ambiguity, imprecision, obscurity; the corruption of language for political motives 5b. Insignificant speech: meaninglessness, absurdity 5c. The difficulties of using language in the describing of reality 6. The improvement of speech: the ideal of a perfect language 7. Grammar and logic: the formulation and statement of knowledge 8. Grammar and rhetoric: the effective use of language in teaching and persuasion 9. The language of poetry: the poet's enchantment with language 10. The language of things and events: the book of nature; the symbolism of dreams; prophetic 11. Immediate communication: the speech of angels and the gift of tongues 12. The language of God or the gods: the deliverances of the oracles; the inspiration, revelation, and interpretation of Sacred Scripture

1. The definition of law 1a. The end of law: peace, order, and the common good 1b. Law in relation to reason or will 1c. The authority and power needed for making law 1d. The promulgation of law: the need and the manner of its declaration 2. The major kinds of law: comparison of human, natural, and divine law; comparison of natural and positive, innate and acquired, private and public, abstract and civil rights 3. The divine law 3a. The eternal law in the divine government of the universe: the law in the nature of all creatures (1) The natural moral law as the eternal law in human nature (2) The distinction between the eternal law and the positive commandments of God 3b. The divine positive law: the difference between the law revealed in the Old and the New Testament (1) Law in the Old Testament: the moral, the judicial, and the ceremonial precepts of the Old Law (2) Law in the New Testament: the law of love and grace; ceremonial precepts of the New Law 4. The natural law 4a. The law of reason or the moral law: the order and habits of its principles 4b. The law of men living in a state of nature 4c. The a priori principles of innate or abstract right: universal law in the order of freedom; the objectification of the will 4d. The natural law as underlying the precepts of virtue: its relation to the moral precepts of divine law 4e. The relation of natural law to natural rights and natural justice 4f. The relation of natural law to civil or municipal law: the state of nature and the regulations of the civil state 4g. The relation of natural law to the law of nations and to international law: sovereign states and the state of nature 4h. The precepts of the natural law and the condition of the state of nature with respect to slavery and property 5. The human or positive law: the sanction of coercive force 5a. The difference between laws and decrees 5b. The kinds or divisions of positive law 5c. The justice of positive law: the standards of natural law and constitutionality 5d. The origins of positive law in the legislative process: the function of the legislator 5e. The mutability or variability of positive law: the maintenance or change of laws 5f. The relation of positive law to custom 5g. The application of positive law to cases: the casuistry of the judicial process; the conduct of a trial; the administration of justice 5h. The defect of positive law: its need for correction or dispensation by equity 6. Law and the individual 6a. Obedience to the authority and force of law: the sanctions of conscience and fear; the objective and subjective sanctions of law; law, duty, and right 6b. The exemption of the sovereign person from the coercive force of law 6c. The force of tyrannical, unjust, or bad laws: the right of rebellion or disobedience 6d. The educative function of law in relation to virtue and vice: the efficacy of law as limited by virtue in the individual citizen 6e. The breach of law: crime and punishment (1) The nature and causes of crime

(2) The prevention of crime (3) The punishment of crime 7. Law and the state 7a. The distinction between government by men and government by laws: the nature of constitutional or political law 7b. The supremacy of law as the principle of political freedom 7c. The priority of natural to civil law: the inviolability or inalienability of natural rights 7d. Tyranny and treason or sedition as illegal acts: the use of force without authority 7e. The need for administrative discretion in matters undetermined by law: the royal prerogative 7f. The juridical conception of the person: the legal personality of the state and other corporations 8. Historical observations on the development of law and on the diversity of legal systems or institutions 9. The legal profession and the study of law: praise and dispraise of lawyers and judges

XLVII. Liberty
1. Natural freedom and political liberty 1a. The birthright of freedom 1b. The independence of men and the autonomy of sovereigns in a state of nature or anarchy 1c. The relation of liberty to free will: the conceptions of liberty as freedom from interference and freedom for personal development 1d. The supremacy of law as a condition of political liberty 1e. The restriction of freedom by justice: the distinction between liberty and license 1f. The freedom of equals under government: the equality of citizenship 1g. The juridical protection of liberties: bills of rights; the separation of powers 1h. Civil liberty under diverse forms of government 2. The issues of civil liberty 2a. Freedom of thought and expression: the problem of censorship; the uses of secrecy 2b. Liberty of conscience and religious freedom 2c. Freedom in the sphere of economic enterprise: free trade; freedom from governmental restrictions 2d. Economic dependence as a limitation of civil liberty: economic slavery or subjection 3. Moral or spiritual freedom 3a. Human bondage, or the dominance of the passions 3b. Human freedom or the rule of reason: freedom through knowledge of the truth 3c. Virtue as the discipline of free choice: freedom as the determination of the will by the moral law of practical reason 3d. Freedom from conflict and freedom for individuality as conditions of happiness 4. The metaphysics of freedom 4a. The relation of human liberty to chance and contingency 4b. The opposites of freedom: causality or necessity, nature, and law 5. The theology of freedom 5a. Man's freedom in relation to fate or to the will of God 5b. Man's freedom and God's knowledge 5c. Man's freedom and God's grace: the freedom of the children of God 5d. The divine freedom: the independence or autonomy of infinite being; divine choice 6. Liberty in history and literature 6a. The historical significance of freedom: stages in the realization of freedom; the beginning and end of the historical process 6b. The struggle and desire for civil liberty and economic freedom: the overthrow of tyrants, despots, and oppressors 6c. The struggle for sovereign independence against the yoke of imperialism or colonial subjugation



1. The nature and cause of life: the soul as the principle of life in organic bodies 2. Continuity or discontinuity between living and nonliving things: comparison of vital powers and activities with the potentialities and motions of inert bodies 3. The modes or grades of corporeal life: the classification and order of the various vital powers or functions 3a. Continuity or discontinuity between plants and animals: comparison of plant and animal nutrition, respiration, growth, and reproduction 3b. The grades of animal life: types and degrees of mobility and sensitivity; analogies of structure and function 4. The biological economy in ecological systems: the environment of the organism; the interdependence of plants and animals 5. Normal vitality and its impairment by disease, degeneration, and enfeeblement with age 5a. The nature and causes of health: physical beauty 5b. The restorative function of rest or sleep 5c. The nature and causes of disease 6. The life span and the life cycle 6a. The life span of plants and animals, and of different species of plants and animals 6b. The human life span 6c. The biological and psychological characteristics of the stages of life

7. The causes and occurrence of death: the transition from life to death; homicide 8. The concern of the living with life and death 8a. Reflections about life and death 8b. The love of life: the instinct of self-preservation; the life instinct 8c. The desire for death: the death instinct; the problem of suicide 8d. The fear of death: the attitude of the hero, the philosopher, the poet, the martyr 8e. The ceremonials of death: the rites of burial in war and peace

1. Logic as a science: its scope and subject matter compared with psychology and metaphysics 1a. The axioms of logic: the laws of thought; the principles of reasoning 1b. Divisions of logic: deductive and inductive; formal and material; analytic and dialectic; general and transcendental 2. Transcendental logic: the propaedeutic to all a priori cognition; the transcendental doctrine of method 3. Mathematical and symbolic logic 4. Logic as an art: its place in education 4a. The relation of logic and grammar 4b. The relation of logic and rhetoric 5. Methodology: rules for the conduct of the mind in the processes of thinking, learning, inquiring, knowing 5a. Mathematical analysis and reasoning: the search for a universal method 5b. The heuristic principles of research in experimental and empirical science 5c. The criteria of evidence and inference in historical inquiry 5d. The diverse methods of speculative philosophy: the role of intuition, analysis, dialectic, genetic or transcendental criticism 5e. The logic of practical thinking: the methods of ethics, politics, and jurisprudence 5r. Theological argument: the roles of faith, reason, and authority 6. Logic as an object of satire and criticism: sophistry and logic-chopping

XLIX. Logic

1. The nature of love 1a. Conceptions of love and hate: as passions and as acts of will 1b. Love and hate in relation to each other and in relation to pleasure and pain 1c. The distinction between love and desire: the generous and acquisitive aims 1d. The aims and objects of love 1e. The intensity and power of love: its increase or decrease; its constructive or destructive force 1f. The intensity of hate: envy and jealousy 2. The kinds of love 2a. Erotic love as distinct from lust or sexual desire (1) The sexual instinct: its relation to other instincts (2) Infantile sexuality: polymorphous perversity (3) Object-fixations, identifications, and transferences: sublimation (4) The perversion, degradation, or pathology of love: infantile and adult love 2b. Friendly, tender, or altruistic love: fraternal love (1) The relation between love and friendship (2) Self-love in relation to the love of others: vanity and self-interest (3) The types of friendship: friendships based on utility, pleasure, or virtue (4) Patterns of love and friendship in the family (5) Friendship as a habitual association 2c. Romantic, chivalric, and courtly love: the idealization and supremacy of the beloved 2d. Conjugal love: its sexual, fraternal, and romantic components 3. The morality of love 3a. Friendship and love in relation to virtue and happiness 3b. The demands of love and the restraints of virtue: moderation in love; the order of loves 3c. The conflict of love and duty: the difference between the loyalties of love and the obligations of justice 3d. The heroism of friendship and the sacrifices of love 4. The social or political force of love, sympathy, or friendship 4a. Love between equals and unequals, like and unlike: the fraternity of citizenship 4b. The dependence of the state on friendship and patriotism: comparison of love and justice in relation to the common good 4c. The brotherhood of man and the world community 5. Divine love 5a. God as the primary object of love (1) Man's love of God in this life: respect for the moral law (2) Beatitude as the fruition of love



5b. Charity, or supernatural love, compared with natural love (1) The precepts of charity: the law of love (2) The theological virtue of charity: its relation to the other virtues 5c. God's love of Himself and of creatures

1. Definitions of man: conceptions of the properties and qualities of human nature 1a. The conception of man as essentially distinct, or differing in kind, from brute animals: man's specific rationality and freedom 1b. The conception of man as distinguished from brutes by such powers or properties as abstraction or relational thought, language and law, art and science 1c. The conception of man as an animal, differing only in degree of intelligence and of other qualities possessed by other animals 2. Man's knowledge of man 2a. Immediate self-consciousness: man's intimate or introspective knowledge of himself 2b. The sciences of human nature: anthropology and psychology; ethnography and ethnology; rational and empirical psychology; experimental and clinical psychology (1) The subject matter, scope, and methods of the science of man (2) The methods and validity of psychology (3) The relation of psychology to physiology: the study of organic factors in human behavior (4) The place of psychology in the order of sciences: the study of man as prerequisite for other studies 3. The constitution of man 3a. Man as a unity or a conjunction of matter and spirit, body and soul, extension and thought (1) Man as a pure spirit: a soul or mind using a body (2) Man's spirituality as limited to his immaterial powers or functions, such as reason and will 3b. Comparisons of man with God or the gods, or with angels or spiritual substances 3c. Man as an organization of matter or as a collocation of atoms 4. The analysis of human nature into its faculties, powers, or functions: the id, ego, and superego in the structure of the psyche 4a. Man's vegetative powers: comparison with similar functions in plants and animals 4b. Man's sensitive and appetitive powers: comparison with similar functions in other animals 4c. Man's rational powers: the problem of similar powers in other animals 4d. The general theory of faculties: the critique of faculty psychology 5. The order and harmony of man's powers and functions: contradictions in human nature; the higher and lower nature of man 5a. Cooperation or conflict among man's powers 5b. Abnormalities due to defect or conflict of powers: feeblemindedness, neuroses, insanity, madness 6. The distinctive characteristics of men and women and their differences 6a. The cause and range of human inequalities: differences in ability, inclination, temperament, habit 6b. The equality or inequality of men and women 6c. The ages of man: infancy, youth, maturity, senescence; generational conflict 7. Group variations in human type: racial differences 7a. Biological aspects of racial type 7b. The influence of environmental factors on human characteristics: climate and geography as determinants of racial or national differences 7c. Cultural, ethnic, and national differences among men 8. The origin or genealogy of man 8a. The race of men as descendants or products of the gods 8b. God's special creation of man 8c. Man as a natural variation from other forms of animal life 9. The two conditions of man 9a. The myth of a golden age: the age of Kronos and the age of Zeus 9b. The Christian doctrine of Eden and of the history of man in the world (1) The condition of man in Eden: the preternatural powers of Adam (2) The condition of man in the world: fallen man; corrupted or wounded human nature (3) The Christian view of the stages of human life in the world: law and grace 9c. Secular conceptions of the stages of human life: man in a state of nature and in society; prehistoric and historic man; primitive and civilized man 10. Man's conception of himself and his place in the world 10a. Man's understanding of his relation to the gods or God 10b. Man as the measure of all things 10c. Man as an integral part of the universe: his station in the cosmos 10d. The finiteness and insufficiency of man: his sense of being dependent and ordered to something beyond himself 10e. Man's comparison of himself with other creatures and with the universe as a whole 11. The theological conception of man 11a. Man as made in the image of God 11b. The fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man



11c. God incarnate in human form: the human nature of Christ 12. Man as an object of laughter and ridicule: comedy and satire 13. The grandeur and misery of man

LII. Mathematics
1. The art and science of mathematics: its branches or divisions; the origin and development of mathematics 1a. The distinction of mathematics from physics and metaphysics: its relation to logic 1b. The service of mathematics to dialectic and philosophy: its place in liberal education 1c. The certainty and exactitude of mathematical knowledge: truth in mathematics; the a priori foundations of arithmetic and geometry 1d. The ideal of a universal mathesis: the unification of arithmetic and geometry 2. The objects of mathematics: ideas or abstractions; number, figure, extension, relation, order 2a. The apprehension of mathematical objects: by intuition, imagination, construction; the forms of time and space 2b. The being of mathematical objects: their real, ideal, or mental existence 2c. Kinds of quantity: magnitude and multitude; continuous and discrete quantities; the problem of the irrational 3. Method in mathematics: the model of mathematical thought 3a. The conditions and character of demonstration in mathematics: the use of definitions, postulates, axioms, hypotheses, theorems, proofs 3b. The role of construction: its bearing on proof, mathematical existence, and the scope of mathematical inquiry 3c. Analysis and synthesis: function and variable 3d. Symbols and formulas: the attainment of generality 4. Mathematical techniques 4a. The arithmetic and algebraic processes: algebraic form 4b. The operations of geometry 4c. The use of proportions and equations 4d. The method of exhaustion: the theory of limits and the calculus 5. The applications of mathematics to physical phenomena: the utility of mathematics 5a. The art of measurement 5b. Mathematical physics: the mathematical structure of nature 5c. The distinction between pure and applied mathematics



