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Modern Gunsmith

Modern Gunsmith

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A Manual of Firearma Design, Construction

and Remodeling, for Amateurs

and Professionals





V .. S. At



One of the most popular contributors to RIFLEMAN pages, Clyde Baker, author of many home gunsmithing articles. died April 8, 1943.. In ill health for some time he entered Oak Noll Naval Hospital on March 22 and passed away following an operation.

Mr. Baker was born at Cowgill, Missouri, March 26t 1894) but received most of his schooling at Kansas City, Missouri,. where his family moved.

At the outbreak of World War I he enlisted in the Marine Corps and had nine months service in France. Upon returning to the United States and his home he went in £or the hobby he always loved-guns, gunsmithing and repairing.

In 1922 he married Edna N~ Mengel and then, in his own home, established a gun .repair shop where he remodeled, rebuilt, repaired and restocked guns of all types in his

'spare time, His occupation was advertising.

It was during this time he wrote his book, "Modern GUDsmitbingl" which became one of the most enthusiastically received writings of that subject. He was a lover of the outdoors and hunting came to him naturally. That and big gunsmithing hobby provided the material for the many articles he wrote for THE AMERfCAN R.r:nEMAN, Sports Afitld, M!chanb 1111.4stmt~d,OutdDor Li/e and others.

After Pearl Harbor Mrt Baker answered. the Navy's call for men with specialized trades. Then being in the gun business en-

tirely, he enlisted and soon was assigned to

instruction on the subject of "Guns and Gunnery" at San Diego. In July, 1942l he was assigned to special duty at the U. S .. Naval Base at Oakland, CaRf., where he worked in a small arms repair unit, Everywhere his fine work and gunsmithing ability was recognized and he was made Gunners Mate 1st Class Jast February.

C1yde Baker will live long in the memories of

those who loved the outdoors, fine firearms and expert. worksmanship.


[~TR.ODUCTJON •••••••. & .

1 • H DM I G V N 6M lTH 1 NO ••• t • • • I , • • III .. • t j • .. • • • • • • • I t

2. TI-li GUN-CkAHK~S WORJt.5HOP ~ • + ..

3. Too LJ NO Up............... t oj • • • • ~ • • t " t ... ~ J • • • • • •



6. FIRST ST IPS FOR. B BOI NN IllS ~ • • • . ..

7.. GaHERAL SHOP PllAcrtCE AND US. 01' TOOLS j .

Sot ·W oon FOR G U N'S'rO:CKt a..... t • • • • • ... • • • • .. • • .. • • I •

9. GUNSTo(;K. DBSIGN III •• , • , .



12~ CRICK.ING AND CAa.VlNQ .. - • j •• ~ • ~ • ~ .

FUllS KINO AND POIJllIIN'G STOCU III ~ t .. • • III to t ••• t ~ III RIP ;"IRlNG AWD a.MOD. LING SToc .. s +. • '" • • • • • • • .. • • RJI'LB BAJt.I.IL DalON AND liftiNG ... III t t • , • , ••• + ••

I"Y ~ilgllD WH.IUtI

16. CHAM. !UNO AND BM_VL WOR ., ••• I I ~ 1 •

n TOWUII~D wUt ...

17. CUTR flXJl DBI'JION A.Nb MANU I' ACTVU ~. ~ ••• , • " ~ •





18. STR.lKlNG AND POUSHlNQ BAIlaBU -t .... , It .. t t ~ •• I t


2(). BLl1lNQ AND :BROWNING •••• + •••••• ~ It I •


22. CASK HARnBNINO ...........,.,...... .. ,............. III ..

23 .. 24, 2~.

SOLD.UNO~ BLAZING AND W It.:DIHG ••. • t t • I .. II j ..... lIA. NU.ACT U". 01.. S UniTrUTION' O' SMALL P DoTi I .. HARD Frrrmo or SMALL P;'l.ra ..... III •• III III .... III ......

26.. CLEANlH'G BoIt.B.~ AND RwMOVINO 08S"f1lUCI1ONB ..... 27.. LAPPlNo BAIl.RilS AND Boas POUSHlNQ ••• t •••••••

28. Anru $l1NC TP.1OOKR P t; LLs· A Nl) ACTIONS ........,.

29. FiTTlNC SIGHTS ANP TBLBSCOPIS •• ~ t •• + , • II j ,


SHOTGUN R.nPAIJt.S AND AL'TDATIONI ~ ... ,. t •• I ,. ~ •


33- RISTOaATICN AND R,PAIR O' OlD Fta..,. .. ",,! . t I •• ~ I


EMB·a.o:aNCY AND FIELD RXPA1.' & ~ ~ •


o ffc ri RI' me any or all of the DripnU material in his book, and hi. ~ Banal eoepe n non in the new enterprise as Wl!ll

I f at first I felt Rattertd by the invitat;oo; the: i"lin,:t was quick.ly dkpel1rd b, the realization (l f what a big- mouthful I had hi tten all foO r myatlf; I Will P Jetty mud! In the aame :d tuaricn of the 11 iue r i.x who caught a wn~J,,,clt by the taiJ--ucoulda"t hang on, an' dassent let JOOfIe It' But as all thinp must el'entoal11 have ·-an !!ndinlr. the Lut 1 1 ine ,,·u :finally written] the J ast photograph made; and from the heart , of tht! mntinent there IOUnd:ed ODe lon, drawn tigh of relief.

)3 It Is e\lident that & book of this character cannot ift tt.~ nature of

thingt be entirely the- wo rk Df ene man.· In the field of (UnSlQtth .. 33 ing".. d~h~re;l we IDlconsdowly Itan toward .peddiE.tion:, doing 53 mote of the work we like brat. Icd lest of the W"OTl: W'~ do not

un d.ersta nd so wc:U t or for which. we aR not 10 well fquipped.. In fA] I·Modern Gunsmith inE! H tllerdore. my "Work h.. been quite as M much tlJa t of a compiler IS of BJI autllo r; the meager resu 1 tI 0 f pel r· 83 tonal experience hive been tntareed by adding the txpcr~nce and know!dle of ot~ en, with I "itw to placing i D the hands of ItUq~ tmi thl and IUnowners the irea test amount 0 f useful rna terlal and Informationt regardlm 0 f its toUn.'t.

There acemed to be a definite desiTe on the part of a large Rumber of thooters for I rext book Df i:unsm[thi ng P rld:ice. and n:ery .,ftO" hu been made to inrcrporate m uMode rn Gunsmirb ing" detailed instruction! coverinc those job. mQlt oftm required by tile IUD --erank.

Tlu~rfl are IO.IlV who will ~ at- 'ChI. mggeatior!, pocintinK out mit tl1e high degree of ,kill acquired by elq)cn zunsn:Ut'L. wu not ac .. quJ red b:y ra.diol _ book, but through 10Ag apprentitelhip to the !rI.de j .nd point inc aut .lso the elaborate In. eott]y tnacldl1cl;"J' nu:a-

5llated in the man u faetu re of mode rn :firurmst All th i, is true; .nd it would be not only futile" but silIrt to claim that this or zny other text book: 'WOuld place the amateur workman. or th-e gun.....:rank OR a plr wi th the exJW! rt of long eXperience:. 0 r enable hi In to perfo nn all tile in t ric I te: medl ani cal op-en.tiOIJl pM~b I@! only in t he well eq uipprd factory !oope.

It has bern our purpose, therefore, to cover as thoroughly .. posIi ble those j obi which can be t'Omi de red pr act icahl e for til e am. leur workm4n. and for .the guns.m.i~h with a smal] shop and limittd. I!(jULpm.rnt~ and to show not only the possLbilities, but also the limita tiol1 S 0 f .IItI a teu r gunsm i thing. And whil e some of the: jobs described may prove to be beyond tlle abJlitj of som~ wtJri:menl they will, it i, hoped. serve a. useful purpose in brinE1n2 to the guncwntf a grra re r .pp recia don of the run~ be owns--of the skill and JDartri 11 wh ich enter in to thd r rna ke IIp---3. t th e same time I5howi ng tile fallaCYt peJhl~t of some of the things which shooters demand af the fa.~torits things which are dearly impossible Or impracth::ahl~ once t be sub j ~ is better undtrstOOcl

I t is hop~d also, that our 'WO rk may se IVe another usefu 1 pu ~,t in Ihll!' way o~ I wal'nlng Ipinst a type of gunmaker w~o sneers at tbe work of eu r great • m1'S factories: and oR'tn, in so~ myste rroul manner w hie'" he ca refullr ceneea Is froDI. the rrusri ng cuatolne r t t"d do thing! which the factOries. "With aU their txperlcnce and ooniy eq ulpmm r, do not ehim to do ..

We 11'1: Mm~ted at timetl of eeurse, to tai:t: rxceptiol'! to rhe at .. titudr: of our large faaoriesl when they nfuse to giv~ U$ sornethin. wbich we thil1k we waa.t-which refusal is ahvays necessltated b, the fac~ tb at the f.dorin are 11 ned up for regu Ia r production, and

eann()tl in the natu re 0 f tbi nlSt ~ in to !Custom wor ~ without involyinl m-cre expeRIe than the jot, 'Wnuld bring+ But 'befol'~ 'Wt eta rt cuai nl' them let us remtmh.er th. t the prod UC't5i 01 our 01 d established fac:toriet~ whilt they may nor .lways JI,I:]t us in certllin minor det.i1s~ are pretty ~rtainlll to be depMdabl~1 aeeurate, and to live up to the very modest dahm of the m ak-= rl. Which i, • b1.mC"d sigh t more than the prod ur:ts 0 f some custom shop, w ill do. dtsp itt til e £Old d ~i'I. the tlubd nbs. In the flJ rb~ lOW! w;rh which the, Ire tmhetlisbecl ..

A large portion 0 f th e end i t for Ul{ od ern Gunsmi thirlJl:U: beIGnl' to Lt. Colonel TownRnd W"helcnt without wnose untiring enerr:y and splendid tcOpr!J'lltiDn the w(3rk would not hAve ~en po$!l1lIe~ and woul d not hive been I ttemp ted. 1 n fact, t RouCh he modestl,. ftfuats to bin hi! nRme attaehed u CO ... uthOf, he wrote the cl.apten on barTel work Sind CRl"tridge dKip .. nd con;trw:tton. I wa.attd these chapters to be absolut~ly authoritative, and I knOW" of no mall 10 ""e'n qua.lified IS he ia to co~r th~ su'b.itcts.

96 129


168 185





264- 275

280 302

317 325

34J 377 382

389 397

412 437 465

484 SO? S21

S OMETHING OV~r a fQr a£01 in wridl1l' tc Dr. Paul B~ Jen-

kin" the 11 shoot in g ed ito r of Ou tdoor Reerea tlGn. I made the statcmrot that the re we re a num her of poin.ts I .hGU Id lib to ha't'c seen diSC'U8!!ed in Wh~le.nts ~·Amateur Gunmiithing" w'bi(h were not covered theftin. Apparently Dr. Jenkins. 'WI.I inapJessed \\~ith the outline or feRturts which I thouKht would be 01 value to the gun cran k 15 Wt] 1 as til e p rof~islona 1 gun.m th.. for he sent my Itt t-e:r to Colonel 'Whtlm without more: ada.

Now the Colonel, being the mOlt agreeable of mtn\ 'frank-Iv ,tattd til a t U A rna leur G u nsmi th i ngl' was (lot :as complete as be Ih{J~ I d li ke tc b.a ve m adoe it ~ ~i n g the fi nt work on tile luh j tCt. .n~ req uiri ng oritinal invcsdtation, for which time wu limited. And in furrhe.r e~idr.nce of hi, devotion to I rood CllI5et he cordially invited me to wri te rb e kind 0 f gu rtsm ith' ng book I war. talk in Ii: about t gencroUily






I wilt. to IclnowI~dg;e also the very vaIllable uMstanee rtndered closed Hasan on tarpts. tin cans, chunks of drifbvOOd. Y eah, [

by M.jor Julian S. Hatcher, Mr .. I.mes V. HO"Wet Mr. Flul: J~ reckon L'll, get my share of shootiDr; as long 8$ they make powderrll

K3l1n, Mr. UlU Smirh~ Captain Edward C. Crossmani' the Lyman FJlInk gapes. Dpe8 mouthed. UMy gosh I I didn't know' ru was GUl15igbt Corpora.:ion1 the Marble Arms &: Equipment C~n..,any such a hlalter. Ltmm~ sec om ot tMm bullets. Wow nat R~[ngtnn AT~ Company. Hunter Arms COIl1&Inny_ Parker Gu~ tlli.n.td tear right through In elephant ait~ keep On gain'. wouldnlt CompanYI Fax Gun Compl1ny .. Ithaca Gan Company, anel Ofbef it? 4 Laoka' tb.at steel j~t-~j1l wbat !,!,e used. in .the al'Dly.n hrblS a.t.lli jnd i v i J ual.s w he ba ve kto &0 zene:I'OUI in the mattet G I B III keeps n ght on .Ii hn£:. urumprased. No, I doa t I«koa ~t sIJppolyiag needed data. or JJlustratious; and I am most gnltf!f1Jl ahll "~u.ld ~r ~rDugh many eleJ)~nt;'- You ~ Frank, that lS11~t to the severa] indil'idua.l shoott'r,_ SOme of whom I hil.vc never met. a steel Jacket as you c:illlt: It S Just it hard .l!Mt alloy bull~ for who have come to the front wirh interestiJll ilhutratiolls of their s~l. pme-tbat cartndge ~n your ~d-whlch you.call • bul .. own handiwork, besides tbti r many "alliable 5urgestions. let -IS .a reduced load 1 UR· on squIrrels! Ind the hkc. Shoots

Last but nul least I am indebted to t~ publishers for the lDIny only ~ little !'a1dtr lh!Ul a tw~ty-two .• GIVCS me ~ chance ~. get CGnstructlvt criticisms, chapt-et' by chaptee, which have prtvent.:d the acqulJated With my bIg pme rifle ouWde the bunbne season. pr*ibl~ owi:!iSion of mllt:b in''pottant d.ata that mighr eas.ily hay.: "Heck,. that'd be roo much lun for mc-twenty~two~s big enough been overlooked, snd ~hose assi~~.n~ in the mattci of I5e(1.lriAG' f?r anything =-l'Clun~ here, I've lOt a peach of t. Lwmty..twu. ~! the cooper:iU'DA and ;ud uf Iti;chng firearms manllfachJrcn. 1wI apt .. .fifty-k.moc1:s em dead far as you can sec: cm---hanleat dtoou.a

rroven in val liable. twe.rltJ-two I ever uw. Sa,,-,. B HIt dlt. t teminds me. they'. lOme rust

rille IHrp.a.ralion of this bock has tlulhr me that the best war to or something in that blrn:l---l tolcl DY kid brother to cltan it up Teall, learn S:Olnttbing about a givell subject i! to Iltrl!lnpt to write last summer, but I slpose he forgot it. I had it out on. a 6-shin" trip_ a hook on it !--and if the reader acquires h..lf as much lHW infarma-+ bue had~Jt shot it moreJp a dozen time$. Smokeless, toO-I always non from re~ding U){odem Gunsmitllingn u the author acql.lirN. In 'UIC I.motels alitridFl~ 111 bring it OV'C'r ani fOu can cleiln it up ..

rhe 'W1"itin~ 'of ira ht win finJ. 1 htlpf:t that hi.; effort has not been ~'"ln8JIb!~~ grunts BilL ""Move aTO\lnd just a littlel will you.

entitt:ly wasted, .rnnkt ., I em gel elbow roam lit ·

Kan~s Ci ty ~ "fo. CLYDB BAt( B I. ::S~ re ! S.ay '!"'hat ~re you doing to that Itock anyhow ?~I

] Illy. 1928 I m m.ajllnllt up nghr now."

··W asn lit the shape all :rip I when you. lOt it ~I' j I Did n't Ii gee it-I made it. il

~. Made it r You mean to tell me you made that ltock YDurself ttl "Sure, why notl"

I'Wha.t'd ya mike it Out of 1"

"Pieee of w-alnut likt Itllt blnk. oftr there in the corner ."

"H ELLO. n!111"~

.DI.I. "You mean to tell me you carved that out of I chunk of wood

.. J i 0\\' J.YJ F'rank I C"m in/ t like this 7"

"Beliere the Wca.uu:r's roolint 06 a bit. aintr it ?-for heck ub UNothin& diffe.r=t/"

,,'hatcha doiu· theJe--rnalin~ a lUll r II _~

And HiU 8l1lllcs~ 14\VeH .. not exactly. jUlt. new Itoa for one "IWell howdtja gC!t it tbat ,hape l-huh? Hawd'ja get that groo\'e

of In, 'old ones. II I' , cut in for the barrel ~ Howdtja IC!t all them other holes cut m Ilt!

1I10ne of 'ern r Haw many you lOt. aDybcw?tt Say, boJ 1 You've ,or more rlme to wasee tban. I bave."

"Ob, pot many, I gurs;. Four riBesll myoId P.arker 12 that 1 BUllays down hi~ ndP and turns from ehe btnch... uFn.oil:, JOu"rc

~ fur d uc.;ks and, a 20 gauct: Smith for birds:, all d 10 u r or Ii'le • p retry good z;uy-i n spou-maybe. But you 've a lar to learn . .p.t.S1ob-oot counting a roupla target pisrob I made out of .22 You're missing- a Jot of fun. Guess )·oullre jl1t~rest~d or ,eu wouldn1r TlBes."· be as:.:ing so IlUlIlY Questions. I'Il make yo. a proposition. Our

• i My G awd I Y () q Ii gu ri n' on &taro n I • revol ution or some tbiaa t. ri Ie and pistOl club meets at the Armory IOmo rrnw ni gb r, CODle on II Nope. j u~t I ike to shoot t and fool wit h gu ns, What did I do out wi th m~et a bunch of good SCQuts-----1earn to shoot a Ii Ae~ with that other file ?'t--;nd Brit rumtnagft .monK dh~ odds and end, yo u' U get just ss much fun out Df the game as I drJ--tll.ilybe more. n on the bench. Frank watches him a mommla UNothin' doin' old timet-not lor me. Learn to shoot t--hell! 1 & ~I Sa.Ya a. n' t th:rt some k.. ~d o f an old ann)" riJle 1-t hat thl I'l K stick.. bet I can shoot bettert n moat of them bi r& ri ,ht now ;-an ~ beIng OlJt on the side looks IJk.!! th~ ones we. h.d. .t Funston during the ,ides I IOtt2 date with a keen frail at the Play-Mot tomOorrow war. BnYt I sure was glad to gl!t rid of mintl'" nirht-boy. ,,;ooughta IH' her, Some rib! G05h .. it must cost you .a,

tlWelt this isa't an old army riflp) aacdY3 rhough it is a S,rinlt- pile of jaek to do all th.at shootin', dontt it? Wenll gotta beat itfield barre] and action. "This is the 'SIlQltert modc:l sold by the Di- see fCU .ater. Say .. Bill-lend me "vet wilt you-I'll pay you Satrector Df CIvilian ~1.rksm2fl$hip to mem~n of rhe National RiAe urdaYr Thanks 1 Wei!. so len,IJ'

A55OCi.t ton.II' And Bill ttl ms back to the: bench with I lip Ilf rei itl.

Frank j nspecrs the gun with. mow ing .i r, "U m-1I1 huh r Til i rt)'- • • • • • •

th i rty" ain ~t it! Eoy !-h ow far will th. t thing shoot ~III

uCan't sa)'. Depends on how high you hold it, I'll siJh.t it in There's the picture and it isn-t exqgeftted. In clty~ town.,

for a hundTed yard 8 fo r hunting:. n Ar1d collntrr II the roe are If!giOM oOf n Franks. n We find them eve ry-

"Aw hcll-I btt that thing 'lid carry cltar over lnto the Dext where. SlowlYI but surely" our mal~ c:iriunty ig becoming: elDascounty I Wbatdtya want wjrh a thine like that around here Illr cul~ed ~ the point: ~f ut~r he!p~~~ SIlding ,long. content in

anyhow~n't ItS'! ir in thig country C2II you?U rhrlr ~aklless, gl(Jr)"lng In their mat .. bty to do tbin~ Proud 01

'" 'the fact that they~ve nrver be~ taught to use their hands and

B h· , B ·11· L_ ~ h ... 1_-1 ~ Y . blind a Iso. to the fact that tltey know mighty Iittie about using thoei (

1')' t 5.S u~e 1. lS Ul;mmlnK so~ at IIct~. iii (]u CIa 1£ brad!.

you rc Rot Crippled. I cet out for a ~ttle daootina ~ the range Work-hoDest~ decent labor .. skill of fingen~ accuracy of e,ell- mm.l ev~ r)' Sa[urday and Sun lb.)? Don t ba"c. wuc:h tune tb rouah somehow it_all to be ~nt:ath the pn:scn t ~rteration. The butithe week.. Now. and then 1'K'=t 4?WQ alone the r.lwr and throw & few nm man in Iris .office stieD out: hit chest, holds .LiCDnfennce .... ~J at the dnf~OIld:l and 5Uch~ ~ It Jlo~~tI· down. Great r.poR. th.at- froWDS .and lookl wiseJ PTtrlling himself on that thinr he c.I.ls Ill.bil_

g~ pracbce f~ lame-shootlng .. too: ~ f tt ity .. u Thea be sharpens his pencil by sticking it into It linle machine

I .. Game ~tIRe-shucl.sr-:therc am t DO game ~ h~re. and tuming a cnnk-or DlOn: likely !C1"eWI dowil the point of an

Ng" not rl~t out h~r~ U1 the yard. But I don. t have: to •• automatic &Old ant; hu hi. fI.Dger nails -c:leanrd by the blonde ill the Ear to find~ rahblts and sqUlcrels .. and flSu.a1Jr. get my shart: 1!f bird. barber shop; calls,. Krvice maa to change a tire on hI! car; wean and ~ uc U lft ~ISOD~ And ~Q.t fall III Kot .~ prune ~~k. and a no. bca l" a little ueless penkni Ie on hi. W2 tch chain and K'Dds It to a grind· t;J~t In !yy~mlflK-and th15 fali I m pune up 1:0. I clabo. WIth a ing shop to be whelted t-yesJ he does just th.t.. We.fve bre.a fnend 07 Llll!,C ~hose brotber owns .a r~ there. ~e~ s p~ent)" pampered now to the point 01 helptessntsS-and if We don~t watch of shOOting If )OU know where: to find It-and besIdes tbere I no our step, we1) find ourselves at the point of use1.essnst..







T he a ,'e r a gr: man who ()wns it gu n- I said til C mT.uag.,--.tam it ttl the: load be desi res t(1 ~M. "rh ia tnd us~ ry has been f uc[her .aid l·d to tll I! gun;rni t h to be c Iearred=-usually two 0 r th ree weeks a fter by til ose ~ 'V-M while t; ~ ill cl i ngi ng In the t radi ti en, surround in g tl 1 e using it4 But the a.vera,e man of today doesn·t own a :run-- old ulllt3.nd.bY5. r~ yet ~C'~ired ~ertain chani:;e$ a.nd I tfin~m.:r .. ts, ~pt(;jal knowl nothinl!t about I gun-and brags about his ignorance. "Re- 51.ocks d~lgned to tilt buttpllt.CI wieh trap f.ar clt~ning; ma1erials. form j, has don e wond ~ rs-i n the way o f m akini' Us a race 0 f saps. p~s.to I grl ps. rh 11 t Be rve I tiffin I re pu rp*" instead 0 f being a mere Nat t ha t lack. '0 f R;un k n O'W ledge tor a liki ng fo r firearms ccosti- ~ an u nde r the shoo l~ rl!i elbow ~ 61gh [i ad.apt~d to his eyesJ barrels 0 f tu res a m an a sap-s-b u t the gen-e ral t re rid ·0 f t n e times is doina- th is ~J I t-edgc accu r ~cy, t n gge r P'!Us sweet and cr iS~1 ins lead of remi nd-

4 lng ene of open U11: • cash I'Cgl:l!iitc "r-th I!S~ a re some of the many tI ~L ngs

v« ry t hi n g~ and the supe reil ious 1 ttitudc of the rene ral public towal"d the custom ·gunmale r Q f tGcl .. y ]8 c:a 110: d upon to su pp ly • by sh( w ters t hose eh in gs 0 n VI hie h ou r fo re fa the rs buil d ed the na tlon, is but one w ho hive lea r rn:d w nat 1 h BY want an d w hu can affo rd 10 pa yo lur it. 01 rhe visible evidences of it. But for ewty $hooter able to buy the gun of his dreams there ale"

Bi£tk in the hills, or on the fllrmst conditions are better" Living h.undred.!'oo must couu~ tb~ir C&"!ih more carefully. And theYIclose to tilt U re gi yes 1l1;m I. better vi.ewpoin tj. :.. keener apprecia don Ilk~ tilt plone~r who h a v JU( plen t.V 0 f ti Inc and Ii tt It cash 01 t ned of the i un d amt n r a 18. People ;u:e j udged mo re by t hei r ability th an a [] d smelted h is own i ron, idled h II roct .. map let I ee ~ and b ui 1 this by E:~ir appearance or their $OC.L11 a.:=roml~li.!ihlDmt$. i~he man in .ftlntJ.cu:k/-\v!ll .fetire: to thtll i1D])rOlriscd 'Wcrk:shop, and with such rile far places Is Bot usi1y f-oolcd hy oolli!yed words af so c:a11ed "re- ~ools.ils ~re aV.lllabltl produ~ the weapons they want. FDr l;aii ure 10 rme rs' III who set. k:: to ~ take away ou r GcwJ~given ri ghts; he promprl y IS not w r rtten ~o r the true gun-cT.nk ..

plac;.e~ him in his proper cll~ific.adM-and ~ 50 dOlnK he doesntt _ • • • •

call B spade an agricultural implement. •

The ploneer of ytsteJday saw. thought, and .acted ckarly-with D~~ home gunsmithinE pay? That all depends. It pays Rill.

\J nd erstand log. H a ... i n g no one else to d.epend on. he learned to de b.ut n may no! par FJ".~ k. The Jhah who 1"1 as the ,lciU~ O£ the Piat hi n gs f (] r hi mse If. H e bull t h L~ cab] n ~ fenced h is lie lds, cul ri vat.rd nence to .8 ~ II t r~ the d: 111. n~sa ry to tu Tn ou t a job o:f rel1:ti r i n g t It em w i ttl home-mad e tools, and fill ed his k.r der wi rh ,am~ which 0 r r~ttd~ Ii ng l~ ~ wo rkman like manner twill be!! :fa r m 0 re JlIO u d he shot hirnself-e-sometimes with a r.L.Rc: made with his own handst 0 f Jus .gun than IE It were the work of a hi,h priced maker, Then Or by the hands of a n-eighboring smitht with tLe crudest o( heme- there I~ the ether man located faT frOID f!lCfories and e;unsmithsmade eLl U L l](l"Jen r, a vi) iza"tian t 11.5 we knnw it red ay I w.as not essen" 'tbr- rna n to whom I reliable I Ii rear m i~ • dai I r nec('$~i ty.. Alit fIe tial in nil Kheme of things. knowl~J2"e of ~h~ more c~~on repairs ma.y prove irnn1~nst'ly valu-

S i lICC' rh e inception of au r nati.on ~ the love of fire.noll haa hem a :I b le to hlm J 1!11m.J n:l tlnl' t1 fe!IO:l!ni! wak. Df delay vi ith the gu 11 sen t to natural ;11;tiDC~ of the American, Not as a ~a.nl cf slrt.ughtc:t, ex- the flctory for repairs ur alteratiol1.1 or in saving- the price []f rhe job ce pt in de f.er.I5C ot I ~fe and pr~H: try,. or to provide food fo r tie table. ar I time wilen doll. n art -few ..

Thi s b e ri rage ha& bee n pllSied down to U5J to be: received by some, and 6

rejected by Many. Civiheatiun has in some unaeceanrable manner, The gunsmith, iOT. some: U3..S(lIl or other, has always surrounded

Z' ... \·kr~J our brains, him.;elf with an aura of mystery; leading the shooter to btli~ve that

11 LC P ioneer loved hi6 lpng ri fie. and g.ave it all th e ca re and a l~ hi~ C fa it 'W~ a ~ f t i rom trtC gods I n'O t t(l bt: ene roached llpon b)' [~nt ion gi'ven by the true gun .. crank of today-f(Jf t be piont:eI in.. oldina ry mor tals. True t gunsmith ing is a high Iy sptcial iz:ed t radest i net j s not ~ n tire: ly ex tinct. Th mks 10 th t dlorbl of th~ N a donal bu t the: z:e t s nc bl ~ck magic abo ~ t i.r. 1 t req UL res ~ ne"Chan~cal :d;: i] II and Rifle AssociutlDn .of Am~ ricl, each. year nnds • Ql"tartr nurtl:~er who an u.ndcr~tHnding vi principles. just lik.e· any other mechanical trade, 1130"\0 1! 1 ra rnc J () E the w 1 LOl~l)me sport awaiting them [)n th e rln&Cl Sa wi~ g off the tnd of a nock isn' l so v~ r,! d i ff~ ~n r f rom sawing Df1 a'ld j n [he woods i 'v hi I.e th c t:all 0 f the bob ~W h ~ t e :and tIlt: honk: 0 t a pi" ~ce of oak Roo rinK-both rcq Ul re a sh n rp sa w ~ and ab.ii ty to fGl ~ incoming g~se Is a perpetual inspiration to those who hay!: inherited low the lin~.. I es nD hardrr to nIt: a spring or a hammr: r than u a lo.ve for the smooth tubes. And try as they maYt the IOHst!1 is to file a door latch--and either (]nt Dlay be. ruined i.f you faa to t:lr'mtn~ wLll probably ne\ter lucce-ed in whoU, depriviniJ: UI of OUT SlOP in time. The je-v,eJer mak.e.s a ring: of sLl,'r:rt and (}xidiz[S iclov! for the sport o~ m-ooting-for whar is bred in the bone is born but he thinks the bluin.l t)f a gun IS a dtep dark secret. Th~ dC[)bst in the fln h. The rna! e American who scofh at ,he spa r t ta cit IJcr makes a gold crown and pu ts j t on .a t()(]th-w hy 5J ~ 0 u ltl n· t II r: aiso

an alieR by n a tule, or e lie i. delibe rattly pc rYe rtin I hi, natural id~as. malcc: a gold bead s~&h t and. lit it to his ri He ~

The .:iInm 0 t the p!oa~C'r exp rnacd his indi vi duali ty-and ea.cb wa'l &1 any, if DGt most~ 0 f the 5O-c..aU,= d j~ tradc-s~re tsJ t 0 f fiJ.ea r m.::s

perforce, a aJswm bu.iJt ann.. For ther~ were no grr:at fWoritl;u manufactur~rs are wide open se~rets, !he trouble has been that ~e there arc today, equipped to tU rn C1J, t q u an ti ty pJOd uc:tio... The fact~rLes had. lID r~n 10 r tellin&: thea r cust~mers pow to do me.l r man wh 0 1\" In tl!d .I. gun to I d l'br! .mi Ib hl)"\Y h I:: wanted it bul1t and own work I and the small a,moun tot -data avaIlable has bet!n inmost the. smith bui I tit that way. Each g~n embed ied the pet id~~ of· rases the wo r k 0 f amateur gunsgJi ths who. marti nK; (h,c necessi ty th~ owner-idea! evolved trom th~ neceniti~, of the day Ind of thr as it has arist:n. have Ylork.l:!d (Jut fairly good m.erbods, but not n.e·ces~ I o Cit I i ty ~ As t~ me wen t on, the pr ivat.e gun maker WiS Clad uaU"1 re- 5.3.l"i 1 y th I: btst methods by any ~cans.

placed by the taM:ori~and firtarms began to lOOt. their indh·idua.l· The: man wb() prides himseli on his inability to sbarpc:n a lead ity. Li¥ing costs s.d\'aneedI and with them the COlt of naterial pwcil may well ~p at the iiaht of another man--pl::mapi one who In d I a[)n r.. 'ro~ mach [ne-made. factory ri ftes were .accept. ble b".!" is not a mechanic: b 1 r rade-maki ng and fi ttil1g a od checki ng and.

5 finishing a ri ftc: or 5ho [gu (] ~tock tor rijJcfld in&: Lon, hou rs :filin&: QU t

COil use they W~ rc- b oth fO(Jd~ and cheap i n price---co~til\g far lea th In 3IJm~ lItIall part that· r q~n tity production 1;1 - me mod I would compl~tt the han~·ma.de muzzle load-l!r-and pouem::d thf! advantages of ~n a :few minutn; or in b1uini iL barrel when there arc factories g:rca t~ r &pce:d 0 f Ii r~ ~ g:n: ater feel li ty of 1o.ad inrt mO re ((Impact (on· bette r equipptd to do i t4 4 ~es it par? t the will~. 0 f ceu UC

It r uctio n. b~ sid es gr f::I t [" I (10W~ r an d I3.r.ge. tlot I-not as be W QuId hjU re it. The gunow ner cannot coun chis

• • • • • • ti me at so III uc:h per hour and co me (Jut :I head on the j Cb4 But,. it1

using his non·prod1Jcti've time to do work tnat p~rhaps ~ cuuld not .:fiord to buy. he acquim beautiful, wr:lI fitted and finLsb~d an9 smooth we r kin, arms that :I R! a (onstan t source of pride and sa tis" fact,on t beel use products of hii own handi \,"0 r k-----expr~ing his ow 11 [ndi vid uali ty . So of co u rse it pays h Lm to do it ..

Gunsm t th i ng is not en ild' splay. I ~ is ha rd ~ slow t painstal:ing WORltJ calli ng for rea5)na bi t skill t the prot-to r to·ols ( many of w hicb may be home made), and a whale 10 t 0 f pad fn~e and a tten e:io.~ to ,mali detail. Y ct it is perhaps the most fuci nat i 1l2: pastime ill w h i'Ch a .hooter can ind utge, next to the a~tual use of h is ~apons in the wood:! or on the ranee t afto rd i n I" him the (J pporttlni. ty of h.avtng exactly what he wants" at a priC! h~ can aEfo rd"

Yet in h is ac~ ptanICr: 0 f rh tS new arm. rnil!: mooter neVfr en t j fl!l'i los this d~sire for e "PI ess ion oj h is person ali ly in hi s Vt"capons. Thee .. " j dencc is fo un d j n II, c: !ie v~ral fancy grat.lls (if factory itu ns sd I] SU!~ !i-td. a nrl \\1 hie h us ua 11 ~ :1 rt! me r~ 1 y ltock: ,KU.US wi th Ii ddcd (n ~ gr a. 'r' l rI g and IJ'tht r dctora tion.

