Table of Contents Teacher's Guide

1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Rationale for Using Long and Short Vowels Instead of IPA What Are Long and Short Vowels? Spelling Rules for Long and Short Vowels Teacher's Reference Guide for Long and Short Spellings A Brief Note About Schwa Recommended Teaching Sequence for Long and Short Vowels (6-12) Three-Step Jig for Sounding Out Words Pair Cards Dictations More Spelling Rules Listen and Circle Long or Short? Listen and Write (pair dictations) Sentences with Long and Short Vowels (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Games (Sentences) After Long and Short A Alternative Sequence The Two Sounds of Y Vowel Bingo Doubling Other Level 1 Pronunciation Topics The Two Sounds of C The 3 Sounds of S Different Spellings for the 'ER' Sound Consonant + le Spelling of Y + an Ending Sentences with L and R Ch or Sh? Problems with 'th' Words with 'gh' The 3 Sounds of Past '-ed' Outside Your Pronunciation Lesson Coping with Longer (Multi-Syllabic) Words How to Use Scrambled Syllable Cards Linking, Reductions and Sentence-Level Stress Linking Reductions Reductions with T+Y Gonna for Future Tense How to do a Hot Seat How to do a Double Line Shuffle Reductions with D+Y The 2 Sounds of Can (can & /kin/)

10 11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18

19

20

21 22

23 24

25 26

TG 27 28 29

Sentence-Level Stress: Techniques 1. Jazz Chants 2. Jazz Stomps 3. Dialogs 4. Pair Substitution Drills using Card Cues 5. Songs Techniques for Teaching Numbers and Money Amounts Numbers 0 to 10 Numbers to 20 Numbers to 100 Money Amounts Ordinal Numbers Five Ways to Help Your Pronunication

31 32 33 34 35 36

Student Handouts and Activity Masters
(Teacher's Guide) Handout Masters

TG 6 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Long and Short A

Long and Short E

Review of A and E Long and Short I

Review of A, E and I Long and Short O

Review of A, E, I and O

Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Long or Short A? (student handout) Listen and Write (pair dictation handouts) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Long or Short E? (student handout) Listen and Write (student pair dictations) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Long or Short I? (student handout) Listen and Write (student pair dictations) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Long or Short O? Listen and Write (student pair dictations) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout

(Teacher's Guide)

Handout Masters

14 12

13 15 16 17 18

19

20 21

32 Long and Short U 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Review of A to U 40 41-8 49 50 Long A and Short E 51 52 53 54 55 Long E and Short I 56 57 58 59 60 Ow/Ou 61 62 Oy/Oi 63 64 The Two Sounds of Y 65 66 Doubling 67 68 The Two Sounds of C 69 70 Adding S 71 The 3 Sounds of S 72 Er 73 74 Consonant + le 75 76 Spelling of Y + an Ending 77 78 Sentences with L and R 79 80 ch or sh? 81 82 83 Words with "gh" 84 85 3 Sounds of Past "-ed" 86 87 Months of the Year

Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Long or Short U? Listen and Write (student pair dictations) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Spellings (student handout) Vowel Bingo Boards Vowel Bingo Call Cards (for Game One) Pair Cards: (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Listen and Write (pair dictation handouts) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Pair Cards (activity master) Listen and Circle (student handout) Listen and Write (pair dictation handouts) Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Part 1 Part 2 Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Student Handout Student Handout Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Part 1 Part 2 Student Handout Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Sentences (student handout) Minimal Pair Card Game (activity master) Student Handout Pair Cards (activity master) Part 1 Part 2 Student Handout

(Teacher's Page)

Handout Masters

23 26

88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105-6 107 108 109

Linking Reductions with d+y The 2 Sounds of Can Jazz Chant Song: Barbecue

Syllable Cards (activity master) Student Handout How Was Your Weekend? Student Handout Months of the Year (student handout) Vocab Prep (student handout) Song Handout Song Strips (activity master) Vocab Prep (student handout) Song Strips (activity master) Song Handout Numbers to 20 Easy Math Problems Numbers to 100: -teen vs. -ty Difficult Math Problems Spelling Tests Your Change Is… Pair Cards (double-sided) At the Cash Register (pair dictations) Big Numbers

27 31

Song: I Wrote a Lot…

31

Numbers

34

Money Amounts

35

Ordinal Numbers

Student Handout

For more practice with numbers, try:
ESL Bingo from successintesl@yahoo.ca
Regular bingo on one side and ESL Bingo (with dates, numbers, streets, phone numbers, and prices) on the other side.