1. The conception of matter as a principle of change and as one constituent of the being of changing things: the receptacle or substratum 1a. Matter and the analysis of change: prime and secondary matter; privation and form; participation and the receptacle 1b. Matter in relation to the kinds of change: substantial and accidental change; terrestrial and celestial motion 1c. Matter and the distinction between individual and universal: signate and common matter; sensible and intelligible matter 2. The conception of matter as extension, as a bodily substance, or as a mode of substance: atoms and compound bodies 2a. The properties of matter: hypotheses concerning its constitution; the wave and particle properties of matter 2b. The equivalence of mass and energy 2c. The motions of bodies 2d. Matter as the support of sensible qualities 2e. The diremption of body and mind, or matter and spirit 3. The existence of matter 3a. Matter as the sole existent: materialism, atomism 3b. Matter as the most imperfect grade of being or reality 3c. Matter as a fiction of the mind 3d. The relation of God to matter: the creation of matter and its motions 4. Matter as an object or condition of knowledge 4a. The knowability of matter: by sense, by reason 4b. The role of matter in the concepts and definitions of the several sciences: the grades of abstraction in physics, mathematics, and metaphysics 4c. The material conditions of sensation, imagination, and memory 4d. The material conditions of thought: the relation of matter to the existence and acts of the mind 5. Matter in relation to good and evil 6. Criticisms of materialism and its consequences


1. The foundations of mechanics 1a. Matter, mass, and atoms: the primary qualities of bodies 1b. The laws of motion: inertia; the measure of force; action and reaction 1c. Space, time, and motion (1) Cartesian and Galilean coordinates









(2) The effect of uniform rectilinear motion on the concepts of space and time: the special theory of relativity and the Lorentz transformation (3) The effect of nonlinear and rotary motion on the concepts of space and time: the general theory of relativity and Gaussian coordinates The logic and method of mechanics 2a. The role of experience, experiment, and induction in mechanics 2b. The use of hypotheses in mechanics 2c. Theories of causality in mechanics The use of mathematics in mechanics: the dependence of progress in mechanics on mathematical discovery 3a. Number and the continuum: the theory of measurement; Euclidean and non-Euclidean continua 3b. The geometry of conies: the motion of planets and projectiles 3c. Algebra and analytic geometry: the symbolic formulation of mechanical problems 3d. Calculus: the measurement of irregular areas and variable motions The place, scope, and ideal of the science of mechanics: its relation to the philosophy of nature and other sciences 4a. Terrestrial and celestial mechanics: the mechanics of finite bodies and of atoms or elementary particles 4b. The explanation of qualities and qualitative change in terms of quantity and motion 4c. The mechanistic versus the organismic account of nature The basic phenomena and problems of mechanics: statics and dynamics 5a. Simple machines: the balance and the lever 5b. The equilibrium and motion of fluids: buoyancy, the weight and pressure of gases, the effects of a vacuum 5c. Stress, strain, and elasticity: the strength of materials 5d. Motion, void, and medium: resistance and friction 5e. Rectilinear motion (1) Uniform motion: its causes and laws (2) Accelerated motion: free fall 5f. Motion about a center: planets, projectiles, pendulum (1) Determination of orbit, force, speed, time, and period (2) Perturbation of motion: the two and three body problems Basic concepts of mechanics 6a. Center of gravity: its determination for one or several bodies 6b. Weight and specific gravity 6c. Velocity, acceleration, and momentum: angular or rectilinear, average or instantaneous 6d. Theories of universal gravitation (1) The equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass (2) The relation of mass and gravitational force: the curvature of space (3) Action-at-a-distance: the field and medium of force 6e. Fields of force: the ideal of a unified field theory 6f. The parallelogram law: the composition of forces and the composition of velocities 6g. Work and energy: their conservation; perpetual motion; their relation to mass; the principle of least action The extension of mechanical principles to other phenomena 7a. Light: the corpuscular and the wave theory (1) The laws of reflection and refraction (2) The production of colors (3) The speed of light (4) The medium of light: the ether (5) The bending of light rays in a gravitational field (6) The Doppler effect 7b. Sound: the mechanical explanation of acoustic phenomena 7c. The theory of heat (1) The description of the phenomena of heat: the hypothesis of caloric (2) The measurement and the mathematical analysis of the quantities of heat 7d. Magnetism: the great magnet of the earth (1) Magnetic phenomena: coition, verticity, variation, dip (2) Magnetic force and magnetic fields 7c Electricity: electrostatics and electrodynamics (1) The source of electricity: the relation of the kinds of electricity (2) Electricity and matter: conduction, insulation, induction, electrochemical decomposition (3) The relation of electricity and magnetism: the electromagnetic field (4) The relation of electricity to heat and light: thermoelectricity (5) The measurement of electric quantities Quantum mechanics 8a. Electromagnetic radiation as produced in indivisible quanta: the quantum-mechanical explanation of atomic structure; stationary states 8b. The mathematical expression of quantum relations: correspondence, probability functions, matrices, wave mechanics, the wave-particle duality of light and matter

8c. Limitations on the knowledge of quantum phenomena: the interaction of the observer and experimental phenomena; the principle of uncertainty or indeterminacy 8d. The interpretation of quantum phenomena: complementarity; the problems of being and causation in quantum mechanics; the sufficiency of quantum theory as an explanation of reality 8e. The relation of quantum mechanics to the theory of relativity and to other empirical sciences

1. The profession of medicine, its aims and obligations: the relation of physician to patient; the place of the physician in society; medical ethics 2. The art of medicine 2a. The scientific foundations of the art of medicine: the contrast between the empiric and the artist in medicine 2b. The relation of art to nature in healing: imitation and cooperation 2c. The comparison of medicine with other arts and professions: the practice of magic; shamanism 3. The practice of medicine 3a. The application of rules of art to particular cases in medical practice 3b. General and specialized practice: treating the whole man or the isolated part 3c. Diagnosis and prognosis: the interpretation of symptoms; case histories 3d. The factors in prevention and therapy (1) Control of regimen: climate, diet, exercise, occupation, daily routine (2) Medication: drugs, specifics (3) Surgery 4. The concept of health: normal balance or harmony 5. The theory of disease 5a. The nature of disease 5b. The classification of diseases 5c. The disease process: onset, crisis, aftereffects 5d. The causes of disease: internal and external factors (1) The humoral hypothesis: temperamental dispositions (2) The psychogenesis of bodily disorders: hypochondria 5c. The moral and political analogues of disease 6. Mental disease or disorder: its causes and cure 6a. The distinction between sanity and insanity: the concept of mental health and the nature of madness 6b. The classification of mental diseases 6c. The process and causes of mental disorder (1) Somatic origins of mental disease (2) Functional origins of mental disease 6d. The treatment of functional disorders: psychotherapy as a branch of medicine 7. The historical and fictional record on disease and its treatment: epidemics, plagues, pestilences

LV. Medicine

LVI. Memory and Imagination
1. The faculties of memory and imagination in brutes and men 1a. The relation of memory and imagination to sense: the a priori grounds of possible experience in the synthesis of intuition, reproduction, and recognition 1b. The physiology of memory and imagination: their bodily organs 1c. The distinction and connection of memory and imagination: their interdependence 1d. The influence of memory and imagination on the emotions and will: voluntary movement 2. The activity of memory 2a. Retention: factors influencing its strength 2b. Recollection: factors influencing ease and adequacy of recall 2c. The association of ideas: controlled and free association; reminiscence and reverie 2d. Recognition with or without recall 2e. The scope and range of normal memory: failure or defect of memory and its causes (1) Forgetting as a function of the time elapsed (2) The obliviscence of the disagreeable: conflict and repression (3) Organic lesions: amnesia and the aphasias (4) False memories: illusions of memory; deja vu 3. Remembering as an act of knowledge and as a source of knowledge 3a. Reminiscence as the process of all learning: innate ideas or seminal reasons 3b. Sensitive and intellectual memory: knowledge of the past and the habit of knowledge 3c. The scientist's use of memory: collated memories as the source of generalized experience 3d. Memory as the muse of poetry and history: the dependence of history on the memory of men 4. The contribution of memory: the binding of time



7. 8.

4a. Memory in the life of the individual: personal identity and continuity 4b. Memory in the life of the group, race, or nation: instinct, legend, and tradition The activity of imagination, fancy, or fantasy: the nature and variety of images 5a. The distinction between reproductive and creative imagination: the representative image and the imaginative construct 5b. The image distinguished from the idea or concept: the concrete and particular as contrasted with the abstract and universal 5c. The pathology of imagination: hallucinations, persistent imagery The role of imagination in thinking and knowing 6a. Imagination as knowledge: its relation to possible and actual experience 6b. The effect of intellect on human imagination: the imaginative thinking of animals 6c. The dependence of rational thought and knowledge on imagination (1) The abstraction of ideas from images: the image as a condition of thought (2) The schema of the imagination as mediating between concepts of the understanding and the sensory manifold of intuition: the transcendental unity of apperception 6d. The limits of imagination: imageless thought; the necessity of going beyond imagination in the speculative sciences Imagination and the fine arts 7a. The use of imagination in the production and appreciation of works of art 7b. The fantastic and the realistic in poetry: the probable and the possible in poetry and history The nature and causes of dreaming 8a. Dreams as divinely inspired: their prophetic portent; divination through the medium of dreams 8b. The role of sensation and memory in the dreams of sleep 8c. The expression of desire in daydreaming or fantasy 8d. The symbolism of dreams (1) The manifest and latent content of dreams: the dreamwork (2) The recurrent use of specific symbols in dreams: the dream-language 8e. Dream-analysis as uncovering the repressed unconscious

1. Conceptions of the highest human science: dialectic, first philosophy, metaphysics, natural theology, transcendental philosophy 2. The analysis of the highest human science: the character of dialectical, metaphysical, or transcendental knowledge 2a. The distinctive objects or problems of the supreme science 2b. The nature of the concepts, abstractions, or principles of the highest science 2c. The method of metaphysics: the distinction between empirical and transcendental methods 2d. The distinction between a metaphysic of nature and a metaphysic of morals: the difference between the speculative treatment and the practical resolution of the metaphysical problems of God, freedom, and immortality 3. Metaphysics in relation to other disciplines 3a. The relation of metaphysics to theology 3b. The relation of metaphysics to mathematics, physics or natural philosophy, psychology, and the empirical sciences 3c. The relation of metaphysics to logic and dialectic 4. The criticism and reformation of metaphysics 4a. The dismissal or satirization of metaphysics as dogmatism or sophistry 4b. Reconstructions of metaphysics: critical philosophy as a propaedeutic to metaphysics



1. Diverse conceptions of the human mind 1a. Mind as intellect or reason, a part or power of the soul or human nature, distinct from sense and imagination (1) The difference between the acts of sensing and understanding, and the objects of sense and reason (2) The cooperation of intellect and sense: the dependence of thought upon imagination and the direction of imagination by reason (3) The functioning of intellect: the acts of understanding, judgment, and reasoning (4) The distinction of the active and the possible intellect in power and function 1b. Mind as identical with thinking substance (1) The relation of the mind as thinking substance to sense and imagination (2) Thinking and willing as the acts of the thinking substance 1c. Mind as a particular mode of that attribute to God which is thought (1) The origin of the human mind as a mode of thought (2) The properties of the human mind as a mode of thought 1d. Mind as soul or spirit, having the power to perform all cognitive and voluntary functions (1) The origin of the mind's simple ideas: sensation and reflection (2) The activity of the understanding in relating ideas: the formation of complex ideas 1e. Mind as a triad of cognitive faculties: understanding, judgment, reason (1) The relation of understanding to sense or intuition: its application in the realm of nature; conformity to law (2) The relation of judgment to pleasure and displeasure: its application in the realm of art; aesthetic finality (3) The relation of reason to desire or will: its application in the realm of freedom; the summum bonum