With the gro"~lng scarcity of ou r big game tht= need for morc po"\ver f ul hunt: n g a TIllS h·ns grown apace p and. h 11 nters have If I rned that the II} iii til Iy t)l pe 0 i a r~ bej n '" more higb ly d ~ veloped. is now rh c best atlapu!d to mt.i!"" r~quirm1en['s. So lhere has come intiQ the field not So ne'N i nd ust r y. but" the levi ,'aJ a t an old ont---tbe buil ding ol .sped al aT ms to I b c: iel e:as 0 f r Il ~ in d ividual t on modI!' TO acrinns ad aptt:d





horne gu 115m it hi ng pay;; i t pays in mo re waY'll than n ne, T

CHAnB .. :2

the walls bimre 1 f • Sd ect a spot having as much d ai 1 igh r as pos-sib le, ~d with good ventilation. North Iight is best in .any shop; but ~n,=e .m'Uc~ of the wo~k win probably be done at mghtt zood artifia at hJh t 15 also essen U aI. ..4.cety lene or 0 ne 0; the powe r f u l gasol iae lamps 0 t lanterns provjdc~ an exce lien t: ] igh t in th~ coun try w ht,-.t other me;"s of ligh ti n.g are not a vai lable r I f one has e 1 ee t rk light I

h 1.. 1 · hI' one or tw-o drop! should be placed d i reet I y ove r the be nch ; n 1"1051·

THIS chapter is not intended lor t II! pfO .. IessIO~ gun"sm.u : ~ t IS· h 'n li ~ h d th I"'

written mainly for the sportsman who JS" desroU5 oj provld~nl a bOn t at \\o't e [mlnArC" s a ows on f! work::. and 75 watt Uday ..

place w he: re ill he rna y tinke t when he pleases and as he pleasa~ with lip t" mazd a lam.ps shou J d be used. These gi ve a verv b rilll an t 1 ~gh t

• lIiew to steering him i., the ri.cht direct[o~ The mao who tries that is nsy on rhe eyn~ 6 r

(0 d-o his gun tinkering on a comer of the kitchen table is placing Th~ attic alten presents spl~ndid possibilities for the bome worlc:himSC!H under a handicap right "at the belillnine:; and while the ·~di& shop~ and it! cnly drawbaei if that most attics are iosufkrably hot. in dwellers·' residing in city apartments may be forced to de thus, the summer, But {or that matter most of us lJrd~r to spend our SUMman who has a bit of space to spare:: in his house win :find it pays hiS met eV'enings otherwi~ than working. The long winter iI!'Venln~ returns in satisfaction and convenience to rig up a reaular shop. afford the best tin=;. for tink~ring. The- garage or woodshed or

B-ut in conside rs t ion 10 r t hose not so fo r tuna te t we had better con- odl er out buil ding may 0 fUn be eo n ye rted into an exee llen t wori:sider their needs fOol a moment. Bec.use a man "batches" in I fur- shop. The cracks should ~ wtll battened to ktep out cold, and the nished room, e r Ii yes ~ n a ki rcbenetre is no reason fo r dcp riv inc b.im roof put in good repair. I t doesn't pay to Ier raj n d ri p on high cf all thr: plea-sure which the true Run-crank derivet from warlin, Ilrld! tooll. A dirt or cement ROOT [s usually damp and uncomever his pets, A few simple tools with a compact chest or drawer fortable a" substantial wood floor is. the btst of all. It shocld beto k~rp them t n wi J I "live him many an hou r of p rofitab le pleasu I1!. solid, well supported un dernea th l' and wi thout gaps an d C lacks to

THE uTABLE-t LAYOUT~ The nrst tool or pi«e. of cquip- catch dirt. Be sure there is p]enty 01 Ulht and ventilation, and ment to be considered in 81Iy case, is the vi$C. Without a lood ville tom!! mtans of heating in cold we.ath~r~ Kerosene or K:asoline hear:even the best mechanic is pr~tty helplr:u. The man who must do bis trs.are inexpensive and may be" purcha&ed from the mail order houses wcrk 011 th e kitch en cabinet or lib fa ry tab It must use a vise that It sm.a 11 cost, The S unsh in~ Lamp Company of Wichit~ ICa.nsas., ca.n be clamped on or removed at will; and it should be a load. one, mans a splendid low-priced gaso[ine pressure beaeer ,vhicb is safe to with accurate steel jaws--none of the two-bit CUI iron affaiR laund .. set and eoonllrrRcaJ in fud. cnnsumptlon. An old wood or coal stove at the local department store, although even this kind is bctt.er than is the best, provided thrre i, room for it', but a discarded kitchen none. The Goodell-Pratt bench 'Vise No. 161 has 2 inch jaws, tanl!1 if in usable conditio." is prob~bly the best ()f all. For in opming 2 i ach es, and weighs. 3 3/B pound&. coMing $2 .. 60 1 is!:. It Idd i non to p rovi d. ing hea t, it i I also excel len t for mel ti ng bullet clamp! fiTmly m any table top by • stron, winl nut. Tbf! local metal if one happens to be a handhsader, .and by taking off the top h ardwa re deal e r 0 r your iavo r i ee mail onlr r bouse ai ther has it or lids it on also be used for the bl uinE tank or tne nitre pot. 1 f one can g~t it Ion you 011 special order. [t is a real viN made for ~ne rxprcts to do much bluing in the h01ll~ map, it win often pa, to in~ma11 WO rk . A not her which W L II be even more U!icf u I at tim~s is shl11 a th ree or fou r bu rne r oil Of' gasoline ran lie for h"- ti ng t he th.r lit tit Yanb:c reolmaker's vise with swivel bsse, No. 1992. TM tank, in ~Ie city goa, is not :lvat1abte ..

8 I f oil er gas is used for heating, hi: su re to h ave good ventDation

jaws are 2 inches wide and 1 1/4 inches deep, openinlr 1 15/16 in event there it no Rue connection in the shop, for these hearers UK inches, The vise may be turned around to any pesition or anclc up o~ygen very rapidl,. muine the air foul ant! unhealthy to breath e, an d f rm I y locked in position. The j .aWi ate srrai rh r, o f hardened I f the .hop h" a good f[ Ul!l an d you LIlIl a.&ord the cost, by aIL means steel, with ~xtrz fa!sr jaws notched for hold~nil: round and itrea;u- inshU a small portable forJe and an\l'll. It will pay for irSelf many larly shaptd stock. The base oi this v"i!e iastm'5 to rhe rule with tiJTHt over in the maiiTl~ of tools. bending of parts in makinli:' alter!CT~ws-. but it may al'SQ b-e iastto"ed to. a m\i\U piece oi hardwood ations, in brazing; welding, and countless other operation!!. You which can be fastened t-o rhe table with hand clamps, This vise Ilred not be: a blacksmith to use a (DtJ!e to gCtOd advantage. SOlall costs $7.50 and is wor rh It. A Sin aller si ze ma.y he had at $5 ... 00.. po rt~ hi e forgt9 and anvils~ with n~a ry tools, can be pu rehued

In add it ion to th e 'Vise 0 r vi SfS, you sbo u Id have ~ good sized piece from tbemail orde r houses al1 ready tv set up. The fo rge !bould by Ofof board that can be placed on the table to work on. Both hOU5"C. all means have a m~!al hood II ovt.r it tc -carry off zas a.rid ch~mi.eal wiv-es and landlord5, arc averse to having the furnirure marred up furtlH. ~ c~eap rnstlron anvil wdl aflS'\ftr for much of the wo~k7 with tools. most. of If; In fact-aI thou R:h of coaDC a good steel faced anvil 15

Thf: Star rc tt No.. 166- B pin vi-se" is a ~nd V t bing for h oldi ng small hHt l f you ('M aile rd It. . .

rods and pin stock for filLn~,. It has • !t:na.ll do~ tittiag ChlLCkt and Th~ yery bat thop of alIt ~de:d one d.eSlrt:!i to do bench wor~ is h~ld in the hand while in us~. It takes any Si2~ rod from .030 to ~nly. lS the unuMd J'O.Ofn t:o'Und In most larp homes. U!Ually thiS .062 inch, and cost'S s~"",·eDryrfive. c~nts. The No. t66-A is" the same 18 a Jmall room not convtnltrlt or well. adaptl!!.d to ~nher uses, and the pri C"t 1 tak i ng all sizn from 0 to .040 inch. lJUrch.ue: of a ~ d'~ or hat for fnmd Wl f.e !,11~ often effect. the

A bacmw with 12 inch bladel. "and 3; few filcsl two or three patrs ~~gctnent WJthaur dilfiruh:y.. ~CTe may ~ budt In. a ~ abJnrt. (If IOOd long nosed pJier~ stones for lightening trigger puHsl and wIth I!Ihrlves :ln~ clbi~ttJ f:or 100d]ng mat'l!nals an~ s~pplu:!t and all half a doz.en s~rew·driyers will enahl~ th-e table: worker to do a ]0. the p.a?phC!~aha Wh1C:h the. auk. tJ5ually_ h~ k:lc.kin~ about. A of tinkering when me evenings are long and the story of th~ lates' room nght In the house Is IJkely to 'be Wf!U Lie:hted and warm and

mu rdc r is m issi n ~ f rDm the eveni.ng paper. U nda- such ci rcu m- 10

"lanees heavy" \\~or. $uch as makina stocks is of eourse (Jut of thf comrorta&Jt, and if th~ sha"in~. rtc.; are rf!li~dllusly S\Vf!!PC: up and Q1Jestiol1t bur the re is no th i n e to stop one from rcfinj,hl nit his Itock$. carried aut a ftc r each Seance: at the bench. the t i1l:,=11hoOO 0 f domest Ie A man might even be: able to d() a job of checking, by ciampinp: th"t $tonTll is ndn~d tD a minimumor

che"a:ing crldle to [he tlble tOp. (See Chapttr 12 for oacription Having tverything tlse d~cidtd and tlrrane::ed. the most important

of c:heckin~ (:radlc.) comid~ration of all ~omes next-THE WORK EENCH. It mav

THE WORKSHOP. Now far the r.eal home \rorbbo"t possj~ be built. or purchased r(:ad)r" made-but it m.U$t~ first of all. be Jutlb Ie for the man who 1 ivc~ in a bOUS"tt Dr i R tcme CU6 far the apa rt standal A Rim1Y I wcbbl f bene h is 1lS b:ad ai no be.nc:h at 31 L Thf! ment d~ller who (an arrange for a little basement' a'P.CC:~ Someho\\' top should be at l-rut 1 3/4 inch~ in thicknC$$t and the ]el:s "heavy • t steMS the na tu tal thine: to pu I the work'hcp in the basement~ t e-noo gb to suppa rt it firm] y. Tn e I ~gs must brt! Ii nn Jy b racl!d u nqt' r+ this is mil! wont pllce for it, and sho u1d on ly be wed in event no nNth to prevent wol>b 1 i ng and tn e tnti re b~nch must be heavy oth~r space is available. Base"mtnts Irc seldom ,,;!)l tirhted, and 1ft' tnough so that it will ~Of !hake und~r heavy sawing or drJ.\v .. .i:nife D hen d.mp. Ccnst:a.n t wa tcll lu lness is necessa ry to prevent tool,., \VOrk.

~nl and parts from rumnK.. Cement workers h.\I'e prep.rationl for From four and Dne·half to si" f~r j, th~ bet len~th; eiiht~n to damp-p roonnJ ba~rqents which are very eRecti ":t:l an d ~ twill u5ualll· twenty- fou r inehc;s i., ph: nty () f '\vi d th ~ an d Ihc: heigh t may be from pay to have this done i or ODe C1In bu, the material and apply it to 30 ro 36 inches, or ~v.en hig;h~rt d-tpending on your build an-d '\th~fhr.r



you me th e bench monly sitti nil: 0 r stand in r:. My own choice is u.n,;"u,lIy high-19 inchrs! and my height 19 fiw feet seven; but r I] fie to have the workup 1 n front of me 50 I can hand.l~ it wirhou t strain on racc.k and back. E YeO with a rather high -w. mounkd an tOp pf. rhe bench I do not find thiB height too great~ Most. of my wo rk IS necasaril y dont: standin gl and a 36 iD('h stool provides a comfortable :kat when tbe nature of the work permits. If -one i~ j n tem~ed onl., in ve ry srna 11 wer k, SUl:h as rna k.i net sigh t pa r~ er somrthlng of thaI sort, a very low bench-28 to 30 inch!!! hilhwit~ a ~mall lew vise should be 9deckd. Then I. good oxnforta ble ehl.r. with a back, and away you p. Such an arra~men t is usuall v

found in shops whe re much assembling of small p.a rts i5 d ()J1e+ ~

An exce HeD t llome .. madt bench maybe built from 2 inch p.tn:e lum.btrt using the Hallowell Steel Bench Ulin wId for tbii purpose. A srt 0 f these I cgt for a ben~h 33 1;'2 i ncnes high. an" 28 1!2 inches wide- will l\"ogb 30 pOund5~ and cost about $6.75, mmpiere with bolts, screws, ftc .• r~.adr for lISa!mbling to the homr-made to~.. Two or three dollars worth of lumbert a set of these legat and three [IT fou r h OUTS II WOT k will resu 1 t in a bench tha r cannot be surp:asstd fD r strfQgth and riridity~ There are no drawee for tools, but these can be made and Ii tt~d by an yonr han.dy wi th. ('I rpente t too is at small additional cost. S tee l br~ dc:tt! for attac.h.inr a backboard to be used as a tool T8rk can be had for 3S cents each. These J.e-gs can be pur .. chased f rom the Ell fe ld t Ha rd wa re and M a-chinistls S upp1v Com .. panY. ~nsa5 CitYI or from any la.rger deale, or jobber1 most of whom either catalog them 1J r carry them in stoCk.

The manual trai ni n 'It br!nchH tar ried by H ammaeher. Sch ll!mwer It CornpaD.Y~ New YorJc Ciry. are ricidly buih, wit), thick maple tOP1 .and :fitttd with a quick-acting cabinet mate r 15 vise. A good bmch

of this type with drawer! for tool! and suppiir!J \vill C'Clst in thf! nriahborhood. 0 f fi f ty dollarsj and it is we rth the cost .f you plan ta

use it I rteat .. eat. 11.

The frontispiece shows a special bench which I had built in a mill at .. CIls1 of abou I Ji fty do Ila rs, The uppc r too ( .d rawer.s nave .. Uding (:ompartn1ents for smalJ reels, pam and supplies. while the sloping rack on top places the ch isels. JCrewd ri vent and ether 1001.5 ued most frequently. in c:onveniMt rtI.Ch~ When dOLuZ stock work it is 69mti.l that the c-hisels are an within reach .. u one .5 using first one" then 8ftOt her. Each slu and ,bape should have its own Iocatien, 2nd should he put back in the rack: when another is taken. ThU5 there i. no deel ay f rom misplaced loob. A ai rnpl e r .ilTfilD lUlDent at ... most equally eHectift." is • bactboard eight or tee inthes high, with a leather.sr rap nailed on in loops for the di&t: renr 100 It. Each mou ld ba-ve its particuJar placc~ and be ktpt in that pllce a.t all times when not actually in )'UU1 hand.L

STORAGE OF SUPPLIES. Back of the bench, or convenien rlr loeafeci a r one side. there ah ouId be shelves Of cabinet for IUPp I in. tools and rna te rials,. The important thine is" to have a definite plJC'e for everything you use, and keep thin~ in their places at an times. Tool, should be kept where they are read il,. act"essible-either OD the tool ntt" in drawers or .ah~Il:t:5.. Of hanKinc aD the wall above the bench. Don It ·'butyl.' thinp. The olfi-fashioned tool

cabinet or chest in whim the tools are pa.cbd aM piled is a most infc mal nuisante. Keep e\'e rything in plain riebt u far .. ponlh 1 e. and what caD~t be kept in Ylew should be in contaiMH thlt Inplainly l.beled~

For· example, screw&. The U5Ual plan d to keep thtm in boxes $-Cored away in ehelvea or tabinetlt md the 'WOrker ~lIt!!rally hu to Gpen a d~zm or 80 boxei before find in" what he wants.. I use the small screw-top r11Sl jan in whicl. .. lad. dressinl is sord by ~roeers. Dump an t!nti re box of &clews into me jar--oR jar for each size .ltd kind---stand the jars in rolP'1 on marrow shel~ and YOll can put your huxI OD the r.iabt one inatantiy w A amaIl at ickcr pasted

on nch jar also lives tile aize and th reaL I

This stUljt is especiaDy wsciul lor nx:cial 1C'teW1 JOt ai Rh 1&. A fnv ext III :l5ight SCI'eW& can Ix- put into me j Ir~ with • label Mowing th. sigh ts the screw.a arc jntcnded for. The d ri ll$ and tapa for these screws are kept rifht in the jar with ~ hence alW!lYl at hand wben wanted--no huntin&. Sights, .sprinp and ath.er small parts can also be kept id jan and plainl., labeled to show what the,- &.Jr:.

Baido too~ which will hc·di~ in the following ch.ptfrl there are NO other esmtiab to the" wrll ordered bomf: worbltop. Thcu ar~ a toad benc:b bftU.h lftd ;I broom. Knp the plee de&l1~ up! A litter of shi.vinp; and dust on benm top and floar is not



only unhtaltb luI, it is coaduci ve to accioen tal fiTeSt and worst 0 f .01 • serew or other pan dropped int~ me litter is almost sure to be lost--often resultina: in weeks of delay while anot her 1S SKU red from the factory_And if it happens 10 be a p:art of an obsolete gua for which pam Ire no Ion~r a vaitable-wow I I t*'s a lot cheaJJC.1


to sweep out occasionally than to pay ·a machine .shop $1.50 to make a screw.

SHOP LAYOUT. Arrange things .0 the sh()p in the most CDn· 'len ien t' man ne r poss tb I e. Saving 0 f steps means rna re and better work i n l~ time. The ca hi net maker's vise, if one is used, shoo I d be plaad at th e extreme 1ff t end 0 f the bench. Most gunwork, howe ver 1" rcqu i res a r~la r machi ni 5 e 5 0 r iron wo rke r's vise and the best place fo r it is nea r the ri gh t end.. BY:;l] 1 means, i:f you an right handed.. have the le ft end 0 f th e bench in the dear. Ii nctessii1.fJ to set It in a corner, lee the right hand end be inatte5Sible rather than the left. I f yo U ,"0 in for a drill p resa~ I.the. fCo' rae ~ or simi.la r equipmmt:l get them clear of me bench-e-en the other side of the shop if possible. Fiv t: 0 r si x f..:et of floor space in fron t 0 f tile bene h will be :Deed ed, and th e sam ~ amou n t at th e left en d.

Bluing equipment should be in a separate reom, away from th~ tools if possib If. B 1 u ing j s a rust tng p recess, :wd thr: steam and vapon are hard on lools. I f your shop is in the basemeer, set the bench and tools in one corner, and the blu.i ng layou.t as far away as possible and always have pleoty of ventilation when bluinr to ear ry off steam, fumes, and moinu re,

Finally, arrange to keep others away frolI1 your shop m.nd tools.

If in a separate shtd or outbuilding, put baTS an the windows. and ,ODd lotb on be th ""ind QWS 0 r doors. I f in a basement! it will pay you to pani tion off the shop with f ra mini cove red with hea V1 wi re, and a I'JO(I pad lock fo r the doc r ~ This of course wiJ I not keep cu t a bu rgla r, bu t it will prevent the sponging nei gil bo..- who never has a tool of his own from bo rrowing from friend wife while fOu'~ :lW2Y. or the gas-m.eter man from pickillK up your IDlCTOI'llf:tr.r ,,-and it will also keep the lady of the family from helping herself to your hacbaw .0 en r: ·a ham bone, OT us; ng: you r favorite chisel 10 chip iee for dinner, Or drivinl a nail to hang 4. picture with your pet Pop' bullet mold. I happtn to know how these th in ~s go I

If there are children in the fam.ily it is essential to k.eep them away from tools and other equipment during you r absence. A small ooy who is inclinN that way can waak untold damage LII • few minu tes time--leaving 1OO1s about the yard, or lDiing them about the neigh· berhoed, Moreover.. if yeu keep powder and primers on hand, tht loebd door is a necessary prtcaurion.

All t hi! work and iuss and =eq ui pment rna r .sound (iu :a 13 rre orde r to- the chap wbo never takes the trouble to tighten up a sauin. screen door ~ bu. t an in. vestment in a sma.ll home shop. with ROOd depend ab Ie tools~ wi II PlIY btg div tdel1di in sa tts faction and p~n to the true gu n c nlnk. btsidts providing a su re means of k~pl!nl the kids in oft the streets as they grow up and begin to take an inter· est in the uoJd manls'l playthings..




H AVI NG PRpared II place to wort. whether in. basemell~ attic.

Or Dut-buildi nil t.bE Dfxt coo.!i~ra don. of tb~ gun<ran& .ia tmls and C!quipmeat It is ~Dle· for the .amateur gunsmith to aa:u.mulate II!W'ral hond rW. danars worth of tooll in a f~W' years without reaUdng it. simply hUyill"g this 0 r that item as needed to complete • job t and W'~ ~ja tools 3rt hou,fltt used once? thm laid away and forpttent on~s hobby an easily become a E1'OM extrava~ pnce. UnlClS you expect to we: a toOl frequendy el10Ugh to make the invl!I-tInmt paYt bctttr look for a way to do without it, and U3e its cost fOT a more practical pUrpOsC--Iuch u buying amllJunitiQf1 0 r ]OIaina- wpplies. I de not mean by th is th at I man mould hesiute about burial fint class tools whenever needed. and when~r they are of a type to serve a real need.. I t is poor ea>nOmy~ for exampl~, to pay $"1. iO fa r I CQuntcroorc rtmntr to cut a hDle for 3IDmc particular screw- heH em an obsolete gun; the screw is probably a t.slard li.ze which will never be encountertd 81Zi in. Rat th! t I ada1M' Iftothe r sc rew t Or if this can not be done. spend .a t.e'W minutt:S makin$t a


fta t - rea mer wh icb wi 11 cost you noth ina: but your wo rE1 and wh.i~h wi II do one or ev~n several j cbs sucaafull".

This eeonemy may of eeurse be earried to the o~ir.e atrtm~.

No man deservr.s cred it fer spong; ng or borrowing;; tools from hi. neighbor ~ ncr for using same nearly ~ rthleu ma'kmift and cob-blinK up h is job. E .,.ery job sbou ld be tu toed out in the most ~areful t pa i nstaking mannr: r of which you t. re capable and most men are capable 0 f better wo rIE than rh.ey think they are. The tii 1&1 snee between • aood job and a poD r one quite e ken d~pends 00' know Irdi!C of some simp le ~ ·ki nk'· to obtain d -esired. resul b. A man m&y seraeeh h il kead and. Btud y for hou TS' on lOme simplt mech lnieal "'PTOblem. when the a rswe r is ri(ht before rum. Leam to do thi n~ ri,bt;: learn


th e too] s need ed to r each job; and if [he job is 1 i ke ly to recur Ire ..

quentlj, the purchase of the tools will always prove a. good Invest-


A large jnitial outlay is not necessary tor the gu.n crank .itarti~1it I II ome wo r ksh op, A i ew simple tool s, 0 t best POSSI bl II! qualrt.y t W1J 1 do m begin wit"h; oth~r!. may be added" or perha~ made, as thf' need arise~. Th us in rh II!: course 0 f time you J equip men I becomes more cornplsre, and many a job that would have stumped you in tnt' beginning will seem like child'; p1a)~, because ynu are toolrd up for it,

FILES. If r were fQrced. 10 S13rt a 5hop with hut nne too], rha I

eool would ~rta.irlly be: a lile, provided I h~ mr choice. 1 co~sid~.r the file the most imp ortan t (J i all meeh a nlC"J.l irn p Iemen t~;: with , ~ many othe r tool s can be manufactured, and ina pi DC hit could be

mad e to serve, :I fte r n f .;u~b i on. in lieu of other too]!r... •

Next to a t0C11 with w h i rh to werk, a method of hold 1 ng t be war k is most I m po rtan t-so a Ii nt cl ass 'V~ becomes D. secon d a ry co nsi d-e ration. With a f!OOO file and a ~ood. vise" n 4tfai r ~ middli!,t ,I .me· ehani c need n(] r be 9. f ra id of man Y jobs, So we Will Ii rst CO riSE de 1 lil~oor~ wood and m~tal-and vises at some ltngtn, aiter "Ij,vhich we will discuss other tools likely to be. needed by both the amateur and

pro fessl(l nal gunsmi t h.

The file in on e fo rm 0 r another taD be traced back. al most to the

brginning 0 f ri me, W hi lei ts dcnlopment . p r~bl)' fo 1 ~owed that of the ft W tits grea ter SC(l pe of use fulness entt rles t t to a h I ,he r pi ace in fhe h iSlo ry of ci viI i ZI ti 0J1. Aorad i n (( i nSfru:m-en t~ date batE many cen tu ries po riOT to the Ch ri s1:i an era.. and like mlJS[ cth~ r man·made tools had thri r 0 ri Ii n in n:il tu re. The following t quoted from t+The File ~i.n History/';! pUblished by Henry Dialton &. SODl-""'"9 little- boo~ whith ,ev~ry rn~~hanic shoulil have and rc:ada by the way-II

• •

1 ntc restlng : • .

·ThI:IC i:l iI typ £: of moll U:'iC .;a yi DR a rou reb ton jlUe with ,...h L~" it rUM or

fi In th n::IU gh thl!! ... hen iii of o. h ~ r mol tmclll on 'Yf' h [ch it feed.. The "' •• p, iI [BIlt hi! • r aI p-I ik~ or iii n wi th wn ich it .br.df''' d ry woo~. dH!,... ~d. "!I'I:. 1 ng Ihe d Ult "hh • glut; noul !.I i T'. toO 10 nn the p.poe t w.tb. ",hu: h lit b" .Idtl h. DII!:.&t... The e&ttl tlJlPlgue't an.d thl! of the ~W, arc= familiar el:arnplt1 of

;I brad Ing 0 rganl in [h~ I nimal ki.Dldom. ." f •

il-Prll!'lli ltorie m.ln mil d l! ha IldJl!1 fo r 'hi. ,,"c. poP. by ta~in'p'. iI r 1,11 ttl .. R wond~ fOl.lgh sh. pi Illt the p r 1f'1;:C''11 '!II wl!ll at. he .coul d by P rl~l h vc mlltbo.d •. • n~ fin .n,. fi rlilhirl X all d pol i .. in M t ~cm by nlCal'l. a.f lllc pI. rnplliar ab UJIIVf m Ih!rlal f nund in b j I vid nilY. ••• To ab l'&d!:!:t t:I r file. a.nc, I!nt m.n. 'U~ed. ~.md~ grtr. cor.l t 00 RI!. fi'JIh slli .'!IIIt :I nd pi.tty woodSr-al-. atCtnl!: of ...... rym.:

b .rdnfSl ill connrc'tion with ~iI nd or ". te-r.

~~hr Egy pd Bill 0 f til e Light D yn ~ Ity t &00111 1 zoo to ICCO ~. C.. ., I dot

im.U f.IPI of brPJnzlIi!: II .evt!f'" IpCameftl kaye been. found ... tuch .c'.ouJd ,~I! moll! 0 r IC!IIII ilCCU til. kly co nn~u-d: "" hh !:h at time.. .... • ~. the re ..... -efl 1 ron fi lrl i. Solomon ':i time ml.Y be inie rtCid from h ••• t.tll!rM'~t ~ ·1 ran 1M rp!n!t'k LrtlD j !JO • JJU n :i h. r'pll!! fRtb th e toIlDtt:ft .nee: .., f h~ f t'ii!Jld/ but the fin,l 11 iltorital mcur[O.D of .I't j fie: i.1 fi] ~ tb.,.t e. n be definite I, I cI P!'d~fied .. til!· fill! rrin R' to luch Emp T rm ept:lll ,a:i Il"e ~... u nd~nt(lOd by th I. h!~ II fourtd 'p t S .. mlle!: :d i i ~ 21. wh ich i I IU PPGscd to mItt. to • boll I th.e ,ell 1091 B. C.


.. 7hey h.t a tile for th C' mattiJCts, ... d fo r th.r coLle rlt • nd for th c: Jo.rklt .Ild fer rhe aJl:t~. a~~d to aha rpc. mil!! go.d!l. t

'~Fi Ie:" ~,~ .. bo nile U.liODlI!:d io H orn~ r- s Od Y""t=y. Th.:y WCI'C daub I if: a. YC rr C rudl: in fCl no and i lie Bide ~t in [Iprr iI, t i.,n n comp ~ r~d to p rlt!cnr d.a, fi lel. but the i ilr:t that rhe:y ""ere mf!lIt illlJ!d in '(hl:J.~ ~ .. r l)' l"fri [in IU i I PtGu f th at t h~)" "ere hd d In high ~nr~m liy WD rkTDra IJf -lICi':l1t ti .0.£1.. 'I

An d: by we rl::m c n of today iii Isa" I migh t ad d • You t t-eaJ mcchan it p ra:es his n I es, and gi ves t'hml good C'arl. He d oe$l1 it rh row them loose racer-her in a dra.wer, tQ blunt and break the tl:!tth, but lays them carefully on th~ bottom of drawer so lhey cannot rub together.

U fltil comparati\"fly rcc.ml tim~5, :files wen: made entirely by hand. Th e wo rkman he'ld .a ch ise t above th~ sofr an n ea led blink ;; t me: p rop~ ran g:]e all d struck • t repeated Iy wi t~ a m aUet. cu t ting and



rais. n g the teeth as req u i red ~ 0 n som~ fJf t h e old ha ndm ad e :61 es me spaci n~ is al most at even and per feet as on the best mode rn mach ine mad e fil es, Even ro-d ay rh ere art S wi ss Ii ~ e rna kr: IS who st i 11 uS( the old method 01 hand cutti nt, a nd ttl~t r files a re wo rld f ameus ro r r~ir quality and t~r.

The t h rtf: b~st brand 5 of Rio in rh is coun rry to-day a re the American Swislt th-e j\; icholsan" and the Hen ry Diseton. Every file turned out by either 0 i these linnl II'lll y be considered a good file; i f used fo r the pu mose intended. 0 f ehe I h ree ~ I find the American SWiM most U~ ful in IU n W()R-nGt that the 'IUD ii ty is any bette r j p~r haPSI but because th is Ii rm prod gees I. larger variety of special mapa and sizes th an ri mer of th c. others, All rh ree makes can be procu red. through In, n r!iC~clU8 d~aler or jabber t an.d it w ill pay mt .spi ring III nsm ith to srcU're, the: factO ry cata IOgJi 0 f all three cc mpanles and sludy th em,-i t it IU rpri,ing how many shapes wi II be found that one did not know !Xi.ted.. File;. even the best of them-e-are comparltively ChfllP in pr ice; it paY" to havt plenty on han d-plen ty 0 f .. pet. plenty of .iz.es, and pknty 0 f di:ie re nt cu IS. By "cue" we mean the sizt an d formation of the teeth,

Files are usually d ivid ed in tn tb ree Kene ral claMe5--'!i ngL:: cut, double cut, and rasp cut, The single cut has strllight si n ill: teeth runni n,l at a S'Ught angle 11:1"058 the blade. Th e files a re called, accord inc tn tile' Slzc 0 f these teet h, ... , ROllgh t'~ .11 Mi:dd le,' II "Between Mi d d le and Bastard /' uBaslard /' "Second Cut,'" and ~ tS month. lit

The double-cu t file 15 ell t in rhe same manner ~ but has another set of st Iii i,h t teeth cut d iagonal1 y ac rog the :fi rlt, teru1ting in abort poi nred teeth, All doub k-eut files 2 re UlJUally I'efe rred to in the shop as I 'basta rd ~~ files whcreu the tenD really I.pp lies to th e size oi the teeth, wherher of singl~t double, ~r I1lSp cut.

The r~ looth i. cut in a di:l&rent manne r f rom the other two. ~h tooth is cut separately by • blow from a pointed chisel. Th-e oommc rei al itunes fa r the different sise teeth are: I" Hone t ~, 4 t RQ\J gh t'" ft Midd let PJ "Daita rd II ~ ~ ~4 Setond Cu t," and cI 'Smooth. III

Files an d ratipsi art fu rther subd i ,.ided and named acco rdi nl to 16

their .II.peI ..,.d ..... Fipfl! t Idtawa the IeCtioaaI lihapel of several of the mOlt onumonly used.

Thae an: but I few of the mmr :apecia! shapes ."aLlable for lQIed.t c1aaee of work.. In a.dditiDti to fila and rupI mere are ""rifBer.l~t -.ery 1ID.I1 .teel hlIlclla; with apdaJ.ly _aped and to rvtd endl with teeth onl, on the md. used, by diHinken. and ailversmiths. and al:IO wood ri:fflcrs. called ··wood. tarver's ~ JI. but m114e limn'r to me -.maHer rillen. Qcept for the lift 2n4 teetb. 1 would consider the f(]llowiq • tuScien1 :file IISIOrtnHnt for the Imlteu I gundith to bePn with-laut. u h.! coma to Ippreciah the min, uses of .file!. he will .rud,. the .makerll- cauJop and .elett omen as need~d ~

1 CIbt.t raG IOtlP 01' ml44lt.. tot 1'01ll'bhla' OUt .".. 1t tlIC!I:I

1 cabltl.ft It.. dcru rde-cu.r. blut.a.nt. lol' ft~ -.h.a)tm£ h&l.t to-nAt ••• 14 lnch

1 H&U roaa.4.. dou le-C\lt r.. .. t.ant m. (reI" metal' ~ •• r • , it lDch

1 Ha1t ~ dGu.~'t rd. 1l1. (tor- m..t&J.). • •••••• '" , t 1 0 IDatI

:I Vllla ~ •• _ •••• _ • _ • _ A •••• ~ •••••• ~ 1j. l!ll:if!h

1 W l. CUll; mUI Itl.. ..cond oC'II. to , •••• ~ 11 :lDcb

1. BIn". mt IIL\.ID e.... .noot:bill - • • • • • • • • • • • .. • • • ~ •••••• l:lt' 1lle.tI

1 &.lillie CIIt mill a:a.. .-:noat:l\ t.................. . _. .. . . . t • I "" • • ~ ~ I 1nch

:I JJlnJJfIi out mtJ I n~I;.. '_ooth. . •.••••• , ~ .• - • _ ~ . • •• • 11:1eli

1 Am"'CI..I:a BwIaII or etr.tpp Iile, No.. , .. t '" 1:1 1DcJ'l

1 ~ S:Wf;q PtUu ill Noa. S; -I" .6P " en\ - . ~ 11 b3C!h

1 ..AJ:n.u1C&D. ttw. PI:Uu :ltl.", ~ D. I a..IIt. UITOW1 to 4 t ,II b' r. 1IdI

1 ~ a-."I- PIIlU m... No. :I -I. utra .,..,. .. ~ :ll ~ I IIIa:.b

1. ~ I:: PBlaZ' ~ No. ... alit, eElra D&r1'Ow •• i. i •• 1111 t,. I tDeb

1 ~ ero.am. m.. No. J eat.. ~ • .. .• • bI.ch

1 ..-te... ~ ero..tn.i &e. No. f 0\It, 4 • •• • I..Dob

1 ~ .... It.lD .. 111&

1 lJrol1b.~.. ~ttaU "I . II ~ t •• t 1/1 ",. 11 lDaI:!