Number and Money Wizard from successintesl@yahoo.ca

Rationale for Using Long and Short Vowels Instead of IPA (the International Phonetic Alphabet)
Most beginner pronunciation texts rely on using the IPA, or International Phonetics Alphabet, and so require the students to learn a second 'alphabet' or set of symbols. While the IPA gives a precise description of each sound, it does not explain the spelling rules associated with each sound. Other beginner pronunciation texts rely on pictures to associate known words with their spelling and are meant for beginning first-language students. While colourful, they are not always appropriate for ESL students, since they may not know the word that each picture represents. The Success in… text is based on long and short vowels, the method used to teach Canadian (first language) speakers pronunciation, but specifically designed for ESL adults. It assumes that students have learned to pronounce consonants, but need more work with vowel sounds, especially in understanding the rules that link spelling and pronunciation of vowel sounds. Using long and short vowels has several important benefits when teaching Levels 1 and 2 ESL students: It eliminates the need to teach students a second 'alphabet'. It helps them to sound out new words by teaching them the rules that govern pronunciation. Students learn to spell words they can say. Students learn spelling rules as they learn to pronounce.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 1

Donna Bowler, 2008

What are Long and Short Vowels?
Long vowels are tense. This means the muscles around the mouth are tense. The name and sound of long vowels are the same: long A is pronounced ā (as in ate). Long vowels are marked with a straight line over the vowel: ā. Short vowels are lax. This means the muscles around the mouth are relaxed. The name and sound of short vowels is different: short A is pronounced ǎ (as in at). Short vowels are marked with a cupped line over the vowel: ǎ.

Put Your Hands on Your Face!
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Have your students lightly rest their hands along each side of their face. Choral the pairs of vowels or words. (Choral: You say and the students repeat each pair of long and short vowels after you.) A guide word is provided to illustrate each sound. ā ē ī ō ū yū (ate) (eel) (mice) (oat) (boot) (you) ǎ ĕ ĭ ŏ ǔ (at) (ell) (miss) (ought) (but)

Use this to: ●demonstrate the difference between long (tense) and short (lax) vowels to your students ●force students to monitor their own pronunciation of a word with a long or short vowel when playing a minimal pair* card game or practicing minimal pairs* with a partner.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 2

Donna Bowler, 2008

Spelling Rules for Long and Short Vowels
Generally, a single vowel has a short sound. When there are two vowels together, the first one is usually long and the second one is silent. Some students will be surprised that different spellings, such as ai, ay, and a__e all have the same long 'a' sound. The student worksheets contain the most common spellings for long and short vowels. These rules predict the pronunciation for most (but not all) single syllable words. It is recommended that you teach the spelling rules for each pair of long and short vowels as you introduce them. Start each lesson by reviewing the sounds and spellings learned to date by your class. The more common spellings taught in this curriculum are on page 4 (following) for your reference. However, it is not recommended that you use page TG 4 as a student handout.

A Brief Note About… Minimal Pairs A minimal pair is a pair of words that differ only in one sound. For example, "bake" and "back" are a minimal pair, as are "fax" and "fakes". In other words, it is a difference in sound (and may involve a difference in more than one letter for spelling).

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 3

Donna Bowler, 2008

Teacher's Reference Guide for Long and Short Spellings
Long Short guide word for short sound

a

ai ay a__e ee ea y (short words) ie ight ind i__e y (at the end of long words) oa o__e old sometimes ow oo ue u__e ew

a

an

e

e

end

i

i

in

o

o ought aught aw u**

on

u*

under

* Note: only a small number of words have a 'yū' sound, usually (but not always) after a 'c' or 'm'. ** There are two short u sounds: ŭ as in luck and as in look. For the purposes of this book, short u refers to the first sound.
Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2 TG 4 Donna Bowler, 2008

/Ə/? Uh…

A Brief Note About Schwa
The most common vowel sound in the English language is schwa (as in the 'u' in 'but' or the 'a' in 'about' when spoken quickly). This is because most un-stressed short vowels are reduced to schwas in fast speech. For example, the 'a' in Donna is pronounced /Ə/ and not ǎ because the stress is on the first syllable. This topic is best covered by linking it to stress and reductions. Generally, the schwa is only mentioned in passing at lower levels because it only occurs when students are speaking at faster speeds.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 5

Donna Bowler, 2008

Recommended Teaching Sequence
Day 1: Long and Short A
1. Introduce long and short vowels by printing a mix of words on the board that your students know with long and short A sounds. Elicit the pronunciation. Then elicit the rule for long and short A. 2. Give out the student handout, TG 1, and go over the spelling rule for long and short A at the top of the page.