1f. Mind as intelligence or self-consciousness, knowing itself as universal: the unity of intellect and will 1g. Mind as the totality of mental processes and as the principle of meaningful or purposive behavior (1) The nature of the stream of thought, consciousness, or experience: the variety of mental operations (2) The topography of mind (3) The unity of attention and of consciousness: the selectivity of mind 2. The human mind in relation to matter or body 2a. The immateriality of mind: mind as an immaterial principle, a spiritual substance, or as an incorporeal power functioning without a bodily organ 2b. The potentiality of intellect or reason compared with the potentiality of matter or nature 2c. The interaction of mind and body (1) The physiological conditions of mental activity (2) The influence of mental activity on bodily states 2d. The parallelism of mind and body 2e. The reduction of mind to matter: the atomic explanation of its processes, and of the difference between mind and soul, and between mind and body 3. Mind in animals and in men 3a. Mind, reason, or understanding as a specific property of human nature: comparison of human reason with animal intelligence and instinct 3b. Mentality as a common property of men and animals: the differences between human and animal intelligence in degree or quality 3c. The evolution of mind or intelligence 4. The various states of the human mind 4a. Individual differences in intelligence: degrees of capacity for understanding 4b. The mentality of children 4c. The states of the possible intellect: its potentiality, habits, and actuality 4d. The condition of the mind prior to experience (1) The mind as completely potential: the mind as a tabula rasa (2) The innate endowment of the mind with ideas: instinctive determinations (3) The transcendental or a priori forms and categories of the mind 4e. The condition of the human mind when the soul is separate from the body 4f. Supernatural states of the human intellect: the state of innocence; beatitude; the human I intellect of Christ 5. The weakness and limits of the human mind 5a. The fallibility of the human mind: the causes of error 5b. The natural limits of the mind: the unknowable; objects which transcend its powers; reason's critical determination of its own limits or boundaries 5c. The elevation of the human mind by divine grace: faith and the supernatural gifts 6. The reflexivity of mind: the mind's knowledge of itself and its acts 7. The nature and phases of consciousness: the realm of the unconscious 7a. The nature of self-consciousness 7b. The degrees or states of consciousness: waking, dreaming, sleeping 7c. The conscious, preconscious, and unconscious activities of mind 8. The pathology of mind: the loss or abeyance of reason 8a. The distinction between sanity and madness: the criterion of lucidity or insight 8b. The causes of mental pathology: organic and functional factors 8c. The abnormality peculiar to mind: systematic delusion 9. Mind in the moral and political order 9a. The distinction between the speculative and practical intellect or reason: the spheres of knowledge, belief, and action 9b. The relation of reason to will, desire, and emotion 9c. Reason as regulating human conduct: reason as the principle of virtue or duty 9d. Reason as the principle of free will: rationality as the source of moral and political freedom 9e. Reason as formative of human society: the authority of government and law 9f. The life of reason, or the life of the mind, as man's highest vocation: reason as the principle of all human work 10. The existence of mind apart from man 10a. The indwelling reason in the order of nature 10b. Nous or the intellectual principle: its relation to the One and to the world-soul 10c. The realm of the pure intelligences: the angelic intellect 10d. The unity and separate existence of the active or the possible intellect 10e. Mind as an immediate infinite mode of God 10f. Absolute mind: the moments of its manifestations (1) The unfolding of mind or spirit in world history (2) The concrete objectification of mind in the state 10g. The divine intellect: its relation to the divine being and the divine will

1. The definition of monarchy and the classification of the types of kingship

LIX. Monarchy


3. 4.

5. 6.

1a. The distinction between royal and political government (1) Absolute or personal rule contrasted with constitutional government or rule by law (2) The theory of absolute government: the nature of absolute power; the rights and duties of the monarch; the radical inequality between ruler and ruled in absolute government 1b. Modifications of absolute monarchy: other embodiments of the monarchical principle (1) The combination of monarchy with other forms of government: the mixed regime (2) Constitutional or limited monarchy (3) The monarchical principle in the executive branch of republican government 1c. The principle of succession in monarchies The theory of royalty 2a. The divinity of kings 2b. The analogy between divine government and rule by the best man: the philosopher king 2c. The divine institution of kings: the theory of the divine right of kings 2d. The myth of the royal personage: the attributes of royalty and the burdens of monarchy The use and abuse of monarchical power 3a. The good king and the benevolent despot in the service of their subjects: the education of the prince 3b. The exploitation of absolute power for personal aggrandizement: the strategies of princes and tyrants Comparison of monarchy with other forms of government 4a. The patriarchical character of kingship: absolute rule in the family or tribe, and paternalism in the state 4b. The line which divides monarchy from despotism and tyranny 4c. The differences between kingdoms and republics with respect to unity, wealth, and extent of territory 4d. The defense of monarchy or royal rule (1) The necessity for absolute government (2) Monarchy as the best or most efficient of the several good forms of government (3) The preference for the mixed regime: defense of royal prerogatives as absolute in their sphere 4c. The attack on monarchy or absolute government (1) The paternalistic or despotic character of monarchy: the rejection of benevolent despotism; the advantages of constitutional safeguards (2) The justification of absolute rule or benevolent despotism for peoples incapable of self-government (3) The illegitimacy of absolute monarchy: the violation of the principle of popular sovereignty (4) The illegality of royal usurpations of power in a mixed regime: the limitations of royal prerogative in a constitutional monarchy The absolute government of colonies, dependencies, or conquered peoples 5a. The justification of imperial rule: the rights of the conqueror; the unifying and civilizing achievements of empire 5b. The injustice of imperialism: exploitation and despotism The history of monarchy: its origin and developments

1. Conceptions of nature 1a. Nature as the intrinsic source of a thing's properties and behavior (1) The distinction between essential and individual nature: generic or specific properties, and individual, contingent accidents (2) Nature or essence in relation to matter and form 1b. Nature as the universe or the totality of things: the identification of God and nature; the distinction between natura naturans and natura naturata 1c. Nature as the complex of the objects of sense: the realm of things existing under the determination of universal laws 2. The antitheses of nature or the natural 2a. Nature and art: the imitation of nature; cooperation with nature 2b. Nature and convention: the state of nature and the state of society 2c. Nature and nurture: the innate or native and the acquired; habit as second nature 2d. Natural and violent motion 2e. The natural and the unnatural or monstrous: the normal and the abnormal 2f. The order of nature and the order of freedom: the phenomenal and the noumenal worlds; the antithesis of nature and spirit 3. The order of nature 3a. The maxims and laws of nature: the rationality of nature; entropy 3b. Continuity and hierarchy in the order of nature 3c. Nature and causality (1) The distinction between the regular and the chance event: the uniformity of nature (2) The determinations of nature distinguished from the voluntary or free (3) Teleology in nature: the operation of final causes (4) Divine causality in relation to the course of nature: the preservation of nature; providence; miracles and magic 4. Knowledge of nature or the natural 4a. Nature or essence as an object of definition 4b. Nature in relation to diverse types of science: the theoretical and the practical sciences; natural philosophy or science, mathematics, and metaphysics

LX. Nature

4c. Nature as an object of history 5. Nature or the natural as the standard of the right and the good 5a. Human nature in relation to the good for man 5b. Natural inclinations and natural needs with respect to property and wealth 5c. The naturalness of the state and political obligation 5d. The natural as providing a canon of beauty for production or judgment 6. Nature in religion, theology, and poetry 6a. The personification or worship of nature 6b. Nature and grace in human life

LXI. Necessity and Contingency
1. The meaning of necessity and contingency: the possible and the impossible 2. Necessary and contingent being or existence 2a. The independent or unconditioned as the necessarily existent: the uncaused or self-caused; the identity of essence and existence 2b. The argument for the existence of a necessary being: the problem of logical and ontological necessity 2c. Mutability in relation to necessity in being 2d. The necessary and contingent with respect to properties, accidents, and modes 3. Necessity and contingency in the realm of change: chance and determinism 3a. The distinction between the essential and the accidental cause: the contingent effect; contingency and chance 3b. The necessity of contingent events: absolute and hypothetical or conditional necessity; necessitation by efficient or material and final or formal causes 3c. The grounds of contingency in the phenomenal order: real indeterminacy versus indeterminability 4. Necessity and contingency in the realm of thought 4a. The necessary as the domain of knowledge, the contingent as the object of opinion: certainty, doubt, and probability; necessary truths 4b. Practical necessity as a cause of belief 4c. The truth of judgments concerning future contingents 4d. Mathematical necessity: necessity in the objects of mathematics and in mathematical reasoning 4e. Necessity and contingency in logical analysis (1) The modality of propositions or judgments: modal opposition (2) Modality in reasoning: the logical necessity of inference; the necessity and contingency of premises and conclusions 5. Necessity and contingency in human life and society 5a. Liberty and necessity in human conduct: the voluntary and the compulsory (1) The necessitation of the will: the range of its freedom (2) Categorical and hypothetical imperatives as expressing necessary and contingent obligations (3) Human freedom as knowledge or acceptance of necessity 5b. The necessity of family and state: the contingency of their forms and institutions 5c. Necessity and contingency in relation to the natural and conventional in law 5d. The necessity or inevitability of slavery, poverty, war, or crime 5e. Economic necessities or luxuries 5f. Necessity and contingency in history

1. The oligarchic constitution: the principles and types of oligarchy 2. The relation of oligarchy to monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy 3. The instability of oligarchic government 3a. The revolutionary changes to which oligarchy is subject: the change to despotism or democracy 3b. The preservation of oligarchies against revolution 4. The defense of oligarchy: the political rights and privileges of property 5. The attack on oligarchy and on the political power of wealth 5a. The objection to property as a basis for privilege with regard to citizenship or public office 5b. The character of the oligarch: the man of property; the capitalist 5c. Economic status and power as a political instrument: oligarchy in relation to the class war 6. Historical observations of oligarchy: the rise and fall of oligarchies



1. The transcendental one: the Absolute; the unity of being, of nature, of the universe 1a. The relation of the one and the many: emanation of the many from the one 1b. The unity or duality of God and the world: the immanence and transcendence of God 1c. The one and the many in relation to the universal and the particular: the abstract and the concrete universal 2. The modes of unity: comparison of numerical, essential, and divine unity 2a. Numerical unity or identity: the number one

LXIII. One and Many





2b. The unity of the indivisible or the simple: the individual thing, the point, the atom, the quality 2c. The complex unity of a whole composed of parts: the distinction between the indivisible and the undivided Kinds of wholes or complex unities 3a. Quantitative wholes: oneness in matter or motion (1) The continuity of a quantitative whole (2) The unity and divisibility of a motion (3) The unity and divisibility of matter (4) The unity and divisibility of time and space 3b. Natural or essential wholes: the oneness of a being or a nature (1) The distinction between essential and accidental unity (2) The comparison of the unity of natural things with man-made compositions or aggregations: artificial wholes (3) The unity of a substance and of substantial form (4) The unity of man as composite of body and soul, matter and spirit, extension and thought (5) The unity of the human person or the self: the order of man's powers; the split personality Unity in the realm of mind: unity in thought or knowledge 4a. The unity of mind or intellect, the cognitive faculties, or consciousness 4b. The unity of sense-experience: the unity of attention; the transcendental unity of apperception 4c. Unity in thinking or understanding: the unity of complex ideas and definitions; the unity of the term, the judgment, and the syllogism 4d. The unity of science: the unity of particular sciences 4c. The one and the many, or the simple and the complex, as objects of knowledge: the order of learning with respect to wholes and parts 4f. The unity of knower and known, or of subject and object Unity in moral and political matters 5a. The unity of virtue and the many virtues 5b. The unity of the last end: the plurality of intermediate ends or means 5c. The unity of subjective will and objective morality in the ethical realm 5d. The unity of the family and the unity of the state: the limits of political or social unification 5c. The unity of sovereignty: its divisibility or indivisibility; the problem of federal union Unity in the supernatural order 6a. The unity and simplicity of God 6b. The unity of the Trinity 6c. The unity of the Incarnation

LXIV. Opinion
1. The different objects of knowledge and opinion: being and becoming; universal and particular; the necessary and the contingent 2. The difference between the acts and sources of knowing and opining 2a. The influence of the emotions on the formation of opinion: wishful thinking, rationalization, prejudice 2b. The will as cause of assent in acts of opinion 2c. Reasoning and argument concerning matters of opinion: comparison of demonstration and persuasion, principles and assumptions, axioms and postulates 3. Opinion, knowledge, and truth 3a. The truth of knowledge and of right opinion: their difference with respect to manner of acquisition, stability, and teachability 3b. Certain and probable, adequate and inadequate knowledge: degrees of certitude; modes of assent 3c. The skeptical reduction of human judgments to opinion 4. Opinion, belief, and faith 4a. Comparison of supernatural or religious faith with science and opinion 4b. Criticism of superstitious or dogmatic belief as opinion without foundation or warrant 5. Freedom in the sphere of opinion 5a. Rights and duties with respect to the expression of opinion 5b. Advantages and disadvantages of freedom of discussion: the role of a free press 6. Opinion in the realm of morals 6a. Good and evil as matters of opinion: moral standards as customs or conventions reflecting prevalent opinion 6b. The inexactitude of moral principles as applied to particular cases 7. The social and political significance of public opinion 7a. The value of the majority opinion: the distinction between matters to be determined by the expert or by a consensus 7b. Majority rule, its merits and dangers: protections against the false weight of numbers

1. Opposition in logic 1a. Kinds of opposition among terms: correlation, contrariety, privation, negation 1b. The analysis of contrariety: the kinds of terms which can be contrary; contrariety with and without intermediates between extremes





1c. The exclusiveness of opposites as a principle of logical division (1) Dichotomous division: positive and negative terms (2) Division of a genus by differentia: the contrariety of species 1d. The opposition of propositions or judgments (1) The square of opposition: contradictories, contraries, subcontraries (2) Modal opposition: the necessary and the contingent 1e. Opposition in reasoning and proof: the conflict of dialectical arguments; the antinomies of a transcendental dialectic The metaphysical significance of opposition 2a. Opposition as limiting coexistence: noncontradiction as a principle of being; the principle of complementarity 2b. Opposites in the realm of being, mind, or spirit: the one and the many; the dialectical triad of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis 2c. Nonbeing as the opposite of being 2d. The opposition of good and evil in the world and in relation to Godze. The reconciliation of opposites in the divine nature: the synthesis of all contraries in the Absolute Opposition in the realm of physical nature 3a. The contraries as principles of change 3b. Contrariety of quality in the theory of the elements or humors 3c. The opposition of motion and rest, and of contrary motions 3d. The opposition of physical forces and its resolution 3c The struggle for existence: the competition of species Opposition or conflict in the psychological and moral order 4a. The conflict of reason and the passions 4b. Conflicting emotions, humors, instincts, or habits 4c. Conflict as the cause of repression and as a factor in neurotic disorders 4d. The conflict of loves and loyalties, desires and duties 4e. Conflict in human life: opposed types of men and modes of life Conflict in society and history 5a. Competition in commerce and the rivalry of factions in politics 5b. The class war: the opposition of the rich and the poor, the propertied and the property-less, capital and labor, producers and consumers 5c. The inevitability of civil strife and war between states: the means of settling disputes 5d. Opposition or strife as a productive principle or source of progress