1 :o:n:.~1 :ratun III.. • _ .•. _ ••.• 1/1 ., 1'1 lneft

1 Doub~ ... t ra't'-U BlAh l.'. ~ .. -II ~ • • • • ~ ~ •••••••••••• ~ •••• 1/4 bt 'lach

1 atnlPt "UD;d :11.. Ko. ~ eut, (Am. ~) ~ ~ :I /11 b7 • tftch

1 StraIP,t. Ntlnd ::/nfo. I out. I A.Gt.. Swlu). • •••.•.•.•.• 111' by '!nelt

1 ...u. of tM loll dJa-~f. ~I. Ala. • lmdl =

F . ~ .. "

BaIt rou..4 B:unItt

• Moll. ... &b:t~. :aa4lt!l :alel: ... t..llcnrw.. " lnell

......' .. lie

• ~ ~t 81., No. lout.. t 1Io ~.".'" 110'.110 t .1-1/:1 flu:b

1 .ad. .rn.. • rUJleN. NoL 1. .I. .t", .5. 11. 11 ~ II.

1 ..... B~lcIIlemlMT CG ..... wood taner"1 rup. NOL 14l1li. l.jl. 1~.~ tel. 1'1.

This lOuruir I ike & pretty large 0: reler; yet the entire layeut need not b~ boulfwt at one timi!, and enn if it is. it will not run into a Kl'eat man.y doll.n: and every tool in the lot is extremel r use fulmany being ,.bso1uray nrcaa ry. Wlu:re SE:Rral sizes of rlu:~ same


kind of :file a re listed. it is acivisilb Ie to buy only the oee size needed fer tl1 e pa rticular job in ban d, .dd i nz: the olhen .1 ~ded.. With :ruch m aAortmen t. or even half of i t~ I mQ'l will be pretty well equipped to ta rn out any kind of fiU ng job req ulred for the a1ten1tion or manu f.acture 0 f any run part thlt can be made by hud. The rifHen and wood carver's nuPi can be patllCd up if d~red-they .re extremely uaeful" but not alwayt ~ti.l.. AD of the II.r files will be needed freQ1JeDtIYI and mOlt of the die-sinkers. Lbe liDishinl or It ri ppi n II: file and· the larKe piU.r file Will be: fouacl iadilpenuhle for


striking barrels, a.nd should be used for no other purpose. Valj(]~ nthers are mentioned from time to time in connection with :apecial jobs descr the d th rough out thi s book.

H a v in g ttl e fi1 es, t h e next thi ng ne eded is R file ca rd-a brush with sho rt h ard stee 1 b risrl es with which to brush 0 U t the filin 2:5 that. slick in the teeth. A dogged or "pinned" file is very quickly ruined, and !i 40 cen r en rd w i It add man ths G r yea rs to the Hie Q:f all y,a u r files.

THE VISE tomes next, The most useful of aU vises in the gun shop lS' the Prentiss l rnnwurker''s Vtse No. 19. This Vlsc. C1J5- IS a be u t' $1 S.(I 0, an dis the best inv estmen t you ca n make if you


detachable frora its bue, so that, with un,ll work in the j~ it may be clamped at any desired ande iI1 the laqer viae. ~J' Clf the Gooddl ... Pratt hand vi.~ and a Q-..P Of a Starrett Pin Vi. will alto ,rove u.ful ocaui.onally.

SAWS AND PLANES. NOW' ~e meed a few wood worki.q tool.. Some 00 f these will----(l r should be Mllnd. about ever)' well ordered boLW!hold~ ao tru:y nud not be charged apiI1St euDlDl~thin&. Fint a rip-saw and a cut-oft saw, of either Disston or Atkins SUyUSteel man it paY' to buy notbinr but the bat saws. A ten or twel 'We inch bac:k saw for Ute in the mitre ~ far sawme off butt., and other ll£Curate w() rk wUI prove "Valuable, but may be dispen.aed with.. SUDe with the mitre box. A p:td Slwey or Lmpu iron oUm box ia worth i.b weiPt in gold-when you need it; you doo"t need it ~ ftell. A common wood mitre box such • rvery CI rpmter makes for bimaelf in a few .minu~ will "rye. Marly 18 well ..




You should bl"'e three PHi pl~jack, ""ootb and block. If you want to buy only two. cut our me; smooth. StankYl "Ley pattern iron plaDel Ire the belt ever Ibld aDd well worr.b the differeoce ia dJcir cost over r.bcaptT mteIi. Sut.II toob &Ii planes, A_II et&.. will find m&Dr \aMI. other tI:au ill the pasha" 10 there iI ctOI:UDlJ' in buy. ing. eood OaeL FOI". jack Ill..., the Bailey No, S 1 If. at $4.50 will &III.Wer your p.a1'pOlc!: nicely; tM No.. 1 IIDOOth pllDe at $3.55 will alto ~ h'ndy far smoothLaI up tbe licks of Itoct bl~ but the jack willlllJ'llJa" neu-ly p well i Jor tile bloek plane. live Dm: ~ to me Stanley Nc... 65 at $1.401 secood. choice thl! Stmley No. 65 1/2 It $2.80. uxl J..t~ the Stanley No. t 10 .r. $1.25.

Mmy atoctmakch nIC A DRAW~IFE for the first sbapinJ; of a atuck, wori:iol it down almost m size before uAba: the !Up. I h&ft & drawknife whim I seldom UIC I nor do I often rec.omlllCGd it to the .amateur stocker. MOlt of my atoc.b • re made from CUirley OJ" Dpnd wood which will not abave worth • ceat, and it is nearly .. Quick to we the round .aide of the cabinet. rup, wlUch fa"", 0& the IUrplUi :iD .. surp ri$iogly .non time. Moreove.t. nobody ner .split • .tack or took (iff wood uniatmtioaa[}y with a rup~ OccuiGnllly J find a clr:awknife helpful 011 • ttraigbt p-a.inecl piece for roulhLne off dR cornc~ but I could cet alooL oiccl, without it.

The tune applies to THE SPOKE-SBAVE OJ" shlkMbave. If tie woocI iI perfectly straigbt erain~. this it • mipty hud.,. tool for Ibpi. up following. the drawknife.. Yet a good rup will do the work quicker and easiuJ for me at Ieut, and. my spoke-shave UIUIny ftItS comfortably in me drawa- with the drawbi fe. No objectioa. wha~ £0 llrina ODe if you Ire PDlW.!. with it &ad lib it---onJ.yi' rememJJer it leave. :I1.aaI on the :IUd: wbida DlllIt be mDOvm Imr with the cabiMt tile and uadpapcr.

One tool wbicl& ] ban H¥U uaed. that micht have .va1 me a lirtlc tiED'; iI • nhba plam= or a lO1Iur plaae. Sud1. tool .. IIm.I" fa .. lQIIKhina: Ollt the bsrrel clJuJnd in a dockl providrd ,au _ It


Imit 1·16 inch from tbf :aida and: bDttoma TM bureI ch...... :II lcldom or' ocver I maipt KJ'DClVC' malt barela bei111 tUaecI - ra~'i ~' ~!'::~~" ;i!~f!..~::~::P: o~!'e~t~~:··I:n:I)~eErl:=u~~.l· .=re,: h.1MI1OIIH: .,a.1 formation. P~dw.PI ODe 1"" I 11.n I1Cftd' ...

2. SqlllLl"e; T'a p'8t .. nd: p.L1"'fLJl.., r ~ 3 Thl""e8-l!fllJa.r't!!: Ta t)£I'l" II nil paral JeL 4. PH- the rabbet pi.. it bee..,- .. rna,. ItOCk bllnb ate twisIed GI'

..... rn.lly h.lf TOun d In !SaC:;: lurs; bu t ·Dot eo named. 5. Halt ro\l:Q.d, II Cl.nt. __ .I f _L I tb d" ba ...L.._ .... L - _I .. _lei

01" 11.b tD I nil'. Same _ba,.a a.a .. Barrett Ill. "lteept tJ.e l&tter " .-1t..11 n, 'W &I J.IAIo oul 0 .... ape 1D e lJlDI" t t uu: l:.IJlDUCf .. .,dIIII cat

t'hlnl1~l" .. and arnooth on tile all~lt:d .Id,,~ 7. Mill. 8, Flat.. I, Ptlltt. 11\ panllel with the sid~ but .. canered. on a ILne which likely U DDt

Round -tdn jcmL 11t Kn.l teo 1~, Croud n;1. 1 ~" 911 ttlR&'; lo-.nP· . .. ... "'""" .. _-'. ~L the ei U __ "LL._ L.-....... h

ru.DI at. a .... t .... &I;i WII.A C piece.. It • n.IJU'Q; PJiILIK: to -Itla'

the job if rou W"U1t to--btit leave plenty of wood to _ fintah.ed our with the chiJeb u described in Chapter 10. TbeR p11m8 ~ mede.

plan to do m uc h '\Ili"O r 1:_ B oth the base and one i aware :swiveled ~ enabling the wo r ke r to mri n g the 'Y ise to any pos.i ticn 0 r anile, and r-o grip ta ~ red stoc.kt bar rels, gllnsmck.s~ erc., -Ii rmly. 'The jaws a re 3 ~ i nehes wi de and open 4 ~ i nch es, ntting together ve ry accurately

when dO&ed. I f you do nor ca re to plJ t t hi.! much money in a vise.

the n g~t a hen vy I C heap~ r iron one 0 f abou t th e same ~ize-they can

be had as low as five or six dollars, and ofren (:2II be picked up

second han d for hal i rh at !Ulloun t.

For a second vise it is well to censider one 01 the rapid-acting cab] ... net make I"! , vise wh ich a tram unde r the beach, the jaws coming

Au~h with rhe top. These open arid clo~ by a quarter turn of the _

hind le, an dare fine to r pl anin g and d. raw-k.ni h work. but a re no

good for heavy wnr lc on metal. 'They can be had from an)· hard- - wire or mail order hcu . se and cost around $5.00.

For a third vise, consider the little Yankee No. ] 992 toolmaker's -

vi se mention~ d in Chaptt: r 24 I t is worth i tl we 19h tin aold for __ ----- __ small j obi on sigb ts I rpr Ings, pin s I etc .. 3 and h as the a.dvanta~ of bei ng

No.1 .5., taiqirt



AID.' St,..iqIrI-

• .s SMliJII't

- 1

NG~'CJ srraiqhf

No.' I 5tr.iqI1t Na 41 Stralqlrl


chileb: .. • Pacb.rd .is ahead of • 1913 liner. They are ~ and. sprinlYl made ~f line She&ld .teeI, forpd entirely br harJd-ther are rW tGl.Ju. Ad.dis chiteh Ill: 1014' in tbil cauatry bv }h .. der. Schlemmer &: Co.1 Nnv York: City. who pubI" a tDDl cabloa that d!owd be in the buds of every pa-cranl. and in tbia catalGK tiler liat , latee Dumber 0:1 Capel .. uS Ii .. ill which tJx. chi... are ....


pliecl. Fipn 2 ~ the three eh.Ipa of bWe .',aialil, .bort bent uul lonJ heat; abo the cdp mapa and Ii .. that will prove moat URM to the ltOCter. n.e.e cbW" do DOt COlt • areat dea.l IDDte tham the Ordialry kind. Tbq .. auld be OJ:dcred with hex .. ..... \ maple 1u.ndhtl alread, fitted..

WIlea You pt the elIiaei. they will be J',t01lCd on one .d.~ out not aha.rpened on. • ,...betItone.. TIa.is:JOll mlKt do JOunelf. md illItrucnorM for .ab.a.rpenin, will be foUDCI m Cbapta- 7 ~

FDr yallt &rst attempt: at Ilock:i.nl • IWl fOU ran limit your purchase to two or three cbiad.,. dJooaiDK the .ebapa that .ew to iiI the cub in the old stock best, Later I' you will wut to add. to JOUr ch.l col· Lection. Never try to use I ho1lcrw chilel that it the full aizc' 01 the r:han.ne:l to be cu t-tbe chisd "ould in'ruiably be a size Dr two tmaller.

Saws, pl~ df&1V knife. chile!.; IaIpJ and fila----thesc are the MaeatialJ of tile ItOck maker.. Man,othen will c:ome bandy at ~ IDd. CiIn be ad ded wbm and if n:quired. DGJI-t blow all your cub. on tools with. which to Diak~ the pB, and have Done left for "·mootin t 1IlOIlQ.,t

I have Ret mentioned the millet La. CODn«tioa with the cbi.ela, for the vcrr pod rCIlOD.' that the tuUet may very nicely be cliIpcnIcd wit&.. U Ie it ii JOII like, but ute !t.tdom. Sleeb are 40t ial.etted. by blmmeriac or d riv.inc in the! cbiHJ& Wood. carvin&' c:b.i.te1J are beld in ~ hands, and. & mallet blow is R1tbo or nwer required .. The toob lJautt be kept' so abarp th&t they will cut ICIOIW the pain of b.,m walnut rradily without bl.DlDleIin,lt An occuionallipt blow with 1DIIlet or aide -of b an:untr may be .excuted. when curtinl the mlp'me mortice, but nowhere eIR. The ItOCk mlker tI'ifq out the WOGd in Ih.a.viDp instead of COUiiD& it out in cbwW lib • carpenter monidnll ia I. door lotk. There", quite L diBermce.

Carvinc chiaeU arc "chiads't and. IJ01 8aoups" whether they are curred Dr tlat. and their sole purpose is twIn., I Select your chisels by Dumber IlIld shaPe of tdee--and do DOt be: In into buJin8; a ulet·' of csmn.c tool. pm: up in a box. MOlt of them wm M usdss for po wcrkl u.d the box. is • llluiwuz anybDW. Get the c:hiscla 'Up in • tool ruk. where YOll em Ft .... them.

BRACES, BITS AND DRJIJ.s~ A Kood brace md. & mv bib will be rcqui red for borine hola.. The principal UR of au.pr bib iI in rouchiDi out woed in. map&ine mortice.. aad fa hDnn&: out the butt rc:teiICI under • butt plate ~ Aupr bib arc not ex" pensiw, add it will pay to invest in • let oj hlah pUll! mea. Inclu.ted from }4 iacb to 1 iDcb by IimeathL Au eQ&IIIive bit m.,. be Dftdcd. now and thtn. but there • rio aeed oj buJina it util tht ad &lila.

Potttner bib are very utefu1 iq JUII -.om. Ualib ..... bin _ ban no apur in the center, 1leiD& pidal bJ , sharp rNter rim or 0Jtt!nc eclp, and mlli DII • hole with • UIlOOtIl le9'd bottom. 2J



be :needed. :for nua.ni.na; the .:enter liSle around t:tceb-pro'rideci tile ada of ItOCk are planted pcr fccrly It'taiPt. Othuw.ise the ,Iauge will ha~ to be repbc:ed by .& pencil and. lonK strailiJtedae. A lUtrOW' bar oi tlat budcnul. tool !tee! makes me best &traicJ:ttedge of all, The ather meuurinl ami markin, tgQ1t you will. need are: a 12 inch steel .-alrt • fo1aina wood. or steel rule 3 feet or 10l1lerl lharp pointed. dividflll imide and. outside- calipers. A pair of b.erm.apb rod.i te caliput will par dividends 00. many a jab.. Theee bve one leI' pointed ud adj Ultlble for leagtb:, the other lee it bent, and the binae joint has no stop 10 tbar the bent lee an be .... On inside or outlide nIN'u.riI:I(L wbile: the pointecI 1. is used :for martin&:I

Thul far I h.&ft mentioned Do mach.iDery. The I.verqe man d~ not (:are to CO tD the expmllC of it for a little hoax: tiakeriDl't not dGei he have tile amount of work m warrant such expenditure .. The enly time any 10ft of machine u ta.Il, ellCRtial to the home riabrert is .. ben. he Ius fined I recoil pad to •• reek. The only WIY the: ,.4 em be d'l( IHd dawn even with the stod: it on • flat sandpapeT wheel. For thU pu~ ] \LIe • Van Dam mctnr Krinder of 1'/4 11.. ~ 'With the pinder whed 011. one end of abaft rq,la= by • 7 .. inch wood wheel 1/2 inch thid::~ on whicll is &1ued _ sheet of pmet cloth~ Thil mo1Or ruM It 3600 t, p. m. ""lith it redly faster than a sandpaper wheel ahoold. run-2500 -would be a better ~ and euicr to handle. The ugh tpeed. i. of value wh.en win. .. coarte IP1l1di.nr wheel to rouP 01 me~, il1Slead of Qin.l 0 r mM. it -off.

A .",.11 wool hlmiailithe. while not • liabfiity. it teLiam needed by the ItOCkct~ NOW' IIIld then it would help on IQIDe ..,.an job~ neb • tIlmiq QP ~lls, or lIomet:!dnl of that .,n-&ut dOlJtt


put roar momy ia • wood. tv.mi 01 lathe 1IDtil you baY! everyihinl die you. ever expect to Deed.

The mot. fur metal wark of the amateur Dr the Fro&.iow pn. smith art far lI'f8.ter in number dun the woodworkinc. toGla. After the v.iIe and the h. the most important are pem. the SCREWDRIVERS. I doubt if an) tool iJ IDOl"e often mu.ed. Dr mou pGIIl, mitunderllOOd thin the bumble &erewd river. The _"rap III&D. tria til pt a10nK with CdU!!! or two. 'W ben he oad.l & dozen. GUll ICftWS are ohm Set iD very aptly It the &etorica. and tbm r raaoval neceuitatr. a d rivet that exactly titl the bead slot both ia width and tbickneBa. U alfSl it does SO fit, the attempt to ma:lOvf!! it UllJally raults in a badly maned, 8CteW' head maybe: OIIe tlr.at it: mamnd and color-hardened. ud must be seflt 10 the :fattol"J for replacement. A poorly 6ttinl clriver may even. "lit criI balf the head <t:hm the fun bePul AI.,. .. du! air dean it m. D~suy to drill out the screw. which commonly raultl in ruiaial the thread.. in tbe bole abo.

It daanjt mw mucb iiHetence what mike ICRwdrivers JOU. buy--tlu:y all baft; to be abapal up after you get tb~ I lik£ Yan.ll:ee driven bat, but probaWr this hi just • habit. Select sizes a trile larger than the IICnM" slab moat commonly mmllntucd.. File! the ~ of blade 01 perfectly ~ them thin it down on the aida. wit IIQal 6rw-lift, ~ until it is jUBt an easy lit in the slot. FOe to carl ect width, and round the side ups alipt11 at the point. Leave the ··busiDCtl end' I aquare .and sharp, dolra you. nm mto a screw ham, • milled. slot rounded on the bottom from side to

TheIc are VCl]' COGwenimt for cuttinl down into the en~ 01 ~ Sde-tbtn round the • of dmCl" sliahrlJ to fit it.

m:c_' ia aie b.k .horpn -toeD. and claewhcrc.. but tmCc they For removing the taDl ICJewt from Spria.J;field and other bolt COlt two or three timn u mucb- u maul bits, it is advisable to aetJoft rifta, I haw • acrewdd.er with a ~ heavy handle from pueIuqe t.hem. ODe It a time u needed.. Tbac bilS Ill'C often in· which die blade ,rojecta only two incbe& Thil little devil cea concctlJ cdled. ~~ F o.,'t~r t bib, so it is well to know both ames ript duwD. tG InWnas aDd. tabs Jem out I The handle is thid: in QlK the ha.nlWI.tC man doao1t know what yGU ire talkin.: Hout. eaouJh for .. aood gnpt a.nd the hand I, brought 10 cloae to the wort

A Yanbe push-driU with an a.ortmmt of .. II bits in ~ dlat then is no dange r of .lippinEe Aa extTa wee IOU£' "lad~ will b.Ddle w a bandy tool around the houae but about the oal:r IbiDI be Deeded for prinK at thl!! Itad: lCIew that iJ PUt in throorh a JUU will ever \l1li it for Ls to drill $CtEW holes in the butt of • ~ hole in tb.c butt u in the 9} model Sange- and the Lee ~]d. and for thia purjMllC a hand drill ,or blfUt drill il better.. nwuch .Between tbete two you will requin variom dUll that Ill8Y be pur· senerally uacd lor metal work. these often come in handy for wood .. a.1e4 or raade .. requind, 'The main thing it to have the ript work u well They sbould be ~ with care, and the cheap IiR :lor the 1t:J"e9r in evert cur, ami don'l try to make the W1'OI12 GnD aTOided. u til.ey &re DOt acearate1" aliped.. nor caD tbt dl'ucb lise d.o. Eimer iMb • &eW' oae ou:triPt. Dr 'piDd down I.OOtber be de"ended upon to bold Ibe drills. lltc haDe drill chuck sh(,..... to fit-1Dd be IUI'e the point D well hanltned, hut not ..., hdttle. be Clpable of tKin.a drilllhanb up to 3/16 mm in liM. wbile tm. 8cnwdrinn 1ft cay to m.b. A few pieca of driI1 rod should br.at drill abould tab them up to 112 inch. AaJ of tIta Y ..... he 'OIl b.nd at ,all tifDIII for this purpose. Heat the m4 of mel aad Goode11-P r&tt, er Millen Falls dri1li Ire pod -lea: the model foraa it Sat, then. file to "'ape, or 1riBd.; thea -rdea and temper JOU lib bmt md. JGU will make: DO miItIb. .. d!El'l" in Chapter 21. It you hue· no drDl rod or other tool

MEASURING TOOLS: A &OOd boxwood marti.nc pup will .... 1 I!Wh the bl&d.t of cold roUed. mel ucl c:uelwden in c,uide-

hola drilltd in it 10 fit d n11 mu. N 05. 1 to 60 inclovt. In addi don to beinl; used as I ga u~ it also gives exact dit.meter 0 f d rill an d

.hOln d rills to be u.ed in dril linE for ttmd:l.rd t.ps.. ~

A complete set of tl1e!Jr: 60 drills WI 11 (:DS1 in the nrithburh DOd "f elevr:n dollanll complete with ·1 .tand in which the rJ rilIt • re held 'Vertica11y in plain view. The mod i.e also numbered witb the slu of the drill oplJOlite each hele, I ha.ve found Cleveland re.gu tar carbon 1t«1 drUI. the best for all round woik. The Clenland. C1e-FoFP Him 8~ drills or their MeHQ. Super·Carbon drills cannot he be.aten for hard tough &tee I I such as high pOwe r ri ft e teedrra s. In addition to the t to 60 wire II Uif $ir.es, it i, ad.,iable to have another sd from 1/4 to 1/2 illch by 6f.tbSf Then you an: prepared. for my job likely to come up whiclJ ~ be done by

hand. _

Thr next thi~g eeeded II • JC.l'eW thrud pu~ The one needed by the JUMmitllt amattur or prohtaionu1 is the Starrlf:tt No. 413. Kirinl' thread pitch from. 6 to 60 per ineb. It doesn't pay to !tll~ at the pitch. Df • thread-tOlne .cunlDliths do t.hil~ whim i! the reasen Lyman eights occasionally drop off. . After you hive ucertl.i ned the ,.ct tb1UCl we • aerew ta, of the tight lize md 110M .,."...

A few T APR .m. be needftll' but it i. not na "11:ry ttl carry a ~t number on hand. n. fowtd mast gen.enJ],. u$t!iul are 7 f!2 x 32t lOx 32. 8 x 32~ 6 'Z 32, 4::x 36. 3 ~ 48, and 2 x S6. For the benefit at tbote who do oct uad-entand how -=teW taps Ire 2.5

numbc red.t the first fiKure refen either to the diameter of the taN' La fractions of an iDCh. or to ib Il:umberecl size:; the aecond fi~ rc refe,. to the nu.mber of thrt.aU per i.a.ch. Thu. 1/32 I: 32 ICIIW

: " .... JJi,i,.iill.rl'j·t14 .. ,'!l i. N'.132a iOf'h d:t=r, IDd ~th32]2th~~.!~r iui~_t an 82 x ~~ ~

Fiii,if- rill' 'Ii '.r"- a 0.. llze .III Ine 1CTeW, WI wrcMQ.1l per 1JCl; a . lIE ~u II

D~ a nUiI1ber 2 KleW' with 56 threads per inch~ Screw sizea are .not

the ame .. wire puge ~ the- .,alue of the Stanett PU~I tool ated without heatinl or forging. it iI ICldom necaaary to bU'dm which in addition to showiDl: tile drill .zeal ,baWl what .cleM

or temper the point. and tapa they .bpuld be: use., for ..

BENCH DR ILLS : H~d drUl, and brnst elrin. have already Moat !liJ)tC:ill -pta have lJ)edal mel! la'ewt IUPPUed for attuh-

been mentkmed. A IID.II drD.l PJt:!I. U utefuL but hardly wo11h inK to the IUn, the thraLls beinl fiaer thm. ;lin" coasid.ered .r:andard .. the cost iD the home shop. The ~th ~ould have ~ motor Tbw the Lymaa 4-8 $iabt osea tacwt 1/8 x·48,. IIHI the flUD""itll driv~nt tUi"ng d rills up to ooe:·halJ ~nch in lizell or laqer if h is who wei a t.p euttinr onlJ 40 tbread:. per inch is botch.in& \lP the work ftq_ires it. A good bench drill is e:xCted.ia'p, uefull .and job ill Me sh8jK'. Somed., that screw iI pnr to 100am and come mille moddJi cmt little more than I fliP. rraclc breut drill. The .QUI.·and Mr. Lyman r;etl the blame! Why diult mer tar: stand.a.rd Goodell-Pratt No.8 1/2 drill tabs up to 1/4 IftclJ drilis in the chuc~: lC:IewI, der:.a their hides I N~h, didn't the runsmith use • It i. hand drlvm and hand led, aDd il equiDD!d with a aped&! Y1II! L,ma:n tap.r blot hi. ""..17 I::Ircbll The Sner thread is. daiiDeG. W'~ch • can he ~ in pi_ICe of the t..,le.:fot Iaoldlq: ~rk . The to bold me re tigbt1Yt and. t.h~ co~ tap muld- ,..,,. hive Ixea J)I'ta IS $11.sS list~ The .. me drill widaout the ipCCId ~ iI: &ealred. AJuutp~ when ardennE .~ end ... an 9tra fifty carts bow II II the No .. 8 and lists at $8.50. ani tell tJae taaker to aend you the corroet tap ... 4 drilL It u .&

The No .. 9 drill of the samr: makers take. up to 3/8 inch ariIIa'aaci mighty ru.: plan also ra epmG .. &w eenta IDDD!: for iom~ extra bu • table adjust~ ble for hei:pt~ It It aim band opcntcd. and 11:1 ews. and lit additional tap or 10. nen if an accidmt hap paul I ,lim at $1170 witbout the viae! aDd $16 .. 00 with Wte--tht latttr yoa.ire read,. for it~ Keep t1te apeci&l tap in a gl·ass jay with the

bein"If.cnbowll II tile No. 9 1;2. • extra Kfft'I, plainly labeled, I.Ild there's 110 gu!D work..

it alto a .ap1endid line of Y anhc bmch ariU.e c:ouirIInblJ' Measurln, toolt are o:f pr.i.me importance m all bran~ of :KUD'"

24 mlithia,. We have a1ready meotiODed inside md outsida.and Iw!r-

lIIiahe r in price than the Goodell-Pratt. The, are.. bowe,e" hemfl' map"roditt calipeR in Connection with weocI. workin&' toolI ~ thr. ia C'OJII'trUCtion and Ihculd .tud. up to more IICC'U rate work. They -.me calipers W111 be utefuI in wcrkin.l metal HOWt'Yttt.lnce are mpplied both In hand .nd power d rlYe~ wipen COlt little. i~ .. 'Ift!ll to ml't &t leut tw'o -pa&. of each ttyl",

Tt.e be~nner may lH: ~mpted into the P!1rchue of one of tile .1Ii it ia very often • bill: help to be able m leave me calipe m let fur pomble electric: d n 1Ist o~ supplied with • rack 0f1. w h id1 th~ !OIIIC Kivell .imen.tion1 while using aaotbu pair faT :cenenl meuti re-

IDa". be mounted to serve • • 'bench. drilL I would Itronpy advise me:tL._.....I MICROMETER CALIPER is essential. Mikes can

apiMt sum lin arn.n.mut. These dulls are noityj 1M have loti WR'U

of pia, dUll!!! to the prins- Ther Ire fine to throw a round uader I:re purch.ued for u lOW" u four or five dollan, but til!!" is no

cars in I ~rqel .nd WIll do • Ip~did job af driDina: bolt holts cconDmy ia • cheap tool of tbit 1CIrt. A III. iI lUI ~ as a mile For .ttachina: I.it:eme plates to the ftivver-but they hne no place when taking .measurement. in thouandtlu of 1111 loch or 1.... By in • IUD shop wbere predaion iii the ord~r of the cSa,. Let the III meant .teet either a BrOW'n " Sharpe or a Starrett micromettJtl prap man follow his owe mel:boL., if any~ ~e .is no di&crcnce In quaUtyt .. me mech.nic:s pte&rrins' one

m.U:e. lOZ1Ie the other. ·The ape .. d si. ""ill lar2ely inllutm:e

DRILL BITS AND GAUGES: It may be O. It. to buy ICrew~ your clioice. For prJ work I :Bnd the Starrett No. "2lt the most

driw. IIJId chiaela one .t a time u n..ed. but when i-r come. to ~ Thil Wttumeat hu • DlftIIUrin. n.np of I inch by them. drilll (drill bib) .it pays to bay the whole 1Ct. The different Oct .. adta on the aleeve mel thimble 1Cala. with & vernier tclle Do

9Uf by onl., • fnv thouundtb., and without a full ~ eM fa .pt tb Ileeve L- which tHe dl • thoua.ndths

to find the required siu miainr wben badl. needed.. Twill: dnl11 OIl e V7 JOU CUI rea np 1D ten-

are In..-wvoftai''2 ia the small 1iHS. an..l In. addittoo 10 a compI8tce.et~ of ID IIIdL I t also h.. • ..".11 thumltplecc 011 the cn.d. whil:b is

............ _. q p.iuwUed with • dick, ud. ", &ett:Iq up the ~t .,. IIM!UIS

thete ahould b-= two or three tJdJ: II in the sizes lQmit commonly of tlIiI ltaa. it: ia always _ it mrre:t and. uniform teaIIocL. While

uted.-then if me I. broken. the work· r. not ltapped- _~L __ • lid ..L~.....-.I b" .... 1... • ...:!.........-

'The StaYRtt No. 185 Time SlIVer Drill and Wift Gaqe Chart ...,.,. ~1iI.D1J3 pn e U-,'9'eI on ft1nl I tl)UUl ., IImiInvc

h • very ne:euary tool to haft. It wUI pIIY ft"e1'l' JOn owner to bUT aMt the dick iI \IIlIMO!IIIIIJ't the bci"ner will find. it a WIJ" ,pod ODe of these which 1ist! at' $2.40. It iii • ha1dened _red .te~ wirh thinK md in my opinioa the WGr1: of • lot of old timers 'Would


.:mil! of the he.t a:ae:wdriven I haw aR m-*, ~ thi, is • pod retru~~dy alto for the cha.p ".torell• DIlCIi that praft too .. It. -23

The .deI of mGlt screwdriver blades are Upend l1f;bdy IVw,nI the point. This ie O. E. proviam the bla4e does not have to racIa into • hole for the ICftW--in that ~ pd 0& the 't.Iper ., that the blade i. .tightly wider at the r:xttalIC p:tinta

A small jeweler'l terewd rhu with rnnlviaa head .ab.ou1d he 011 band for n:IIlO'Ying the am.nest light crews; .did the little all I1ftI ER'W'drlven pacbd Ylith Colt rh'Olvet'S are .abo excellent. When makinr very small SlCt'ewdriven, \lie drill rod and shape the point U Ihown in Figu re .l, usi1ll I. rattail DIe for the purpoee. Thia is the ItnJnpat ~:pouihlc .hape for a .".11 blacle.. When mace of

fiq. 3





be improved. if 'they -wId ute it.

A pod 1 incb mierometer should cost around Ul1 01' eleven dolJan. N'~ver borrow a micro:mt:tcr~, and never lend one. Hav~ your own, or' do witbollt~ I t is too delicate an imtmmcnt to be huull.ed 15 mmc people would hsndll!l ·thcmJ. aud ·1Ilr.deg it is ahsoJ lltBY at~te. it" enti rely worthless.

Laracr alipen mtDurmg' 'U~ to thre~ Dr mur inch.·~!1 em be iud~ but 1ft mot .. D .• ed in gummithiDl'.. A t\VO-ineb mike: might be ~and, occauonaUy. but thr.e b&V1l a f'.lDge of only one inr;h ......... th.at tI; ~uriDi from I. inch ·to t'W"O inch., instead 01 from reue to .2 lIlc:hcsl SaDIe of them Il~vc ao exteru.ion. anvil .pmmi ttiJJI: lEleuta.mnaLb from zero to 2 ineh.a" but .all pr-4bab1ly lIu accurate when the ·eztmsjon is used than a straight zero, to 1 inch miR

I'rew:, sJ.,s, will haft UN i.or aD inDde mib~ They. arc quite Bp&J~", Ind emnot he used. ill .smal). hola.. ·as a rile bOH, for aarmple~. A dar"'PUPI or tile Ira! SlUR ~ ~"ed. else ... .... eft in. oil bool:t is the proper tkbt for .all. bore meuure~tL AD inside rm'b mi .. hr be useful ·Ior measunng shotgun hom. ad dmbs, but I bmw of nOQ Jong lm~gh for Ibis ~ ~hitb mqnira. ·rqchiol into the barrel sev·eC.l ifttb~ Special Ion., ~ ~ipm. CUI be used for this, the .meuurt-:mell;t from thar pcint1, being ftIII hy mum; of an om:side mike..