 A Word About Dictionaries
Students should not look up the meaning of words from the student handouts in their dictionaries. The exercise is to help them "see a new word, say a new word" (and not to learn new words). 3. Choral the word sets, always using a three-step procedure in sounding them out, as follows:

Three-Step Jig for Sounding Out Words
====================================================================================================

 middle vowel  initial consonant + vowel  the whole word

For example:  "ā",  "bā",  "bāke".
Note: It is important that students learn to sound out the word starting from the most difficult part, which at this level is the pronunciation of the vowel, even if it is a word they can sight read. Note: Some students coming from Literacy classes may be used to sounding out words starting with the initial consonants, and will have to be trained to start in the middle. 4. Have each student in turn do one minimal pair to check that they are sounding it out in the correct sequence and pronouncing the vowel correctly.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 6

Donna Bowler, 2008

Hint: Use hand signals to cue the student for long and short: a straight hand for the long vowel and a curved one for the short one. (See below.) Hand signal for long vowels: Hand signal for short vowels:

If a student has problems pronouncing a word: 1. Choral the word with the whole class (always using the 3-Step Jig). 2. Have the student who had problems try again.

5. Have the students practice in pairs, while you circulate to check on individuals.

Day 2: Long and Short A
1. Have students close their book. Write the following chart on the whiteboard. Point to Long A and ask, "What is the sound?" Ask, "How do you spell it?" Elicit the spellings "ai", "ay", and "a__e" (= a with e at the end) and add them to the chart. Do the same for short A. Long A ā) A ai ay a__e Short A (ă

a

2. Print a word on the board and have the students tell you if it has long or short A. Elicit the pronunciation (using the 3-Step Jig). Do with several examples. 3. Have students practice using the pair cards from page 2. (See below).
Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2 TG 7 Donna Bowler, 2008

Pair Cards
====================================================================================================

1. Copy and cut up one set per pair. Have students work in pairs, taking turns to: (a) say if it's long or short, and (b) sound it out using the 3-Step Jig. Circulate to help as needed. Hint: Have students place the deck face down on the table so they focus on one card at a time. This will encourage them to help each other. Hint: pair strong and weak students together. 2. Keep the set. After you have taught long and short E, review A and E by mixing sets and having students work with words using all four vowel sounds: ā, ǎ, ē, and ĕ. 3. Always practice the card set for each new minimal pair set for a few days, and then add the preceding decks to review the sounds and spellings learned to date. Naturally, each time you add a new sound set, the deck will get bigger. But the amount of practice time should stay the same. (In other words, students will not have time to do all the cards in one session.) 4. Dictation:

Part C: Dictations
====================================================================================================

1. At the bottom of their handout is space for 8 words. You say 8 words and they write. Choose single syllable words that they are not familiar with. Note: The purpose of the exercise is to see if they can hear the long/short vowel distinction and apply the spelling rules they have learned to new words, and not to check their spelling of learned words. 2. When you finish, elicit and write the answer on the board. Accept all possible answers that follow the spelling rule. Simply bracket the ones that are not words. For example, if you say 'brain', then accept 'brane' but put brackets around it and say it isn't a word yet! This is a difficult exercise, but teaches students that they can spell words that are new to them.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 8

Donna Bowler, 2008

More Spelling Rules
As students work through the handouts for long and short vowels, you will need to go over some additional spelling rules. Rule #1: Drop the e before adding ing. Rule #2: When a long word ends in consonant + e, the word with the corresponding short vowel has a double consonant, as follows: long __ke __le __ce short __ck __ll __ss example bake - back bile - bill mice - miss

Day 3: Long and Short A
1. Repeat steps 1 through 3 from day 2 above. 2. Do the Listen and Circle activity on Page 3. (See below.)

Listen and Circle (Student Handout)
====================================================================================================

1. Give each pair of students one handout. (Note: there are two handouts per page. Copy and then cut the handouts in half.) Students work in pairs to mark the long and short vowels. For example for 'bake', they should mark the 'a': 'bāke'. 2. Give out the remaining handouts and check that they have marked the vowel correctly. 3. Say one word only from each pair and have the students circle the word they hear. 4. Take up. 5. Choral the list using the 3-Step Jig for both words of each minimal pair.