LXVI. Philosophy
1. The definition and scope of philosophy 1a. The relation of philosophy to theology or religion 1b. The relation of philosophy to mathematics 1c. The relation of philosophy to experimental or empirical science 1d. The relation of philosophy to myth, poetry, and history 2. The divisions of philosophy 2a. The distinction between theoretical or speculative and practical or moral philosophy: the distinction between natural and civil philosophy 2b. The branches of speculative philosophy: the divisions of natural philosophy 2c. The nature and branches of practical or moral philosophy: economics, ethics, politics, jurisprudence; poetics or the theory of art 3. The method of philosophy 3a. The foundations of philosophy in experience and common sense 3b. The philosopher's appeal to first principles and to definitions 3c. The processes of philosophical thought: induction, intuition, definition, demonstration, reasoning, analysis, and synthesis 3d. The methodological reformation of philosophy: the role of language in philosophy 4. The uses of philosophy 4a. Diverse conceptions of the aim, function, and value of philosophy 4b. The philosophic mode of life: contemplation and happiness 4c. Philosophy as a moral discipline: the consolation of philosophy 4d. The social role of philosophy: the philosopher and the statesman; the philosopher king 5. The character and training of the philosopher: the difficulty of being a philosopher 6. Praise and dispraise of the philosopher and his work 6a. The philosopher as a man of science or wisdom: the love and search for truth 6b. The philosopher as a man of opinion: sophistry and dogmatism, idle disputation, perpetual controversy 6c. The philosopher as a man of reason: the limits of reason; its supplementation by experience or faith 6d. The philosopher as a man of theory or vision: neglect of the practical; withdrawal from the affairs of men and the marketplace 7. Observations on the history of philosophy: the lives of the philosophers in relation to their thought

LXVII. Physics

1. Physics as the general theory of becoming and the order of nature or change: philosophical physics, the philosophy of nature, pure or rational physics 1a. The relation of the philosophy of nature to metaphysics and dialectic 1b. The relation of the philosophy of nature to mathematics: mathematical method and mathematical principles in natural philosophy 2. Experimental physics and the empirical natural sciences: the relation of experimental and philosophical physics 2a. The derivation of definitions, distinctions, and principles from the philosophy of nature: the metaphysics of the scientist 2b. The treatment of causes in philosophical and empirical physics: description and explanation, theory and prediction 3. Mathematical physics: observation and measurement in relation to mathematical formulations 4. The experimental method in the study of nature 4a. The distinction between simple observation and experimentation: the art of creating ideal or isolated physical systems 4b. Experimental discovery: inductive generalization from experiment; the role of theory or hypothesis in experimentation 4c. Experimental testing and verification: the crucial experiment 4d. Experimental measurement: the relation between the observer and the phenomena; the application of mathematical formulas 5. The utility of physics: the invention of machines; the techniques of engineering; the mastery of nature 6. The history of the revolution in physics: the special and general theories of relativity; quantum mechanics

1. 2. 3. 4. The The The The

Pleasure and pain

nature of pleasure and pain causes of pleasure and pain effects or concomitants of pleasure and pain kinds of pleasure and pain: different qualities of pleasure 4a. The pleasant and unpleasant in the sphere of emotion: joy and sorrow, delight and grief 4b. Sensuous pleasure: the affective quality of sensations 4c. Intellectual pleasure: the pleasures of reflection and contemplation (1) Pleasure in the beauty of nature or art: disinterested pleasure (2) The pleasure and pain of learning and knowledge 4d. The pleasures of play and diversion 4e. The kinds of pain: the pain of sense and the pain of loss or deprivation 5. The quantity of pleasure: the weighing of pleasures; the limits of pleasure 6. Pleasure and the good 6a. Pleasure as the only good or as the measure of goodness in all other things 6b. Pleasure as one good among many: pleasure as one object of desire 6c. Good and bad pleasures: higher and lower pleasures 6d. Pleasure as the accompaniment of goods possessed: the satisfaction of desire 6e. Pleasure as intrinsically evil or morally indifferent 7. Pleasure and happiness: their distinction and relation 7a. Pleasure and pain in relation to love and friendship 7b. The life of pleasure contrasted with other modes of life: the ascetic life 8. The discipline of pleasure 8a. Pleasure and pain in relation to virtue: the restraints of temperance and the endurance of courage 8b. The conflict between pleasure and duty, or the obligations of justice: the pleasure principle and the reality principle 8c. Perversions or degradations in the sphere of pleasure and pain: sadism and masochism 9. The regulation of pleasures by law 10. The social utility of pleasure and pain 10a. The employment of pleasure and pain by parent or teacher in moral and mental training 10b. The use of pleasure and pain by orator or statesman in persuasion and government

1. The nature of poetry: its distinction from other arts 1a. The theory of poetry as imitation: the enjoyment of imitation 1b. The object, medium, and manner of imitation in poetry and other arts 2. The origin and development of poetry: the materials of myth and legend 3. The inspiration or genius of the poet: the role of experience and imagination; the influence of the poetic tradition 4. The major kinds of poetry: their comparative excellence 4a. Epic and dramatic poetry 4b. Tragedy and comedy: the theater 5. Poetry in relation to knowledge 5a. The aim of poetry to instruct as well as to delight: the pretensions or deceptions of the poet as teacher 5b. Poetry contrasted with history and philosophy: the dispraise and defense of the poet 6. Poetry and emotion 6a. The expression of emotion in poetry

LXIX. Poetry

6b. The arousal and purgation of the emotions by poetry: the catharsis of pity and fear 7. The elements of poetic narrative 7a. Plot: its primacy; its construction 7b. The role of character: its relation to plot 7c. Thought and diction as elements of poetry 7d. Spectacle and song in drama 8. The science of poetics: rules of art and principles of criticism 8a. Critical standards and artistic rules with respect to narrative structure (1) The poetic unities: comparison of epic and dramatic unity (2) Poetic truth: verisimilitude or plausibility; the possible, the probable, and the necessary (3) The significance of recognitions and reversals in the development of plot 8b. Critical standards and artistic rules with respect to the language of poetry: the distinction between prose and verse; the measure of excellence in style 8c. The interpretation of poetry and myth 9. The moral and political significance of poetry 9a. The influence of poetry on mind and character: its role in education 9b. The issue concerning the censorship of poetry

1. Principles in the order of reality 1a. The differentiation of principle, element, and cause 1b. The being, number, and kinds of principles in the order of reality 1c. The metaphysical significance of the principles of thought 2. The kinds of principles in the order of knowledge 2a. The origin of knowledge in simple apprehensions (1) Sensations or ideas as principles (2) Definitions as principles (3) Indefinables as principles of definition 2b. Propositions or judgments as principles (1) Immediate truths of perception: direct sensitive knowledge of appearances; evident particular facts (2) Immediate truths of understanding: axioms or self-evident truths; a priori judgments as principles (3) Constitutive and regulative principles: the maxims of reason 3. First principles or axioms in philosophy, science, dialectic 3a. Principles and demonstration (1) The indemonstrability of axioms: natural habits of the mind (2) The indirect defense of axioms (3) The dependence of demonstration on axioms: the critical application of the principles of identity and contradiction 3b. Principles and induction: axioms as intuitive inductions from experience; stages of inductive generalization 3c. Axioms in relation to postulates, hypotheses, or assumptions (1) The distinction between first principles in general, or common notions, and the principles of a particular subject matter or science (2) The difference between axioms and assumptions, hypotheses and principles, as a basis for the distinction between knowledge and opinion, or science and dialectic (3) The distinction and order of the sciences according to the character of their principles 4. First principles in the practical order: the principles of action or morality; the principles of the practical reason 4a. Ends as principles, and the last ends as first principles: right appetite as a principle in 1 the practical order 4b. The natural moral law and the categorical imperative 5. The skeptical denial of first principles or axioms: the denial that any propositions elicit the universal assent of mankind

1. The idea of progress in the philosophy of history 1a. Providence and necessity in the theory of progress: the dialectical development of Spirit or matter; conflict as a source of progress 1b. Optimism or meliorism: the doctrine of human perfectibility 1c. Skeptical or pessimistic denials of progress: the golden age as past; the cyclical motion of history; the degeneration of cultures 2. The idea of progress in the theory of biological evolution 3. Economic progress 3a. The increase of opulence: the division of labor as a factor in progress 3b. The improvement of the status and conditions of labor: the goals of revolution and reform 3c. Man's progressive conquest of the forces of nature through science and invention 4. Progress in politics 4a. The invention and improvement of political institutions: the maintenance of political order in relation to progress

LXXI. Progress

4b. The progressive realization of the idea of the state 4c. The growth of political freedom: the achievement of citizenship and civil rights; progress toward an equality of conditions 5. Forces operating against social progress: emotional opposition to change or novelty; political conservatism 6. Intellectual or cultural progress: its sources and impediments; the analogy of cultural progress to biological evolution 6a. Progress in the arts 6b. Progress in philosophy and in the sciences 6c. The use and criticism of the intellectual tradition: the sifting of truth from error; the reaction against the authority of the past 6d. Plans for the advancement of learning and the improvement of method in the arts and sciences 6e. Freedom of expression and discussion as indispensable to the progressive discovery of the truth

LXXII. Prophecy
1. The nature and power of prophecy 1a. Prophecy as the reading of fate, the foretelling of fortune, the beholding of the future 1b. Prophecy as supernaturally inspired foresight into the course of providence 1c. Prophecy as the instrument of providence: prophets as moral teachers and political reformers 1d. The religious significance of the fulfillment of prophecy 2. The vocation of prophecy: the possession of foreknowledge 2a. The foreknowledge possessed by the spirits in the afterworld 2b. The political office of prophecy: priests, soothsayers, oracleszc. The Hebraic conception of the prophetic vocation: the law and the prophets; Christ as prophet 3. The varieties of prophecy and the instruments of divination 3a. The institution of oracles: the interpretation of oracular or prophetic utterances 3b. Omens and portents: celestial and terrestrial signs; signs as confirmations of prophecy 3c. Dreams, visions, visitations 3d. Prophecy by the direct word of God 4. Particular prophecies 4a. The Covenant and the Promised Land 4b. The destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of Israel: the restoration of Israel and the rebuilding of the Temple 4c. The coming of a Messiah: Hebraic and Christian readings of messianic prophecy 4d. The second coming of the Lord: the Day of Judgment, the end of the world, and the millennium 4e. Predictions of the future as secular prophecies 5. The criticism and rejection of prophecy: the distinction between true and false prophecy; the condemnation of astrology and divination as impiety or superstition

1. The nature of prudence: as practical wisdom, as a virtue or quality of the deliberative mind 2. The place of prudence among the virtues of the mind 2a. Practical or political wisdom distinguished from speculative or philosophical wisdom 2b. Prudence distinguished from art: action or doing contrasted with production or making 2c. The relation of prudence to intuitive reason or to the understanding of the natural law: the moral perception of particulars 3. The interdependence of prudence and the moral virtues: the parts played by deliberation, will, and emotion in human conduct 3a. Moral virtue as determining the end for which prudence makes a right choice of means: right desire as the standard of practical truth 3b. Prudence as a factor in the formation and maintenance of moral virtue: the determination of the relative or subjective mean 3c. Shrewdness or cleverness as the counterfeit of prudence: the abuses of casuistry 3d. Prudence, continence, and temperance 3c. The vices of imprudence: precipitance and undue caution 4. The sphere of prudence 4a. The confinement of prudence to the things within our power 4b. The restriction of prudence to the consideration of means rather than ends 5. The nature of a prudent judgment 5a. The conditions of prudent choice: counsel, deliberation, judgment 5b. The acts of the practical reason in matters open to choice: decision and command, leading to execution or use 5c. The maxims of prudence 6. Prudence in relation to the common good of the community 6a. Political prudence: the prudence of the prince or statesman, of the subject or citizen 6b. Jurisprudence: prudence in the determination of laws and the adjudication of cases



1. The general theory of punishment

1a. The nature of punishment: the pain of sense and the pain of loss; the effects of incarceration 1b. The retributive purpose of punishment: the lex talionis; retaliation and revenge; the righting of a wrong 1c. Punishment for the sake of reforming the wrongdoer 1d. The preventive use of punishment: the deterrence of wrongdoing 2. Personal responsibility as a condition of just punishment: the problem of collective responsibility 2a. Free will in relation to responsibility and punishment: voluntariness in relation to guilt or fault; the accidental, the negligent, and the intentional 2b. Sanity, maturity, and moral competence in relation to responsibility 3. Punishment in relation to virtue and vice 3a. Rewards and punishments as factors in the formation of moral character 3b. Vice its own punishment 3c. Guilt, repentance, and the moral need for punishment 4. Crime and punishment: punishment as a political instrument 4a. Punishment for lawbreaking as a necessary sanction of law 4b. The forms of punishment available to the state (1) The death penalty (2) Exile or ostracism: imprisonment or incarceration (3) Enforced labor or enslavement (4) Cruel and unusual punishments: torture and oppression 4c. The justice of legal punishment: the conventionality of the punishments determined by positive law 4d. Grades of severity in punishment: making the punishment fit the crime 5. The punishment for sin 5a. The origin and fulfillment of curses 5b. The wages of sin: the punishment of original sin 5c. The pain of remorse and the torment of conscience: the atonement for sin 5d. The modes of divine punishment: here and hereafter, temporal and eternal 5c The justice of divine punishment (1) The justification of eternal suffering in hell or hades (2) The necessity of expiation in purgatory 6. Pathological motivations with respect to punishment: abnormal sense of sin or guilt; perverse desires to inflict or suffer punishment