~ Tt- tSWfttt No. 269 TAPER GAUGE is converuel1't for tak~ mE mwc m~meme-Jlts at tend of hala, and will dYe 'tb.t! bore BId ilOfWe diuMter of a barrel at UJe! muaJ.e 'by amp!l., intertinl .~ of the 'bbdn, !Hid taking the. readmE ar the PfJint ruched ., dirl enreme edge of muz21,e. I,t is 1:r~"WJ.,tI. lonl,· by WDUlan4th.s

~u;t a rood pai~ of. ~.~ Md no di~ in ~mB" i!~"p.r~ty.:at="" ~nmr to • ,quamr-tlnmsmdth. Tnls toOl listI It J,).SO with

I lava radin&; fnun 1/10 to 1. /2 ioch by th.ou5andtbs.. I

A pair of hanl:ea.ed and graWl,d V-BLOCKS, WITH [CLAMPS are aam'tiu m IWl work.. for. holding rou.nd stock while drill; rI:I ~·~Eh m~ side, for .bolttioc 'barrels, whill! fini11C .scope 'bI~ l-lm. up aigh.·~1 and. many otlacr UM:s.. Tile S·ta.nctt No. 218 and de BrollVIl4" S1urpe No.. 'SO are almost identical In si~ snd desigO'1 ID& lIoth bit .'~ t $6.1.5 ~. set of 'two bIo:b and. two clamps. The S~t No" .. 271 drill bloCb are omvemmt for drilliDit SGlpe Wack tal. hole:; 111 barrels alJDi ThClC blocks are m'OUDtcd. to IUd.>! on a n:.d~ wi,th a clamp on ODI!' block 'to hold the bArrel or Gthrer rOund MOck .~ pricc for .set. eompietel $3.~n u .ttl,. Jou b:fR In ~ culM! d.~ prea, the drill blo.cD are larply 115!ha. If you ~ ~' driB !~.th., a _md or brast dnllil 1me it up by eJ~ the bat 'you C:IIt-W'lum IS .hlut as lOad a way at :any afb;r. you It.-.e th~ holM propa-[r Ioc&t.I;o

SCALES·: Two or thRe hipl p.d.e steet me.urinl scala


should be in every Shop. rOt mos,t ,"r·k 6-iftCh seal. If! 1~1 eJloqh; of course theR shouLd k i& laO{! folding: rule fur meuu.ri.nl butc1a, It~ ete. One acaIe ,mradtzatld t-o 64th1 and. anotber to t OOrhi wiD tab carl! of ytjur i oDs im good shape.

SQU ARES : B'e&ides & 100d (,&rpelltl!:r'-s iron t'ry-tqua~. JOU Hould have tw-o or three aDaU. ones.. The puticular toolmaker USb .. small 'lst'iU1danlll' .. yare for testimK otMl$. that Ire _ on dIe 'WOf' k IJId th·r ti1tm4ard tl is 'never used cn the W'QH: i·tlClf .. These ImaU IQ'Ua.tes, hardened and gM'Uod te ahsol\lu 90 delret! 4ft_It .. 1ft ft1Y expmlf'ft. Th! 'S~tt ·Nu .. 20~. widl 2 im:h bll,dc and I 1 /8 incl beam, i. wdl wolfth the $3.90 it costs. For ptiltal wo·l'k 0 f linIne up siPH, levl!Uol hurd. In V -blo:b, ct~~~ mJ ch;oict L'! the S tanett: No. 60 with 4 inch blade &l"l4 2 5/16 irt~ _m~ colting '1 .. .50~' TW'D lO'f these' !quara is a. .lOOd inl'~ItmUJt ilL IDlY ·sht1})t The Dlow n &: S'ba,rpe Ad.jumble STquare No, 554 h well warth ha11111,1 around allOw nit toed lira ,mm· removahl~ bi.~n, for rililt IJ'Igla 'which it mnduatld.; o.ne ~ 3D and· 45 delfft :a.oz1~1 and is nat l'faCl'Qatcd ; the ,third 1I1ade. ,is nltfO'W also Il'duated---and is adj-m to 10, Bnat- within a. llmited ftDlC.. Thit blade is UMful ill oqulnnl 01 me end; cd I barr'll

thai h: beerI rut oI~ 'IM .lmIli1l't WOlrk

A ccnhtr1nl :SqUIrt is alni01t 11 ftHftlJ!y in tile pm f'hop, aJ.ld is j'u t u ru~telllry tel the Ullat!'Ur u to the PMfessional.. With it one can I., Gut an caet anter line IerotS tu end 0" an, fCl,und ttoek~ am::'h u a hll~ pi~e I.of tg..in. .... ftc. It ~I: ·im~ht~ 'm m8~ an accurate layout for a ba.rrel band with sight baR., withaut d cet'lftfiftll IqUlIt!.. The StErretT! 'N u. 33 mm'bloadun Ntlarc hu tw-. laml inhmhan,lfiable. One gives • rilht anelt ad 4S de~I!!I'r



JIi . -i.,- Iii... .iIi.JI" . ..iI·Th b Ii 'II b~~""

aecoruU'1:1 to 'Wlde!;1 nue P. US!gO' . e at er lS a' ten" Iftl . ~.

The .lade anile. to any desired pQsibOR, and is held tigbt in the had b, I. hul!d 'npr scrm".. In the sqUI~ he.ad. is a small spi rlt 1.Cftl, 10 that a barrel or ether work can be pl~ed ahsolU't,ely vertical in t'h~ vise if necusary. This $qua'fe, with 61 [neh bllid~ and both h.ds~, lim at $3 ~ 9C complete.

A act of THICKNESS OR "jlFEELE'R GAUGES·I' readinR from ,.004 to ~02l inch will occasicman, prove useful; but Since t'hc COSt iI, $2 . .5'0. WQ,'Uld not rettJiDmtnQ in 'purcll_ until Meded. The S~r.ntt No~ 72 and the Drowll &: ShUpe. No. tWO Ire equall, .dJfactory ..

~ small CLAMPS, lJDth panlle1" am.d C type} shaul. be 01) liand .t a~ll d.ID. -eJ for 'ute in liaiJ11l up a,d.holdinl~ scope bl~ ... ,.' ete.1 while filUfll'. C damps are also use. for boIdmr 'Oft '!'IUD,. amd other DUb whOre sold.e-rinl or braZmr. Thqr muR b~ of 'hcst q\J.Uty mailable ircni ar th,eF WI'1 'Ita!: und:cr tt.e h·eat •

'Tbi! shop Ihauld also ,have·.several PLIEU with diferent .hapcd

.f..WI, I~d. II DllmtRr of VP'"lID~h& Get tIl_ .. rteeded.

At least two ~ain of aIlarp po;okd. ao:unte DIVIDERS with


.~' I dtuatme nt, shauld be on hand,; alto· I pod .harp .pocket Icri~er, WI'd. hardened pltot.

C~NTJ!R PYNCH1tSt PRICK: PU.NeHES AND DR.·IFr PUNCHES :By aU meMll include with your shep equf:Pmcflt • S~rntt No. llA automatic , .. dj_table itroke center l)unch.. List, $2.40" and worth ten tims that. Loob Ub any' other center ~~b, but the bandit i8 • little. ]ar:re·r. ,..,d the upper ~nd is .1. siidl!ll sl-ee.-, -ith I coihd QJMI ami trip insideJ. adJustable fo r UDilQJ1.. Pla=e 'this 'PU'Ileh on rJlI= mart. push down. on sl!e¥~ and

"t tr ... .~t..~ ._l.. ... L .... _ It.J___ d.J· <!Ii th <iii •

1. ' IpS, &truulli .. ~1;.lI; ~p U.ruw an IriS rnmg eo pHD'l: 'in ro,r

a· perfecl; impregion for startiDg the drill.. No, hammer is needed.~ nor .mule! 0Ilt; be used, '~. pundl never jumps oft the' III 8:.rk , _.nd tfte, .point is II IU'd enouc;h to make a clean impression even en 1m r1r hanl r-teell

You will also Died sewt·al aHmDDl1 ,eenier puncbes from III to 3/1 ",inch' in size. Be lun they an! H'ARD", N athing il. JDJre - disgu.s\1ng than a toft punch mat tum& or I.tten. its poiDt ao the work.. Bu,. the hiahot pric.cd ]JWI'cl1 YQU CiUI fiiuJ,. Ill. hope far ~ beM~, I f they prove IOfr* try to harden rke poid:ts. I f common tmrpcring method. 00 not pt taUlbl harden them in cyanid,e~ Keep tht: p:Oi~:tI I'muml ftQ marp at all tim!;l.

Three Of four small prick punmes ahowd alto be on hmd.~ These' COIl' hur &.ft.em er twenty ~8r! am,. IfU! evl!R the fl. smnd.8 '['·d maUl J!.!IY ,ro~ soft~. HaT~ them: •• Illd. keep tllea P"OulId s.harp . ~me ~1th 91end.e'J pliir.l't~$11 sume with pQlnti mD-re blUlit. YOB will need aD muss now IUJd then .

. lor forty cmts you ean pt a. Sef of th.,. 1OIa.11 d.rUt pundi~

1!16~ JfJ2, ~d " .iD~b~ . Keep tbne in yom 8.pftiD pecht at aD timm--they wjll probably ~ (·mt anywhtn: Itl~~ Other ~I both

~gcr and imBller! from 1/32 'Dr Iss, up, to }4. inch~ l"f you can~r hu..,. the siMS nt:eded ~ get the nel:r!lt !!Ize and 1uvt • maChiolsi him ~Jem down on the lathe with a fi]e. They should 'he mn:talhl first~ hn re-hanl,tEml Dr;ft punma n~d nart be HI hard as ~ter and prick Plmcb~ or they wiU. &teak D raw the temper at btu'!

cotar! in 01.. .

A epi4ndid dti it for VOfT smlll lich t pins fa 8.D 'ill. d-t--a'ppli nr, pUlleh... The poInt is a mlaU piece of drilt rod set i'nto a large t pfeft! 'Of :lftIl . Ith :ettseHW.. Poinm. M v.mUd: 11_ mAY be cur am! let ~n the tool 4'5 req urred.. The point monIc! m.1l't be ton]ler tUd. nee.aryl to avoid. bending, " inch i.8 umln, long mQlUlh~

. S~re I numb« of ·te'ft Ceo,t •• a ~tI of' drleR'mt 'I~ Th,f'~

hive the point! cupped I ami are txtZUmt drifts for fim·he-d pnu me en" of w1ricb mOW' on 'tk (WL AnnW, "th-em'tj ebGct them in • ~ Iud tum tb. pIliml: Ittaiaht for R length Df .hour: one ioeh. Polltb 'out 'lb. cupped. ad with cmau, d&th, IIld them 'WIll b~ IIttlm If '.-., R1U1'_, mm _I' af dtlft pjDL 'nil! punch shoWd fit the pin and". • hoe them •• 4. nctdcd" to the dza rCiluiftd~


. Finall~; ~ql a ama!1 pin viM such 15 the: StalHtt N~ 162A; .iad. l)lUlSl .. 'tIeS of dnll rod up to .040 inch. dllml'tef can ba cut ADd _ad in Ht,f; c.h ucl: u. lleMMt nuki rAl a mI'Il] .ni venal drift

PURch. of it"

A good accurate h!,rdcnm Ikel BENCH BLOC~ whae aot a Ilecasity I is a mighty convmient lj.rde tool.. It p'mvides a. conY'eni ...


en t rest for parts while p\lnching out pms., while drilli 111 I and for many other hand oper&tioDl. I t alto maka: I Iplaadid blod:: far rive tml. The Starrett No. 129 'blocl:: i. hardeiled .0 do iJ"OWld. lapped and polilhed: it hat • IfOOVe at:rotI me top, :mel. holes G f

I various Ii ses through which Pm. Inl.Y be Pllnth-ed wLthoat d.amap. or tbrouK;b which the drill may P_ It the aul of & cut. Lilts at $2.00~

REAMERS: Under thil bead CO~ Itraipt and tap! red reamer&. rose countersin~ taper pin reamert. BPi ral rcamCrl, both lbaiabt and taperl:dl expan.Jing ~ counten:inb and CDuDtt;rbora, and siFt apettuft reamen-and. possihly othen. V 0\1 never know until you RJ:t into the: j lOb what Ramer will be requi red--.aad "the one ),ou need it usually the ODe ycu IkJ not bvc at hauL ' Buy them only 15 oeed!d~ at tmJ't the w.z Dn!L' Tb~)' quickly nul

• •

m.IG 1DOIH!f.

Sooner or ] a ter you wil1 D!ed raper-pia reamm from l!O to 5 in siu. The Cleveland Itand ard ramen are cue.Dea.~ but biKh, in price, lisona from "$1..50 to $2 .. 00 ~ in aboft!iza.. I on~ found a lot 0"£ these in the DVC and ten cent ltore for a dime uc:h II and b, wint the mikt iD piciinE rlKm out. JOt .. KOOd set in !randard .us for I lOng. The loor walker 11ft me several eli rty looks. and I IwJ traBic blochd at the h.ard ware CO Wl"k-r. hut I lOt .-way with my "amen before hI!! c:aIled the ~ A unall tap wrencn "With four jaw chuck. will he needed to hoW the rcamcn; alM) for holdin g small tap-. ,

A rese countenld: ,.,iII come '-andy for IiJhtly roua:hin.r out a mllulc: befere lappin, to C1'CIWD-1rId t h.ar', about all you 'Will use it for. A better tool fo r this purpoae is the Cle\'tlancl bit stock countc:ni nk No. 11 SC, size 5/8 inch, 82 derree pointt lilt 7 Scents..'

Straight l'HDltrs, and ramen. with very slilht taper will 0 ken he wanttd for sizing barnl bands. ';gbt h.. bind., etc. Baml tapers vary aDd it will USU&!ly be found that man, of the tapered reamers hive too much t.r; whfle .tnight reamers do not give Iny blptr.. Huett few if any tapered reamers will be .uiable for this WOD:t the bett plan heine to rnm tile hole in IIlack ur tuhiq st,.iptl then s'ape thll hand I"OUIhIv _d peen it to Iizc and. t.pa OD the banel-or. better, on an. old barnl havinc the same me and taper.. 'or thi. work a :lew Critell.lq expanding: namen -.iD let. you rirht up in buainetL I use the 6 b1_ PameR which lave [ea: tm.d~ 10 thatter than thOI! ."i", S blades. 1'\.. 'bladn have acljwtmalt 1ry mum of • taper".J larinc IIUJiace on thm .... M ..


011 which the blades rat. bein, hdd at cacIa. end 'by • -=rew c:ollara Sc:rewfD, the collan back OD the shlnk .. the bt... co & hipf:r lJOint ou their beariDC IUrfacca. mla~1 the cut. ne relmers luwe no taper except for a w,rt dhtance at the ~ for !dief in It&rtinl in to the hole, The foUowin.'Il table dva Cl.tllol: nu.qben, dftia If:Id list prica en those l.ibl, to be needed:

O.told, Be..





It ..

II IT 1-1


H II' to :It, .... 1-11. to 1/1

1/1 to '''I "tl to 1/1 ,ft to 11.11.

1111' to 1/4 "4 to lIn • 11/11 to 'lit

'II to 1

1 to 1-1/1

WOW! Ye.p., it COI'tI maDe, for • EIID."ith to tool up--uul bow tome folb do kid: when be charcea them • li~ pron.t 011 the

joba hrioa to &et back: lOme of In. my.Dot. ,

Counterbores for lat bead IIlld Dl;mr heacl KftWI will ,. needed .QD'";8';on.aU,. :II, for examplet w'hea chuP! the PGlitioa of. alii ICI ew in • rifllf!, or when puttil3l' un. • ...eldl:d falae taD.. "Thne Un round .bann for WIll!: in brcut drill or drill p:aa. A crrunter!»ore.u rally • .",.1 I e:nd miD with • pt10t to iit the ":mv' hole. In mnely-nine cues out of a hundred-aDd au. IDOl'C thu thdit wil1 be found. there ;. no ItI.ndard. ~~ 'bit to lit th-= particu1ar tc.rC1r'. In that cue rem mu.t clitcard th~ 1:Jastu\t JC;tCW orI,inall,. wed, or die tum the" heR dowD to ~ to &t the counterbon:: or die make a l1at drill with • piI~ .. dacnld la die ~ chapm. which win u....tI, mnd. up all riPt on oae. or two- jab .. Comi4erlhl( theil' ""all lize, ccnmterbores are ~ beher buy them only .. tler;ded"

DIES AND DIE HOLOER. ~ UIUIU, the IUlllmitl1 ,.,0 'be



able to UK &'tanda.-d ~ch.ine SCfn5s to • IJftl e:xteat. or eIle iCl e ws obtainable fn:m the -fi.cto1'ie& Wbm. a ICrCW b.u to be made it 1. • lathe job... aDd the thread am be cut more &CCUrat:ely tID die Inhr tblD ill • thread die, I t it doubtfuL therefore. if • let of dia will par dividends even in the pro&.ionall• abo.,.. If you drcide' to 1ruv • let' for UIe It home. tca.tul.r JOur t..rd.WIft dealet. and .elt.cr fn,m II •• wholetale c-ta!op thOle sira that JW an IUmw to RqUire.

CHISELS: DeperulinK on the 'WOrk you 10 ia fort J'lU .., IOOIlCT or liter require cold C'h_ " cape! r:hi.~ and Ndit""".. paintU chiRia. Start OUt with ". auod W inch told chi.l. and. anotbcr ~ inch: add other sizes when and if needed. C.pe elI_ and diamarad poimtl may prove hu., :fGr JOu,rhina- .. stock wIIe~ there i, CGnIid.erable to CUt & way = U1d thb: .t.o appHa to ruund m. ch.lL ~ Sl£ca from K to J' ," .ia the TUioua .,.1 ..... 11


probably ccweted all f6qu.inmeab" The liarlflV8 liDa oj d:dlel. mr iron .00. .tid is b&ld to beat. ...d mo.t Iood. dalt.n have them or 1211 pt tbem. from jobbers. MOlt aunsmfthl keep .. few pieces of heulUn tool steel aDd make ctUsels Of the .ai:rc and shape wanta!.

HA(;KSAW FRAME AND BLADES:; Get a ~"»iatol piptl

hacbaw by all meam-fOI what .. winK 7°U do will ohm be done to tab the" p]ace of IOIDe mill ina: or planer operation, which muna lots of .wine.. A Distooll .Atb u, S Ia.rI'ett or otblCl' standard make COWl but little more thllD tome 'loft}} Dtalld. and .. stroll1ft' and

more ricid. You will want Soe tooth bIadCl .fo:r thin ItOCk md thin tubiz1&. IDd cm.rser una tor b.a:via work. IUugbina 0& ItOCk. etc. After uslr1K all kinQ of blad~ 1 have oond l.lded there .. but one kind. .for me-thc Univenal all bud Tunpten Steel blada. The 12 iJlch Icqtb it moat CfJovenieAt. A shorler blade than tbia iI a nuisance. wbile a IDnF one ia a little too IprinlY for :fait weI k. U se 18 tmtb to the inch for rougrun& cub and heavy Itack; · 24 teeth '01 smoother t more aa::u rate cut. and li&hter jolla; and 32 teeth £0 r thin tuhin",

HAMMERS: it fAYS to set pod oaes, even thouib you do IlOt UIC tbc:m .. areat deal in IUD w()rk. My OWI1 choke baM.,.... dole ball peen machinist's h8mm~r o.f 36 0WJaI; artOtbe.r of 24- ounc:et ~ and uothcr of 3 OUIICCI j also a Maydole 6 0" DeC! riYetiaa: bVlllllCr. The manwaclurertl aumbt:n on lbeae are.. f'elpectiw.J.y. 1.21, 123 .. 129. and 265. .Aho, & GoodcU·Pratt bl'lll hammer. No. 93. wei&hinl 8 wnas, and a ~lid alpper bamll1eJ of 1~ pounds weipt. Lu.d bam men ClUJ. be cut u needed 'Ulinl I. hallow wood cylinder for • lJI(IuJd. with a hole in one side throuch which a pl. :* inserted 10 form the bole fo~ banclle. A rawhide m .Ilet ill nioc but I h.&ve a plain wooden one which I selden or never find UIe for.

Som-= meam 01 beating a SOLOERl~G IRON will be aeeaaIYJ abo the iroD. or ucoppcrl~ II it il ~re correctly called. Buy tbe best lOiderial copper you can hod. w!ilmng from 1 Y' to 2 p(lI.lndl.. A 1lJl1a11 one fIOm the five and ten cemt ItOrc will L"OmC in handV also for tinDiDl the inside of ramps and bands, or om!

. can M made from a. piece of round copper rod. A:&ood blowtorch will COlt from $3.50 to seven Dr eipt or ten doll.~ and it IftID8 like ODe is just about as rood aI lDOUer. The Tl.lrnc.r md. the Clayton ud Lambert torches have the reputatLon. ·

BENCH KNIFE: A pod mona tbarp blade is inditpenaable ami in this day of helpL:. rotten who Cln't .pprdatt • pocket trd.fe with hardened .«el in it. the best we. caa pi in pocbt ka.iva are 10 10ft that the edge will Dot .tand up even to ordil1l:ry wwt.. The Swedish steel bench Dives IOld by Hammacher, Schlmmer II: CoDlpanY .. Nttr York~ colt onl,. 35 or 40 cea.~ mel beat any pO(:ket bife c:cstinr two or tb ree t.i.xrles tbti t price. It pap to Lan two of the.: min&. EeepiJJI ODe very ben and the other ml'

rauaber work. ICNpmK, etc. l2

SHAltPINING STONES: Sevebll oi tbeae wtU be aeeded. 'no fint aboWd be • CuborumiUm combin&ticn ~ a z 2 x 1 iDcb ia Iiae. coane on one" die, lDJonth OD the ather. This wiI1 he ued. for clreIIiq: cdCQI ad dnt w hettiDl oi cbitcb. plaac bib. etc. Specifr IhIne No. 108. Next, & Lily White W ubi~ .about 6 .. 2 :.: , .iach for ruw wbettiq of wocd cuttinl toO.... I'"£hea I No. 186 Carborundum ali» atone. 4 ipa loq w 1 inclJ wide,. witb ellPi Dua ••• 7/16 and l/16 iDcb thick lllpeCtiVe1Yt for Laaide oj mrvi.aa chUcL. i mil ill uud oa.ly :fol the tim: 1Vkttiq. U .. all,mn."ttone ofUJy W.biu Wublta fot"fimilb.

Carborund um IDd .watt Iticb may be had iD 1Cluau, trianplar. balf round. and. round. ere. _non. and in Sue. medium aa.d COUR


IIi ~ al priem from 60 'XU ts tn $1..50 cacll. The)" IJ"C. l.LS!e.ful to ( d.ra&ing up and reshaping hardened parts. that cannot be file:4" IlIld shauJd be bought as needed, Fike IJJd.ia Oil Stones ca.a be Iud in many odd sizes and shap~ and should be bouaht· .. requiredt the purcha scr ielcctin& them from ill Ult rari OIlS in an, large toOl bouse cu:a1og. The ~o.. 27 Stone, blown as • "point" is round. in

lCCtio.. J incheS' lonl.. 5/16 iDch djameter, and tapcrin.1 to • 'fcry IhaIp plia~ I t is .indispmsable :for ~ttin, into small 00 rnen and I:roo~ wben a file will not cut. The No, S8 is largert being 4- incha lone. y.1 Inch d l.amet~r at one End and .f4. inch at the otber .. A VCI)'" wcful !tone in rcshapin.r patti 0 f sears. tric&~ etc:.. wMn the file will nat if ut. Last but not least" the ItCnes for cam& triger-pulb. 1 here Ilre two kinds 01 Arkansas sto~.. mow,Q as I. Hanl A.J Ul1.gJ and • II Soft .A.rbn&as..l t S peci.fy the: h~nl and

i'Cfue Ibe 5Qft. Slip atones for triner work. should ~ be about two im:ha lOll&. 3/16 inch thick at one cdg:c &ad tiIpCrm" to a knife itee OD oppoai~ aid~. Tbis material 0 Wo lya.iJabk in IOWlId. ~uan and trianplar Wstic:ks'l the last two Jhapes beina: moll 1ltCfut Bur them only u the need ariaeL

1 he.i tate to bring mil chapter to a close~ Already it bat tatif:n more than iu rightful :ahate of spacel and has named 10 many tool., etc. ~ that the resde r may ba ve pined the imp ressien that even • POall tinkering !hop is beyond hls financial IUtf:mtnt. Time alter time I hive checked over my own tool .equipmcD t~ ill an dIort to miss oothinK eaem:i.al~ nor to tOO ude nominl that migb t not be dcfimre:ly useful or nccasary. My 'Own work bas covered. • wideT fieW. perbtpl" than the average atPIteur will cover in a. few yeln of tinkering: his pOI i and he should therefore discard. at once tb.e idea that it is necessary fc r him to have ~~~rYtrunl men donal or tu be mentioBed la te r he fore he (8.11 restock bls pet rifte or put on • nrw sizllt. F ar from it l Sta rt with the fewest ~ble: number of too" you'll be surprised bow rapidly they will accumu~ aJ your bobby lrowl and dC1'eJo,.~




HAVING riggal up a pl.acz to '\fOrk, lind .. bmblcd a fevt Df

tbe most ewntial toolst the amateur J"Unsmitb will next em .. tider certain other equipDJ.edt, lOme of wbida u MOe I ry to aertain job~ wbii~ other i tefIU may be dilpensed. with,. but will n.evtrthelftl .dd both to the pIe.Ullr!t gpecd and cOovenimce at the work. Fa r tIse aunsmi~g trade caJ1s at till1eS for toob BOt ....... rly lieud or m.anuJactured~ and which if 0 rdered !lpeciallp from a tool ma.br I would COSt I great deal FQrtunatdy, most of them CUI be cuily made by the amateurjl

Before pinl in to detWs of theM: lp!Icial toola, let-I malider a few

of the Dcn-ascn tial but 'WOrth while DIICI.. .

The fll1t is • high pacle MOTOR GRINDER. When I 'rsr started tinkering with guns I had DO IrinOer-and now I wouldn't mow how to get along without «Ie. Many lone hoUR of iiI ina: ba ve been reduced tD a pleasant few mill utes 1.0 rk:; to say DOthing of ~ advantage of beiDg: .. ble to huff smd polish pins qwckly and more perfectly than by hand.

:nere are th~ w~ll mown mans of rrlnders Df the tp t .m IIDlng to r-eeommeod----t he B lad:: Ie DD~r I the U. S.. Eled:rit: CampanY. and the Vall Dom.. P~D(Y there are ormrs I bave DOt .een.. Of the three named. I believe one to be about .. pod IS another~ The lint two Ire IOmewhat hearierJ IIDd might stand Up ~r under Itml hard \Wlf!~ ntey COlt about $60 IIld $50 rapectiVelYI while Iht V ID Dam, I triRIt lighter m·chine. COIb about $40.. All tbra are ball ba. rinl" with am automatk bull t-in IbrtiIJI rltcoltatt rubber co,ema COt1DeCtiaal ca.bl~. and ~ct plua, ape ..... oa ..., onIiDaq liahtina: circuit. The pinder is .. n II.Id mmpM:t. mil .ta .:on .. wnimdy on the bmch. or IIIQ" be ... wftll • cut iron heir pedatzl at ... additiona1 COlt. 'The.haft U 112 i....... diameter, ud Iiu •


6 iD:b. Aloxite wleel. 1/2 int:!h th ick on ~ md-GIIC CO&~ and. ~ .&r.e. - Other wheell' of various szes, lhapm mel tbicbrsut 40t esc.ud. bq theee dimrnrions may be add~ • needed. The,..heda baTe removable cuam. ad tool· reata adjUitable- for hei;Kbt and cuttiq anP"' 'With the .. beds ~'I you CllO. us: wire or cloth buihn, wood. wbeeb faced with abrasive. cloth. sandpaper wbw. for drsq



down butt padA-ncw uses will be: -continually OCCUrtm:l to the owner 0:1 eae of these tplmdid machin5 By U9m, Alaxi te w;ttcels with thin. rounded.. or Ixvded edge yell can let into placa in Bhapial up pu"II thlt would ordinarily call fur a millinc mlcbi ne 01" !bapcr. H(MlQ" of filinK an be !i8vtd when making hartel buuis, apt bea, HII~ and simih.r jobi.. Toels (an be sharpm-ed-altho·up these whccb an: too bard and fa5t (3000 to 3600 R.P. M. ) for carving chisel. aDd plane bib which are best ground on In old. fashioned


Soft .mel wire buSen are splendid lor ca rdina: off the ruat durin.

tbe bluinr procea. and, with light p reau~ for bu rnisbing :l hatTd. after it iI blum. A JeP:UlIU! wire buHer sboul~ be kept for au-din.I 01 rust. aad this must be baDed in -ly~ OT u1 BOd. to ICJPDTe all ~ thm rirual in clean bailin, w:at~T. If the bristles mould rult • bit. that is the best ~idtna that there is DO Ire.. or GD on them to spoil the blwnc job~

YOli will wtDt twa or three cloth buJDng wheels 4 incbca iD d.mrtr:[~ and two DJ tb ree 6 j ncb cmes. 'These are d.et much a;ood UDtil wom dowa to an even surface on th~ ed~ Start the motor' aDd hold • du.rp. chisel against the cloth until all 10I0IC ed.&ell tb reads. ~~ ue worn off and the Iurfatt is mwotb and c«npart.

Keep one cloth wheel clean and drJl fOl" floaL polishiq;; keep another for we with Tripoli rou~; another .. perhaps, for fine: jeweler·.:roup.. Otben ma, be surfaced with a little fine emery or c:ar .. barandum in htaV7 grease for pre! iminary plliahiDK' of parts.

Wood wbeels caD be made • needed. Scnbe a circle tbt required sin: ... ith .dividers 011. I pi~ of clear soh pine; bore a half inch hele thrtMlcb the cmter fa r the .h:l.ft:t and saw and 6le tb~ whm to nape on the out1 iDe. Set it on the :aha.~ ti.rhtcn up the nut to .hold it~ then III.It the motor and tum the wheel true by hvlding a sU;2h. t1J cul'ftd ft1"Y sharp misel .pinst it. then fini. with sandpapert

Co&t the ed~ Gf these W'b~Is Uehtly with ,I ue or ."\'e1Y thick .hellac, thea. toll them. iD Me rmery ~ carbo runcl um, p'UDDc:e" etc., u needed.. On tome. due thick felt -..u.the"r-strippiol to the cd~ Icttin.r the emcb of fe1 t meet evenly. The felt -1DIIlJ he uaed. dry for final pclishinli or may be coated., either dry or with heavy iteue, with various abrasiva.

Make, or have madet MDDe hardwood (prefe:rahlr IDI9le) spiad.Ja

which willlCl"cW' onto the mel of motor shaft i a stead of h nut. and proJetdng from two to four inches beyond the mel of sIu.Ita The proJcctinlt tnd.a 1011 be shaped • claired, to ~aCb tbrwv;h trimer


pardi IIJld other plu~ for inside pclishio(. Coat them wid due

.nd WIap on fd t to bold the. abrasives ..

Special ,.,heeh. of compreaed fd t art; fine for polilbi DK. but Rf'J c.qcD.ive. I f you am dIord a few of them they will m.n & bard job toy. Thty &I.e used both drYt and with abrui re pasteL

V cry fine pollshinK wheels are made by cernm. tina: tD~r several thicb.esR5 of bc:avy leatheI sole IQtber or saddle !lidrtinlBore th-e sbaft hole and saw them round with • (Oping or scroll laW. 'the.. tum them true on the Ih.dt. with B cbilel. E4p mar be made sqUH, round .. V-sbaptd. or bevded d needecL Rub ulve IInndicg compound on scme and eep others .for WIll! d.ry in .final


You f3D get I d riO &riDding &ttaCbment :f01:" use with fOUl' griMer fDi' about $12.00.. Many mechanics .:off at these attachmeat:a. mnsiduini; themse:1Tel competent to hola the drill in their Meers md pind [t true. GrindIng. drill it about the most particu.1a:r job JOU will Dod.. Rd oae of the hardat to team.. "The attKh.menr: win I0OI1 ~ #Jr iae1f in drill. U'\"a1 or m:laimed-for be it bluwl'L that: a duB drill.. or DlIC grouacl 0& center ill .. lea 01 cePter grindinc of the point causes .& drill tG CD t & hole luvr ·thln itMl~• lICrious matter wh~ a ~rtain :ICMW" i:I to be tapped into the- hOle. Acruc.at:e grindla.K of VCI'f small drills it ,I mast impolSible witb.aut

the .ttammmt.

Anothc r 'WIief'Ul accl!SlDry is a cbud:t made to either Ie"", on ead of tQ.Oto,r "'aft instead of the nu~ o;r d. to be slipped on and beld by a ee1-«rew~ Colli may be htLl in me ehu~ for borin,; small piKa of drill rod may be tum~ to size for pial by boldine • file lpillSt tb~ rod wlUle motor LJ nlnning; often a new- :firin& pin ~ be turned out with only this chuck and a :bJe for a tool. Round pam may be chucked for CGttine dowa llightly I or for poliahilll~ Finally, a pully may be placed on one end of the motor nft. and bel~d ro a bench driBI small balch 1a the. drill press. 0 r to art()rner £rinder, in cue you want one slOWlU running than the motor itself.


The best substitute for 8 &mill motor grindert is a GRIN DIN G HEAD which can be po rehated. from the mail erder houses for four tQ teD dollars. This can be belted up to & 1/4 hlJ't motor, & faa motOft PI engine~ or even the old :fIivverf' Tne lad. on the fa~ w here electricity is not available, will connect up hi. .lrind~r to the tractor J' mili:ing machlne, 101 saw or wuhiDl' mdrne. Lean it 10 him--ht~ ~ powet'" to it.. A grindml head, belted for & spcal af 1500 "til 2500 LP ~M .. is better for IOIllf! work than the hiP tpt:ed piDder-hut the la.tt:er is ~ when roughing 0:1 • lot: 01 1Ut-

plus metal !n making pl.rbI lOugh stock.

The uuteu.r I,,"smith lhould maftllp if pouihle to haw lOme klnd of I motor t even if IIOthinll: Mlter than a fan motor it avai[.ble~ Sm.11 doth and ,teet wire bu&n: are allDllt indUpen .. ble at times,

an, investment JCU mike ia this dirlt:don "Ul quid:l, par for j'tldl.


THE DENTAL ENGINE:. Now ftJr another 5uggeSllonl for W 1I i l:h I a m d ee ply in deb ted to the den tal f ra ternity ~ Th i! will not be new TO some peep le, but wil 1 be to many, \Vh en ynu !i t in r he c enti st' s ch air in W;l rd I y cu rsin g th e n.t:od ill he d rills into I he 0 I d roo I a rs with sue h r:~n de I igh t, P rGOO btl' you plid Ii nle :a rten t [011 to the: makeup of the p ri nctPJ, l tools he Wag usin &:. Y-e:t if v.ou had mat "dental engine" C)f his in your shop, you would find ;) million a nd Oil e uses 10 r it on eve ry job t big and 1 ittle,

Den r is try an d gu nS11l1 t h i n it a re ~ wi del 'f &epa rated proftSSlOns but the p to f ession a 1 guO'smi t h wi 11 do we 11 tc)! i nvfSti glte th is piece of dental apparatus and learn of irs d lily appl lea tion to his busines!l.

The old time dent.st used a villainous arrangement' OD I tall stand. wjth w beels an d string beltS" ~ opt r;u:ed by a tread le wh ich be wo rked with b is foot. From this ran a Bexible or jointed sh aft rn the drill head with WhLCh he did the dirty work:~ The modern dental engine

•. ~. .,: I:'~I!'~~

. '-"~ . '.\ij

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._. 'I", .' - I I

1. r "~.. • r:" '

-~ ........... '.'.~.

1·1 ... ~.

_.' I·W ..