Day 4: Long and Short A
1. Repeat steps 1 to 3 from day 2. 2. Do the Long or Short? activity on Page 4. (See below.)
Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2 TG 9 Donna Bowler, 2008

Long or Short? (Student Handout)
====================================================================================================

There are two parts to this handout. Part A 1. Copy and cut the handout in two (there are 2 identical handouts per page). 2. Give out one handout per pair. 3. Students work in pairs to identify the vowel sound (long or short) and write the correct mark over the vowel. 4. Give out the remaining handouts and take up. Part B 5. What is the word with the other vowel sound? If the word given has a long vowel, elicit the spelling and pronunciation for the word that has the short vowel. Remember: you want a word with the same consonant sounds. Do the first few together and then have students write the remaining ones alone or with a partner.

A Brief Note on… Co-operative Learning
For many of the activities in this text, students are working in pairs. This gives the students another oral step before writing and is particularly effective with multi-level classes. When students help each other, it increases talk time and student comprehension.

Day 5: Long and Short A
1. Have students warm up by doing the pair cards from Page 2. 2. Do a Listen and Write activity on Page 5. (See below). Listen and Write (Student Pair Dictations)
====================================================================================================

Pair Dictations are excellent at forcing students to pronounce clearly. The first time you introduce the activity, model by having the other students gather around and doing steps 4 and 5 below with one student. This activity will seem difficult at first but will build student competence and confidence. Teach them to ask "Pardon me?" and encourage them to

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 10

Donna Bowler, 2008

sound out the words using the 3-Step Jig.
====================================================================================================

1. Give one half of the class handout A and the other handout B. 2. (Optional Step) If necessary, have students with the same handout work in pairs to mark the long and short vowels and practice sounding them out first before going on to step 3. 3. Have students find a partner with a different handout (in other words match a student with handout A to one who has handout B). 4. They should sit with a notebook or folder standing between them. Note: It's important that they can not see their partner's handout. 5. The first student (A) reads his first word, using the 3-Step Jig, and his partner (B) writes the word he hears, using any appropriate spelling. Then student B reads his first word, which student A writes, and so on. Have students with problems put their hands on their face (see TG 2). 6. When both students are finished or the time is up, have students compare their two lists. (*When there are two possible spellings, both are shown. But students should only say and write one.) 7. Take up by choraling the lists, using the 3-Step Jig.

Day 6: Long and Short A 1. Make two columns on the board, with ā at the top of one column and ă
at the top of the other. Give out printed cards and have the students come to the front and put their card up under the correct column. Check. Elicit and choral the list. 2. Sentences With Long and Short A on Page 6. (See below.)

Sentences with Long and Short Vowels (Student Handout)
===================================================================================================

Now that students can identify and produce ā and ă, they need to practice hearing them in a sentence (always more difficult than listening to it in a single word). 1. Give out the student sentences. Read one sentence only from each pair and have the students check the one they hear.
Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2 TG 11 Donna Bowler, 2008

2. Take up. 3. Choral all the sentence pairs on the handout, stopping to focus on problems in production. 4. Have the students practice in pairs, by reading one pair of sentences each in turn.

Day 7: Long and Short A (Page 7) Minimal Pair Card Games (Sentences)
====================================================================================================

1. Have the students gather around your table as you model the game with one group of students. 2. Cut up and copy two identical pages from page 7 per group of 3 to 5 students. Shuffle each page or deck of cut-up cards. Hint: Use a different colour for each set. This will make it easier to sort the decks for the next time you want to use them. 3. Put one deck face down in the middle of the table. Shuffle and deal out all of the cards in the second deck to the players. 4. The first player picks up a card from the centre deck and reads the card aloud. If a student has the same card, he reads it aloud. If they both agree it is the same sentence, they put their cards face up on the table to check. If they are mistaken, the first player must put the card back under the deck. If nobody has the card or if the player reading the card has it in their own hand, he can not tell anyone or match it. It has to go back under the deck.
Hint: Encourage the students to put their hands on their face to be sure they are giving the correct tense or lax sound.

5. The next player now takes a card from the top of the deck in the middle of the table, and so on, until all cards have been matched.
Note: students must not see the card being read!