1. The nature and existence of qualities: the relation of quality to substance or matter; the transcendental categories of quality 2. The kinds of quality 2a. Sensible and nonsensible qualities: habits, dispositions, powers or capacities, and affective qualities; essential and accidental qualities 2b. Primary and secondary qualities: the related distinction of proper and common sensibles 3. Quality and quantity 3a. The distinction between quality and quantity: its relation to the distinction between secondary and primary qualities 3b. Shape or figure as qualified quantity 3c. The degrees or amounts of a quality: intensity and extensity; the quantitative conditions of variation in quality3d. The priority of quality or quantity in relation to form, matter, or substance 4. The relation of qualities to one another 4a. Qualities which imply correlatives 4b. The contrariety of qualities: with or without intermediate degrees 4c. The similarity of things with respect to quality: likeness and unlikeness in quality 5. Change of quality: the analysis of alteration 6. Qualities as objects of knowledge 6a. Quality in relation to definition or abstraction 6b. The perception of qualities 6c. The objectivity of sense-qualities: the comparative objectivity of primary and secondary qualities

LXXV. Quality

1. The nature and existence of quantity: its relation to matter, substance, and body; the transcendental categories of quantity 1a. The relation between quantity and quality: reducibility of quality to quantity 1b. The relation of quantities: equality and proportion 2. The kinds of quantity: continuous and discontinuous 3. The magnitudes of geometry: the relations of dimensionality 3a. Straight lines: their length and their relations; angles, perpendiculars, parallels 3b. Curved lines: their kinds, number, and degree (1) Circles (2) Ellipses (3) Parabolas (4) Hyperbolas


3c. The relations of straight and curved lines: tangents, secants, asymptotes 3d. Surfaces (1) The measurement and transformation of areas (2) The relations of surfaces to lines and solids 3c. Solids: regular and irregular (1) The determination of volume (2) The relations of solids: inscribed and circumscribed spheres; solids of revolution 4. Discrete quantities: number and numbering 4a. The kinds of numbers: odd-even, square-triangular, prime-composite 4b. The relations of numbers to one another: multiples and fractions; series of numbers 4c. The number series as a continuum: positive and negative numbers; imaginary numbers 5. Physical quantities 5a. Space: the matrix of figures and distances 5b. Time: the number of motion 5c. The quantity of motion: momentum, velocity, acceleration 5d. Mass: its relation to weight 5e. Force: its measure and the measure of its effect 6. The measurements of quantities: the relation of magnitudes and multitudes; the units of measurement 6a. Commensurable and incommensurable magnitudes 6b. Mathematical procedures in measurement: superposition, congruence; ratio and proportion; parameters and coordinates 6c. Physical procedures in measurement: experiment and observation; clocks, rules, balances 7. Infinite quantity: the actual infinite and the potentially infinite quantity; the mathematical and physical infinite of the great and the small

1. Definitions or descriptions of reasoning: the process of thought 1a. Human reasoning compared with the reasoning of animals 1b. Discursive reasoning contrasted with immediate intuition 1c. The role of sense, memory, and imagination in reasoning: perceptual inference, rational reminiscence, the collation of images 2. The rules of reasoning: the theory of the syllogism 2a. The structure of a syllogism: its figures and moods (1) The number of premises and the number of terms: the middle term in reasoning (2) Affirmation, negation, and the distribution of the middle term: the quantity and the quality of the premises 2b. The kinds of syllogism: categorical, hypothetical, disjunctive, modal 2c. The connection of syllogisms: sorites, prosyllogisms and episyllogisms 3. The truth and cogency of reasoning 3a. Formal and material truth: logical validity distinguished from factual truth 3b. Lack of cogency in reasoning: invalid syllogisms; formal fallacies 3c. Lack of truth in reasoning: sophistical arguments; material fallacies 3d. Necessity and contingency in reasoning: logical necessity; certainty and probability 4. The types of reasoning, inference, or argument 4a. Immediate inference: its relation to mediated inference or reasoning 4b. The direction and uses of reasoning: the distinction between proof and inference, and between demonstration and discovery 4c. Inductive and deductive reasoning 4d. Direct and indirect argumentation: proof by reductio ad absurdum; argument from the impossible or ideal case 4e. Refutation: disproof 4f. Reasoning by analogy: arguments from similarity 5. Reasoning in relation to knowledge, opinion, and action 5a. The fact and the reasoned fact: mere belief distinguished from belief on rational grounds 5b. Scientific reasoning: the theory of demonstration (1) The indemonstrable as a basis for demonstration (2) Definitions used as means in reasoning: definitions as the ends of reasoning (3) A priori and a posteriori reasoning: from causes or from effects; from principles or from experience; analysis and synthesis (4) The role of causes in demonstration and scientific reasoning (5) Demonstration in relation to essence and existence: demonstrations propter quid and quia 5c. Dialectical reasoning: the opposition of rational arguments 5d. Rhetorical reasoning: the rational grounds of persuasion 5e. Practical reasoning (1) The form of the practical syllogism (2) Deduction and determination in legal thought (3) Deliberation: the choice of alternative means; decision



6. The character of reasoning in the various disciplines 6a. Proof in metaphysics and theology 6b. Demonstration in mathematics: analysis and synthesis; mathematical induction or recursive reasoning 6c. Inductive and deductive inference in the philosophy of nature and the natural sciences 6d. Induction and demonstration in the moral sciences



1. The general theory of relation 1a. The nature and being of relations: the distinction between real and logical or ideal relations 1b. The effect of relations on the nature and being of things: internal and external relations 1c. The coexistence of correlatives 1d. Relational unity or identity of relation: the notion and use of analogy or proportionality 2. Order and relation in God: the divine processions and the relations constituting the Trinity of persons 3. The relation of God to the world: divine immanence and transcendence 4. Relation in the order of thought or knowledge 4a. The definability or indefinability of relative terms 4b. The proposition or judgment as a statement of relation: relation in reasoning 4c. The transcendental categories of relation 4d. Relations as objects of knowledge: ideas of relation 4e. The relations between ideas 4f. The types of relationship underlying the association of ideas in thought, memory, and dreams 5. Order as a system of relationships or related things 5a. The nature and types of order: inclusion and exclusion; succession and coexistence; priority, posteriority, and simultaneity (1) The order of the causes or of cause and effect (2) The order of goods or of means and ends: the order of loves (3) The order of quantities: the types of proportion; series of numbers (4) The order of kinds: hierarchy; species and genus 5b. The order of the universe or of nature: the hierarchy of beings 5c. Order as a principle of beauty 6. The absolute and the relative modes of consideration 6a. Absolute and relative with respect to space, time, motion 6b. Absolute and relative with respect to truth 6c. Absolute and relative with respect to goodness or beauty

1. Faith as the foundation of religion: other accounts of the origin of religion 1a. The nature, cause, and conditions of faith: its specific objects 1b. The sources of religious belief (1) Revelation: the word of God and divine authority; the denial of religion in the name of revelation (2) Miracles and signs as divine confirmation (3) The testimony of prophets: the anointed of God 2. The virtue and practice of religion: piety as justice to God 2a. Prayer and supplication: their efficacy 2b. Worship and adoration: the rituals and ceremonials of religion 2c. The nature, institution, and uses of the sacraments 2d. Sacrifices and propitiations 2e. Fasting and almsgiving 2f. Purificatory rites: the remission of sin by baptism and penance; the concept of regeneration 2g. Religious hypocrisy: profanations and sacrileges 3. The religious life: religious offices and the religious community 3a. The Jewish conception of the religious community: the Torah and the Temple 3b. The Christian conception of the church: the doctrine of the mystical body of Christ 3c. The social institutions of religion: religious vocations (1) The institution of the priesthood and other ecclesiastical offices (2) Ecclesiastical government and hierarchy (3) The support of ecclesiastical institutions: tithes, contributions, state subsidy 3d. The monastic life: the disciplines of asceticism 4. Church and state: the relation between religion and secular factors in society 4a. Religion in relation to forms of government: the theocratic state 4b. The service of religion to the state and the political support of religion by the state 5. The dissemination of religion 5a. The function of preaching 5b. Religious conversion

5c. Religious education 6. Truth and falsity in religion 6a. The religious condemnation of idolatry, magic, sorcery, or witchcraft; denunciations of superstition 6b. Religious apologetics: the defense of faith 6c. The unity and tradition of a religion (1) The role of dogma in religion: orthodoxy and heresy; the treatment of heretics (2) Sects and schisms arising from divergences of belief and practice 6d. The world religions: the relation between people of diverse faiths; the attitude of the faithful toward infidels 6e. Religious liberty: freedom of conscience; religious toleration 6f. The rejection of supernatural foundations for religion: the criticism of particular belief and practices; the psychogenesis of religion 6g. The relation of religion to the arts and sciences: the impact of secularization 6h. Religion as myth: neither true nor false 7. Observations in history and literature concerning religious beliefs, institutions, and controversies

1. The nature of revolution 1a. The issue concerning violent and peaceful means for accomplishing social, political, or economic change 1b. The definition of treason or sedition: the revolutionist as a treasonable conspirator 1c. Revolution and counterrevolution: civil strife distinguished from war between states : 2. The nature of political revolutions 2a. Change in the form of government or constitution 2b. Change in the persons holding power: deposition, assassination, usurpation 2c. Change in the extent of the state or empire: dissolution, secession, liberation, freedom 3. The process of political revolution 3a. The aims of political revolution: the seizure of power; the attainment of liberty, justice, equality 3b. Ways of retaining power: the suppression and subversion of revolutions by tyrants, despots, and totalitarian states 3c. The causes and effects of revolution under different forms of government (1) Revolution in monarchies (2) Revolution in republics: aristocracies, oligarchies, and democracies (3) Rebellion against tyranny and despotism 4. The nature of economic revolutions 4a. Change in the condition of the oppressed or exploited: the emancipation of slaves, serfs, proletariat 4b. Change in the economic order: modification or overthrow of a system of production and distribution 5. The strategy of economic revolution 5a. Revolution as an expression of the class struggle: rich and poor, nobles and commons, owners and workers 5b. The organization of a revolutionary class: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as revolutionary classes in relation to different economic systems 5c. The classless society as the goal of economic revolution: the transformation of the state 6. The justice of revolution 6a. The right of rebellion: the circumstances justifying civil disobedience or violent insurrection 6b. The right to abrogate the social contract or to secede from a federation 7. Empire and revolution: the justification of colonial rebellion and the defense of imperialism

LXXX. Revolution

1. The nature and scope of rhetoric 1a. The distinction of rhetoric from dialectic and sophistry: the rhetorician and the philosopher 1b. The relation of rhetoric to grammar, logic, and psychology 1c. The relation of rhetoric to the arts of government: the orator and the statesman 2. The function of rhetoric in expository, speculative, and poetic discourse 2a. The devices of rhetoric: figures of speech; the extension and contraction of discourse 2b. The canon of excellence in style 2c. Methods of exposition in history, science, philosophy, and theology 2d. Principles of interpretation: the modes of meaning 3. The role of rhetoric as concerned with persuasion in the sphere of action: the analysis of oratory 3a. The kinds of oratory: deliberative, forensic, epideictic 3b. The structure of an oration: the order of its parts 3c. The use of language for persuasion: oratorical style 4. The means of persuasion: the distinction between artistic and inartistic means 4a. The orator's consideration of character and of the types of audience: the significance of his own character 4b. The orator's treatment of emotion: his display of emotion; the arousal of his audience 4c. Rhetorical argument: the distinction between persuasion and demonstration (1) Rhetorical induction: the use of examples (2) Rhetorical proof: the use of enthymemes


5. 6. 7. 8.

(3) The topics or commonplaces which are the source of premises: the orator's knowledge of various subject matters The evaluation of oratory and the orator: the justification of rhetorical means by the end of success in persuasion 5a. The purpose of oratory and the exigencies of truth 5b. The orator's concern with justice, law, and the good: the moral virtue of the orator The education of the orator: the schools of rhetoric The history of oratory: its importance under various social conditions and in different forms of government Examples of excellence in oratory

1. The principle of identity: the relation of a thing to itself 1a. Oneness in number or being: numerical diversity or otherness 1b. The identity of the changing yet enduring individual: personal identity, the continuity of self; the denial of identity in the realm of change 2. The sameness of things numerically diverse 2a. The being of sameness or similitude: the reality of kinds or universals 2b. The relation between sameness and unity: sameness as a participation in the one 2c. The distinction between sameness and similarity and their opposites, diversity and difference: the composition of sameness and diversity; degrees of likeness and difference; the similarity of family resemblances 2d. The distinction of things in terms of their diversities and differences: real and logical distinctions 2e. The limits of otherness: the impossibility of utter diversity 3. The modes of sameness and otherness or diversity 3a. Essential sameness or difference and accidental sameness or difference (1) Specific and generic sameness: natural and logical genera (2) The otherness of species in a genus: the diversity of contraries (3) Generic otherness or heterogeneity 3b. Relational sameness: sameness by analogy or proportional similitude 3c. Sameness in quality, or likeness: variations in degree of the same quality 3d. Sameness in quantity, or equality: kinds of equality 4. Sameness and diversity in the order of knowledge 4a. Likeness or sameness between knower and known: knowledge as involving imitation, intentionality, or representation 4b. The role of differentiation in definition: the diversity of differences 4c. Sameness and diversity in the meaning of words or the significance of terms: the univocal and the equivocal 5. The principle of likeness in love and friendship 6. Similitude between God and creatures: the degree and character of the similitude; traces or images of God in creatures