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. .-

- ......

r i I

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consists 0 i a small an d COIl1pact motor all nickled and :shill Y I and with a.bou t s Lx if~t of rub be r cev e red Rm ble ~baft; the businea end of t he sha:ft is ;1 ttached to a n iekeled reel about ten inches long which serves as a hand le, In the end of this is a small chutt in which DOc. holds his btl rrs, drills t carboru nd \l.Ill wheels, and adler impla:JJ.eots of torture designed for proselyting Christian SciEntists from the true faitht Th e ch uck is ar ranged so that the buns and whMs mav be moun ted It righ t angles to the handle .i I desi red. N ow this chuck it removable, and in its place may be inserted ano~her chuck with a hean w h ic h con ve Its tilt: rotary motion ttl • ba~ r DlOtion-in othe r war ds, conve rts the gadget into a miniature riwonl mach ine, After this bri~f explanation, ccosider the followinr Iu.lltllion:

Next time JO~ call on. f~ur dentiat'. control your -feelings and temper if yuu can; but if he tortu res ycJU be)Vnd h.um.1l endurance. them ~day bim with the j.w-bone of an ass or wutn'er is bandy-and don't leave tile place empty handed. Sted hi! dental enajne anc! as mllfly of his tools as you can stuff in flJur pocb:.u.. Also loot the body of arlY spare c:hl[l~ you may find.

(Rather than bothering about a dentist's drill, go to any hobby shop, a well-stocked hardware store. Sears etc ~ and 'buy a Dremel Mota-tool or its equ i va Lent, ~ Allor most 0= the burrs. wheels, etc., are stocked).



a III liMa- .aTD-Tlal .DDEl IJI 4 • 1IIIIII .'·1


~ ~~--=-.

.... "- .... II _I
.. ..
t _t!l au:l:c.;.
I ,4ID 1 .... eMM
.. ..... CdIIIiIII
- Vtl-co..
- ,raoo..
II .... 1 fill .e.~
<II .... ....,.----~
• ..... ...........1iMMI'IIIII ~ ....
. • - ............ QIfII cPr·,
7 ~ ...... o:w...
• -'. ~~, .. ~.",. ~nf~ ,,(AC ... • IIIIAI'III IIU!IT III!. DIJNIIA leg TO II'UItt ICIUIRII 0lIl Y)I; ~ ..,.

........... L.JU-...----Jo-=-:.!- ~ ~ 1IIn'I!:


I f you haitate to pursue ncb • CO'UJ'K. then your be:at bet iI a man )"out peM':I witb ,fOUr loal toGtb puller Ilid tell bim your tl'Oublet. If be happena to he I lun-cra.nlLr-and a lot of them arc. for .-e reuom-hll!!!'ll understand -at once. ] f he hun !II: U1 old ohio-

Ieee CDline that Jl)U can talk him OUI of for a IOn" he will be &:;bd to belp jau select the tJpc you need, and will probably order it for you irom his Igpply bouse. And h.it experience with the: various toOl! and attachments will mabie him to olfer many helpful lugestlDDSmorco'Ver t bit will likely make )'OIJ & pratrlt of • double handful of alAI bu rn. tao we rn for UIe on teeth~ but fine for metaL ,And ytlll

• $9


Fia· 4

D I! F


CII1 buy Dthcn at you need them, fill the cost, barr1n2 the toIt of .a new dental mline, .is IUrptilingl,. kww.. AI mil i. written 1 am advited that tk£ S. S, White Pental !.1ft. co. .rc putriD&" on the 1Ilal'ft-t 811 engine to sell a $2S.~ng de motor. The shalt iI made to attach to lID, lINn motllr, with sa.itable connections.

Fipre 4 shows a Dumber of den tal barrs (they are .always callrd ~UburrlH and not "d.rUls.l') WJ!fW. to the KtH*Dithl These come iG &ius from Now 112 to No. 11 t nn,;,.fram about .. (J.2l lneh diam.~erl The No. 6 meuUret 1061 ~ This II a hand, lice . far countersinking rear sip t lp:rtuRl" or for Itraipt drillinl whe re a very .small bole. is Wlnted-th~ ~m bole in a front siR"ht blade. for exampla A number 3 0 r 4 round bu rr make! a spfendid cente r punch. Flgure S.


It will DOt WI'I md slide off the mark ~D OD bard surfac:a. The bole may be S'bU1.m with a small burr ~ and. eolarp to exactly fi'l the ctrilI. to be UIed later. Spot .&I1nWing is unneeellD.ry, for the. bwi' He made to cut the hardest material.

.AaoIber a:dvantage of uno, burrs i. that I:b~ wlll Cllt 00. the aide .. readily _ the poitlti hence need not be bdd perpendicularlYI Hold tbaa at III an"e .. ytJU bold .. pen in writinl- the toOl .neva hida ttac work .od you alWlya see what you are dainl ..

The ~l burr. Figure 6. is really • sman millin&: cuttt.r eeeellCat fur pttinc into di&.cult corM rs and UrlC'gell IPOtL U .. Dum.· ben 11 1/2 to 2Z.

n.e Inverted Co" t FilUrt 7.. is used u • atniabt drill for IIII.U hoIett--e:Uh very luI: in all au... UR nUDbm, 33 III to 44--tIeJ 38

_kr cxa:Ucnt mining cullen ia all lira. even m old diKarded. CIDC aaRinl tb.zouP. ~ hardening easily.

~ FlllUre burr. FilW'c 8. is one of the handiest of tile let. -"AU

• pi t bu wh+' - ,j: ~ 8'1 · Ft......"", .....

• & an It, ue IS :I. ~ BlUrt. ... uc: sI~ DJnSt corn-

moaJy needed will be Nos. 557 to 562. U.e it, for "ample. iDdcad of • ··mouse-tIUI' file ~ ~trinK'. the hall round EJ"OOve tn a Sprm ... :field barrel through which the fixed stud pin is inserted. Cuttio,

"" ..






oa. the cml as well as on the side, this tJpe of burr is ~y yuu"

bit in .... 1 I·tipt,t jok .

rJlUR 9, shows a t1'1'Jl!t-CU t Cherry. This is similar to the round burr iD Fipre +. but 011:1 iaster.

PiauR 10. mows • tapered &.sure lmrr mowu as an. I~f fi..IUIe" ---not particularly useful to the gunsmith. but micht he uted

ncntinn.n y.. .

Piprc 11 t .. aa md cutting fie&ure, used. for bo"ttOlllin&: Ollt • hole or :dot without Oltticg the sides. Better than an end mill or an,. other mar'hine tool for cutting· square bo'ttf)m holes in batteb fa r .... bl«I: kiEWL

TwiIt driIlJ,. reamen and extra. Iup diamond -point drilh .... , be had. for the handpiece of the dental encinet from deutal IUPplr boU&eS; but the discarded d riIla .of the dental II'ractitLcmer·, ~ will keep the amauur or professional CUUmith mpplied -for yean md. u.ve him mllDY boura of time.

V akanite blHl'l (simn :IT to rhuse aln:ady dtseribed. hut made fOI' drillia& and. OItb.og \"Ukanite) an very band)'. for ~ OD wood.; abo Iacp: Ihze SIU'&ic3l burrs. What a coBvenicncr for 8liIDC .... d1, mearly m.:ce II ible cut when inlettiq • smel; or . fitdq • ....:J , iniaJ I

Be.ida the burrs, Ibere are the rm:ndms and mounted carborundum ltDIIeI and wbeeb all extremely useful. The varicUi carbonmdum IIlOUIlted point. and wherls are .00..... in Ficure 12. No need to mcaUort thci r UIe9 in IWlsmi thing:--you~v~ wiWd for j .. IUCb. • thml IDIIIY ud many a timel lCnock oll the ClD&-hardeninl where JOlI willa to 4rill I bole-lcvd. ojf ProjectiDI eak of iCftWI ia • receiver after fittinl a Nosh scope mount or • L}'DW1 41 .rpt trim and IIDOOIh out mgb. and £omen in parts dIat bne '-a .. hled-~R~. no end 10 what you cad a. wid. r .... poiab aad wheel • .; new UIQ wUl be found. oa e¥ely job.


&'he MuJidd Manclrel. Firun: 13. iI • quid: actUta boldv mr ,...u disci Df ~ thicknels and .;.,... wbida are covered. on one Me of the .riff paper witb .-dpapu., pmet, carbanlll.dum ....

cunIetiIb in all di:ffeMllt siu pit&.. Thac em be :for poIiM.-

inl out comera. small screw head., sighb and ot~r 11 pUUI he-

lore Wuinr; .L.o for removing- rIlIt and pill" .mel unevell placeI, do;". • wood.eriulJ.r quick ad thorDup job.. By attiq: the papm diac. u IiIowu It "b," Ficu:re 13. it em be fon:ed into • bole for rounttina nd poIiui,. the eel... The natu nil sprinw of the pper aad. the ceatrifupl force ~ the p.per im tight contact with .db md alp, anti nat. pits' or d.irt is I emoved in an Wtallt. or & mirror

La n.riaee can be put on with fine -earbonirulum or I:Uttldilh dilcs-.



I}. IF




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.... t"

~ ... ---.-.....-.., -- . ...

.... I I

• .) • 1 • ,

• n 'll 15 It \.'!I


Fig~ 14 B

- _.

put' dcatal imtJ"WDeDi:St Haw often baft you .,..oadertd about the ~pe and. finiab of the loctiq lus sbouIdm in a rifle reo!iVCT 1-IlllPibini _\Itt. minor COItinc about a ,wl'r would have ,bowed it to you iDltantlf,t IS UU'1!11 • IBID,. odter WHIercut:. .00 i~out of sight'·

p~1 A pair of c:o~ plien ( .... hat the ~L!tariat ~ "bveesen'~) IS ,nnJ. .... ble for pickin, up ...an a:lews, pans. .d ~rlo", A heal mirror witfJ. a bole in. the center W111 enable you to look into portions of a . IUIII• irrtt:nua1 a:onom)' you never expected to ~c you can look down tile barnl from the mual.e with the breech dORd if fU'I wiJh. Get the lip.: in front .f YOUt rc8ecting it cIowa the band witb tbe mirror u JOU peek tbrougb the bole... Drill a bole ia

&OJ pm!Ill mirror and try tbiL -

A ....tl carborundum. ltoDe or • chf!rty burr Will mrevler elimi-


I!UIte spot anDl!aling-you~ R: ready fat the drill in .'bcU! thirty ~ onds. Figure 15 ill lilt rata catolll • acrewel riV'Cr &lot in a brobn o-f Krew--takes only a minute to do and the· .:&eN II tbm turned out IIIleJllf ... pie. tt Fipre 16 show. a .22 wibre barrel bdD,Jt erownPd with. bud~shaped carbonmdum. Imd Arbma mOllJlUd


pm Tb; hammer motion of the special head before mentioned. is ".fu1 in • vanety of wa:p-for lipt ri'¥dinc of ,in. pec:n.inl Jere.. -


lO :fill up bola in b.rras. etc .... ucI • thousand and one otben. ODe

of it. molt impo:c taat uam is that [lj pmciuciDl' • beautifully m.ttCd 11l1mce 011 Baht ramp" top of blrrel.. or even Oli :aeeeiver. Thh Is dac:ribed in .& later chapter.

It would ~ possible to ZJJ on aimOit indefinitely uamin& the u.s of deaw instruments in gunSIDithlnr-but ~ mwt stop fDrQet:iule. For a &nod while I used the dmlal m&iae principally for mattinll

fig. 17

Fr, '5 Fig. U;;

and for drillia..c small hol~ and I am indebted to Dr. E. W. Harper. of W. ttrtowll, S. Dot for int rOd ucinl· me to ib greater pa .. tbLlitiea. Dentistry is one D f the highest brandies of scientific mechamC!a .nd me IU.1t It the bench may, by using his bead, lam much from the man in the laboratory.

SPECIAL HOME MADE TOOLS ~ ne pn.s.mitbt rt'quiri_.

• tool not regula-rly mad-c and soldt usually make. what he needs for the job at hand. There an.. momJveI'.. nWllmJ1ll toob used .almost C()nstantly th.t he WI'I have to make or do with 0 utI Among these 1m, be mentioned split ~re'W"driverL Mate these u shown in Fi pre 17. Eicht inche5 is a t"Onveni-tnt lent;th, and handleS are not necessary I neithe r need they be hanlen~d ud tem:pered, as they are used on lr for holdinc the SCi ew wh iIc IW1:Ldl it into a hole that cannot be '"-C:h~ by the finpn. Mab them up in aeveral .... to fit mOfit ICte1nI used ia IllIUt selectinl' d riD. mel of the nearest aiR for ~ une. Male the split :about I 1/4 inchs lonE with I bacbaw b 1 .de h.vin~ the (tsn" .e:raund off the sides of tutla. Shape point as Ih.own with the nth. il iil~. Half I dozen !pUt 1O't wd riven in • box thlt La cui lv ~Dle .re I real convenienr.e.

CHECKTNG TOOLS: The 8IIIIItr:ur KUllSIDith win nquire at teet two tooisl 'Wh ile th e :prof=ional Wl11 \Vadt 'half a doRa Or 1DOn! in ftril'JUl mRS and culL So ID&DJ dlfhrn:tt p.tt-er ... have ~ deseribed in outdool' mapzines hi recast yean th.t one I, puu::led .. to whlch type to seI~ :and l-=:trn tn..... Fer hi! it ~n that none of them ,,"11 do even pa..me p:MI work for the rani. raw 1Je.


Pmer. Oadina it an art, just h&e sculpture. or rollin&' Bull Dur-

hm,. or nm.ning over ptdatrians. It bas to be lamed. Given the tinat medinl tool. ever made de aJD&teur will find than .. awkward .IS his first pair of skates, and wnl swear ~ ]deb ha.vm. th~

tools are worthlf:8S. .

.AmI ri&ht here- I want to d ig:ress for _ mODle:nt. 'ntb thiul' ul blaming: one's lad: of skill on the toola II: why • lot of folb neter learn to shoot. Th~re ne9~r was • PD turned aut br any reliable factory t:Iu~,t W'Ouldn~ t hit 8Ome"1Vhere :La. the: neip 'borhoocl 0:1 when it wo held. Tber~ is :I. type of indi yidual who ill of Ii nervous temperament~ mel wbo cannot be suited. I hue & friend who is a plato] ana ttvOlver fan. Nr:ither Colt nor Smith &: Wcaon ~ made • run that was exactly rigbtt :fer him. One ~ the lUll will be sbooti:q low ~ mother tim~ high; &pin ignition is poor. A1 ..... ys there il a perfect .alibi in the PDt to aceount for th.e POOl wbootine Another ma! tab th~ 1Ilme. gun Pld m.1:r: good ICOre!I wi tb itmaket [lO d~re.Dce-the damn ~n is DO good.

TIaP8~rs 2 re Also p rnae to blame it Dn the IUD .. Elther the stocIE



it too Itni£ht or too eroobd, or it hu too lQuch pitch or Dot ft1OUIh. 'I\ey weu out their lUlU with continl.al a1 tlntiom ··niainc the JllttuDtI utd limilar mperititiou; they bankrupt tb~m.tWl w,;... DeW cum. aad immediately stllinc- them at a heavy ]oss;: yet: they newel leam to IhoJ.t. The man who is to Dnwtituted that he- Wl11 break ript down and admit that maybe the man who bDilt the: gun me. jUlt • little somrthirlg about pnmakin g .. is vet, Iib1:r to mb IIIOSf any PIt out and bust his share of blqerocb~' or baa: hit mare of furred or fatilend pme Practice is 1:Ii5eIlti:d to ,pcd Ihoatidg. The man who practica coastantly with • poer gun. or an iII ... nttiaC KWI Wlll be • far better mot than the one who trim out ami dDcards • clozm or to • year, though the I~r may b1Jm more pGRer. The fact iI a man has to handle and shoot • po. • IQOd while before -= CUI rail,. say whether it Drs, Dr nct--anc1 .bout niMty-niae per

cent. of the bird. who bellyache about their lUlU don't we them ImC enoU£h to pt aclJuainmi with their good Dr hd points..

So it is with chaml too~ or any other toot. YCquirinC reaocuhle .Kill to u-. The amaunt of time you spmd lumina" 10 UIe them rna .... a lot more di5clOiCl: than the type of toob you h~ Chapter 12 of tm. t.ook is iDtmdM U • mmplm oyurse in de eautials of chcddng:; and if you will follow tile inatructians liven tbacin roo mar latJ!:r daicn Iny kind of tool you pleasrl and vou1t be .ah1e to 'I.e it.. Wlu.t you mow about chtd::ing is what COWlb rdOIt.

The tooh I mall dm:ribe Wtlt introduCf'd to mr .~nriOft by JaLn DWeiJ. who used. te make rtocb in the Hoftmu plmt-and • better stncbn.ht, or • more pdnstUine -woRman than Jobl1., I nr:vft spIC!' 10 find. Thne tools have &iven. the bat ~ltl M ":1 ia. .,., handL Maybe thIEf won't in]1JU.1"L But .. I haw.:: hied .hoot ewery And I have eftr heard 'Of. my MIt _'¥ice ... that ",... ml" up this


type 01 tool and UAIlf TO un n-tben, if you. find better tool.. th.ere'. 1lDtbiD, oa earth to stop you from dunpo-. Your.au woallt ]ean you. 011 that· aa:oun t.

FJcu~ ] 8. thmn ttaet toOl, and I bent eIClpc!metlt fil!. "A" .. the line spaar; "B" is the V-tool er deepeninl tool with. wlaich .... diamonds au pointed uP. "C" is • border cutter seldom Deee.ldT but eomeri mes _ ~ ana· 'lID" is the file Jor finUbia&: up the dielIIOftds.

All these molt but the file may be made of .5/32 iMh .rill rod.

The V .. tool may be mad ~ of 3/16 inch rod if pl'mned.

Cut. piece of rod about 8 inches looL beat the end cherry rat Del fo~ it Rat, ~n hend to the a.q1c: shown. Sit. it up cardull,





Fig. 18


with a :file; cut the ilOOVC in wulerside 'YCtJ' ~ 'IliaC a ~. er~. bilit Idee needle file. Use. 3-sq .. re eKlP"meDt file to cut • teet:h~ lod note that tbGe In cut .... the ada of me tool, aad. .aM: £rOIl, the bottom. Each of the twa ecI2es .f the lIDe Ip.:a' r. ~ 10 tIlat the tilt; 'bcinr t'l1nIed in dia:;lItlr durin&; the cuttlaL .. teeth a..te form both on sides and bottom edp. The teeth .., 1M: almost verti~ or they mar lean fonrant or back Iljahtly~ I bat: .u dane kinds. as iUWt wur:k. better on lOme wooda mel lOme .. atbersl Generally I find that the tooth which Ilopes hick IDWU'd lower edge :follows • line easiu1 and cuts with leas tend,mty to t.atch and jump. Alter cuttini the teeth. Oft both aida. heat the cuttel" mel bright cherrr red and dip it in water j then dip La J imeed ail aDd S_ 011 the oil once to draw the taDpt:t. Tbia leoa it pleait'J bard for pori. work. yet 10ft enough ., tha.t the· teeth may be toucbal up a bit with • :6Ie what dull

Bdon: cuttiDa the teeth rub the two edges 01 cutter 011 • l:tlcx:i: of wood and meuure the d iltana! 'between Uaa carefully W'iI:h Ibarp dividen. Then after the teeth arc filedt CUI: a few lina and Me Mw man1 mey ruD to the inch. If the cutter is tOO wide. dtell oa: bGdL .des sliahtly uaol the cut it naI'11I'W"ed stJflicieatly md ~


the teed. before umpninc. The Ii. ctlb bot .. ted far VI.-riouI lftllea of wood i. cliseuad ia a..- 12.


TIle lize of the ftetb. of • cutter l1li., ft!J' :&om t 6 10 24 per iadL Hard wOod. without )alP Opal para it euler to cheekt and & 20 or Z2 poi.t elmina edge i. "'"Y .• ~ 16 to 18 points ..... tG worl: bat on DlDIe opeB IIU1 wood.. II It .. cmneaimt ,.., to ICCUntel, 1p8Ce the teeth 61e a few on .:rap Ito« for prKticc III1d measure them. then space them by CJCI pnknbly under a jeweJelI maptlfyial III."

I In; heard • lot thout til tee and lou r 'row spacera, and while ehe idea toUDd. splmdid... I have Jet to see ,uy mcb that would wnrk. lor 11& rn (:CIurwe in IUCb • IP&Cer tlle teeth DaUlt be cut ern. .... ,., while the aide tm:b DID he cut only on the two row tool. ~ the side teeth are the oncs I will OlI1t;in-ue to use until sameone thuw. lilt! the error of mr ways.

The V-tool is forged out to the map! shown, ud filed to about 1/8 iach thick or las, then the edae beveled back about 1/4 inch • .. miDi • sharp V. This edp ebould ha'\t IJ1 uale of about 26- ...... or & trifle le. tban the -&lei DO a 3 Iquart file~ Cut the IeEtil GIl die aida just U JOU did. on the liner. but JUab. tba. 'VU, &ae • iDe u you can cut'----acI tpace them if ,.,.mil ID they will be I.9IIl 011 both IidfS; otberw.ue the eelp may be TIIaed. After this tool • hardaIed and tmlpemi, the teeth auld. he toIIcbed 'lIP IiPtIr on the DIes with an Mbnas .dip I~ to Cftn t:heia This toll KIm$ to "WOrk better arul be more usilr coq,trolled after it it bwb. in and dullrd. • triBe.

The bonier cutter OIta • I!IOrt of RYtrse bead-a thin V line, a "icier U line, mel uothl!r thin V line.. Pel"lllDllly I do not .4mi J1! ~ bonIen- DB cbeciinl and RIdoDi \lie thiI toot.

The border tool mUst be toothed ICfOIS tbe bottom~ 'liace theee tDa ather way of fomina tfeth on the middle ~n ; but thae teeth IbGuId nm dJl&O".u,.~ rather than IJtnight .c,.... at .bout the _"le of 'the teeth oa • min file-and. their .Ji.pe Ihould. fGllow the teeth of • CJ"'IJ.-C::l1t MW, mth~r than those of I riJaw.. Teeth should iI}so 'be cut on the sidea, aiDU1.ar to the line Ipatef. tbae teeth eerr aponcllag to 'l'ltoR rut acrosI the bottom.

Aay 01 the three took .bovI: described may be- made In 1111 size"red.. SQuare up the end of sbmk by filiaa or lrindilt& to .. paint amd drive 011' • mm~n :file handle of I .- that fib JOur bmd well The length of tool. from ferrule to point, should be from. five

to .. Indaa. . ••

The beat .file ia made from an r:aeapmlCat file. or & 6-incb die-tink.

.t'l J...quare .needle file. The acapement ,Ie- is bese, To ~ the file without bI UDunr the teeth you wUl acecl • maU guaatlty of the Qe-budminl compound dac:ri1ied im Chapter 21. ~ thr poiab. of the &Its with thia mixture amd. let it dl]' tlowly far • day. T1Ha heal: the point dull ~ red. md quL:kl, plUI it qaimt ,. JJicce of'raa It ~, vet)" quietl, m. rwo I1eatl.will probablJ.1 he meecled. Let cool, aad. -.pIn coat with the b&nicnilll ~


aDd. let it dry. Then bardm br bcatiaa: tht point bript red. and

dippin& mto cold wam-" The anDpound mllJ thm be bruUed aut "'th • file careL Thill leave. the file very h.ar& and brittlei ICI we it all~fuU, tG pnwmt bn:akinr. The COJDpGUld is iIII!d memJ' to preveat' the htat from fonmiq ,usea1eu on. the eclpI of the b:etb.

~~ 18 .. E shows an illFDioU5 cbeckins rool daipcd and made by IIr .. Jobn Cl'Owe of St. JDRph~ Mi.,uri. while FilUM 18-F abo ... • mod ifiation of the aD If: tool w ha.:h I made after .mnl .Mr. CI'Q1ft".. This tool, by reason of the sLn,lle edp cutter may he ... apm .p very aceu.rattl,. The pide i8 pi",?ted at the ~. with ... n cmlaprin, which farc:es the edge of I'llde below cuttinl edze normally_ but pennib the curter to be: P"~ (lOWrl. onto. th~ wood __ inlt the tension of tht ",riag. The pid.e. thu~ I1des ~ the last cut. bepin, the cutter in line aDd. parallel 'WItb It. ~~ one tool ;. ued boI:h for the ,nUmiol.ry lPacirlK' and for the linilh~nl of tile 4i • .....uJ., mel docs a DOd. job. I found Mr. C~e I devu=e _ lI~e .. kwaJcl at Ant. .. r .1m m:ustomed. to -...inl luoICr mota. TbiI ot coune g. G:Ily • matter Df habit. and whit we are used to. n.e Ianpr cuttu' ~th narrow!T blade gave IDe better l'CIultl; IIid while DIll,. tUDe ana ute can allow the pcJ8Iibilltles of • clJeckiftE tool. I would :DDt be 8UTPnacd if this should make l conWII of me in the

~~dML ~


ham h.o-. blad~ buctea ami b:I'rIp« in oil. Kni.. baTia ..





Fig. leE

Fi F

beat' bl.da of .,..riOUJ lisa llil.pet are very handy 1ft trfmmfnc

ap cWIiaalt places in *" 1DOnica.


BOTTOMING "'TOOLS. Ordinary chi .. aad cam.1 cb.iIela alta will IIOt ft!Kb into a d-eep cut to clean out the bottom auriece ID"OOIk and. CTtII. A bottumlnl tool ahould be made flUID d.rill rod~ lurpd and filed to ahape 10 meet tbe- requlremmtl of me job. Typical battomial tool, are Ihown in FlIUIe' 19.. They IIIIJ be Illy Ihape iDcij .. catetl b, the mttins you want to do, and. ma, be made of d n1 1 PJd.

ODOOOC!fj, Fiq.19

Heat the md cherry red and quickly clamp ,it in the Tile, then upen the end to desired siu by ha mmering. Two hU.b may be fMIIIQeltsary. Then heat .. d shape the th ank as desired.. file to .ape, b.n1- m.. and temper It light straw. The edaea should then be sharpenr.d 00' m oilstone.. Squ:u~ the &bank. and. fit Jl~ huiles. Make...a bottDmiDK tool wnaxver )'Oil feel ambitiout--tbl!re-s no .uclJ thiq U' hoinr too many of thfDl.

Special aped chisel • .arc sometimes made by DIia.l a piece of. drill rod to tb ~ desired ['fJotour. Very &DOd SDJIII IL'GUPI are gaM ill

th~ taaDner. Their QUality .. improved if foraed a little before llu.pbq- up. T=per ia on at light Itraw, .. hOne ed&el carduIJ,..

SPECIAL RASPS AND RIFFLERS, for wood ad metal oftaJ. sa" time and Iabar. These ihould be made from. bigh &r&de 1001 steel.. the tll:tb carelully tiled in after a little fol'iPDII to mab the rraia mDre COIIlpaet, an«I then hardened. La ail -:It briaht red heat. Draw ue temper in a clear .. 8am-;. bat draw it jUlt .. little .u .... ibJe-jwt enou,h to tab the .rtreM ou.t of the met ... mel a'lOid blUkiq the t«th off. CIo1l in water tAe instant • ""' 1M. ttmw udar appears.. PiPR 2D almws a couple of quic-l1y nwIe riIIert


thlt are '9Uf bandy for mugbi~1 oil metal. md ot:hen may be made .,. shape 10 suit the job. Tea o.r twel ve teeth per inch will be about rlKht.


~:fon: tryina: hl be] d a barrel or a .fini.h.~d stock in the vile, make

• pair of VISE .. BLOCKS like Figure 21" S.". these from bard\ItOIJId about 1/8 inch tb ;d:~ and tI ue heavy felt (1/2 jnch thick) to thel r fact!. The notch ride! over the. sliding bar of the movea bh· jaw1 and the felt ab50lure1y pr0rect5 the finish 01 parb and p~vents it hein go marredt yet the vise can be set up very tipt if neceslBJ)'.

Also make FALSE VISE-JAWS for holding pill meta1 parts without ma ning, by bend inl pieces of beavy sheet bralS or ~opper to h an, on the vise-jaws. F alse j a l¥'5 of lead or babhit are also ve 1"1 Uldul at times. These are ~uilV ma.d e u felloWI: U nKrt"W the

'Ig. til

ville 10 the j IWS ate about 3 IS iaeh apart, Get. lump of stiR clay -.d pack. it apj nst the opming at each end, h:tting it extend like • box &bOUt 1/4 inch lIbove onet,_, and IICfOBII the jaw about u: inch from the edge. Also pack under the openiq- betwtm the jaws. This forms a mould into which the lead. i. pouRd.. When cool. loosen the -rise aU !lid,. and lift it 0\1 t; east another one in the same way, and you have one for Itlch viJe.-.jawr With dteR lead Jaws. heavy prc:s.t'Ute Olaf be applied to bold parts without damaging them; moreover, parts that are so ,hQped that the rqular vilt-ja WI will not grip them, are easil y held ri lid in these lead. ja'W!.-

n.e avn.p man would Le stumped at the problem of boldinl

• .lhoti!l_D trigger cuardt for example. without bcndiDi: it in ~hl: 'rite~ The pnsmitb lhapes up two pieas of wood to fit the shape of KUrd., and futen, the end. to.cctherl mlting the false vise shown ia FilUm 22. The KUI.M i. placfd between the 'Wood. jaws which are then damped in the rise. md. the gua ret h~cI irmly for filiDlt The • me idea ma.y be I.dapred to any thin pa rts~ JIld ill prtl~·ularl)' uadul tor filinil' Rl.t :$P rinp w hidI migb t be dam.red, it ItraiKbtaed out' In the viae..

SCREW VISES: Cuttiq down a amall iefeW' to ¥err ntt


lenlth it'. bard job. It cannot be heLl ill the ~I DOt in. the ~ Take a pice: of brill 1/2:K: 2 inch~ .nd Uout 1/16 inch thick. Drill and tap a hol.r: near oae end lor the screw. Tum in the lCJ'ew the requl red distance and grind off the pro] win I m.dThe th read will be clear to the extreme point when it i. turned out. For k:rewa 1/8 inch or luger whim mUlt be filed, run a narrow saw cut from the end of the: brass into the hole. Turn the ICfeW iD the required distance md clamp the brass strip into the




Fig- 25



~ ed~~ the n..wcut givina: R tiglll rr1P to ~ the ..:tew fl'Olll turning, nil kiDd -of • ~'sc:rew vise-no is also handy ~l' roundiDe; off rhe mel (J f a hcadleaa screw.. for use in un used si£h, t s:«W' bola in barrel. tanc. etc.

PITCH GAUGE: Euy. CODlm.QR steel sqUalC and riret, weld Dr brue a four-foot .u·jp of ,teet in line with the mp of Ian&: blade. Br holdiq; the abort 'blade against butWlaI:e of ridc~ witb ehe blade toucbinl lpettun lipt at a point in line with center of aperture. the diatancc from blade to £ront :sieht It point on bladr. lmmMtatdy above front sip tl PRI me pitch of, the butt.

FLAT DRI LLS for Oottominl, countcrborinc, etc. Figure 21 mows vuioua typea of elt d rills easily made tor apec:r.1 jok. In ccmin .her.hom in "h icb orieinaI parts are bent or welded. the .:rew hoi. are som.etbneI squeezed or filed.... StlJld.rd drilll and CIDIU1termna problbly win not -=:rve to .open gp or countcni.JY: I. UPI'" hole. u rhe M:te'W'l are lilrdy ee he buurd size both [n .bank a:ncl hed. A 8at eDUllltenink ar counterbore may be made from


d rill rod. Cut I. piece two or til ree incbea lone. j UIt • triti.e lar~r

tban the hole q to be. File or turn the pilot to requi red size I and. fil~ cuttinC ~1tI on. aida Ot m.! _ required. Harden. elmw at dark Itra w color ~ and. \lie in tbl! breast 'Or band. drill For bottominK iii IIJlIll bole m bar"l~ use stock the same size u the d rill. Drill hole a UMt diltance with twist d rUI, then use • flat drill cutring only on me end to .:rape 01lt the bottom. Flat drills may be made in any.size jor driUiol holet in wood.. Taper them sWpI y roW"&l"d tht: Ih &ok. and shape the poi nt into a ",ilk V I bereli nit the cd ca from oppoiite sides..

The DRILL JIG .bawD in Fi~M 24 i. WfJrth ita weirht in 1014. Th.l'! bert way is to make .. pattern,. 0 r have one made ill a patte rn I hop.. tllen have die frame cut at a found ry. 11 u,binp removable from me hcadmxk are made to fit the different size drills you. will ordiaril, want to we. The hole in head a.n.d m1 ItOcl: abould be IICCUr&b:ly mxhined. and the hole ia tail stock fitted with • b-Ulhmg to n.ke a rquIar tapered lathe cmter I with cup point. The use of this ji& to r d.rfllinl SpriDgficld guard sc rew holes and aimili r work is mentioned later on, Inet explained fun,.

An adj ustahlt d riUine j i, .may be made at IIDiIJ l OOI5t as shown in Figure 25. This ia I piece of .2 x 3 in~h T-blr. with the top planed true and level.. Holes an; drilled a.t 2 htcb intervals 10 that the tail Itoek may be let III: :Uly desind distance from the driU~

Tbe CHECKING CRADLE~ fat holdina: stocEs while: beLDI che:eked,.. it d scribed aa.d ill uttn ted in Chapler 12.

TEMPLETS &I1d their 'UICS will be mentioned in Cbapn:t lOt and elm:vhrre. ] r Is .dvisable to haft tnDJJlets 0 f butt sbJlpe5l aI., for mapzinc manias,. and. .imilar U!i£I that will be encollDtered mot'e Dr less frequently. A aumlRr of d~nt tmlp 1.tes .;r.d their


uses arc shown in r IKU" 26. To IDAke IU3 accurate templet for a D'lp2iae ~t. for exampi!, taU the: old: ina and coat the wood at'OIlM the mortice with 1.,.b1ack m' aiL Pre. dowa 011 thiI • piec of d,. Q JtiI white PIpD'. Jnune the paper audullJ dd. cut Dut on the outline left by the blld:~ Pab: thiI '10 • piece of


lillie. bra. about 1/32 inch tb~ and fit! the brua e&nfully to tblpe.. Try it oitfn in the mortice in old stock t UDdl it j IUt fits mudr .. Now file it .bout 1/32 it1cb. lIDaller all round-this to live you a muKin (]f _my and to dlow for thiclmna of pendl point or 8eftDer when marking 8roU:Qd it. Do not make the ICJeW holes full .Bet but .loa. b! the; r exact cearera on the temp]ct and. drill them I {16 inch. Lay the templet 01\ the .toci:: 10 the cmm- lim: ahows eh rough these frolaL, and drive a brad in to eacb hole to ke!p the taDplDt in pIle!: wbii.! markin,.. The brad hole then lives you


CLAMPS.: For attachinK horn, 9ony. [wry or olher" .forend tips, there are two special types of clampi known .. the lone Cdamp, and the Y -clamp or fo rk: clamp, Figure- 28 A shows the lOUR CdllDJ1, wb.ich is made of I piece a i 3/bS /8 inth ('DId rolled atal beated. and bent 81 shown, aDd IlIU: end drilled and tapped to Feaive • standi rd 3;a u:u:b ~p-pDint set screw 3 iticha. lme- These e).mlll may be mad~ any len,&th requindt .. that ODe std ill irt+


-ned. in the mapztae rdortic.e oi • Sprin:Kfidd~ K.UIU or li"';l'r

Itoct, wb.lle tbe: 1Ct-tc:re w it ligbu:ncd ~ apiat t1H black of Um or whJrrever is u.M. ior .. fo~nd. tip. Tbil dlD1p mar a&o be lUCCI Oft the Lac: by booking the end iato the mapzine moI't:ia! an one sidr. A piece of heavy leather .hould be used lJ.rlder end Df damp to prevent d.amaging the wood.

