Reliability Centered Maintenance 101

Bob Appleton
• DoDI 4151.22, December 2, 2007
• NAVAIR 00-25-403, 1 March 2003
• SAE JA-1011, August 1999
• SAE JA-1012, January 2002
• Boeing (2010) Statistical Summary of
Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents, Worldwide
Operations 1959-2009, Seattle
• Moubray, J. (1997) Reliability-centered
Maintenance. New York: Industrial Press
• .

• Background
– Condition Based Maintenance
– Changing views of Maintenance
• History and background of RCM
• The RCM Process
• The RCM team
• The Seven Questions
• Results of the Analysis

What is RCM?
• Definition
– A process used to determine what must be done to
ensure that any physical asset continues to do what its
users want it to do in its present operating context
– Mitigate the consequences of failure
• Yeah, but what is it?
– Highly structured analysis process to:
• Devise maintenance policy
• Design for ease of maintenance & effective operation
– Consensus from all stakeholders
– Identification of critical maintenance practices
– Reduction of counterproductive maintenance practice

Key Enabler of Condition Based Maintenance

is the application and integration of appropriate
processes, technologies, and knowledge based
capabilities to improve the reliability and maintenance
effectiveness of DoD systems and components. At its
core, CBM
is maintenance performed on evidence
of need provided by reliability centered maintenance
(RCM) analysis and other enabling processes…
DoDI 4151.22, December 2, 2007
Condition Based Maintenance

Condition based maintenance plus (CBM
) is the primary
reliability driver in the total life-cycle systems management
(TLCSM) supportability strategy of the Department of Defense. In
concert with the other TLCSM enablers, such as continuous
process improvement (CPI), cause and effect predictive modeling,
and desired outcomes achieved through performance based
logistics (PBL), CBM
strives to optimize key performance
measures of materiel readiness - materiel availability, materiel
reliability, mean downtime, and ownership costs. Under the
authority in DoD Directive 5134.01 (Reference (a)), this
Instruction establishes policy and guidance for the Military
Departments and Defense Agencies for implementation of CBM
pursuant to DoD Directive 4151.18 and DoD Instruction 5000.2
(References (b) and (c)).
DoDI 4151.22, December 2, 2007
Condition Based Maintenance
What Does THAT Mean?
• Do maintenance based upon the condition of the
asset; not on rigid time based schedules
– Reservists change clean oil on schedule even though
the vehicle may have less than 100 miles since the last
oil change
• More maintenance is not better maintenance
• Excessive preventive maintenance creates failures
– Infant mortality
• Asset Health Monitoring is key to successful CBM
– Sensor selection must be examined carefully
• CBM is third generation maintenance and is an
important step toward prognostic maintenance

Changing Views of
Time Based
Reliability, Availability,
Maintainability, TOC
Views of Wear Out Patterns
Failure Patterns
Condition Based Maintenance
Origin of RCM
• Boeing 747 and United Airlines
– MSG-1 (Maintenance Steering Group)(1968)
– DC-8 required 4 million man hours per 20,000 flight
• (200 man hours per flight hour)
– Using RCM techniques 747 required 66,000 while
improving reliability
• (3.3 man hours per flight hour)
• MSG-2 & MSG-3 followed for many military and civilian aircraft
• Nowlan & Heap, RCM, 1978
• SAE standardized RCM requirements for industrial equipment
– JA-1011
– JA-1012
• NAVAIR standard – 00-25-403
Record of Improved Safety
The RCM Analysis Team
Officer or Chief
or Chief
The RCM Process
• Disciplined and highly structured
• Synergy created by the multifunctional team
• Collective wisdom of team members from all areas
– Operations
– Maintenance
– Engineer
– Logisticians
– Specialists
• Decisions based upon consensus
• Cross functional information sharing leading to
deeper understanding of the asset by all
The Seven Questions
1. What are the functions and associated performance
standards of the asset in its present operating
2. In what ways does it fail to fulfill its functions?
3. What causes each functional failure?
4. What happens when each failure occurs?
5. In what way does each failure matter?
6. What can be done to predict or prevent each failure?
7. What should be done if a suitable proactive task
cannot be found?
1. Functions
• What are the functions and associated performance
standards of the asset in its present operating
– What do its users want the asset to do?
• Primary function – the main purpose the asset was acquired.
• Secondary functions
– Safety - Comfort
– Environmental - Appearance
– Control - Protection
– Containment - Economy/efficiency
– What is the Operating Context?
• Where, when, under what conditions
– What are the required performance standards?
• How much; how fast
Sample Function Statement
• PRIMARY FUNCTION - To pump water from tank X to tank
Y at not less than 800 gallons per hour at temperatures
ranging from 40 degrees F to 120 degrees F.