Same and other

1. Conceptions of science 1a. Science as a philosophical discipline: certain or perfect knowledge (1) The intellectual virtue of science: its relation to understanding and wisdom (2) The division and hierarchy of the philosophical sciences 1b. Science as the discipline of experimental inquiry and the organization of experimental knowledge: the scientific spirit (1) The utility of science: the applications of experimental knowledge in the mastery of nature; machinery and inventions (2) The effects of science on human life: the economic and social implications of technology 1c. The issue concerning science and philosophy: the distinction and relation between experimental and philosophical science, or between empirical and rational science; the limitations of empirical science 2. The relation of science to other kinds of knowledge 2a. The relation between science and religion: the conception of sacred theology as a science 2b. The comparison of science with poetry and history 3. The relation of science to action and production 3a. The distinction between theoretical and practical science: the character of ethics, politics, economics, and jurisprudence as sciences 3b. The distinction between pure and applied science: the relation of science to the useful arts 4. The nature of scientific knowledge 4a. The principles of science: facts, definitions, axioms, hypotheses, unifying theories 4b. The objects of science: the essential and necessary; the sensible and measurable; the abstract and universal 4c. The role of cause in science: explanation and description as aims of scientific inquiry 4d. The generality of scientific formulations: universal laws of nature; the principle of relativity 4e. The certitude and probability or the finality and tentativeness of scientific conclusions: the adequacy of scientific theories 5. Scientific method 5a. The role of experience: observation and experiment 5b. Techniques of exploration and discovery: the ascertainment of fact



5c. The use of mathematics in science: calculation and measurement 5d. Induction and deduction in the philosophy of nature and natural science 5e. The use of hypotheses and constructed models: prediction and verification 6. The development of the sciences 6a. The technical conditions of scientific progress: the invention of scientific instruments or apparatus 6b. The place of science in society: the social conditions favorable to the advancement of science 7. The evaluation of science 7a. The praise of science by comparison with opinion, superstition, magic 7b. The satirization of science and scientists: the foibles of science 7c. The use of science for good or evil: the limitations of science

1. The nature of sense 1a. The power of sense as distinct from the power of understanding or reason 1b. Sense and intellect in relation to becoming and being, particulars and universals 1c. The distinction between perception or intuition and judgment or reasoning: the transcendental forms of intuition 1d. Sense perception as a primary function of the mind or understanding: sensations as received impressions; the distinction between sensation and reflection, ideas and notions, percepts and concepts 2. Sensitivity in relation to the grades of life 2a. The differentiation of animals from plants in terms of sensitivity 2b. The degrees of sensitivity in the animal kingdom: the genetic order of the several senses 2c. Comparisons of human and animal sensitivity 3. The analysis of the power of sense: its organs and activities 3a. The anatomy and physiology of the senses: the special sense organs, nerves, brain 3b. The distinction between the exterior and interior senses (1) Enumeration of the exterior senses: their relation and order (2) Enumeration of the interior senses: their dependence on the exterior senses 3c. The activity of the exterior senses (1) The functions of the exterior senses: the nature and origin of sensations (2) The attributes of sensation: intensity, extensity, affective tone; the psychophysical law (3) The classification of sensations or sense-qualities: proper and common sensibles; primary and secondary qualities (4) The distinction between sensation and perception: the accidental sensible; complex ideas of substance (5) Sensation and attention: preperception and apperception; the transcendental unity of apperception 3d. The activity of the interior senses (1) The functions of the common sense: discrimination, comparison, association, collation or perception (2) Memory and imagination as interior powers of sense (3) The estimative or cogitative power: instinctive recognition of the harmful and beneficial 3e. The relation of sense to emotion, will, and movement: the conception of a sensitive appetite 4. The character of sensitive knowledge 4a. Comparison of sensitive with other forms of knowledge 4b. The object of sense perception: the evident particular fact; judgments of perception and judgments of experience 4c. The relation of sense and the sensible: the subjectivity or objectivity of sense-qualities 4d. The limit, accuracy, and reliability of sensitive knowledge: the fallibility of the senses (1) The erroneous interpretation of sense-data: the problem of judgments based on sensation (2.) Error in sense perception: illusions and hallucinations 5. The contribution of the senses to scientific or philosophical knowledge 5a. Sensation as the source or occasion of ideas: the role of memory or reminiscence; the construction of complex ideas; the abstraction of universal concepts 5b. Sense-experience as the origin of inductions 5c. The dependence of understanding or reason upon sense for knowledge of particulars: verification by appeal to the senses 6. The role of sense in the perception of beauty: the beautiful and the pleasing to sense; sensible and intelligible beauty



1. The theory of signs 1a. The distinction between natural and conventional signs 1b. The intentions of the mind: ideas and images as natural signs 1c. The things of nature functioning symbolically: the book of nature 1d. The conventional notations of human language: man's need for words 1e. The invention and use of nonverbal symbols: money, titles, seals, ceremonies, courtesies 1f. Natural signs as the source of meaning in conventional signs: thought as the medium through which words signify things 2. The modes of signification 2a. The first and second imposition of words: names signifying things and names signifying names


Sign and Symbol





2b. The first and second intention of names: words signifying things and words signifying ideas 2c. Intrinsic and extrinsic denominations: the naming of things according to their natures or by reference to their relations 2d. Proper and common names 2e. Abstract and concrete names The patterns of meaning in human discourse 3a. Verbal ambiguity: indefiniteness or multiplicity of meaning 3b. The distinction between univocal and equivocal speech 3c. The types of equivocation (1) The same word used literally and figuratively: metaphors derived from analogies or proportions and from other kinds of similitude (2) The same word used with varying degrees of generality and specificity: the broad and narrow meaning of a word (3) The same word used to signify an attribute and its cause or effect 3d. The significance of names predicated of heterogeneous things: the analogical as intermediate between the univocal and the equivocal The determination of meaning in science, philosophy, and poetry 4a. The relation between univocal meaning and definition 4b. The dependence of demonstration on univocal terms: formal fallacies due to equivocation 4c. The nature and utility of semantic analysis: the rectification of ambiguity; the clarification and precision of meanings 4d. The use of symbols, metaphors, and myths in science, philosophy, and poetry 4e. The use of signs in reasoning: necessary and probable signs; the use of mathematical symbols; the interpretation of symptoms in medicine Symbolism in theology and religion 5a. Natural things as signs of divinity 5b. Supernatural signs: omens, portents, visitations, dreams, miracles 5c. The symbolism of the sacraments and of sacramental or ritualistic acts 5d. The symbolism of images and numbers in theology 5e. The interpretation of the word of God 5f. The names of God: the use of words to signify the divine nature Symbolism in psychological analysis 6a. The symbolism of dreams: their latent and manifest content 6b. The symbolism of apparently normal acts: forgetting, verbal slips, errors 6c. The symbolism of anxieties, obsessions, and other neurotic manifestations



1. The nature of sin: violation of divine law; disorder in man's relation to God 2. The kinds and degrees of sin 2a. The distinction between original and actual sin 2b. The distinction between spiritual and carnal sin 2c. The distinction between mortal and venial sin (1) The classification and order of mortal sins (2) The classification and order of venial sins 3. The doctrine of original sin 3a. The condition of Adam before sin: his supernatural state of grace; his preternatural gifts 3b. The sin of Adam 3c. The nature of fallen man in consequence of Adam's sin 3d. Salvation and new birth: the need for a mediator between God and man to atone for original sin 3e. The remission of sin: baptism; the state of the unbaptized 4. Actual or personal sin 4a. The relation of original sin to actual sin 4b. The causes and occasions of actual sin: temptation 4c. Pride as the principle of sin: the tragic fault of hubris 4d. The consequences of actual sin: the loss of charity and grace 4e. The prevention, purging, and forgiveness of sin: purification by sacrifice; the sacrament of penance; contrition, confession, and absolution; excommunication 5. The remorse of conscience and feelings of guilt: the psychogenesis and pathological expression of the sense of sin 6. Guilt and the punishment of sin 6a. Man's freedom in relation to responsibility and guilt for sin: divine predestination or election 6b. Collective responsibility for sin: the sins of the fathers 6c. The temporal punishment of sin: divine scourges; the mortification of the flesh 6d. The eternal punishment of sin: the everlasting perdition of the unrepentant in hell 6e. The purifying punishments of purgatory 7. Grace and good works in relation to salvation from sin: justification by faith alone



1. The nature of enslavement: the relation of master and slave 2. The theory of natural slavery and the natural slave 2a. Characteristics of the natural slave: individual and racial differences in relation to slavery 2b. The conception of the natural slave as the property or instrument of his master 2c. Slavery in relation to natural or to divine law 2d. Criticisms of the doctrine of natural slavery 3. Slavery as a social institution: the conventionality of slavery 3a. The acquisition of slaves: conquest, purchase, indenture, forfeiture 3b. Laws regulating slavery: the rights and duties of master and slave 3c. The emancipation or manumission of slaves: the rebellion of slaves 3d. Criticisms of the institution of slavery: the injustice of slavery; its transgression of inalienable human rights 4. The forms of economic slavery 4a. Chattel slavery: slaves of the household and slaves of the state 4b. Serfdom or peonage 4c. Wage slavery: the exploitation of the laborer 5. The political aspect of economic slavery 5a. The disfranchisement of chattel slaves and serfs: their exclusion from the body politic or political community 5b. The political deprivations of the laboring classes or wage slaves: the struggle for enfranchisement; the issue between oligarchy and democracy with respect to suffrage 6. Political enslavement or subjection 6a. Slavery as the condition of men living under tyrannical government 6b. Subjection as the condition of men living under benevolent despotism or paternalistic government 6c. The transition from subjection to citizenship: the conditions fitting men for self-government 6d. The imperialistic subjection or enslavement of conquered peoples or colonial dependencies 7. The analogy of tyranny and slavery in the relations between passions and reason or will: human bondage

1. Conceptions of soul 1a. Soul as the ordering principle of the universe: the world soul and its relation to the intellectual principle; the souls of the heavenly bodies 1b. Soul as the principle of self-motion or life in living things: soul as the form of an organic body 1c. Soul as the principle of distinction between thinking and nonthinking beings: the identity or distinction between soul and mind or intellect 1d. Soul as the principle of personal identity: the doctrine of the self; the empirical and the transcendental ego 2. The analysis of the powers of the soul 2a. The distinction between the soul and its powers or acts 2b. The order, connection, and interdependence of the parts of the soul: the id, ego, and superego in the structure of the psyche 2c. The kinds of soul and the modes of life: vegetative, sensitive, and rational souls and their special powers (1) The vegetative powers: the powers proper to the plant soul (2) The sensitive powers: the powers proper to the animal soul (3) The rational powers: the powers proper to the human soul 3. The immateriality of the soul 3a. The soul as an immaterial principle, form, or substance 3b. The immateriality of the human soul in comparison with the materiality of the plant and animal soul: the intellect as an incorporeal power 3c. The relation of soul and body: the relation of formal and material principles, or of spiritual and corporeal substances 3d. The denial of soul as an immaterial principle, form, or substance: the atomic theory of the soul 3e. The corporeal or phenomenal manifestation of disembodied souls as ghosts, wraiths, or 4. The being of the soul 4a. The unity or plurality of the human soul: the human mode of the vegetative and sensitive powers 4b. The issue concerning the self-substance or immortality of the human soul: its existence or capacity for existence in separation from the human body 4c. The origin of the human soul: its separate creation; its emanation or derivation from the world soul 4d. The life of the soul apart from the body (1) The doctrine of transmigration or perpetual reincarnation (2) Comparison of separated souls with men and angels: the external soul (3) The need of the soul for its body: the dogma of the body's resurrection for the soul's perfection (4) The contamination of the soul by the body: the purification of the soul by release from the body 5. Our knowledge of the soul and its powers 5a. The soul's knowledge of itself by reflection on its acts: the soul as a transcendental or noumenal object; the paralogisms of rational psychology


5b. The concept of the soul in empirical psychology: experimental knowledge of the soul



1. Space, place, and bodies 1a. Space or extension as the essence of property of bodies: space, the receptacle, and becoming 1b. Place as the envelope or container of bodies: place as a part of space or as relative position in space; space as a measure of magnitude 1c. The dimensionality of space: the indeterminate dimensions of pure space or prime matter; coordinate systems; relation of time and space 1d. The exclusiveness of bodily occupation of space: impenetrability 2. Space, void, and motion 2a. Absolute and relative space: the role of space or place in local motion; the theory of proper places 2b. The issue of the void or vacuum (1) The distinction between empty and filled space: the curvature of space (2) The indispensability of void or vacuum for motion and division: the absence of void in indivisible atoms (3) The denial of void or vacuum in favor of a plenum 2c. Space as a medium of physical action: the ether and action-at-a-distance; the phenomena of gravitation, radiation, and electricity 3. Space, quantity, and relation 3a. The finitude or infinity of space: the continuity and divisibility of space; space as finite yet unbounded 3b. The relation of physical and mathematical space: sensible and ideal space 3c. Geometric space, its kinds and properties: spatial relationships and configurations 3d. The measurement of spaces, distances, and sizes: coordinate systems; trigonometry, the use of parallax 4. The knowledge of space and figures 4a. Space as the divine sensorium and space as a transcendental form of intuition: the a priori foundations of geometry 4b. The controversy concerning innate and acquired space perception 4c. The perception of space: differences between visual, auditory, and tactual space; perspective and spatial illusions 5. The mode of existence of geometric objects: their character as abstractions; their relation to intelligible matter 6. The spiritual significance of place, space, position, and distance

1. The nature of human society 1a. Comparison of human and animal gregariousness: human and animal societies 1b. Comparison of the family and the state in origin, structure, and government: matriarchal or patriarchal societies 1c. Associations intermediate between the family and the state: the village or tribal community; civil society as the stage between family and state 1d. Social groups other than the family or the state: religious, charitable, educational, am economic organizations; the corporation 2. The general theory of the state 2a. Definitions of the state or political community: its form and purpose (1) Comparison of the state and the soul: the conception of the state as a living organism; the body politic (2) The state as a corporate person (3) The progressive realization of the state as the process of history: the state as the divine idea as it exists on earth; the national spirit 2b. The state as a part or the whole of society 2c. The source or principle of the state's sovereignty: the sovereignty of the prince; the sovereignty of the people 2d. The economic aspect of the state: differentiation of states according to their economic systems 2e. The political structure of the state: its determination by the form of government 2f. The primacy of the state or the human person: the welfare of the state and the happiness of its members 2g. Church and state: the relation of the city of God to the city of man 3. The origin, preservation, and dissolution of the state 3a. The development of the state from other communities 3b. The state as natural or conventional or both (1) Man as by nature a political animal: the human need for civil society (2) Natural law and the formation of the state 3c. The condition of man in the state of nature and in the state of civil society: the state of war in relation to the state of nature 3d. The social contract as the origin of civil society or the state: universal consent as the basis of the constitution or government of the state 3e. Love and justice as the bond of men in states: friendship and patriotism 3f. Fear and dependence as the cause of social cohesion: protection and security 3g. The identity and continuity of a state: the dissolution of the body politic or civil society 4. The physical foundations of society: the geographic and biologic conditions of the state 4a. The territorial extent of the state: its importance relative to different forms of government