The Y or fork d IlDp is abo made from 3/4 x 5/8 inch cold rolled itedl bent t'O the shape: shown., the distance bctwem ceo ter of pronp

belal about 2 1!2 incbes. This clamp is usaf. for aettiadx.~read tips on stoeb having no magazine morti~ auch as the ~3

Springfield. A Itrtlni' vi8l! is required. for uaiBa thia clsmp. the

Small templets ttl serve also as depth gau ges Play be made to it clamp being slipped. o"u the iorcocl wirh one lq OD either sith: i the reeei ver mortice at various pcintsw :savi ng JUU .a lot of time DY it i. then placed in the vise. the j aWl of whic::h prell the lep tigbdy enabling: you to cut down to the dept" indicated bl~ "templet witlto1.lt agai rut the sides of forend., after which the set--acrew it tiPtmal. £tequrntly trying th~ action. SlIm a templet or gauKe is Sb(JWR in Skdch Ct Figure 28. mow. the butt (lamp with which. every Figure 25 "a." This one gives the depth and shape of extreme gwwoitb" familiar. This is used larply in stockillit sbotlEUDS and forwa rd end of uc~ivr:r mo rtice, The round !ide u struck en a tinlle !hot nAn.. The ~od p ieee! are 1/2 K I 1 J'4 inch cold rolled 5/8 inch radius, By means of this, one can go nrht mead asd ateei, with 7/16 holes drilled. in end.. In.to these place two laaK cut away wood at thi IS point un til the si de wings 0 f temple;!: rest on 3/8 inch hoi ts, IJ1d long ~nGlleh to reach from the front af &£dan lOP of the $OOd blank.. to the bun of Itockblankt The distance between the roU Ihou.!d

MUZZLING CUTTERS: The crowning of .. barrel muzzle: be &j. inches. Ii long bolts annat be I!C:Ured tUe iroll tods lDd is often puuHng 10 tbe amateur who hIS sawed. 01 a barrel Slid thn:acl both e.adJ for mut&. When placin" duup aD the work. doesn t t knew bow to get the mu:tz.le trued up square, w.ith edge tighten up the outs an opposite sidfS a little at a time. to equa1iu netrly rounded. In Cha.pter 24 I have described a simple method the pressure.

of 1.PPlnr j t true by means 0 f IIaduatcd Slze& of b r.us balls., The Sometimcs when using a h.md. drill it ~ diflicult to j uclge wbea gunsm i th who. b. frtqutnt calls 1:0 ell t of and e rewa Kn.g barrels., the d rill is startin&" .t • rigln anale to the aurface of the workfor example,. will find the aimpl~ cutter ,mown in Firure. 21 • eea- drill iDe the 1Cre'W' bole in end of pistol grip, Eo 1'. example. This vmi~1 for speeding up thll! job and T~ ueln r COlt. The blad e C2R be o'Verccllle by fi rst drilli~g a hole the required aize ia. • block is made of tool .teel 1) 16 inch. thick, witb cuttina: ~ces beveled of hardwood about 1 inch thick; haft SCIlDCCnr bold this tightly 00 oppos.in! &id~. The edge mould be aped aad 'bt!veled. and me Api nst the atoc.k with tne drill thmu.lb bole in block, whic:h will

S 1 pide the drill :straight into the wud:. If un.lde to d rill the block

pin holes drilled airel which the blade i. hudencd .and'drawn Al str.ightt mIle up • number of· small blocb; and tde the drills dirk straw (:0] 0 t ~ then the Stela KJOulid tat and true b, ruboinl likely to be \lied mort to soon: shop hanDI 8 drill .rca. and ha..,e on an oiJ stone, and the cuttini( ed.ps wlumed I The pilot is &JIG the holes driUed.. Th ree or Mur holes of different AUt may ~ of tool steel, turned [0 :sbap-= and the- end .totted on miDi.nK machine i drilled in each black.

then. it is hardened, ground and polished to exaWy .300 lncb.. II A $till more accurate meth ad is to make: a pa.ttern and have it is attach ed til rhe eli tting blade by two small SC~ u shown in alit in i ron like Figure 294 The bottom of tbit· eastinl it then CUt4 The handle is then made from mm:mne atedt dotted and at- Iu.rfaced in me lathe, and a 5/8 indt hole drilled dear mroup eached to I he blade. To use place the barrel in vise with muzdf Uld ~ to sit-=. The upper mad of bob: is threaded for 1/2 51 i gil tl y Jowered, so that no ell ips may wort iu against tbe pil~tt' inch. Now Ill8h several steel bushinp to fit IDlOOthly into the and rum by hand, Fi nub by lappi ng inner rUle of cut true W ith hele .iq cutinKt ani leave the uppe:r end of buab.iDIl larlC aoup a 51S j; brasa bal1 t as described in Ch &pter 24. to th read into the threaded portion of hole, Tbll! bvshi "P art 'tlP!n

B rw balls, for lapping and trueing burd muzzle., should be d riUed in the lathe, with va ricUi sized · .. rills. Eaclt bulhinc uould obtained in the followinl sizes.:-3j8, 1/2, S/1 and 3/4 inch di- be lhaJPCd with the &izc Gf ita bole. A jil af tbU mrt wilI!Ipad ameter. Get at Least two of eac:b sl:l.e In case you spoil OT lOBe one. up ... ll d rilliDl jobl ani awi. clrillinl holNi at an ande- I t mUtt Drill a little mere than half way through each bill with a No .. Z9 be: held with the b.ue tidtt qaimt· the work. aod the driL umI rw lst d [iU I and. tap the hole 8 x 32; mrn m a !Crew 1 i.ncb _ thollld be Ion; cnoup, to reaeb. tbroop • hole the iequired cliataace..

cut oil the head, an4 US! the screw u I. shank for hoUine. 58


t he em rer for th e [U&ro screw hole!.

Fi~. 2.7

Fig~ 29



PII. 31



MATERIALS AND METALS NECESSARY MODERN gunsmithing hu taught the deairabLIity of numerous

lIOall pans 001 formerly used on fadorJ made &rmI. Many of these wi II be d escrihed in detail in later chaPkn.. . Si ace they are lugeIy made DJ special material I brief discussion a f some oj the taw stock which thr ama teur Dr professional may require from time to t:ime seems to be in crder,

Tbe common or ;llrden variety of eerner hatdware lItorc hu little 00 offer In. this line; the place to buy materials is from :firnu ~~. ina in machin~ shop IUppliest or wb ich several aM lilted in the Appendix. It is 'Wen to UQderstaDd exaedy what you require 1M:fore placing an order=-beeeuse ~Irdware men an: not mind readen.. aDd aJ. a rule they mow little er10Up about .fi reatml. So mate you r instTUctionS defil1ite] ad avoid disappointment md dela)'S.

Wb.ile I un not in the business of han ti lin I material for the trade~ I receive many req uests from amateur guosmitbs to supply

theD1 wi til thinp they cannot buy locally ~ god III thDugh r his neces- 1 f /1'; ODt If!" WT sitltea • trip to a supply house [ have alw.ys end-eavore:d to serve tbse chaps to tht!! OOst 0 f my abilityl---but it ta.l:es- might)· close gunsinK sometimes to decide what they wan t, or w hether they know -and 10 en, WJ.ate'yer YOUT fancy in inftntiw genius may ·con w

tbemselyes. H ~R is a lVpiclll IeqU~St received a few days si nee : ~"t, you'n probably find tome use fo r Shelby tubi net, and you'll ., Pltal It tuJ tit; a pi.t:,t' of "'~ I t" !ti",. 1/4 i fie ~ t hiei i.l7f.d iar!l' just u sur-e ly find the rubtnl av ail ab Ie in .. size Sl1i ted to your pur .. mo.,,, lor (J. X rag 6;Jrrt.l Datil. hi pOR. Sight covers. and hoods. m.1lZZ1~ prolecton or tcImpions" \Yells

N ow how could I possib ly know what to sen d this man ? He mar under grip cap for spaR fmnt sight and numeroas others,

ha '" wan ted to ImI ke a swi vel bani tQ be loca.ud at the same paint Detal1rd irutruCticml for .DUm I:' such parts will he found ir1 where the military swivel band wu orie;inaDy plaad; and for that ChIPter 24. It must be mnembe~dl however" that since II10It .... tter, the rj II e and ca rblne h ave their lower bands differenrlr h. rrel. are tapend tIJ e hand must h.~ .• :dmilar tapll!f whl!n finisMd. located.. 0 r, he may nave wanted, to make a band 10 provide I Tubinl will S1and a aood deal of stretching, Dr it may be earned ftQ' sigh t: bm [)Ver Or:II! or the rwc .stJe1lV holes in top of barrel to die ad tl.p!r; 10 it iI ,dvis;ah 1e 1:0 order it :it tri lie IID~ r insidt Aalia be may have had in mind a collar to ease 0& the abrupt jump- dan tile finished band it to be" For"barnl band, !elm tub in;p:: to

54 fir 't11e barrel twO or th ree i nehes ah~ad of t be location of hand.

011 from receive r "ould~r tQ barrel. "N'bat he should. hhe aid unless the taper i. very Iud den ..

... • "-a band Jor the K.rag harrel to be fitted $0 DWly incites fIOlD TIe ~It material for swivels, roDnetrinA: IInb for .liqa. and the reuiv-er"'-the.n I would have bad something to lila on. On W lib js BESSEMER STEEL RODS. These come in four foot other hand. had he been orderina: i rom the 8upply dealer himselfl lmrtba and OJ!t· little. The rods are lig;bd y oopperm. 10 prc"mt th ls plan l'ould have been a poo r one, !Ii:nc~ the deale r probably rust" and this must be scou red off with If!rDe'1 clotb before uti"l. wouJdn't have a Krag barrel to measure, .. ouldn't have known Bnsem~r rods are stiff and strong, bur designed for cold bendinc. anybody who b ad one ~ would n' t i:novr a K rag barrel from a 'V int~a r They anne in sizes from 1/16 to 11/64 inch by 64th.;: and from barrel if he met 1 em both ira ehun:ht and woul d n' t .:i ve a cuss W hethe r 3/16 to 3!8 inch by 32nd.!_

he fill-ed rh is fi men cen t a rile r or not. lor: iBn ~ t hard to set the 1/8 to 9/64th inch is tlu size for IW i vw and strap links. The calipers on ~ a ba rrel and measure tts exact d iamete r w here a band. 9/64 lrize i. an ~asy fit in a N e, 25 twist drill hglel wblch bale .t.o it to be &t~d-then the man who nUs· I he order knows what is fltl the pi vat ha r 0 f the di:!!tacb.able swivt:11 thus we mi..,. stand.rdlee wan'lcd. Dr somewhere near it. I men tion this merely as an illustra- on thi. SiR fo r all s1i1l1 fittinpi

lion of me importance of being ~"t"plidt when ordering smck. In the smaller szes Bessemer rod aLa makes IhVtId pins for .i,btl,

Hilling- mentioned BARREL BANDS~ we may as well start .. --

til ts discllS5ion wirh an curl i ne of me mate: rials from whicb the, m., althDUKh drill m:d is stronrer t aDd avaJlahle in I wide ranee of

are maclCa sizes.

That men rioned most oft:t:n m gun.:sm.i t hi Dg articles in magazines T\e smaller sizes 0 f D 1ULL ROD are UlCful in mamy .. ..,..

AfmH to be old ha.d:saw blades, Use blades if you want to they By Repine it on hand in a dozen or more liza one i. eQuipped to make mighty poor band!, and t~e steel does DOt tHe :a. Ifl'Od bl U~ make any pins needed on shott notlr:t. The 014 d_IIPd or blURn to match the barrels. A yard strip 0 f 1.1 16 x 5/32 mch cold rolled pin Ina,. he mea:nu-t.d by t:rting it in the ShE I ett drill pup mensteel will tee., you in band rna terial for quite a spell and won~ t[oned in Chapter 3; when JOU know rm .w.. it U: e:uy to try your

cott erer a quarter. MottOVa', it will blue tG matcb Un: barrel, stock of drill rod in the- pup ~~til you W I. pieee the: ame .. Heavy black. ~heet iron is about 2J good if you have some scrap! cut aB the lena;th needed for th.e pln~ round up me endi, .nd th~re of it, for a band should be d ressed to about 1/32 inch thick when JOU Ire. In I pinch I haye CUt 011 the end of I twiIr iri1l :101' • finished anyhow: and need he no wider tban 1/2 to 9/16 indl. pinl tryin.g; different clnU. until the rxatt tize was foW1d. It ~

Cold roll cd stee I bar 5tO(k. 1/4 x 3/S inch sq uare is good fa r the a nail or piece D f wi re all hoI1c: r I

lhrle block under the bRrrel to which the ends of band are £3!lt~ned.. Cold rollm STEEL IN FLAT BARS il used :foT the roIlDl for and into which. the sWivel screw is threaded, A toot or 10 of stock. ben d inc swi-n=ls and li~ and a few pia:a sis ar eigbt incha lone this size may I:IJfT1e handy to r tnt! ~f small pdgetl. .haul d be kept on hand -for th i. pU"I'pMf!. U Ie stock .5116 z t 1/4

Th~ best bands are made in C.:Jf' pi-ece ~ and the best material rnr Inehea U I form for swivel. ro take the government sling; grind or Ih. ~ is the round sea~less cold. dra-wn ~eel. tubing known eem- :fUr the .edps mnnd and smooth. A piece 5/16 X 7/1 inch wide iI DKrClally 81 Sbelby Tu bIng. ThIS material 15 also uaeful ror a the right size for linn to be used in Itnp! fittinl the dettcllable variety o~ othe r i ttms, be~nl perhaps the ~Cft ~erall y U~~ I ~f IIW'ivek. The makinl of these linb and liYivels it full, covered in aU mate rial to: the cunSnu th. Shel by TublD:r dijh n from plp~ III eh. ter 24.

thar the latter is made fI"(Jm e.at. stnck" bene al'1lWld man~n:I! and sWivEL SCREWs: The bat swivel &Crew is of COUTWe mad~ the edges brazed • or ~Id ed , m blDg, on the other hand, u drawn up on UI! lathe with tbl! kind of head requi.red.. 1 t ;. ,,"l~ hewth"?ugb dies and IS wirhcur v.:e1d OT seam. and. of "1"7."" smooth ev~ ever, ~ bne on hand a feW 5/16 incll hcxacon head cap tcrew~ ,nUl .. nd texture. It cuts nl~)y. tHe! I .good ~liah, blues ~lly S. A. E. standardl for the rush job.. GrmdinC the had round and by almost any method, and mar be bought In a WIde n.Jlie of SIzes, dn11iog it from lIid~ to side for the lWivei mates a hirty cood job. both diameter and.. wall thic:kntsS.. In tb~ 8UPPly catalol.be-fore me MACH·INE SCREWS: Only ~ru:e will DOW what roo t~re are rnur 5O~ld paps 0-£ Shelh}: rubl na Sl~ of 1V h 1m only a aft' likely to rr:q ulre in the way of small .c:re., but th~ follow!nr few need be CORSI d:-red he. rei ] t ~llgbt pay the reade r to IeCUre= a aizet I bave fRqum.tIy found "Mful. ·and would matlt kltep1n ry supply CltdOC HaliDg tb II male:n all ~Ot future reference. U a" • dozen or so of each :size on. hand bot' filiater !aead and eat Mad

fortUMtdy it D li!lrm by mJ flIide diameter and wall thickness. and in all.... '

dna we· ue mainly CtH1cr.m~d with the inai.de diameter, it hcomes • c:.e of ~":fiaer I N ilP', tiger. t~ In JOD1e •• the wall thic:kneu. is quOtEd ir1 B rit:i.h Wire Giup measure;: in othen. in fractions of



an inch. Here are lOme uses to which tbe -,tadow ,ius may be put.

I/~· on (outS~

• ....,...r-) 1 f 1''''

'W'T ( •• li ttllall:n_)

1 lJJ- OD! "/1 ,- WT 1 l/P OD.. III I"'" "W'T

1 1'''' on. 1; •• " WT 1 '-/I- aD.. 1/...... 1IVT

1 1/.- on. 5/1CIII WT 1 1/1"" OD~ '/llt W'T' 1 1/1· on .. 7/11l1li' WT

1 l/~" on. In.,.., WT

.... 1 ... 4 to lala4l!l .. ......... latar ... u. ..., pO! fn,M ".mt ram, fOl" SD:rIJI.d.Idd, Other ... co'lld .... I ...... fOI! ba.zTel.. of. -.rt.w • .t ...

} 'WUI mau .-wl~ baDd fo:t' .tmort uy qortllll'" 'bI.:ITa1 .~ .. ~.a: b'J 8fft'W OIra~~ forand.

} 1'01' baDdl .... ltb .. tvel .tud to be II(Jldere4 .... ba.rTel deal:! of tonn~. lOT mo. iIPOrttu .be barre.1&

MakeS :pta lft band tor bl'.u of Bpriallfllll!!lld balT'ill to Oo.VQ' :Dotcb ..n.ar remorlr.. orl~.l .1pt bUI.



II % :lit I ;I; II

• X ,I

• :J: '0 1& ~ ,.

, ;I: I' • :It 4. I lI: "

~ alMMllii -.I 1 h Iron 1I!nI •• : J'Ga wfl.l

nldam or nnv ban u .. h'I' bl M 11111 obi" ...... In I1i.B wmiL. RGlulld"-.4I Ih.a1IJd :Q .... 1M! a .. ~ & :111-. 11M. III GO'aJII .. ~ Itolat ar & ~i;.ratrlk ... t 1I.ea4

.BhD'RIa k u'"

You will n~d a few lat head wood !Crew'S from time to time in sizes ~rcm N.. 5 to No. 8, and in 1!I1 "hi from 3/4 to t 1/4 inI:b .. A f~ -Rat h!ad b"st screws may be kept for em~ncr l'epa1ts on !tnch. Sizes and. ]en gths should be .",md. AlllJa,.. u:ae iro!l WGDdSCTews in tan£! and Clther pam of the gun when steel 15 joined to wooct AND. 9 oval .. head j ron ~ood !Crew makn • lint

claD butt plate &crew" .

A few brads. nailsa etc."" always cbme in iood and snould be found




about en.ry mop.

ADHESIVES: FoT' cementillg horn to wood. the« i. nothint: equal m the old fashioned white Bake i!:1ue sold in psi nt stores and o:euion Illy in d rug stores. Beinl made from hoot. and hC)f·~.1 it ill perfett for this wotk. Brown or amber lue or stick Ilue hu not pro,-en aatislacmty. Pnpa:red liquid Id U! it all right TOt C'eIIIentinr sand piper to wood w'heeIs, and such jobt, bu.t don -1' 1tIC it where Itrenl(th .nd end u ranc:~ «R! rcquind ..

Du Pont l1oulthold Ct:mm.t I, • pyroDlin camp3und, aa4 1be


tat cold ~ I ha\'~ ever:&em... It mmr.s in 2.5 a:nt tubes. IIId

• her d rJjnl it both wl.terp roo f and oil proof. Milly Klutl wiD detuior.ate and allow the joint to break CJPCil after prulDJllfAl COQtact with oil OIJrease. Du Pont Cement ucI IOmI of its .... will be meatiOl.l f requmtly in sUblequent chapten. I t it sold

by many hardware IU1d paint 'tores. and br the larger mail order hollRL

Plutic Wood -is & pate made of &ely divided wood. witb I. bindt!:r I.dd-ed until it is the ccnsUtm.ty of putty. It is wed in I

'ftrill!ty of w.~ such BI.fiDiDI' unalI hoi,!,. kno~ etc., in repai~l' .ocb. It will he mmbQllf!d later. It.. ..1d lin laqe and

C&IlS -at hardw-are. paiDt. anel lOme drul stores. Buy the ,mIll can" as i I mal dry out j f long unuaed after being ope:ned I

PAINTS AND OILS: ShelllC, onn~ Dr wbite. Useful for cementiftl sandpaper to wood wheels. U1d in variow stock finishinl mi'rt1.Irea.

Linaesl Oil. Raw: For fil1ishinl' ItDCb. Used alone, or with other inumieon.. ~pedfy Archcr .. Daaid.-Midblld Company's In.eecI ou ..

Boiled 0 il : Then is DO bttle "boiled linseed oil on the marbt today. Tbe compolJod boiled oil of the I.bove COIDpanJ is pet fect1y .tiafactD1'J.

Vamilb : V a1apar:l or Du Pant'. S pu 'VI.miIh. :far 0l1ins cumpound!. SheA'lo· WllHams hard fub'binC 'Varnish for :full vamt.h 6niahes.

IA.cqu~r: Du Pont's dear Duco. lacquer for fiailbjnC stacb.

Must be wed in an air brush.

Alanct reot, for darkeninl" oa mixtures. Gi-va a deep slipdy purplillh browa. Obtainable at drag and. plmt ItOres.

Oil Soluble ]led: A dark ftd powder t l.Jieful for impaniDl" a red.diU. cttt to linseed. oil. Ob~&inable at wholeslle drul and chemical h'OUIca.

New Method Gun Bluer ~ Made and .. lei for Ma:illl lUll. md .. used by tho!e 'Wbo don"t know MY better. RcalJ.y useful for tollching 'Up the shiny mil 0: I pint point of • screw. etc. t without rcmovin, p.rt from run.. AI., useful for paiDting the ed IC of a Iaf sight which was nl~d down while aD barrel.

Stain: Sometimes a Itack will be very licht in color.. or have Bebt Itteab which look better danfoed. Use J ohnaont• Wood On; or Ad-II-ftc Stains in WalDut or Malrapny to Cd the detired tint.

Tu rpentine: Occasional ly needed in ttoet inishillil COO1poundl.

Gd Ktmuine ,piriu turpentine, Dot rUl'JlCn tiDe III htitu.tn .!Old b, eome paint 11'0,& I;Ien:ula. Stam DUtilIed it ~t tb.e bat.

Cup pease I No. J-any IJta.nd.rd make:: Ued in pollihinl[ mxh. 11.., for K:reuin, lUllS for Ihipramt 01' star.. Melt it an4 throw in. • hmdiul of iron Iillopt ~I it melted for two (]r THE man wno hat Dever attempted. e,en a limple repair Oft •

58 pft and who it. DotoriO...t,. inadept with tools can "IClIrCZty

three: lOUD. to free it af any aci41 Then.strain th roup doth uatil mrpect to Hart in and turn out the ct.. of wor kmanlhip found in clear1, ~d let h .. tden. the &est shops. G unm.i thlnEt whLle • trad.t! in i'tldfl is redly

ABRASIVES: Sandpaper or G~aper, NOli. 11 l/~ O~ and 00 made up of the rudiments of Dther woodworkinK and meul womnl .-ru: be needed in stock making and Stmhing. Gamet paper it better trades, with a number of specialized brancha and ~ntioDS of tban Andpaper fer use on wood wheels. Carnonmdum or Aloxi1e itt OWD. For this muon the rank, 1'1W beginner is oftm Ie. cloth in rolls 2 inches wide is far better than f:mtty cloth for polish- h .... diapped dum ehe man who is 9p,ert in one 0'1 the branches inc barrel:; Ind actions. Usc N OSt 1/2" O~ and 00. Emery doth is of medwUc:l IPpl"ini to lUJlIEDithinl but who"bowI notbinl better :for final pel is}, i ng U Lt breab: down men quickly. For an cf the otbl!rL

extremely brilht fintah t follow with C I'OCUI doth-th ir i. made in The beaicn-e r hu .othinl te unlea m: he dDel not. for mr1mplc1

but o.n-= 1I.ide1 very hUe. apea: to cut an action mortice in a stock with the -me dec'le of

V III Ye Jrindinll compoundi oil or water mbe: If eil mix il used. fit that a I:U'pefttel' would ,.ke ill morden; In a door lnrk. H~

the Ca.rborund um oompDUl'Id i. beitl UR if: for lappiol b.nelt. it DOt likely to ru.ke the miltU:~ of the IIWdainiat wboJ undant .. uliar

Emery. No. 120t for lappin; barnll. lathe workt blunderl" ahead and turns Pwn & DArrel without

Pumice atone and rotten Itone--pawd ertd ;: U led. for pollih ~I tb Inanl of th C1kblb" it i. llkely to acquire II IU'IIIa In n-

.toc:k& ~p it in l.rae Ii her tcp CItlI fa r eoI1 "",1m ce. leued. Th. be-ptmer 1IIn:tJ, all probleatl whh • wid, open mind.

HEAVY FELT. 1/2 inch tbick: Vied for fIId41111 ... Jnn. md ICCIPb the lnmuctiona o.f .men who In ""iUar "I.th run work; and for nbblnl 1tOCb. Obtaiuble I' urn.. ahClpl Ind llOP pain t 1IIId. rh.enia Ii. hit adaptabIlity I In. tim cou,.. of tImI hi wIll turn


WOOD FOR STOCKS: Should be purchased In ready cut hIanb, or else in planb from 2 to J inches thick.· See list of deaJen ill Appendix~ After cut"tir:tg' out blanks, PVr your a::rap -lor repain and patch~ pistol sto.:b, forer.uk etc.

TOOL STEELt SPRING STEEl... e~! The lius and aude. libly to be needed are discuaed It lealth in Chapter 21.

Bras: A few heavy pieces of brass and copper are u.ful .. !IO!t henc!t hloch. fo r ril'etinr~ driving 011 militli1T sirbtst etc. Pieas 1 mcll thick sawed from 2 to 3 im:h bra. bl.rJ aft 'Ie". handy. TIley may be purcl1ued cut as desi.ed from lD:adiinery supply .0IUeI . Sheet bnus ADd CQfIper 1/16 iach thick should be, kept for protectiDR viae jaws. ~t soft bltJl if poaib1e.: .Q -tH h. nI sheet. lOme-times bnak -ben bent" U II: 1132 ind. meet bl'Ul for templeta.

Solder in. nnmu tntdea may he had at h.rdwa~.. lDIChiHry" and. wholesale jewel rr $Upply hOUlCL Tin., lead. hi!l11uth" etc., as welt • Qeltrz and Iilver solder may be houdtt :&om the samt SDllrceL

Lead ~ Keep a few pounds 'Of s::np lacI old ,ipe, ete.-for md:inl ?err soft bench blocks and vise jaws, also for maoag barrel lap..

Horn, for forend tips, abo ivory, m.ust be purcb~ from one or two Ii rm!l who lmport it in small quantities. Carabao or AIi.tic bu6J.o hom is best. See the Appendix for &rlDl bmdlinl' tbU material •

.oo.el rod. iD 3/1 and. 1/2 &J1d 5{8 inch .-=- are coDvalieat for mw"inC piu.p for barrell, d01Rb for fotend. ri~ .tad: pa~ tb:... and a fnI .bou1d be: kept on band .t .u timea. CanieIl ill Ittd: by lIIathinerv I'Upply dcaI~n Iftd lOIIIe reba1 hardware 1'tDret. Oil, for diuperung Rona, u will .. lubricatiq: tttiOlll. HU~'I


Nitro Solvent oil it the bm lipt on ] know of for pnenl tile.

Ecoaomical in quatt cam at $1.50.. .Abo 1]Md in Gil bluinL .. dacrihed in Chapter 20, md for ·~lampiatl bript ipOh OIl barrda.

ClamtiC',Il. for bluml procclRl. CUC!..tu.r4ainl~ temperinl mil colorini' metala. !\.(any of thse are not found in me comer druc store. See Appendix for lin of d.ealen.

Bakelite and hard rubber in sheet .. 1/4 inch thick mUa • __ inll, material. Obtain,bIe w herner -radio supplies are: IOId. HucI. ruhbc.r rod 1/4 tncl3 in diam-=ter is wed for rnuinll: rifte bolt!.

Hard fibre. both red and black, La abeete of nl'J'iq 'tbieif4"-' also tubes and rod!l is KlId by m.chinery supply h.ouaea .and elrcb b1 houlel. Used in buildinJ up bu.~ and IOinedma for mW ... butt plata and &riP C&PSt Hard tWre rod. i. better than bra. or copper for d yivina; mJt banel Il,ill tJ, 'Unlese ve't"1 tight. Will not mar the bluinl'.

Buying Olateriab: is like buyiDl toOla IX) ute pttiq lIlythinl you do Dot need, It doem1t take long to pt • .rood maDf d~llan :im.rated. hi • lot of Itldf you may DOt use for a year ~ if I!ftZ\ A bow1cdlC of the ript tool Dr the rilht material for the jeb will prove- belpful to you in avoiding mittam when me time comes to

~. ••

CHAn ... 6



our TerY tndihb Ir:: work~ 0 ften far better work: than the cabinet m.abr or the m;.chialst, a1 beit he could not make a lim, in either trade.

If. man is murely unskilled ill the use of t001~ 10 that be is forced to call in a Ci rpen ter to h.an. • K reeD door t or 10 dri~ into & pmp 10 ha,,! tbe carbul1!tot on lit' air adju.ted. it behoova him to nnt of all familiarize himsd f with the mechanieaI t radn into wh.ich he will delve to • pa~r Dr I.a. d.eane~ acquirin, lOme knowledge of their ~lminolalYt and tome acquilltance with the

.... of ".rioua taolL 61

As a first step in the ri&h,t direcriOl1 be should occasionally, buy a copy oi Popular Mechanics. Scl!!nct and Invention, and Iimil. r mqatinrs. In their paps will be found.. many helpful .ugat.iom for IUD&teur mech.niol jrom wbich he will in time absorb & certain lIDOunt 01 ~ latmospht!! re" and aeneral undentand inK" I f there is a iint elalS bard WI re store in hit town I he should ~l tinte the acquaintance Q f SOme sa I(Sllian who knOW) tOPIs. and wDl aid him in proper. selection e f tbings Deeded, and explain their UIC5 in dctaU.

One of the 'Very fint thinll the beginner should do it to write to trading tool makers and . seeu re their catalop. and study them. carefully.

These are mort tb.a.n catalogs-mey an valuabfe i9i:hoob. Belides the information they Pvc, ther are indi.apensable when it it nccessuy to order SOUle special tool ham • small dWer who acvrr heard of i4 and who mar try til tell you that "there ain· t DO sich aaimule. U Allin, while the rather extensive list 'Of toolt named in Chapters 3 and 4 may seem Illl:e they should cover every posaiblc requirt:me.Qt1 there may he some job the: am.ate~r gunsmith wantl to do that is not ~veRd herein. FlI m iliari ty wi th the calalo~ wiU enable rum to select other tool. for apec:ial jobs with eertainty.

It U I. Eood. idea aLo to secure the complete cataioga of SeanR.ochuck and Montgomery Ward. These mall orcler housrs handle many high grad.e standard teols, and t:an otten .hip them mum quicker than th e lrK:al small dealer can obtain them throul,b jobber or manufa.cturet-mld sometimes they sell them at Ilipd,. :educed. prices.. In ut.iq mlil on;ler CltaIDJ5, bll'Wevu t it pzys to avoid the cheap 'Iprivah brand" articles of unm·w.tn orir;ia.

Dealers! catalogs should abo be secured and ltUdied carefully.

In addition to the many standard tools mtfdf they also list much raw material, iron, st!el; btaSl, IC n WI, etc, that will IOODrrr M later be needed. S tudyinc the atllop ~t only fam iliariza on~ with the IUpply of such manrialsl but mablnl him tc order intelli;&eDdy when the time comes:.

Bul the most important. thinK of all to the HPnnet Ui. the -field of amattUl' runsmitllini i~ a thorouah knowledge of IOns and.load--. not only his own guns and his awn loads. but of all m.d;:e, aad modek


of IUItIt and aU the carnidlP he may WlDt to we IIOIDe day.. To tbiJ ead he mllu Id stlld y carefully every cataloc be cad ICt hQ b.na OJJ t hod Americ:an and fora go. Study the detaW Df variow actioru: learn hCJW they function; decide which a re their £OQd poia~ ·and their weak ones. E:1Cmline all the £U1l5 yom an zet bold oi. and lea m aact1y how they wOtt! .and handLe~ G«: all tbe cartrld ~ c.atalop you. ca.n and study them care£ully-thcy are real textbo~ full o( valuable in fonua"ticn.

The: chap who starts in to t~p:d f his i1 rst KllD with only a bazy idea of whar the variOaa para. Ire for. and haw the: aetio.n fu.nctions will find hillllelf II bad 011 u the boy who tDol: 1W FTCIlch harp apan to lee what 1Ud~ the mus.!c--and likely he'll h&~e mou~ Pirtl left GTe r to a:aake another gun w.h~n he reuamnbla it. But. b.vi.DK acquired I ,oed undenta.nding of principles. and learned bow much similarity t;berc Rally iI i ~ K\Ull Q f d -ilknnt malre. and modelL you wUl lOOn dnc:lo" In intuitive underltancf:ing oi mtchan.D~ IKl that rw need nat baitate to d iswantle any w;;tion £Or the lint time. You CUI crop the peTtI loMely tDleth!r in a ~, &ad it wonlt be 1ikt worM, a Sam Lloyd puzzle to put them ~rtatt .n~

BI!!!Mre :ltt:l!m,ptin, the more di5cuIt job. aw:h II complete: reElll)delin.r af a tailitary ri Bmt adj uatiQl the lriaer of • line t1Irpt anD I £tc., it iI well to Kat on."1!1 hand. la with a a.umbll:r of ~ jOt. and Pl'actice work wbete dere will M no ITt- r 1l1li if J'01l 1P01i .oDIe material or pam. The ptteri6! 1atl wfD ,;m in mum. up c:hectin, tOQ~ simple chisel!, JUewdriwn. etc.. 'W111 ItI.nd you in pd Read later- Learn tTi~ pull adjustment: :fint on • cbap linrcle ~ot ri fIe 1 let your firBt bl Wnll job b~.&I1 old p6t--t'Ml'I



that ia ready for the lCfap beap anybow--and if it tul'Dl out wdL vo.'R! that much .hewd..