• SECONDARY FUNCTION - To contain water within the
pump, not permitting leaks exceeding 1 ounce per 8 hour
work shift
• SECONDARY FUNCTION – To prevent any contamination
at all of the water from lubricating oil.
• SECONDARY FUNCTION – To shut off automatically if the
water in tank Y rises above 90% capacity to prevent
Initial Capability
1000 GPH
Output 800 GPH
Deterioration (Not failed)
800 GPH
Output 800 GPH
2. Functional Failures
• In what ways does it fail to fulfill its functions?
• “Failure” – The inability of any asset to do what its users
want it to do
• “Functional Failure” – The inability of an asset to fulfill a
function to a standard of performance which is
acceptable to the user.
– Performance standard must be agreed to by all stakeholders
• Total failure – fails to pump any water at all
• Partial failure – pumps water at less than 800 GPM
– Partial failure will likely be caused by different failure modes
than total failure
– Partial failure is not the same as deterioration
– Asset may fail by breaching either upper or lower limits

No water at
Output 800 GPH
Functional Failure (Partial)
799 GPH
Output 800 GPH
3. Failure Modes (FMEA)
• What causes each functional failure?
• Failure mode statements should contain a noun and
a verb
– “Bearing seized” or “impeller worn”
– Not “broken,” fails,” or “malfunctions”
• Ineffective Failure Mode statements lead to
unproductive failure management techniques
– P: Number 3 engine missing.
S: Engine found on right wing after brief search.
– P: Aircraft handles funny.
S: Aircraft warned to straighten up, fly right, and be
– P: Something loose in cockpit.
S: Something tightened in cockpit.

3. Failure Modes (FMEA)
• All maintenance is managed at the Failure Mode
– Reactive maintenance identifies failure modes after
the fact
– CBM requires that all potential failure modes be
identified beforehand in order to monitor, measure
and manage them

• Categories of failure modes
– Decreasing capability
– Increase in desired performance
– Initial incapability

Different Failures;
Different Failure Modes
water at
800 GPH
800 GPH
4. Failure Effects (FMEA)
• What happens when each failure mode occurs?
– Evidence of failure
– What threat to safety or environment
– How does it affect operations
– What damage is done by the failure
– What must be done to repair the failure
• Consider “down time” vs repair time when measuring
• Best sources of FMEA data are the users who work
with the asset daily
5. Failure Consequences
• In what way does each failure matter?
– How and how much does each failure matter
• Major consequences require great effort to
avoid, eliminate or minimize consequences
• Minor consequences may be run to failure
• Hidden failure requires special treatment
– Consequence could be a multiple failure
• Protected function fails while the protective device
is in a failed state
Different Failure Modes;
Different Failure
water at
800 GPH
800 GPH
Different Operating Context;
Different Failure
Output 800 GPH
Hidden Function; Hidden
Output 800 GPH
6. Failure Management
• What can be done to predict or prevent each
– All tasks must be technically feasible and worth
doing. Proactive tasks (preventive)(age related
• Scheduled restoration
• Scheduled discard
• Scheduled on-condition
– Proactive Tasks (predictive)
• On-condition maintenance
– Condition Monitoring
– Product quality variation
– Primary effects monitoring
– Human senses

Task Selection
7. Failure Management
• What if a suitable predictive or preventive
task cannot be found?
– Default actions
• Failure finding
– For hidden failures of protective devices
• Run to failure
• Redesign
Outcomes of RCM Analysis
• Revised maintenance schedules and practices

• Revised Operating procedures

• Recommended Engineering Changes

• Database of maintenance requirements
– Useful to provide documentation for decisions

• Analysis team members gain a deeper understanding
of the asset

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