XC. State

4b. The influence of climate and geography on political institutions and political economy 4c. The size, diversity, and distribution of populations: the causes and effects of their increase or decrease 5. The social structure or stratification of the state 5a. The political distinction between ruling and subject classes, and between citizens and denizens 5b. The family as a member of the state: its autonomy and its subordination 5c. The classes or subgroups arising from the division of labor or distinctions of birth: the social hierarchy and its causes 5d. The conflict of classes within the state (1) The opposition of social groups: the treatment of national, racial, and religious minorities (2) The clash of economic interests and political factions: the class war 5e. The classless society 6. The ideal or best state: the contrast between the ideal state and the best that is historically real or practicable 6a. The political institutions of the ideal state 6b. The social and economic arrangements of the ideal state 7. Factors affecting the quality of states 7a. Wealth and political welfare 7b. The importance of the arts and sciences in political life 7c. The state's concern with religion and morals: the cultivation of the virtues 7d. The educational task of the state: the trained intelligence of the citizens 8. The functions of the statesman, king, or prince 8a. The duties and responsibilities of the statesman, king, or prince: the relation of the statesman or king to the people he represents or rules 8b. The qualities or virtues necessary for the good statesman or king 8c. The education or training of the statesman or prince 8d. Statecraft: the art or science of governing; political prudence (1) The employment of the military arts (2) The occasions and uses of rhetoric: propaganda (3) The role or function of experts in the service of the state 8e. The advantages and disadvantages of participation in political life 9. The relation of states to one another 9a. Commerce and trade between states: commercial rivalries and trade agreements; free trade and tariffs 9b. Social and cultural barriers between states: the antagonism of diverse customs and ideas 9c. Honor and justice among states 9d. The sovereignty of independent states: the distinction between the sovereignty of the state at home and abroad; internal and external sovereignty 9e. War and peace between states (1) The military problem of the state: preparation for conquest or defense (2) Treaties between states: alliances, leagues, confederacies, or hegemonies 9f. Colonization and imperialism: the economic and political factors in empire 10. Historic formations of the state: the rise and decline of different types of states 10a. The city-state 10b. The imperial state 10c. The feudal state 10d. The national state 10e. The federal state: confederacies and federal unions 10f. The ideal of a world state

XCI. Temperance
1. The nature of temperance 1a. The relation of temperance to virtue generally, and to the virtues of courage and justice 1b. The relation of temperance to knowledge and prudence: the determination of the mean of temperance 1c. Temperance and continence: the counterfeits of temperance 2. The varieties of intemperance: the related vices of sensuality, abstemiousness, cruelty, curiosity, inordinate desire 3. Temperance in relation to duty or happiness 4. The cultivation of temperance: the training of a temperate character 5. The social aspects of temperance 5a. The temperance of rulers and citizens: intemperate conduct as inimical to the common good 5b. The temperance of a people: luxurious indulgences; the intemperance of the mob 5c. Laws concerning temperance: the extent to which the sphere of temperance can be regulated by law 6. The extremes of temperance and intemperance 6a. Asceticism: heroic temperance 6b. The Dionysiac spirit: the cult of pleasure

XCII. Theology

1. The subject matter of theology: the scope of its inquiry; the range of its problems 2. The distinction between natural or philosophical theology and sacred or dogmatic theology: its relation to the distinction between reason and faith 3. Theology as a philosophical discipline 3a. Natural theology in relation to other parts of philosophy: philosophic! prima, metaphysics, natural philosophy 3b. The distinction between speculative and moral theology: theology as a work of the practical reason 3c. The limitations of speculative theology: the insoluble mysteries or antinomies 4. Sacred theology: faith seeking understanding 4a. The relation of sacred theology to philosophy: theology as the queen of the sciences 4b. The principles of sacred theology: revealed truth; articles of faith; interpretation of Scripture 4c. The roles of reason and authority in the development of sacred doctrine: theological argument and proof 4d. Sacred theology as a speculative and practical science 4e. The nature and forms of theological heresy and controversy 5. Criticisms of theology: the dogmatic, sophistical, or over-dialectical character of theological controversy

1. The nature of time: time as duration or as the measure of motion; time as a continuous quantity; absolute and relative time 2. The distinction between time and eternity: the eternity of endless time distinguished from the eternity of timelessness and immutability 2a. Aeviternity as intermediate between time and eternity 2b. Arguments concerning the infinity of time and the eternity of motion or the world 2c. The creation of time: the priority of eternity to time; the immutability of the world after the end of time 3. The mode of existence of time 3a. The parts of time: its division into past, present, and future 3b. The reality of the past and the future in relation to the existence of the present 3c. The extent of the present moment: instantaneity 4. The measurement of time: sun, stars, and clocks 5. Temporal relationships: time as a means of ordering 5a. Simultaneity or coexistence: the relativity of simultaneity; the simultaneity of cause and effect, action and passion, knowledge and object known 5b. Succession or priority and posteriority: the temporal order of cause and effect, potentiality and actuality 5c. Succession and simultaneity in relation to the association of ideas 5d. Comparison of temporal with nontemporal simultaneity and succession: the prior in thought, by nature, or in origin 6. The knowledge of time and the experience of duration 6a. The perception of time by the interior senses: the difference between the experience and memory of time intervals 6b. Factors influencing the estimate of time elapsed: empty and filled time; illusions of time perception; the variability of experienced durations 6c. Time as a transcendental form of intuition: the a priori foundations of arithmetic; the issue concerning innate and acquired time perception 6d. The signifying of time: the distinction between noun and verb; the tenses of the verb 6e. Knowledge of the past: the storehouse of memory; the evidences of the past in physical traces or remnants 6f. Knowledge of the future: the truth of propositions about future contingents; the probability of predictions 7. The temporal course of the passions: emotional attitudes toward time and mutability 8. Historical time 8a. Prehistoric and historic time: the antiquity of man 8b. The epochs of history: myths of a golden age; the relativity of modernity; pseudo-archaism

1. The nature of truth: the correspondence and coherence theories of truth 1a. The signs or criteria of truth: methods of verification 1b. The relation between truth and being or reality 1c. The relation of truth, goodness, and beauty 2. The modes of truth and falsity 2a. The distinction between truth and falsity in the mind and in things: logical and ontolog-ical truth 2b. The distinction between truth of statement and truth of signification: the distinction between real and verbal truth 2c. The distinction between theoretical and practical truth: conformity to existence and conformity to right desire 2d. The comparison of human and divine truth: finite truths and the infinite truth 2e. The distinction between truth and probability: its relation to the distinction between knowledge and opinion " 3. Truth and error in relation to human knowing and learning 3a. Truth in the apprehensions of the sensitive faculty (1) The truth of sensations: judgments of perception

XCIV. Truth


5. 6. 7.


(2) Truth in the memory and imagination 3b. Truth in the acts of the mind (1) The truth of ideas: concepts and definitions (2) The truth of propositions: the special problem of judgments about future contingencies (3) Truth in reasoning: the truth of premises in relation to the truth of conclusions; logical validity and truth about reality 3c. The principle of contradiction as the foundation of truth in judgment and in reasoning: the principle of complementarity as an extension of the principle of contradiction 3d. The nature and causes of error (1) The infallibility of the senses and the mind: the respects in which they are incapable of error (2) The nature and sources of error in human perception and thought: the distinction between error and ignorance (3) Rules for the correction or prevention of error in thought Comparison of the various disciplines with respect to truth 4a. Truth in science and religion: the truth of reason and the truth of faith 4b. Truth in science and poetry: the truth of fact and the truth of fiction 4c. Truth in metaphysics, mathematics, and the empirical sciences: the truth of principles, hypotheses, and conclusions in the several speculative disciplines 4d. Truth and probability in rhetoric and dialectic The eternal verities and the mutability of truth The accumulation or accretion of truth, and the correction of error, in the progress of human learning The skeptical denial of truth 7a. The impossibility of knowing the truth: the restriction of all human judgments to degrees of probability; the denial of axioms and of the possibility of demonstration 7b. The defense of truth against the skeptic The moral and political aspect of truth 8a. Prevarication and perjury: the injustice of lying or bearing false witness 8b. The expediency of the political lie: the uses of lying 8c. Truth and falsehood in relation to love and friendship: the pleasant and the unpleasant truth 8d. Civil liberty as a condition for discovering the truth: freedom of thought and discussion 8e. The love of truth and the duty to seek it: the moral distinction between the sophist and the philosopher; martyrdom to the truth

1. The nature and origin of tyranny: the modern totalitarian state 1a. The lawlessness of tyrannical rule: might without right 1b. The injustice of tyrannical government: rule for self-interest 1c. Usurpation: the unauthorized seizure of power 1d. The character of the tyrannical man: the friends of the tyrant 2. Tyranny as the corruption of other forms of government 2a. The perversion of monarchy: the tyrannical king 2b. The degeneration of oligarchy: the tyranny of the wealthy 2c. The corruption of democracy: the tyranny of the masses or of the majority; the rise of the demagogue; totalitarianism 3. The choice between tyranny or despotism and anarchy 4. The nature and effects of despotism 4a. The relation of despotism to tyranny and monarchy: the benevolence of despots 4b. The comparison of paternal and despotic dominion: the justification of absolute rule by the incapacity of the ruled for self-government 5. The contrast between despotic and constitutional government: government by men and government by laws 5a. Despotic and constitutional government with respect to political liberty and equality: the rights of the governed 5b. Despotic and constitutional government with respect to juridical defenses against misgovernment, or redress for grievances through due process of law 5c. The location of sovereignty in despotic and constitutional government: the sovereign person, the sovereign office, the sovereign people 5d. The analogues of despotic and constitutional rule in the relation of the powers of the soul: the tyranny of the passions 6. Imperial rule as despotic, and as tyrannical or benevolent: the government of conquered peoples or colonies 7. The ways of tyrants or despots to attain and maintain power 8. The fate of tyrants: revolutions for liberty and justice against tyranny and despotism; tyrannicide


Tyranny and Despotism

1. The distinction and relation between universal and particular: essence and individual, whole and part, class and member, one and many, same and other, the common and the unique 2. The problem of the universal

XCVI. Tyranny and Despotism

3. 4.




2a. The reality of universals: their actual existence as separate forms, or their potential existence in the forms of things 2b. Universals as abstractions or concepts in the human mind 2c. The reduction of universals or abstractions to the meaning of general or common names The problem of the individual: the principle of individuality; the concrete universal Universals and particulars in the order of knowledge 4a. Universals as objects of knowledge: the intuitive or reflexive apprehension of universals 4b. Universals in relation to the angelic intellect and the divine mind 4c. The abstraction of universal concepts from the particulars of sense 4d. The distinction between particular and universal in relation to the distinction between percept and concept, or between image and idea 4e. The inadequacy of our knowledge of individuals: their indefinability 4f. The generality of science: the universality of its principles Universal and particular in relation to grammar and logic 5a. The distinction between proper and common names 5b. The classification of universals: their intension and extension; their degrees of generality 5c. Particulars and universals in predications or judgments: the quantity of propositions; the universal, the particular, and the singular judgment 5d. Rules concerning the universality and particularity of premises in reasoning: the quantity of the conclusion in relation to the quantity of the premises Applications of the distinction between universal and particular 6a. Particular and universal in the analysis of matter and form 6b. Universal and particular causes 6c. The universality of law and particular dispensations of equity Universality and particularity in relation to the distinction between the objective and the subjective, the absolute and the relative 7a. The issue concerning the universality of truth 7b. The issue concerning the universality of moral principles 7c. The issue concerning the universality of aesthetic standards: the subjective universal

1. Diverse conceptions of virtue 1a. The relation between knowledge and virtue 1b. The unity of virtue and the plurality of virtues 1c. The doctrine of virtue as a mean between the extremes of vice 1d. Virtue as an intrinsic good: its relation to happiness 1e. The distinction between virtue and continence: the consequences of the theory of virtue as habit 2. The classification of virtues: the correlative vices 2a. The division of virtues according to the parts or powers of the soul: the distinction between moral and intellectual virtue; the theory of the cardinal virtues (1) Enumeration and description of the moral virtues (2) Enumeration and description of the intellectual virtues 2b. The distinction between natural and supernatural virtues 2c. The appearances of virtue: imperfect or conditional virtues; the counterfeits of virtue; natural or temperamental dispositions which simulate virtue 3. The order and connection of the virtues 3a. The equality and inequality of the virtues: the hierarchy of virtue and the degrees of vice 3b. The independence or interdependence of the virtues 4. The natural causes or conditions of virtue 4a. Natural endowments: temperamental dispositions toward virtue or vice; the seeds or nurseries of virtue 4b. The role of teaching in the spheres of moral and intellectual virtue 4c. Training or practice as cause of virtue or vice: the process of habit formation 4d. The role of the family and the state in the development of moral virtue (1) The influence of parental authority on the formation of character (2) The moral use of rewards and punishments: the role of precept and counsel, praise and blame (3) The guidance of laws and customs: the limits of positive law with respect to commanding virtue and prohibiting vice (4) The influence on moral character of poetry, music, and other arts: the guidance of history and example 4c. The moral quality of human acts (1) The distinction between human or moral acts and the nonvoluntary or reflex acts of a man (2) The criteria of goodness and evil in human acts (3) Circumstances as affecting the morality of human acts 5. Psychological factors in the formation of moral virtue 5a. The emotions and pleasure and pain as the matter of virtue: the role of desire or appetite 5b. Deliberation and judgment in the formation of virtue: the role of reason 5c. Intention and choice as conditions of virtue: the role of will