, A.Q old wreet of a sincI~ barnl sllotcun is· • .milbtr pod one to ItIrt your lraming OD---Uld most sinKle htrd shotl(iml are old. • recb. Don It be afraid of d.lIDDgiftl' it. MQ1He tIuu'l usuall, impoea"te. Fi.:: up tim tril~r pull, np lace: d:am:aged kit'wa or pi-. make & new apriDr or two where nftdedl I)ft'bapt a new firinr pm· repair the broken ,t<".d (they- re always brobn aomcwlJerc) ~ trv yOu;

ll"aad at eheckinr it; put cn a front IiKb tt polish out the barrel (it'll nad it) Dr by ;pour lm:k at cutting off a kw iocb~ of the muzzle and ~okir1K by the OVCf.,rin~ proce.. de-ct.ibed in Chapter 31. If the barrel is in very hd. aha~ cut it olE ten or twelve iadta.. cut off the.t'Otk bad:: of piJtol rnp. and ma):e an. I".auto mel 'bura:lu tpID.r 01 it. Oae al tit., 4'bjp, P<l'fcr Iolll' I'II1P Ta:q R..anp:r

IUns" Irma. RoaN .d Sawbuck will alft the atudent....-mda awn fun. .. welt as more real c~ructlft apel it:RCe, than a brand new 1ti:8, would live .. a:tediea1 student r Aad. it will problblr hn-e IIIOR dif&=Mlrt" tb.iD,ll the matter with itlt too.

Tbil book iI IlOt inadecl u • mere compilatiaa of· Ihap t;j.b anti detd1ed dacriptiODI 9f tpeCi6c joh.; other. it ;. ~


with • view to its we. II a tat bGok, to be HUd.ierl ~J ..

By famil.it.riziDa bilDlelf with the -=nti~ book before roinI tD wor" the leader uould h&ve a dearer undentaDdins of the I'M"" bebjQd various imtruetioas j k:now1n, that he will be able ttJ develop initia ave to the paint of deviUn, WayJi and melll8 oi dainc dliqt whicb are not apecina.11, described.

Wood wa.rking tool~ w.hile DOt dilficuJ t to mastcr~ cmJ. f.r reasonable skill The aspirinl ;IUIlSD1ith mould ltud,. the method. of expert woodwClti.U. not merdr carpenters. but cabinet IDIbn ~ musical instrument makers ~ repairme~ turnen,. UJd pattern maken... Of the tr.d.cs- olllled I perbapa. the last =ore nearly approximata the skill zequirtd. of the It~r than anJ 01 ~ othus. The KLU1llDitb can learn sometb.ing lrom nearly all of the mecb:ID" ieal uade, but ia [' oosiog: .bout" :for informationl he Ihould avoid those shops where f'ro\1p and reatl.,-I methods are the rule rather thaq the eneptiOll. Don It expect tt- lee cia,. 1IlaChi.ne wan: heine done in the gar.age---the Dlotor m.eC:hanie would ~ he1plat 011 the simplest SOrt 0' gun work. S·tud.y the. work oi e:&pertl. IIId leam jl'OQ1 them.

Finally be IU re that your knowlcdKe of fifSJ1Ql it ptKtiaJ and DOt theoretical. Be ~ you bow Widl J'OU want to ~ and W',]I be:£o~ you WClny about thl: "OUI of tb.e matter.. Study the worb of W1Hlen, of Croumau, ~ Hatcher. Fitzcerald and other authoritiea who know w hetcof tIrcy..,eak. Before .. ant up your mind to rial: lona houD o~ time and hlrd-tamed dollan· worth of materiah to provr: your theories dtcd up Oft their practicahility through the bow1tdae of othtfl, whOle apericn.ce has covered a wideI held than V'OU r own.


CIlAPrn 7


MUCH of this thapter wiD be of no interett to tb.. already

hannE I knowledge of COIDIlIDJl tools and their l.IIa; it i. ",ritmJ laqeIy lor the benefit of the bqinn!r. who bal spent billiie workin.l with head nther than hands: and who Bad. himteU &Wk ... ward in the UH of liven tb.: Umplnt tools, _nd. .. bose knowledp of their uses and poeaibilities is limited.

Wuodworltin, tools Wl11 reeeive 6 ~t· coDJi.eration~ Haviq 'ftoaled. Upl~ his .bop, the amateur is libly to believe he it 1'eIId,. to

10 to work" But not just yet~ EdKt tool. at ill kinds UIUIUy camt froID the ;actoJY B""urui. hnt not honed or wbcttcd. to • fine WOl'DnC edp. It ill DtctsAry to uadentand. nnt. how to ~IO~rlJ o:mdition new alec tools for 'lIICi ... eWondl haw tu t.p. them. in. tiptop shape far fiDat work.

--f'be bit oj tuttin, blade of y4U ~ J aek £'Jane will do u & Slit illustration. Reraovt it by uolockinz the am damp of me iron holder on the outside. Remove this bolder t and you will find the bit tan be lifted. O\ltl attached. by • I.. l8I--IeRW tQ itI pard t l.,oosen t6i. screw. usLnl: the NP of the bit holder .. & .crew driver.. Note that tile dJarp tdp of die pard wu 21 within about 1/16 inch of the ed~ of the bit.


N ow study the bevel ~und on the bit. Note that it is about 1/4 inch wide, and &1 igh tly hollow jroUDd. Beina: made primarily fo r carpmle r work: on soh: 'Wood f t he bevel of the mae .it usuaLly aomcwhar shorter th an 11 needed for belt' results La bardwood. Howcvcr~ if YO'U have 110 grindstone, lave the benl alone for dlt praent. Later.. if you have ICccsa to a IOOd and crindstoncnot an emery ,.·hed yeu an grind the bevel hack about 1/32 inch, but dOt mole tho. that.

You ",ill nere thaI: litth if any WHETTING hu Oeea d.tae


en the ed p" Take you r combination ~ ne"a.rId ·fine ca roo rundum ~one. aad let it on the be~ with the smooth face up., Apply a few drops of oil to een t~r ot stone. Hold the plant bit in ~th hands as in Figure 30.. wi rh the heel of bevel rearing on the stantl u in ~jA/· Figure.31. Now slowly lift the upper end Df hit, til tine it forward un til you feel the ed ge touch the IItone. and the oi 1 squ~eus out in front 0 f rh is ed gc:.. Figure 3 I-B. The heel of IH:VI: l is t h us ye ry sligh t1 y Ii fttd f rom the atonel 50 th at only t be ed p will be sharpened, Mainuining a firm but nnt too heavy pressure,

and. hol d ~g tb e wris.t jo in t5 sri If, 10 q nOI: to chanp the angle 0 f the bi t with the stone, mGve the bit in ~ a , Ion i oval rt1'oke. with greatest pressure as you ~~ dlfJiatl the cutting edge. Afrr a few strokes: li ft, wipe oft the 01 I, an d exan;ti~ e the brie;ht whetted tdge. This 5ha rt beve I should be ab-out 1/.12 tn 3/64 inch wide, and sheu ld be even clear IIcross rhe wid th 0 f the bi t. I f it tapen oR t[]ward one COl"r.1eT~ it shows tbe P'es511R is too great on the cpposi b!!! C(] rner, Try again r un t n "au b.1l ve a smooth I even nil rraw bevel c 1 '!8 r :ac ross the ed g~j with .; fin~ "wlre" edge turned on the Rat (unbeveled) side of bit, L., this Bide ~"tc"1 f14t Oft rh e stone, and ru b back: and forth un til thi! wi re is w hetred oft. [I: wi II not a ll be removed but will be partly tu rited over on the bevel. Rrv~rse an d 'W' her the beve ltd side as before, R!roovinl more -0 f the: wi re an d tu rn in g t be rest on the 8a t sid!. Cont'inUI:: wheetln 8:


the two ada alternately until aD the wirc iI l'CIIIoYcd and the alp Rd.s sharP to the Jinpra.. ~ber. me·Bat .ute of the bit .... t not be beveled. the Ie. bit.

Now replace the carborundum .tone with me Lily While Wallin oibtORe, and whet tb~ bit on beth .ida. in the ame maaner- Be lure to k~p the -me bevel on dee ~ time you whet it, and always bri"1 the heel 01 bevd" apinlt the .. tone :tiM. thea tilt it qmtil me bed is barely lifted jrom the .tonet aad oil iii ~ out ia front of ~ eel.. Thit stone will produr. & finer wire edae, which is carefully whetted off, firat one aide then the otb.cr,

TI!!Il' the edge by wettiq the thumbnail u.d 'n.wial the bit ICffM it. No daDp:r-it WO.D't cut: th rouP the nUl It alL If very .... 11' and IDlOOf;ht III it' thould be, you :fed it utah bold .. " and any rouPMII or dull IJICtI will lie noted Uub.ndr. Ccmtiauc w hcttin..a: on tht Wahita until the ed&e .. pc.r:fectIr IIIDOOth, Ib_? and. true. At lbil .'tap it mowd dtave hair frora rou.r ana .1.,.



as smoothly as .I. ramr.. Sow mop me edae Of] the Seth aide Df .. piece of heaV)' leather. nailed. to a piece of ~ or one end of the brncb~ 01" Dlher suitable place. lie- careful !tOt to rock tb~ blade in STROPPING~ tbw roundinl the edge, Note that in wbtttingt IDOIt of the cutting is dDJ1e 4gai.ntt the edJe. while aU stropping illl dmlt awar from the cdp:.

A splmdid reol strop it made by bolting turetber a number af narrow .trips of heavy leather, sucb II saddle ~ki mrtg. with sleod~·r stove bola Sud.paper both lides smaatb and even. In wbetting tooI~ the oil 1Dd. pit from the stone worb up into·iI IJ'eHY paste. AlwaY' c:IUn thil from the stone immediately, md aprrad. it on one side of the strop or te.ther bl~ U Ie this side tor the nut -Itroppin.. and nnisb on the dean side. When prope.:ly tharpened the plauC' bit or my other wood .orlOnl tool sboul.d an a bail cleanly U IIllJ razor. Yuu cantt begin to appreciate the .,aIue of 'thu. kind of an edle until you have used it and thtn try to 'USe' the kind of Edge \1S11.tly found on toolll It's the same di~reoce as drinng & ill vver with three qrlil1ders missing and the PI tank. empty &lid two flu ti tel, when you .. V'~ been d rivi ag a mew Cadillac.

The fore", will apply to .11 plane bitst though the angle of the 'bevel diflen .. mewbat for di.:fferent type p~ For ~n.mple, • hlod plane bit Ua down muth Battu than. that fJf a jd plane

.and the ~l of tbe ~p ill wider atCOI'dingly. I

W"!m .,..w-blin, the plaru!, 1'eVtne: ope ration I 11ICd in removu.a: the bit, mel note carriull,. how much of the edge of bit projects t1trouP the.Jot. There is a lan, lever under the bit by which the blade can 1te "'iftfd no. .. de to -ide. to even up the projecting edp.a 'The hit IDO\'aI in the opposite dinr:dOll to me lcYer in tome pia. .... in the lUlU! direttioa OIl otbln. Shift: it mtil It is perfectly evtDt ana draw it had- with tin: mjlJltlns leiew' uatl1 it .,1, projects below the w.rface. Some mec:b.mb adj_ plane


hi b mtirely by feel; • better Wl.y for moll people iI to bold the

plane bottom up in a ~ lirbrt and light -loa&: the su.rf&cz. Any ·Vlriation in dcp~ of bit .t either side will be i_anti, acted.

In USING THE JACK PLANE most beainoert (and. also many medJl.cics wbo should know better) will turn it at· u &OPe on the wo rk, instead of pusbil1K it in a Itraigh t Iiae, The rcuon fa r the lonl' body of the plane is to carrr the cut in • straiPt line, to true up and ItnUghten an unequal edltt TurninC the tooL aidr:w&y& permits it to £DHow the curves ad hollows, tbus failinl in its pur. paR. Holding it straicb t on the -work u partiaUut,. important in stra.igh tenia, up the top line of a stOCkl ... hich is 0Jli! cf i'tl principll:

Uie.l in &Un work.

Start in with the Usbtest' pOMl.ole cut-the bit sa.rcely ICrapma. the wood.. After two or thr~ It~ if it does not take bold. better. set the bit very slightly deq.:r.. Thio.. a1mmt tramp&RJlt _.,iGp ~ ... e you better control of the work~ aad procl uce a better job.

]1. you find you an cuttin, .agaimt the grain. mene and 'W'OI'k from tile -other end" Whca the pain rllJl1 .'every which WIJ~J as it a:ftea:l doa in stack blank2\ j\Dt do th~ hat JOU Cl.D.t

WbICR using tbi amaotb pi .. to merel., daM'! up the side of • l'Ouch pieee.. It b often perm.iaIibIe to tum the plane at variMII anlles to pt at the hollow pJaeee.. Someti.... in 'elf azr1:r _wood, the ID100tb pbne will OIt better at:r'fJ8 the ,rain thaa It will from

either end.

In I'bUti.Dg • .rock job. one 8.at Ilidc----usualJy the riP t aide. mould be planed ~:fectly ft.t and true II • worD1I1J rurlace from wbieh

the center llac is rwl- wltb the rrwtiDl pup; md. oa. this Job ,. dae jack: pb.ne. ..II. liP t alonr the 1U1"iacf: tG be lYre It it kept in • Itniaht u...

. Tti.a bloc:k plane wu macle for cattiq: IICZ'OII end pain; ret it nonot weD be uted. for IlJCh jot. u trainr l,IJ) the b'Utt of • stoc:k,




D!Q.UIe it invariabl.y chip': til!!! ,i!dg:e8 at end of art. Ie il • hedy

=n:t ';O=,I!~ m~ ~~~=orh~up,:-,=

in FiCUR 328 •• mi we the plmc Oft its sift for amall work. which is t.dd in the Plock.. This ,device is elsa calm R '\hoot burd,,'"


N rof!r stan d it plane up ri ght on the be nch when through usiog. it. It should al ways be lai d. on the side to prevent the edge beeeming dam aged, Whert:ver you keep YDU I pl AnJC when not in use, either lay them 'on their sides, or else have them blocked up with thin StT] ps 0 f wood.

N tf)~,. d r.ago the plan e bac It on the ed ge of bit d lit rill I t he retu rn s:tm,k~" Ei ther 1 i ff: it cnmpletel y ,0 f.E the lVOi'k~ or at least Ii ft the rear end, !etdng the frame ride on ~ts po,int~ NothIng ruins the cutting edge SQ quickly as drag:~if]g i'l back en the work after the cu'mng mok,e ..

CH ISELI N G : Next in importance to the' .gunsmith come the ch is~ Is used in s'r:i)ci: inlet t in gm 1 ha VI! men tinned. the JiB.. ,Add is

rII'. 34

. Figure J4 shows th,~ best method 0:; Ml.nipulltinr:: the anv~ng ch i~ls. The hold will vat1 ~ f i gh tty VIi th tn'e na rure 0 f the WCr k i


but bo,th hands should be used whenever pos:sible~ 'to give bes,'!;; c0ntrel, Filure 81 mows e easy "",'af to CUt QU! .a d.eep roanoo,; sueh as ,the IU ltd channel i.o 8l rile s,!ock~ wDc.n impossible to get in linI with the C'U'~" A moOHow chisel is used R--CTOSS the. I'rain" which P"[~ ven ts tea: ri ng; or splitting; the bumps are worked a·tlt ill the same manner as t be rough cutt tng is d.on~1 and the bottoming tool ~ u&td to level up thE; DOli:rom of ehaane], Wood. an-erst i"3.sPSI or li'lifB'r!rs~' are also :handy fo:r this work,

THE D KA W-.KN [FE is all accepted teel ·of the carpeneer t but ehould be Used, itlhdS'edly by the gutl$llli"tn, In Cha.pter 11 I h.a ve

n... 33 not m~Dtioned the dm w bti Ie in coneection with !j,toci:maDn& iQ,r

the reason that Ivery seldom UK i t~ no r do I m,nsid.e r i t necCSSM7 .. woo-d 'C3.T""Iinl' chisels as being: best for this work, I f you do fiot The .only time Ie can earn its keep is, when used for rougb tnt: o .. ff the

haft meet then yo,ur carpenters' chisels B.lrd gcuges D1U5,t be ground corners 'Of a vcry s,traipt grained blank. on w'hich there is no chance with R much longtW" 'bevel tba.o the carpenter cr 'cablttet maker mes- o~f running in too deeply", The cn:w-kntfe is a perverse instrument, gr'.i'rn.d the bevel from haIr aeain tu tv,'ice as long. J\lS'Dj it should foU.awing the rrain of the w'ood· with the ~eftacitJ" of In old .m.iliionbe a rnund;.ng bevel instead of straight. aim .alter a 'Ch'OIOS pI. Before YOll realize: it. there's a bit pel!!:Ied

Carvi n.1: chisels" or any cthe rs used fo'r stet k m&k.~ ngl ·sh ould have fRltl j 'Ust a sbtcentb of iU.1 inch perhapsi deeper than you wan ted it., a double bevel, The mO$t prcaouneed bevel is of ClJurse: em the Ther~ U~ storitmakenl! bO'W~u,. wh.o use ·the draw-,knife- with bottom or outsi de ; bu t the t,op 0-1' ~!lsi de 0'£ blade sho ui d. abo be ill g;btl, COLlSuammatc skill. doin, Dear 1, aU of the m,apmg 'Wi th i,t~ I 'can bewelt'd, eonrrary to the custom IJrf orb r r WOOdWD"fb rs.J who bevel see no reason for' tbi~ u a good cabiREt rasp 'WilJ. do the j 00 j ust IS

chisels on oae side onl,. lile 'P~anc bit~- And bath bevels must be rapidly, and with .a.~luu:IJ no danr,er of going toG far, ~

ftty Ieng, gr.i!ld1ja1~ and slightly reunding-e-the bev~l runnlng off The American wol,man hohb, the ,draw-bife S(f,aight 3C'roSS ~ into the line 0 f du'!' blade wi thou t a.ny definite stQ'p~ing po in t ~ Figure work:. and, pulli it' toward him by main str-~ng-tb, .and awk:wudDns, 33 :sh,OW5 I number of carving chisels properly sharpened, rippinl and maring ot1 the Jdnd1inlt' at a great nh'. His draw ..

Your d1i~k w in come. to you onlY' rough ground. J probably with knife has a shoTt bCVlelt and. is stiiklm. sharper than me law al..l.ow!~ a th ick U 0 fin is.b e d edge, Use th ~ coa rse :side c,f the combina.tioo The En~Uabmanl on the OW,tt hand., ool1.side n it" as a 'cufting: tool;,

69 be grinds, '. lort, bevel b,-'ck on the blade, and evCD bevels the bcuom

carborundum stone Ii rst, and (::trry the bevel well back. Do not side slightly also II He thren sum!!!], the edge until it is r~i' ah,arpl have a fly sJ~ (] rr beve 1 at the extreme ed ge as you d. ~d 011 t h e pl ane and in u.sing it, holds it at a decided angle On the work~ The lett bit, Sharpening the outside or bottom causes a wrre edge on the handle is furtber from his body than the right, and. imtf:a4 o,f givinl inside, This ~fi \\'oJk~d off ,,~ith the round edges of the carborundum it a straight pull. be usa m eur'ViDI strokf:t bri,ngio,l the right hand sJ ip hone f tnt t hen with th e Wash ita a!1 d fine r sl ips I T 1 ~~ i ~~~d~ in closer to the w,a·r~ at the end of the stroket Thus wtead, e f bei ng gT3d uall y be v e led, hut .not nearly so m ncb as th~ ? utside, tipping and $pH ttmg th.e wood; be pares it dea.nly, even en rting Fin'wh both 'sides 'On, the W.ashlta stones, then !rE:JOp' both lnsuLe a.rnl across and sometimes again~t the 1T.3.in without splitting" He did,n't

learn this tech nique in a day or a weeif.., h.m9'e'\fe:l"';: Juch W,{I'rkm,cn outside ''On leather. For the bollow' misers or ;I'OUg6. bend. or fold an: 'USually IPprm'hcoo to their trade very Y'OUDl't .afI.d their' Hill

a pi fee 0 E lea tiler 't.o fit in to rh e en rve, and r u b the: ] 9'[ h er aw,a.,Y ~th ...t.. ~ l .. A h ~tb d

_ _ • " ~omes WI· 'a;llltlr ,.tars 01: apen~n~M .. t t at', a man Wl R guo. '

f rom th~ edge! not ag,81nat 1 t~ . . . rasp will sha.pe 'Up his 5,taek j lISt as 'q wckly as th,!: Engljlh workman.

C Qt'fJ'J nz t: j utls m :iI;.ft /J'e ar I h,"p t:u h D mQ.fj 'lf 0 rt can "ill le t h ~m, il~ I ··h h~' d . L-ll_

TL, - L._ b. ..1;.,,.,,111.. m11 -- 1_ h \ ~ ~ 'L. d w wn 1;1. m. ..... IIU.IC.

I~~Y m.ust DC ~o ~naT'p'~'Ia:.t .~uey _WL ~e a :sm~ot ~ p(]ll.lSne cut Tbc SPOKE-SHAVE is a cron: breed. betlvem the clraw~bi"

~"tJt"!t th1e _1~~ln ri!' •. n~Cl:u~r-r. Tht: w,ooacaryer ,s tes~ lor ~h~,rp .. ind the plane. The 'bl't s-hould be: ml.lplned lib' I plane bir,. ad ntH" to try ~e ch.!~ O'fuIilOOI~ a'CNJlll the. Ilat.n ofa In~:e of very IClt in the :wne Imnnlrt Set: it ;Dr a very shallow cut. It i. lIlttful snftJ IP'ODi1 l)ln~ 0 r _ Ii ~ al" _ I t IS ~t ~u~,rp .en_IlU;lh .!~r du!., pu.rpe _c for trimmin'II' down the war k .iter the .r.~'bi_ U\Q l, used iD wt 1: 11 I ~ ~ 11: mak.' Ii, ImDDth. CUt m thIS manner W1 thout !he .least the"'l 'lDI;imer'-p roviiiDI JOU li1:e the toOl ] ca _do 'I:breI!! jobI IUQeltmn If ftl,flnlt ......J.;L L oil t J!:1... htl_]. - - .,lI ... ! I , ... .-.. w~t1l.. j"l..e ..,_'L., - 'L. _ oii.1I

,Thle ,uip .,tOJrlt!!1 should be kept han~YIl ~:50 ~the. s~roPt .RJ.ld ~P! ;;~tb:a,~a:r~ Ul'lii 'W.lUi: m in .. ~\LIi" . i n UII ,",.,.!iHO'!o;o"'!NJ' I"WoIt aM

0:1 ch .ell t,ouched up f:vtQ U'I:I1tl Y't M \1m time II II,edt and ,1'fJllt Of . 1

raulh eum I re en dl"'el y • yoided... SA WI : T,be &"11.18 mru wei • .w vti'7 dWDIily ud this

is nearly always putly d lie to the fact that be hu i. vetJ poor tool most of them to run wobbly. Somet'imn this wobble is caused by to WDn: witb. The Atkins or Di.1Oa 5&WI mml:ion~ iD CbJ,pter the bit not beioK; stnightt aad all bib thai are apruait should be 3 will do .rood work from the ltart. and an UIJ' to bep La shipe" promptly discard.edt The solid center bib are stronger and ~eraUy SIWI for hardwood should have rather finer teeth than th~ for b~tn!r man the aat twist ia thia I esp«:t. Keep returninl pow brace pine. Keep th~ well sbarpcncdt and with medium set. to the dealer fDr exchange until you Cd: one that is misonabr,. 'Well

A .w vise costs only about 75 ctnts, aDd is e,sential for sharp" al.igned. One mistake the begi nner .lDl.Ees i51 to buy the largest nreep mini JaWs.. Clamp the saw abeut 3/8 incl2. from the edge, Run he can lind-wh.ch means a brace that is rather spring]', when it I ilt OliU file lC!nphwiase ewer the 1~ nne or two Itrok:~, ~ should be stift'. SeJect a heavy b~, with a large. 8trnnr ch~ equalize thei r length, Then take- a dim taper saw :IiJ~ !let I t In and a SWcq) of Dot more than ten or twelve inches ten is ~nty. the lint tooth and make a ligh t cut., N Ott whether thU is at the The Miller". Falls No. 872 brace has • 10 in(h sweep Ind is sti& and .me andc • the tooth wu cut oricinally... Shift: the pcaition of the stronr-beti.cfQ having a chuck tlat will huld... Witb such :I b~ lilf: lHIti1 it is, then hold at Ibis angle til rouchout thE j Db. File one taD exert all the pressure necasa ry for boring • 6 or 1 indl evttr allcmatc tooth irom nne to three atroka IS required to .ring hole in th~ butt 0 f & .tockt with little danger (l f the wobhlina CQt dum m sblrp paintsi' then RVene the saw .ia the -vise. and &l~ which t.allfM$ the bit to run. out sidnnYI. Before staning • hole in alternate teeth. from tbe other aide. hardwoOd, always mark the center nry accurately and IJUJlCh 1bepI)"

The Bl.W set ill a pai r of tongs used for bmdina the teeth llidJdy with. lharp prick pund:t.

outward to live clearance to the cut, and prcven.t the .w bind Lng Twist d riHs are uaefui in the brace or hand d rill for borinl smal ~ in the wood. Good dry h.ard wood. rcqWUI very little aet to the hole. inwood . For thil u.I they shauld ~ ground to a -point .-bou~ :laW.. The Atkins sawl have the back pound Ihout four pups 1/3 to 1./2 icnRer t:h In W l1en 1l1IeCl for metal •

. tbiDner than the teeth, so that they nm CUl1,. with minimum. IItt. RASPS~ There are two sbapra of rap, OI"JIC, equivalent to that

The laW is held in the vUe fo.r sminK jutt .. it was 'for .lUing:. 73

Set ey~ry other tooth, thea reverse the saw and Jet tbe oaes JOU of the hal f round Glr. blown u a wood rasp ; the other beiDI thiDner~ miaed from the otIJer aide.. and wj th • much more tat rurY..: on the one side, known as I cabinet

Note the diBe:rence in shape of teeth OD dlfierent AWl. The tup. 'The Ia~r i. best for gun- work, In u.s:inr it. hold me hand l~ cut-Q&: or It cross cut" saw baa V shaped teth whim chop tbleir in riaht hind I and tb~ lJoint in lefl band. As you puab forward W'Y th.mugh. the wooO" the rip uw bas child reeth, w hlcb arc also move til e rasp lid eways ~ making -a diagonal s.t roke.. the rap befilal nearly 5tnigh t &cross. while the otb~n a re IUd. at a decided inK tu rned at an angle of about 30 ckgrees ¥lith tht work. This oPe- A circular is usaallr .attaehed to a new saw advilin, the gi"Ve!! a very evr.n CUI: over two or rhree inches of lurf.ce~ wbe~ DmI and De 01 file best adapted. to .fi1 i ng tbat particular saw, and puahing the tOO I st raigh t in line wa ul d merel y cut ~ groove i tI own the manuf.actu rf! rJs instruc'lioris in this matter should inTariably ~ "" i ~ tf'l. AI wars use thr: roundetl side for the Ii rs.t f(1 UJhin C" cuts,

followed. ,

Collh'ul of the saW in fcllO'W'ing a line: iI soDlC1mnr that must be ac:quirfti by practice. Hold the saw u you 'WfJuld ... ~olveT IC rpi.ml. hut wi th the right forainger ~xtellded alonpide the bandle md pointiDJ forward ~ Kivi nlit much better control of the blade than

if all m.pnI are inaide the bad b.olct -

la ._pin, up I stockl .lter the blank b. btm inle.t~ much time em be .vat hy •• mE the butt to me approximate outline of the 6nishBi shape. In lib- manner, the rip :uw may be used to rip oS the comem--if it begiu to run ia too deeply I jU81 law' off the pi~ IlOd start a new cut !lightly outside"

Always mark the wood on ill four siLim previous 10 curtinI' with the _w. Th_ you can Witch the cut aDd avoid runnju:I( in.. TIle thicin.. of • saw pe-rmitl lOme atilht chance in dinaiol1 duq • cut -; th \II if the cut iI nmnina: the wronIC direction, the bl.ad~ may be farcecl sliptiy the ather _"1 p-adllll1, brinlPo&" it bet into


Wwil Too much of thia twist. however, ."iH IDIH the .w Itick. [f the c:ut runa far to one ,[de, atOp and cut oil the PL~ all far ..

the cut iOI:It and start over apin. .

A. buk II.W is the thine to r .. In a mine box. u tbe blade II held stnigbt and rigid by the heavy strip af ~ta1 .011 the b~ t~. The bad: ","W b.. "cry 1ittlc ac:t; 11111 ruM eaGily ]:11 • ~napt ~ For tb~ few jobs on w nieh it will be needed. the IUI18C1llth mar diapense witla b.aclr .saw. using the tutoff nw iutead.

AUGUR BITS.. Alwaytl bu., the best obtainable!! ... cheap bit is the sorriest tool CJD -e_rth. They must be kept 'Ift'J sharp lor clean wo rk in hard wood. U 10 • tcKUlu aulU' bit file for ,ha~,,inr or lO1IIe of the small clie-.tinkfn- fill!S win M found eva Mrte r rm l!imln blm. A medium. lonE MYel shuuld be filed un upper li~e .of the cutting edge. Do DO filing whatever on bottom Ode, except one small Bat cut ";th a nne :&Ie to remove the burr. 4'"1'he side Iipl mould be lil-ed en tird y from thf" i n!li.d~1 nUnc on DUtside oj lip will reduce the cu tung dill meter I causiDI de bit to Irick in the hole U1d pullout the spur. The IPUT mould batt • very co.nc tb.rad -th. fiae tbrad spur is usels, -II it pulls out ~d will Dot ~ the cutting eel Ie& .againsr: the wood. Fontller bits are very diBicult to .~_ Th~!III!"e U8.n.a..Dy quit.e m.rp wb!n pun:hued*, .. d. •

their use il I imitedt the edges should be ldt almte II Ion. u pal.iblt. The bat way to mi.rpe!l them is with .. denw mp IIDd • carborundum poiot stone. Expansive bits an: ahar:pczu:d La the .me manner II replar .I1lgnt hit!..

In tbe matur of bit bracesr about one in a hundredf. apparead., h .. the cb lick ~ tend in line with tb~ cen'ter of -fOnd. Thil taU ..






If~lt. 33. )Olanner at USbl g rasp.

ulna:: the A lit side whc n the stock ha,. been red need to almost its 5na1 shape.

The cabin-et ole is similar f n ahape to the nsp~ aad it used i D the same manner. Having t1n~ teeth i.t makes a Imonther cut, Thil is the 1001 to use for the final tnllng up of the 8Uriace a f a ,tod:. before the nnt coar.1Ie sandtng. Some stockeo follow t be cabinlet file with lnothrr cut using a (ammon mill file-but this CUb very slowly on wood, and the me teeth also clog bad 1 J. V I!f)' light fin ismr. strobs with the cabi net file will leave the wood in very caod cond ition for ml! IIndpi~r4

FILES AND FILl-NO. Some day I hope to know enough--pro--vided I liv~ lang' enough-to w ri te a book on this 5ubj ret a1anf.. It is 0111 of thl fundamfntGl meebllnieu.l rubjects. ond one 'Whith mi pt easily require the space of th is entire volumt-and still DOlt tell hal f the !!Itur,. ~ The file iJ the baSH nf practimlly all rutriftl .ratlons in the lDiChiDe ab(JP j the mHling cutters, p taD!!: tulten. etc, Ire really fila; a broach. 11 I :lilt j tbf cutter on • ri8..ing head is I .. tfti'll"h filft and *' i. the cutter on th ~ pl.net or shape: ~ E«n the lathe op!ration.l ari!! based on the fundamental prinap 1a. of &lingthe too.l being the file I which il hel it statiollary. wbDc the .UIl. 11 ~ved against it.

Giwn the ript fila, I lint cl8!5 mechanic: can IUb by hmd .1 ..

DX8t anv part ordinarily n:wIl! ~ machine.. SlOW1!I'-)'f!I i hut It can be done. Such -a man ktLows and uadentandl th&t the :&Ie is an


Important cutting tool. de.ignd. for shapin&" and farminr; wh.iJe the laJ'IEIM usually tb b1b uf it as IOIDedlinl to IQ"I.tcb or IIDOOtn. the eurIaa!. He R1dom considEI1I thlll: there i. • rich1 file lot the jab It band, Ir.td knows only that tb~n are flat ~ t'th ree corneted',t ~ and .... ttal1 L H II! uu.HU,. goea into the store, and. says t ·Gi.mme • small file j---Oh, about Iix inched:. I teekoR; yeah:! that"a' U be all


ri.pt.11 Then h~ tues it and slims over the IUriace 01 wh.Btevtr it iI he is spoi lin~ a f~n tal kine no im.preuion to speak of. and at ether times misshaping- the article badly.

I f I inc 1 ud~d. too great a number oj ditlerent file$ in my reolDlmtudatiool in Chapa: r 3 J it-as because I rcalirJ.: the aced for various ".pes and siUl, an.d know how the possession of the right :file £Or the joh win speed up work and DYe cost:.

One of the tint IHSODJ ee be learned in the n-.tter of .6.ling is to taic aU the short cuts pca"bl.e--othcnrise the job becomes 10 tedious that one tires of it and Kiva: it np in di5KlJBf. I hav.e: ICed & man ICOUring nray far th ree hoon on I bar of deel with • :fir.tm mill file" tryinl 10 take otl nearl,. • qtlarter inch al ~tal.. It never occurred 1m 'him. for .ollie I'tTaII.P reuon... to .w die itrip oil dose to the 8ne with the bacbaw I and fiDUb ""With a fil.e~

Before .aom. into thete abort cub bowtvert th~ am.a teur methanic Mould first bow how t(J use ;. lite; to make his rtro'kes in I. .trai"h t line.. without rockioC the lile, resul tin, in .. perfectly flat nrface iMteml of a rounding one, Duce this iI lea med any man can ;&equirt profidency with - th C' fil~; and. unb1 and ualess it iI le:trned1 II is wo rk will be of the crudest, most amateurish type.

Wh.tev~r it i9 you art: filing~ it mOlt b~ held very firmly m the v& \Vlu:n _ part W()bhlts about this way and thatt you amno't :file it CDrre:dy. U Be leather" bras8t sheet lead or whatt!"'er is nee "!III.rJ I to hold it. &.t rt' it a, mild. Lay the file evenly cn the Sit Nrface of the work; bold the h.md.le in the right nU1~ the point in the Idt~ and awing the arm! forward in & fun body m~~nt9 keeping the filt' constln tty in th-e lame plwe.. Deapite you r best dforts the file will lOCkl .and the SIl'l'face will be rounded.. No matter how ftl t you think it il! jUlt hold L t up to the ligh t with I. small aqua re Dr ttnip ted", touching the IUr:face. uuI the curve will be plain. Only practiee t with ronstll1t rhDug}Jt to th e direction of the Itroke and the movement of die han~ will correct tbil fault.