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 12

Donna Bowler, 2008

After Long and Short A (long and short E to U)
1. Always start each class by reviewing the long and short vowel spellings learned to date. Elicit the spellings from the students and fill in a chart on the board. 2. Otherwise, use the same teaching steps used in teaching long and short A, as outlined above. 3. After finishing with long and short E, review the spellings learned to date by mixing the long and short A card set with the long and short E one. Continue to add to the review deck as you work through each new vowel pair. Naturally, as each deck gets larger, students should still only spend the same amount of time on the pair cards (i.e., they will not finish all of them in one session.)

Alternative Sequence
You may also wish to focus on problem pairs as they occur. (See pages Pages 50 to 59). This can be done at the end of the Long and Short Vowel teaching sequence or after students have learned the appropriate sounds. For example, you can teach Long A and Short E after you have taught long and short E instead of waiting until you have finished all of the vowel sounds. You may also wish to teach the two sounds of Y (Pages 64 and 65) after teaching E and I. The 'ow' and 'oy' sounds (technically called 'glides') can be taught at any time. (See pages 60 to 63).

The Two Sounds of Y* (*Level 1) (pages 64-65)
Rule: In short (one syllable) words, Y at the end has a long I sound. In long (multi-syllable) words, Y at the end has a long E sound. (The most common exception to this rule is "July".) Day One (page 64) 1. Put some words they know on the board. Ask if the Y has an E sound or an I sound. Elicit the rule. Say and clap the syllables of the words on the board to illustrate the rule. 2. Go over the rule at the top of the student handout. 3. Read using a two-step procedure: first the 'y' and then the whole word. For example: "y -- happy". Note you are saying "ee -- happy" (i.e.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 13

Donna Bowler, 2008

giving the y sound and not saying the letter name!) Day Two (page 65) 4. Elicit and go over the rule on the board. 5. Give out one set of scrambled, cut-up pair cards per pair of students. Have them mark the Y with a long E or long I and then pronounce the word.

Vowel

BINGO:

Review of Long and Short Vowels

Getting Ready to Play 1. Copy the student handout. There are 8 versions of the student game board. For Bingo Game One, copy a different version for each student. This means in a class of 16, only 2 students will have the same version. For the other two games, students can use the same version (page 41). 2. Provide Sample Guide Words for Each Sound Elicit and write on the board a list of simple, single syllable words (one per vowel sound) your students know, such as: name, at, eat, end, I, is, open, on, too, you, up, boy, now. Elicit and write the vowel marking. Have students copy the words in the correct box on their game board. These will act as sample guide words and help them to review the sounds. Playing the Game Here are 3 games you can play: Bingo Game One (traditional version) Copy and cut up the word set on page 49. Shuffle the deck and turn it face down. Turn over the first card and say the word twice. Students write it in the appropriate box on their handout. The first student to get a line across and down then says, 'Bingo'. Check their sheet to see if they are a winner. Bingo Game Two: Written Vocabulary Review Students work in pairs to write words they have learned in the content unit they are studying, for example, weather. In this version, they must find an example for every vowel sound, but they can use the same multi-syllable word in two places if it has two different vowel sounds. They should do this without their dictionaries, but at level one, you may wish to let them use their notebooks.

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1&2

TG 14

Donna Bowler, 2008

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1-2

A, eh?

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Sentences with Long and Short A
7. (a) Can Kane cook? (b) Kane can cook? 8. (a) What a shame!
(=That's too bad.)

1. (a) Where is Main Street? (b) Where is Mann Street? 2. (a) His name is Mr. Blake. (b) His name is Mr. Black. 3. (a) Jane isn't here today. (b) Jan isn't here today.

(b) What a sham!
(=It's not true.)

9. (a) Did you say 'grad' or 'grade'? (b) Did you say 'grade' or 'grad'? 4. (a) I have a pain right here. (b) I have a pan right here. 5. (a) Jake Blake is my friend. (b) Jack Blake is my friend. (c) Jake Black is my friend. (d) Jack Black is my friend. 10. (a) She's wearing a cape today. (b) She's wearing a cap today.

11. 6. (a) Let's go bake. (b) Let's go back.
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(a) Send me your fax. (b) Send me your fakes.
(fakes=not real things)

Success in Teaching Pronunciation to Levels 1 & 2, D. Bowler, 2008 (S-5)

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Easy!

ē ĕ

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