XCVII. Virtue and Vice

6. Virtue in relation to other moral goods or principles 6a. Duty and virtue 6b. The relation of virtue to pleasure 6c. The relation of virtue to wealth: the religious basis of economic behavior; the work ethic 6d. Virtue and honor 6e. Virtue in relation to friendship and love 7. The role of virtue in political theory 7a. The cultivation of virtue as an end of government and the state 7b. Civic virtue: the virtue of the good citizen compared with the virtue of the good man 7c. The aristocratic principle: virtue as a condition of citizenship or public office 7d. The virtues which constitute the good or successful ruler: the vices associated with the possession of power 8. The religious aspects of virtue and vice 8a. The moral consequences of original sin 8b. The influence of religion on moral character: the indispensability of divine grace for the acquisition of natural virtue by fallen man 8c. The divine reward of virtue and punishment of vice: here and hereafter 8d. The theory of the theological virtues (1) Faith and disbelief (2) Hope and despair (3) Charity and the disorder of love 8e. The infused virtues and the moral and intellectual gifts 8f. The qualities which flow from charity: humility, mercy, chastity, obedience 8g. The vows and practices of the monastic life in relation to virtue 9. The advance or decline of human morality


War and Peace

1. War as the reign of force: the state of war and the state of nature; the martial spirit 2. The kinds of war 2a. Civil war and war between states or international war 2b. Religious wars: the defense and propagation of the faith 2c. The class war: the conflict of economic groups 3. The rights of war 3a. The distinction between just and unjust warfare: wars of defense and wars of conquest 3b. Justice and expediency in relation to the initiation and prosecution of a war: laws and customs governing the conduct of warfare 4. The causes or occasions of war 4a. The precipitation of war between states: remote and proximate causes; real and apparent causes 4b. The factors responsible for civil strife 5. The effects of war 5a. The moral consequences of war: its effects on the happiness and virtue of men and on the welfare of women and children 5b. The political consequences of war: its effects on different forms of government 5c. The economics of war: its cost and consequences 6. The conception of war as a political means or instrument 6a. Conquest, empire, political expansion as ends of war 6b. Liberty, justice, honor, peace as ends of war 7. The inevitability of war: the political necessity of military preparations 8. The desirability of war: its moral and political benefits 9. The folly and futility of war: pacifist movements 10. The military arts and the military profession: their role in the state 10a. The formation of military policy: the relation between the military and the statesman or prince 10b. Different types of soldiery: mercenaries, volunteers, conscripts, militia 10c. The military virtues: the qualities of the professional soldier; education for war 10d. The principles of strategy and tactics: the military genius 10e. The rise of naval power and its role in war 10f. The development of weapons: their kinds and uses 10g. The making of truces or alliances as a military device 11. The nature, causes, and conditions of peace 11a. Law and government as indispensable conditions of civil peace: the political community as the unit of peace 11b. Justice and fraternity as principles of peace among men 11c. International law and international peace: treaties, alliances, and leagues as instrumentalities of international peace 11d. World government and world peace

XCIX. Wealth
1. The elements of wealth: the distinction between natural and artificial wealth; the distinction between the instruments of production and consumable goods 2. The acquisition and management of wealth in the domestic and tribal community 3. The production of wealth in the political community 3a. Factors in productivity: natural resources, raw materials, labor, tools and machines, capital investments; productive and nonproductive property 3b. The use of land: kinds of land or real estate; the general theory of rent 3c. Food supply: agricultural production 3d. Industrial production: domestic, guild, and factory systems of manufacturing 4. The exchange of wealth or the circulation of commodities: the processes of commerce or trade 4a. The forms of value: the distinction between use-value and exchange-value 4b. Types of exchange: barter economies and money economies; credit and installment buying 4c. Rent, profit, wages, interest as the elements of price: the distinction between the real and the nominal price and between the natural and the market price of commodities 4d. The source of value: the labor theory of value 4e. Causes of the fluctuation of market price: supply and demand 4f. The consequences of monopoly and competition 4g. Commerce between states: tariffs and bounties; free trade 5. Money 5a. The nature of money as a medium or instrument of exchange, and as a measure of equivalents in exchange: the propensities toward saving or consuming 5b. Monetary standards: the coining and minting of money; good and bad money 5c. The price of money and the money supply: the exchange rate of money as measured in terms of other commodities; monetary factors influencing economic activity 5d. The institution and function of banks: monetary loans, credit, the financing of capitalistic enterprise 5e. The rate of interest on money: factors that determine the rate of interest; the effect of interest rates on the economy; the condemnation of usury 6. Capital 6a. Comparison of capitalist production with other systems of production: the social utility of capital 6b. Theories of the nature, origin, and growth of capital stock: thrift, savings, excesses beyond the needs of consumption, expropriation; current expectations of future demand or profits 6c. Types of capital: fixed and circulating, or constant and variable capital 6d. Capital profits (1) The distinction of profit from rent, interest, and wages (2) The source of profit: marginal or surplus value; unearned increment and the exploitation of labor (3) Factors determining the variable rate of capital profit (4) The justification of profit: the reward of enterprise and indemnification for risk of losses 6e. The recurrence of crises in the capitalist economy: depressions, unemployment, the diminishing rate of profit; business cycles 7. Property 7a. The right of property: the protection of property as the function of government 7b. Kinds of economic property (1) Chattel slaves as property (2) Property in land (3) Property in capital goods and in monetary wealth 7c. The uses of property: for production, consumption, or exchange 7d. The ownership of property: possession or title; the legal regulation of property (1) Private ownership: partnerships, joint-stock companies, corporations; separation of ownership from management (2) Government ownership: the nationalization of industry; eminent domain 7e. The inheritance of property: laws regulating inheritance 8. The distribution of wealth: the effects of wealth on social status; the problem of poverty 8a. The sharing of wealth: goods and lands held in common; public ownership of the means of production 8b. The division of common goods into private property: factors influencing the increase and decrease of private property 8c. The causes of poverty: competition, incompetence, indigence, expropriation, unemployment; the poverty of the proletariat as dispossessed of the instruments of production 8d. Laws concerning poverty: the poor laws, the dole 9. Political economy: the nature of the science of economics 9a. Wealth as an element in the political common good 9b. Factors determining the prosperity or opulence of states: fluctuations in national prosperity and employment 9c. Diverse economic programs for securing the wealth of nations: the physiocratic, the mercantilist, and the laissez-faire systems; regulation of the economy for the general welfare 9d. Governmental regulation of production, trade, or other aspects of economic life 9e. The economic support of government and the services of government

(1) The charges of government: the cost of maintaining its services; elements in the national budget (2) Methods of defraying the expenses of government: taxation and other forms of levy or impost; confiscations, seizures, and other abuses of taxation 9f. Wealth or property in relation to different forms of government 9g. Wealth and poverty in relation to crime, revolution, and war 9h. The struggle of economic classes for political power 10. The moral aspects of wealth and poverty 10a. The nature of wealth as a good: its place in the order of goods and its relation to happiness 10b. Natural limits to the acquisition of wealth by individuals: the distinction between necessities and luxuries 10c. Temperance and intemperance with respect to wealth: liberality, magnificence, miserliness, avarice; the corrupting influence of excessive wealth 10d. The principles of justice with respect to wealth and property: fair wages and prices 10e. The precepts of charity with respect to wealth (1) Almsgiving to the needy and the impoverished (2) The religious vow of poverty: voluntary poverty (3) The choice between God and Mammon: the love of money as the root of all evil; the secularizing impact of affluence 11. Economic determinism: the economic interpretation of history 12. Economic progress: advances with respect to both efficiency and justice

1. The existence and nature of will: its relation to reason or mind and to desire or emotion 2. The analysis of the power and acts of the will 2a. The objects of the will: the scope of its power 2b. The motivation of the will (1) The rational determination of the will's acts by judgments concerning good and evil or by the moral law (2) The sensitive determination of the will's acts by estimations of benefit and harm, or pleasure and pain: the impulsion of the passions 2c. The acts of the will (1) The classification and order of the will's acts: means and ends (2) The several acts of the will with respect to ends: their antecedents and consequences (3) The several acts of the will with respect to means: their antecedents and consequences 3. The functioning of will in human conduct and thought 3a. The role of the will in behavior (1) The distinction between the voluntary and the involuntary: the conditions of voluntariness; comparison of men and animals with respect to voluntary behavior (2) The range of purposive conduct: the relation of habit and instinct to the voluntary 3b. The role of the will in thought (1) The distinction between knowledge and opinion in relation to the willful in thought: the will to believe and wishful thinking (2) The will as cause of error (3) Religious faith as dependent on an act of will or practical reason 4. The divine will 4a. The relation of the divine will and intellect 4b. The freedom of the divine will: the divine will in relation to the possible and the impossible 5. The freedom of the will 5a. Interpretations of the meaning of free will (1) The freedom of the will as consisting in a freely determined choice or a free judgment of the reason (2) The freedom of the will as consisting in the freedom of a man to act or not to act: from external constraints or coercions (3) The freedom of the will as consisting in a totally uncaused or spontaneous act (4) The freedom of the will as the autonomy of the reason legislating for itself: the identity of pure will and free will 5b. Arguments for the freedom of the will (1) Man's immediate consciousness of his freedom of choice: reason's reflexive knowledge of its autonomy (2) The freedom of the will as deriving from the indetermination of practical reason judging particular goods (3) The deduction of free will from the moral law or from the fact of pure practical reason (4) Free will as a pragmatic option: the postulation of free will as an indispensable condition of moral responsibility and action 5c. Arguments against the freedom of the will: free will as a violation of the course of nature or the reign of causality; the impossibility of proving free will 6. The analysis of the will's range of freedom 6a. The limitations on the freedom of the will: the distinction between acts of the will which are necessitated and acts of the will which are free



6b. The distinction between the will's freedom of exercise and the will's freedom of choice 6c. The distinction between voluntary behavior and behavior resulting from free choice: comparison of men and animals with respect to freedom 7. The implications of free will 7a. Free will as a source of human dignity: its relation to slavery and civil liberty 7b. The factors of freedom and necessity in the philosophy of history 7c. Human freedom in relation to the will of God: fate, predestination, and providence 7d. God as the object of the human will: the quiescence of the will in the beatific vision 7e. Free will in relation to sin and salvation (1) The freedom to sin: Adam's freedom and the freedom of fallen human nature (2) The relation of freedom to grace 8. The will as a factor in morality and in society 8a. The inviolability of the will: its freedom from external compulsions or constraints 8b. The goodness or malice of the will (1) The conditions of the will's rectitude or disorder (2) A good will as the exclusive or principal human good 8c. The will and virtue: justice and charity as habits of the will 8d. The will and duty: the categorical imperative 8e. The will and right: the harmony of individual wills in external practical relations 9. Differences among men in the sphere of will 9a. The distinction between men of strong and weak will: cultivation of willpower 9b. The pathology of the will: indecision, obsession, compulsion, inhibition 10. Will as a term in political theory 10a. The sovereign will: the will of the people; the will of the majority 10b. The relation of law to will 10c. The general will, particular wills, the will of each, and the will of all

CI. Wisdom
1. The nature, origins, and kinds of wisdom 1a. Diverse conceptions of natural wisdom: the supreme form of human knowledge 1b. The distinction between speculative and practical wisdom, or between philosophical and political wisdom 1c. Theological and mystical wisdom: the supernatural wisdom of faith and vision; the gift of wisdom 1d. The wisdom of God: the defect of human wisdom compared with divine wisdom; the folly or vanity of worldly wisdom 2. Wisdom, virtue, and happiness 2a. Wisdom as an intellectual virtue: its relation to other intellectual virtues, especially science and understanding; the vice or sin of folly 2b. Wisdom and man's knowledge of good and evil: the relation of wisdom to the moral virtues 2c. Wisdom as a good: its role in the happy life; the place of the wise man in society 3. The love of wisdom and the steps to wisdom: the sophist, the philosopher, and the wise man 4. The praise of folly: the wisdom of fools and innocents

1. Diverse conceptions of the universe or cosmos 1a. The opposed metaphors: the universe as a machine and the universe as a living organism; the doctrine of the world soul 1b. The universe as an ordered community of beings diverse in kind: eternal law and divine government 2. The universe and man: macrocosm and microcosm 3. The universe and God: divine immanence and transcendence 3a. The unity of God and the world: the distinction between natura naturans and natura naturata 3b. The duality of God and the world: the distinction between Creator and creature 4. The origin and evolution of the world: cosmos out of chaos 4a. The denial of ultimate origins: the eternity of the world and its motions without beginning or end 4b. Myths or hypotheses concerning the world's origin by artistic production: the demiurge, the creative ideas, the receptacle 4c. The formation of the world by a fortuitous concourse of atoms 4d. The emanation of the world from the One 4e. The creation of the world ex nihilo (1) The distinction between creation and motion, generation, and artistic production (2) The problem of time and eternity in relation to creation: the conservation of creatures in time (3) The revelation and dogma of creation: interpretations of Genesis I; the work of the six days 4f. Astronomical theories concerning the evolution of the universe: the origins of stars, planets, galaxies, nebulas 5. The number of worlds: the uniqueness of this world; the possibility of other worlds 6. The structure of the world 6a. The parts and places of the world: the uniformity of the matter of the world 6b. The diversity, inequality, and hierarchy of things

CII. World

6c. The rationality or intelligibility of the universe 6d. The goodness and beauty of the universe: its evil and imperfections 7. The space of the world: astronomical theories concerning the size or extent of the universe; the universe as finite yet unbounded; the universe as expanding or contracting 8. The end of the world

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