I am a :firm ~lieve"r in coarse, :hst curtinl files. I nevI!!: r muld see MJthinI pined by promrinl the job with I "ow tool. If there i. 1/32 inch or more of metal to ~ removed t J will tIe • medium cut bastard file aDu1 I ill most reaeh the line.. then I{O ahead with a me.lWII tine tingle C!Ut or milt file1 and finish with • fine au Swill. Gettinl rid of IUI1)IUl metal quit:kly relieva. much at: the monotony -.... 1x~ rae, even the coaneIt lite doc., It rtduee dimenaions .. r1.,. 10 fat u it' • emil MUllUtmDmtB with a mierometeT ~r • Rw tutl will mow hOW' flit the work- really pI'OIl~'1IeW- uoI.IIcI it i8


IU rprising how many cuts with a new aha Tp mill file are n~edcd to reduce the t hicbteta of a piece of cold lolled Ited ii. thousandth 0 f III inch.

The in~10uSi mechan ic limp lilies his filinc in a l'aric:tJ of \fays..

For example on a piece 0 f uneven shape:. such as the reeeiver 0 f an au tomatie pistol t be -will block it w ~ th squire bars of cold. rolled 51«1 bttweell the receiver and vise j aWl 'Until the work. i! held as dEb I as II. squ. re bar "Would be. N D worlJ' new .bo-ut the thin.g slipping and the file making an incorrect OJ t. ODe kink ] have found most useful when maki ng smaU part' from aolid stock is to ktep a small ch eap cast ... bon vise, ~a;rin, only a dtlil. r 01 501 .and use it partly as a nooK' jig.. Hiving mar ked en the E11&tt rial the line 1:0 11' h ich th e filing extends, rbe piete is placed in the v is:: w itb thu line just below the ed. ge 0 f the j.WI. N ow I can use R COJI rse u.atp Jilt!: an d to ugh off metal wi thou t though ~ of going too far, until the 6.le hits the edges of vise jaws. I (an then rai. the work. slightly in the jaws, and bnish-nIe with a finer-cut toot I keep the vise j II'WS .filed st raigh t' and Bat on top ~ which enables me to k:~C!p thle :&u rface of th.1!! work: very true_ I I JIU..k-es 110 dHU:r .. ence if the: :file cuu or mars the jawa I simply file th~m true .. pin later. A nd it taka :a Jonel lone time r and hund~u of jobs, to wtl.l even. I. IlRall vise nvA}.

Whm thr: lite names.. the. v i~ jaws it is ncar ly impossib I~ to rouod

• IU met 0 f the work held between them, AI the j .Wi keep the file dead levelt cr if it ml)uld lock slightly, it is the outer edge, of thlt jaws th a. t ar.fJ rou.nd~dt and not the "",or&'

Tbil .tunt La also use ful when cuttinr i rreru1a r aha pail ~:Ior example tile shl.pbtl up Df I barre:l bAndl lib! Fi y:u ft! 36. A ~IilJ· tic n of thi.s job from shirt to Mlsb wID indudc a lot oj nIe techniQuc wh idl CI1I be ad apted and applied to other jllb!l.

In riau r-c 36. A Ihowl. II ~ieee -of tbi ~ W-R 11 Pd S~l by t, :.hi ng rut to .Mut S!8 inch long. The 6rst th Ing to do i. level up and 1Illooth



OBe sidel which is done in I mcment by holding it apirlJt' the: pde of the emery whf!et N ow saturate .a sma 11 wad .,.1 cloth or waste wi th copper sulph ate solu tian t a bottle of which should be on the bench at aD timrs. Ruh this I j ~ rl Y Q\I'U the bright dr:an $Qna.ce un til well coa ted w.i tb coppe r ~ Wi thou t tn us copperinl tbe workt it i:s dilicult to Dlark lines on it that will sbow clearly, Now by the blade 1) f the cen terini aqua" across thia f.ace. with botll tep RltiDr apjrut the outer -edit (he: lUre there are QO burn OIl ed~ to throw the squire OlJt 01 line) and scribe :a ceatc r Iin.e aeroa the faa: of the riDCt All Dltl5\l remen tI are to be taUq from this line. ut UI la, you want a swivtl I.frtw .tud l/Z hJch wid~ os. this band.. With dividen Jay out deb an either sidr; .nd 1/4 inch from the anter line. and connea these dots by Una .. .m'Wn It B" Fjeure 3 ~ C .shOWI the method 0 f pro jmina the center line Ind two lidel aero,. the td.:lZe of stock wi tb I. ua.n sqUlre. H.vin.

done tb i!. ,. face up' t the other' ~dc at the emery wbeci, copper it and proja:t the ~D tee line acrou it with the cmterinJr .... uar~ i from ~ meaaure off and rule in the side Hoes of .tud, .. you did on the other .ide. Now !itt the piece in tb.: vile. and with the hackII,. lop oS 9:ce§ metal ~ II shown 11, dotted lines in O •. ligure 36- N ow at ide the piece dcwn iJl the vise so that jlllt enough metal projects below the upper edge 01 jaws, to give the depth 01 :fillet wutcd where the stud joins th e band, and wi tb .a rattail file of the ngh t size~ file dow n in I:h is :£ll~' un til the file toudlet the 'Vile ji.W& B~ ~ careful not to make this fillet CUt ron th rough fh~ line





of the aide m the stud--bear prasu R to ri,ht or left u requiral, or shih tb~ position 01 the pitee: in the vise slightly if necellary~

Cut the fillet en the otbc r side of stud in exactly the same manner ; thea reset the" work: in th-e vi~ so thl t the side lines just meet tH ed~ 01 viae jaws, and DIe down to these lines. TbUi the ItUd • quIckly rougb~ to find shapel n~ding only ~thill& up with a liM r: file,. and slight roundiftl of the !harp edFL

The ~d is now damped qew-!u: in the vile and the sharp eerners of the saw cuts roughed oft with .& double tut ~t 'butard file. until the band portion is about 1/16 inch thick. For thia work ... the file in any direction that is most COf1veruent-arouad the bsnd, or aclOSS it~ If you have an mteIY wheel~ lOUIe filiDI ma:r be uved by rDllgh ing 0& the saw cut! -on the wheel,. the bud beilll held in the fin ~ on the tool rest 0 i the grinder t' and turned .ho\ll as nq u i red, Th e band is now :ready to lit and :finish. as de- 9Cribal in Chapter 24.

W'hen making small plm to replace broken action parb, p-rat ClI1: it i1CCC1.ary in the JilinI' to ah.1PE: the new parta wu:tl,. like the 'Old. A hammer ~ or tnKler" for exllDrJ~ must be IittUratdy .haped or it will not work with the other ~ in the actio.. The bat way to accomplish this is to first wort down tbe stock for the new part to l1~rly the correct thickness; tin. one tide thinly with 10k 101d.er i tin the pieces of the b raken put;JI lay them. to,pther in correct poeitiOil 011 the nnw piece of Itock, and lWeat them on.. Then ~d or file the mcta1 down to the n:act oudinc of the old part. I f the part hili • hole thraUSEh it for a pin or_ ~rew t th. Ihould. be drilled thnrudt the hole in old part before ,haPI1l up",

When there it IlICb • hole, aDd. the mape of the part iI not CO~


plk.l1!d~ th; sw~tizJg is ~itted in !lOme ~ by fim d rUIIn..I me hol~ then msertlng the drIll through the h ol~ in the aId part .alhi the Stork. fa, tb ~ new one1 and thws holding the two together in !he viM: w~ ile tiline:. AfttJ:" fin ishingl a 1ittle beat will melt the tolder! ~ Ta tinl th-= new pa rt from th e old ane, ""hen it can be: poIi .. hcd up and tempclCd ()r case-hardened u desi red.

FINIS II FI LIN G: MOlT worHng pam etn be flied Ia smooth tha.t little ~ .01 polimmg is necessa ry-i n fact, dte poU.hinll is often ~I ~d enure:l,. A fttr t~ e rough eu trin g is ovll! r and parDi brouah I WI th I n tf!D nr tuJ?1 ve thlQu'Rndtl1, of Ii nAl ,ha,. and dimtnlioul fin ish sh aping with a single l:ut mill nit. It wiI l 0 ften prove desi r-

POOR ~~IS J~MES BOND Vol. 4 201 MODERN GUNSMITHING able or n~&ary to (rind the teeth from the edge Of • :file to ad.pr emery do·tIJ· wrapped OYer a 6L; .ad 'W'atClJ the ooIon run down it to the WCl rk-and sometimes to lZ'ind the edge- to In anile to from the bot IpOt back of point. When the butt ald is bl lie, dip reach in and Jl ftlpr rl y shape the pieee, Do not hesitate to do fbil ~tin: eIIiRl in oil. H.~en aod tempeT the cuttiq- edp or point if necessarr-1i1a a re cheap, aad the special file prepared for th,e an the ame .J:JUtn lie!, d rlWUlI the temper .t Up. purple or brown.

job today "'Will again prove uie"ful (In iOJll£ futur~ job.. PleJIty of In \dlnc cold chite], alw.ya mmider die Ii. and mancter of

.files constleu te the g'lIrumim "a greatest .-t. ti.e workt and aTOid heavy chisdinC where it r. Iibl, to Ipriac or

The wDrk with the mill file should brin II the part to within one bend the mMl. Hold tile claile) in left hmdt "With palm cuppaI or two thousand Ihl of final dimensions. afer which. it II finished to aINwe thl! a1&r: to d~flect chips Df mcbI ad pn.1!bI: their ItrikIaa exact siz~ wi th fine Swi'Sl files of the l'equired thape 01" aize. Vel'}' you in the f;ace or fJ'tL Wbca. condderablc cut is til be ~

UDall pam rhlt cannot be readily held in a viM ror 6aiahinl may 79

IOlDetimc be :finished by layiDg them on th~ file and pushi DI the lu.n near t:hc! edp lad wort bact, taking DU.t a chip with each pi" against. the teeth with the fiDpn. Another way i. to IC It' blow Ot the blmmer.. Learn to .trike wlth the SIDle force acb solder the part to a piece 0 f .rasa or .ted. IaIKe enouch to be hdd time" and take me &aIDe dtpth of cut.

In tht vise t finish one tide I melt off the IOld~r ~ tum it aver aDd In aclectinl; and sharpening yOur ch iaels, don't try to emulate the 101 del the othe r :tid e 1 and fini$h4 W'heu finall, l"CIJI01'eci the solder aan.ge man who UItS a chisel principally :for cuttiJ11 0& bolts4 Your tha t rem.aill!li is read ity polished off with :fine emery cloth. chileb will be smaller;l li~«t ~ harder ~ &ad with decidedly more

FILE SCULPTURE:. Thit ten:a .11 been aptly applied to the ~ than be nBS. And yoa will n04t bf! limited ~ to .Mpe-your wDrk of • few skilled artisaru in the IIIlnufacrure, entirely by the ChlR11 may be made my lhape required jar the JOb in bud. In use of fil~ of various complicated 1lU.1I parts: Uld certainly there "rindin, (which should be done the minute a ch.ileLt, edge is it no 1m ter skill in all the kid of lDedtlllio, th In wu displayN dulled). 1IH a. fine" fast emery o.r CIlIboruad lim wbe~ and very liebt by • few old timers, here and there, in the sha,ing: af omamental p rcuurc to .void burning. Hold the chisel on the wheel only a d evkes, hammen. COCOa frizzenrt etc. t .. well as the even pater second Dr tWO.i dip it in water, and grind spin! COI.ItinuinK until fea ts Df ClJttmr; out en ti R: breech portions entirely by hand. I have tbe edge. .. sat itfacto ry ..

seen loh n Wright who hag served his time with the linear 1Wl- Cold chisels are never sharpened on a stone; the slirh tlr roua:h mum in England. take a heavy biDet of tool steelt md with .eeld ec!.p leJt by a .&at arindini w~l is bese for use co metal If you chisels. hackllwl, drilb, snd files 4114 ii I D ,i W 'G OU~ shape- it into. h.a ve no pinder) l t is permis:H.c.le to teueh up the cd IC 011 the coanc beautifully form~d sbotlUn breech. The camplicated inaide (UbI side: of the ~'borund UIQ stene, but fRq\1aJ. t gri~dilll of cold. cb.iIrlt md the wond~ nully gTaft!ful curves. of the stJ.nding breeeh ind icate it alwa,. n!'Cfssary t 'When the griJldlng hallt &bortened. the point the ultimate in milim. crafa.mamb.ip and natural la.l9-uity.. ne to th~ extent that the temper of the wge hu chlUl~1 the chiael '-U"b Em many aneienr WUpoll. are mil r-ega rded with awe by Dodd. be :fint annealed t then polished * re--tempe.m:i, aad re--pouad. eollectcrs; who ClJlnot but ml wei. at the unlimited patience with D RILLIN G : I t would seem ]Il) easy matter to Fut • drill in wbich the old .. time gunsmith fil~dl day after day] "wu:t after week i the dJ.ud::1 center it on the spot, and. turn the crank. Bat tb.enl .. • til the ru. ishe.:! IUD in ita beauty aad dip.ity, embodied not only more to d rillinll than this. The first essencal D a KOOit properly me lOul of it! maktr I but the "J'J'. lPirit of die iDd.omibbIt: ap £round drill j the 5CC()J1d! In accu rate center punch; the third. • til which he lived. And then. to have to compare thia ~laa of work cc nect drill lub rican~

with tb& tobbIiol of IOIDe 01 the lO-CJdIed mechania oj taci&y I M~ that has Melli case hardened or tempered. must either be

,g .1 anneal edt U described el~here" or I spot mutt De gnnJDd 0:1

But I am forgettj nl the diwinbr.; hen! is a trad~ which Mould the surface ~ that the drill may take hold. Wbca neither ,1111 bay! been claaed with the Sse 1m. TD watch a pod die-sinbr is available, COlt tile au rrace wilh melted beeswax or paraffin. work It lWCrk C1n 1101 but Mnmr any ~th~ :ama1Zur OT" profeuiond- a RlUllI hole in til! ~ with the point of • ICriber I :lilt apply a IDd if you ha ve in mind same little job of fiJill2t like the making drop of Spencer acid (See Chapter 20) or I sol mon of 1 part of .. fancy s~otgun J.:ammer! of wh.ich you lIand in. awet make: it a nitric acid and 4 pans w.ab.t. Wben the Itrenp of the acld point if possible to vilit • shop wllcre die-makin. is in p~ and ia exhausted, appl, mo 1'1:, and continue un ril it ha "eaten" • ..,.y see !COle rttJl .filing done. You "11 1nm more in 11ft minute! than th~ surface of the metal to a &ptb Q f 1/32 iaeh, Waab 0:1 wi th you could acquire frcm a week of tUdinltt You will ICC filiD. water, and center punch, ·and. the drill should EO in easily~ Some-dane in crirne~ mpes and inside CUI'Yt.I that you nner dreamed times very hlrd ittel can be drilled by • common tvritt drill huda :file could reach. Yau will &efJ clean cut W'Ork tuned out in plau:~ enM: by heatirq to ch.e rry red and coolinl in mercu.ry. This makes when!: the 'I rok:e of thl! hte i. 10 tMrt' J't'U will wondl:r mat it cuts the point 10 bntd! that lrel t care is r1eCeaaty to prevent thippinl at all ~ Iip,t preasurel and run drill slowly. When drilling .cry

In the shaping of bammen and other puts with OJrva di:&icult bard 1!Itft!!!~ WI!: pl1~ turpentine imtead 0 f (Jil .. II I l1bri-cant for the to reach" you wiD leam to appreciate the IIIII.Il Swi. fila and drill.

rilRers: fo r no other tools w:nl do the work that they do .. eaily. Take can: 0 f you r drills md l:·riOO: them as soolJ as they Jet dull O~ you bmJme acquainted with their p-..1Jil.itiee. AmI anI It 11 impoaeible to describe how to hold • d rnl anti .live it the of the mo!t useful 0 f these is the American Swi. tl OMina; hlct in pec;.liar rwi.t requiud to corr~tl1 mape the POlRt ,hit I nw:hine Imlths mm th ret! to AX inches. Ravine. 1S_ly Sit cutVe an MO, and watch them do it--th.en spoa • few old drill. for practice. one sid~ .nd a deeper cu 1'TC on the other. and tIpCrine to • alilhtly Bait to ba..e • eood drill lrindina: .ttld:unmt for you r pinderrounded point t with hard. sblrp teeth to tha extxeme tip., they will it will quietlr pay dividends. 80

aimOit do the impossible, cleaninl out curves ~d romer, th.t

C'Uu~ d not otherwise be! RJChed at .u~ Never put I!aoup p~UJ1!! OIl • drill to spring it; use :pleaty oi

COLD eH ISELS : TbE UICI of mid claileh aM often not lIP"" pod Illhriant and if tb~ point does. ftot u.b bold it rna... that pled_ted by the In nsmithl dtwpite the fact thlt lengthy pram~ iI the drill nadl sharpening. If I .rill becomes bent, discud it at not ~Iltial to their WIC. Often a llllp amount of filml may be otlcc. md save it .. pins or lIOIIIerhinc et.e. A.,rung drill will avoided by a little j udicloll8i chisel wotkt and dUsels of an, requited enlarp ami taper the hole, perla.aps makinr it too IaI'iC for the sh. .an~ edae may be quiekly forl!'d out as needed. A quatity crew that it i. intea.d.=d to fit.

of higl.. grade tool mel in 3/8'. J/ ..... and. 1/2 Inch hexqon b&n Marble's Nitro Sol'Vet1t Oil mak~ a splendid lubricaat for an1t·

W111 l"IY diridmch: when you learn to use c:bieele. i .. g small bolea. Pure lard eil md kerosene is aMthcr cood one j

In md:mg [hisd~ hoth end. should be forp:I.. The }Jutt end or the Iud.", oil may be URd ttraight.. Turpentine 1.11. aaDlpbol"l it hamme r:ed to a slight taper t ad It tile SI.IDe time tlightly llPJItt half U1d half t will mable you to d rin daM without chippinr·

and the ed£~ rounded. The point is flattened and drawn to re- REAMING OPERA TIONS = Be sure your reamen an: in &ODd qu.iRd !hapet with considerable ucold forcing" .. tbe metll cooIa. .... pe. correct 8~~ ud sharp.. U mesa you hlln c:ouaidenhle a" m C()mpact and slrtnEtbm the fibres.. TIle map! u th!n trued up perience in grind inK reamers, take them to a grindinl' sbcp wlum by fili nR: or Findi nK~ then &orh ends 1ft h.rdened ad tempered they nH:d. ml.rpenil1l.. WhtD r~lng it r. important rhat the work separate),. FI nt pcldh the lend to be hudened with mediulD eme1 y be held rigid in the vise any .,rinrPllaa may cause the IftllWr to clom Heat to cherry ral for .bout two mchea. ... d dip the cnd "·cbattcr't md m.r.:e a I1JUi;h cut.

for about 3/4 inch in oil to h ... mm.. Quzc:k1 y polish the m.d. with A good strong die holder of the ,rope r size mlm the bat h.lDdle




for Jarct teamen. Never try to we the reamer in a brace, oor In. • mon.ke, w reoch, as I have seen done; the tap wreDch is fine for ..".1 ( reamers, and the die holder for the larger ones. Gra5p the handle in both hanclat and tu I'll mad i1 y with equal prasu re 00 ~oth~, U se the soda warer and oil mixture referred. to jn Chaph! r 3l as 2 I umicant, :and use plenty 0 f it. Remove reame rInd wuh out the chips at frequent internl!~ Feed the reamer .lowly, and if it sti~ do not try to force· ~t, or )'OU will bRat .. 'lade i back up the cut slighdy. and feed H,h t1y.

TAPPING SCREW HOLES: Tbe use of riaI1 screw· thrl!!ad. taps i. often a burbear to the ama,teur mcch.n.ic~ particularly mea tappin, slI.alIow !totes in tough steel. Some 1n formation on til R subject it .Ki VC'Q in eh aptet 29 in cQnftccnon wi tb the :fitting of stPb ud. 900p~ b~. but a few 5uaestion!!! of a general aat"a.re here ma,. Dot be amia.

Be sure your dri 11 is the correer sise for the tap-chrei: up on tbe P Uaet and ~heck. the dri 11 size by trying it in tbe hole of the: pu~. 1 f me bole i§ IballO'W~ bottom i rout levdt eit:her with a w heel or inverted tone bu rr on a dental enginet or with a Sat drill (See Chapter 4) ~ or ao end mlll of the proper size.. Alwan start the til read with a staronr up. that is with the -end ~und tapered t

and as soon as the end 0 tap hits the botttlm of hale, continue wj til :I similar lap with less taper, :tlnishil1g with one having no taper at: aU.

Wh~n ~ppjn'l' thia. 'tOugh. stock~ or wheo. USiDg ~thel" .all tapa. the cbipa of metal cause the tap to stick at frequent iob!: rval& U II plenty of Oil. md wben the tap !ltieo, never try to :for-ce it. Bad: it up • tum or twol then 10 forward apin-alowly an" rendy. A tap b mkea 0& !hon in a hole is the best thing I m~ of to CUJ& .bout. Sometimes it can be drilled out with • :dentd bUrr, but


likely u n~ it will prove n~ to heat the spot red .. bot whh an E ..t. __ .. ., L __ .JI ·.L_ '......--.J \.. __ .1'

h - 1 ... L. - d hi .. · to d the ARL Y .n.u.u;;:ncan n e JD.ILen AUll IWJl'Dll.Ull cmpl.U.7~ .IIU1l

aatJlme tore to anneai OK' tap an t S II nor: plnl 0 maple almost excb.-ive1y for thei r ItOCb and the - ... of th.is

KW1 any good. After annealinl., the brokea tiP QU'J usually be wood persisted through the :IIindock and wen il1to the pm:uaion

dril.led out. Peri~ Almoulh maple poaeaes many Uvat1tage1 for pa ~

Remember that tapll &te 'Very bard, and hence easi ly broken. the exact rtUOr.t for its selection. m view of the larp .supply of

\Vben )"0\1 feif:1 the tap spri~ng ever 10 littlel without turninK ia walnut then l'Vailable~ iI un.kno9m~ but me DlUIlerOlQ beautiful the bale ease up! Sc,methiag is wrong~ and it nuy map oil in IIPceimtn. of early American fire arms now remaining with .. aDd

an instant. Baclt: it up a bit. apply more cil, and go ahead. f hei tocb f h dred

The fact that I. ri£le receiver wall is h II. rd r: ned OQ both tide. is the excellent ~rance 0 t et r • a ter I un ~ars or more:

oftaa the uacxpccted, causc of bIeakinli!: both drill. and tap& TIu= :l:~or~~~~te the pocI judpncnt of their mann in the

anncalinrf or IJindini ott 01 th-.: outer surface ma.y leave the il1Side From the limited iDformation. available OIL the IUbject it appean suriaa nearly as h. rd M it was before; and when the d rill bits this that walnut WB!I' used. for ltacb lo. Europe alrnmt flOlll the hebard au tflcc in ~ia g tb rough, it Dlay Inap like I. t'OOthpit;~ Slow rJ an ine: of :fire armsl and walnut. bflth European and A mericaa., is up the drill when nearly throup .. and use plenty oi oil. The same todat in almost uoivcral 'UK I Snx:a have bcca made from other appliel to the tap~ only more so, Take your time when usina small wood~~ birch ;and oak stock. are not unmmlllDll-l:Rlt ...mut

taps. md i-em.!mber ies better to wasre ten minutes dainK the job is betOQiing the atandardt and while itt ... may be :in • IDtUUrt

than to break oH the tap and waite a couple hou n ren-in, it out. due to ellsrom and. aenti ment. yet in quditil!l are to .at .dapled

A FEW SHOP KI N KS: To inutase the size of a worn reamer. tb L..-L..l L..- ..... __ 11 d DOd ill be

hul'Disb. mil face of tach of the tl!l:lh witb. • smoothly polished bum- :.!:!:t;aee at pro ..... ., DO ---- .... -11IWI W W CfCI"

iaher made from a three-&quan: file. An Increase of from two to MAPLE (4. ref' BdC(lr.flI'ia.m.l aIIo known .. HARD MAPLE. ten thousandths is possible, after wbich the reamer may be caRfulI, ROCK MAPLE and SUGAR. MAPLE .. ): Thit wood It • .a.aJft lto.Becl to lize with a slip haDe. of Eutem United Statal &ad CIIRIda. and its may .. rable quali-

To mal::e a lap or reamer cut I.TiC r than itKl f t pad: twine or ties will fully justify its ue by th.. who prefer it 'ft) walnut.. I IS WUII!: in one of the B u.~ to crowd it over agairm the opp.oai te side. weip t is 1U::pjl.~ut 31 pounda per cubic foot ,.,hea. IClaaDCd. In 'VC:IJ large sius, put a strip of tin on one side, and let it follow It ill often found with curlr twist:rd pa~ aim in ~ ~

the tap or reamer blade ar~nd. T Wbcm. ht cut the wood it almOit pule white and beeoIDat .aewruu . All lathe or ?lhcr macblo= work calling for w~cr cuts will ~ rosy after IellOniD'~ When thOl't'Upl, ....,Btd it is cxtrea:oely.bard lIllpruved by USlDI' strong gal soda or soap water m!ltead of plain and cI uIh IQOb very npldly. It bu lrat Itreqth 1nIt it MlllCWbat

Wl.Bttrabb· t. b t P 1 f' h • f L~'~ 1llOl1! brittle thaa w&lnut.. Ib ...... ite color of coune IJ01."ft5itala the

lttlnf earmgs : ut a ump 0 l'OIlIl t e a:ze 0 ... wa.mllt 14·

in the babbi ttl w bich will make it Sow better and lmprove ib quaUt]'. •.. _ ., •

ROIm·alJo prcvmtl 4 ·blowin~' when the bearing b.u:es Ire damp. 'USe of ..... ' na I~ DqlM.olL but wher:a p~rl,. applied to the nKht kiad

Kenwne itJ the best cu tting I ubriean t lor hLmi:ag or drillUq of maple ~I}" beautlful nsul tI ate ob~ed. I 11.,., aeal a ,lOCk of

alumjnwn. . cutl,. maple with • few birda-eya .scattered here and thac. 1he

Pr.eventiOI rust on tools cr guns in 1toraae: Use va&!line or I beauty of which could not be IU~ by the finest imported wallJut. bel:" acid free (lease with .. small quantity of powdertd gum APPLE (P,.,..., M.lu): Oa:aaitJnally one of the old ICbool nle.. camphor addtd· melt the crease and camphor tcarther over a water IIl.bn would anplay dW. wood for a IItock, witb splf!lldid rem1fL ba~ " Altboup the outer wood i, nearly pure w hi te l"h.c:n cut, the hell rt it

PmentinE TU5l on polbb!d It.eel .rr~~ drill mdl ~ Polish I rich reddim-bUJWD yelY bani .. and. d~ po~ DOt beinl visible the sta«. dry with very lint =;e It Cloth thc~ .....ash with ~. aclu- ~ the naked eye. . So d~ble, IS Apple ~ that 'It bu been. IUCC'nf-den of 1 pou..nd. copp~r sulphate m 3 pounas ramwaMr. Th:q forms fully used· tor co~cda Ln IlJ'ht ~.duneryl an~ IS larJdy _ ~r • I'UIt proof copper coating on the sU!d. tDOi hutdles, ~mg Delrl, AI atIsiadOlY,. Upm VItae for tbrt

SeaL: it. nsil y removed I rom srfd. afU!r wd di ng or forginlL .lgn purpose. It baa also hem Illggested n a Imtabile wood for the. bead! ffO~ QU.l.iJ .p, by piq.,liuK ju Wiil,lCl, 9 vat ta, ~ulpluu il: an.;idl I pall {.. of pl.f c1ubt. It aDould. be ICUODCd for ICvcnll yeal., ~Il" li.l lIIC

R-emovinm old bluing: W uh with pu re bydrochlcric .. acid, then nDle in clear water. I t is necessary to poli!h parts 'With uraD YQ De. fore reblklin~ but this win g:ready reduce the polisbinz nct-If .. 82

Bluing: steel partl without heat! Coat wi til p'U re nitric acid; wipe oil add w jtb d~ rag.. apply I~d cil, then buraiah liPdJ an a wire buffer ~

To distinguish between ~ ron and steel. iiI e the surflCC' bright &Ild apply & drop of pure nitnt: aei d. Aftft". minu te Or two~ wash 011 wi th wa.ter. On WI'Ouz-b t iron the .epot will be • pale ash craY i en I1eel • brownish blackl and on cut .. iron a deep black.

Case-banlmjng with kerosene: A quitE and euy method for 1IDI.1l b uny .. up j om. After pol ish in I. rub me pan thickly wit'll ordina ry blind ry SOlP, then heat in charcoal :fiu to cherry red. and .immed..iately plunge into ke rosene. The part:l are left whin: and dean by thi.a method IU1d free frOID scale.

Ahn.p maintain uDirorm !~r:d when uunz- tw at drilla; ~ mak~ , drill cu.t futer. increasE the feed bll t not the speed.

. For a q uiei set~in.l rust joint:- l pan powdered lII.~mon ilC, 2 pam sulphur, 80 parts fine iron Blings. water to a:llike .. thin ~ Useful for senmc screws to .fill IIp aJ:d -=rew .ol~ erc., particularly when screw is loose in hole.

Metal to apand whm. cooling.: LRd~ 9 pam ;; antimony, 2 parts; biamutbl 1 part..

~ . raistin, due: White flue glue, ] pound; milk. 1 qUirt; soak over night, then cook aa.tne as water miud a;l ue, addinr

milt u needed to thin, 81






nquira. sbarp toals. At thauch I never made a stock. fIom Apple than the indetcrib.bly intricate pattem of a fiDe African mabopnJ' woocil I would. r:xpc'Ct it to take the finQr ot checking. and. would burl-and nothini" much ~Tt either I So unl,* JOU. are lucky. fJDplOJ oil for finishin" same heinz thinned with turpentine to assure mcl jutt bl)JIHa to nm acl'Oll such a piece, bett .. ,tick to walautpenetratioa. for th-e Iftraight &mined mahopny UIlally .. Id to .furniture muu-

CHER.RY (PntJlW 4 r:i~m) : A well known wood" and. ODe COIJ. facturen. would. .make • mighty clleaJ) looml Itoct..

sid.erably u.d in eulier tUns, particularly by th~ ~ PenanaJI, I believe that lI18hopny. if I.IICd for • atockt ~ 'huiLIme his ow-a rile. It 'IV" .not the choice of the aummitb u' on. the -.mple gun, or one intetldeci for plftentation, ntlaer than mIc. who preferred curly maple. Cherry, when fint ent, i.a of It Upt for .mOUl work. The wood b more brittle. uuI hu DOt nearly

red or pin~ but dad:~DI aomnrb&t 08 12llO$Ure. The ann~r riap 86

are very distinct, the pons very fine; but OUIDet'Qut. afJd medlllJ.ty the ItlerJgtb of walnUL It it much licbter in we11ht.-tl'Olll 26 to 1&,. ItI'Cn.cly marked. Due to it! greater dcDSity of Illim. ,Rater 31 pounds per cu.bic fcJ.ct-to that mi. the ttoek " ver'1iarp .aa waPI:. and greJtcr Itreqtb. I consider Cherry sup!rior to mahogany tb~ the po will be decidedly muzzle heavy. The Iarp PORI tIo lor ItOCb.. It' must he t!tomuih1y aeasoned. and orilJ the beart 19'OOd not adapt it for checking except by an ~n:, neither ia the wwel mould be wed.. as the .p i, ~t certain to become worm ea~n adapted tu ail finishes. Faler is 8Jl absolute DecetsityJ ad either in • few yam. By USlni & litili: .fillel t & wry fine oil finish can be lacquer or d.ull rubMd varnish ahould be employed :in pl'I!!lerma: obtained. on Cherry. The weight ranges from 33 to 49 pwndi per tu oil.

cubit foot MYRTLE. At lUll: one firm in the United Sma advertita

R.OSEWooD (Dal6,.,.,. "i~)/I Brui1 ~ This wood is qwre Myrtle woOdstock blanb, but I am of the opinion that tb~ word. II well bowu tbrouPout America and E~ but it la. popular I mi~r. Boulger. in oi~Wood'· (London, 19(2). BI)'J "--a ,.. for fumitlU't DOW than. fcrmuly.. The.min is very nfiD. Yety hard not applied to &Oy useful 'WOod in the N ortbt=rn HemitpherL I:J The ami 01 d .. tature~ It takes an excecdiDKl' smooth IUnacc mc! Myrtle of thil COUftUY is a madl1nuh Dr mrub, &ltbOU&h the DIIJ).e .. hip polish. POftS are irrqular i n si~1: and fJIlJitioot V&ryinc in Myrtle it sometima incorrectly applied. ttl lOme varieties of Bee:b. lice Uld numbers in the di:liercnt concentric 1f'OWt,h.. The color is MYRTLE~ BLACK (O",.ri/lid ,,,,llZtII&rfl). Thia wood •• native I lipt red wbicl1, befall! jjnishine, fades on proloneed cxpoIW'e to of nDrtbeast: Austnli~ i. also b.cwo as '~Grey Plum. tI Md it, or light There an! irrqular bel b,. Df d.ark linea follcwiq the c:on- lO!De 0 f the other 'VlIrietia of that district Druld prcnrc dtainble far eentric J!Owtht and the medulluy rip In .&ne Ind numcrcUft often Iud: wood, and may be the wood otlered in Ibil- country under the cnaed at riaht angles by fine W'h~tisb lUJa, form in I .. beautiEul and gmeraI name of Myrtle. Black Myrtle is raldiah in eo1or. dole iDtticate GeNOM pattaa 4 Quartft.Ia winl oiteo. briG.. GUt & beaU* Ctainc4. and toulb, Itl'Or!l and. dunble, lating a hip polish ..

tiNl ripple or ·'fiddle backll~ 1lUa. M\4'RTLE~ DROOPING (Bare'" y,,.lfMm). Thi. alto

An aeeJ1ent stock wood, althoulh quite bu..,. (S4 pounds per comes from Nottbeut AUJtrali~ where it iI known .. uBrusb cubic ioot) and U&U&lly d.iiicult to obtain in l1d&ricndy wae pirca. Cherry .. " It ia heavier than W&lo.1.1t 47 to 51 pounL per albic Sbould be oil finished I usinc lipt colored. ail. Takes Me cbed:inc foo t; it is lilb t red.duh or yellowisb II not .very attractift u to grain" po fectlr with Iharp took, and. is 0Ile of Ihe euiat woods bJ c:hd, hut atron g and dastic. lrand! seasoning without checking or cnd-

b, talOn of ib dmtily and b&r:da. i~l, works well, and takes a 1000 polbh. I!1 AUstralia it I!I uaed

85 for boomerangsl staves,. oa~ beat buildq and tooJ.. handla~

ROSEWOOD (Ddlb".';" lII'1i~fJn. I .. Eat radian: Altboup well MYRTLE, SCR. U B (Boc'hoNria m,rtiJ/aliil;. ADotber Ilorth-

~.... # I e..tern Australia Taritt11 known also • Native Myrtle. Grey

bl.uwn in this coun try as a deainhle futnituEt wood. it it ICldom M}"'I'tle. and Lancewocd. Lign t yellow I often beautifully IQa.rb:d

\lied :for ~t althou&h ocalionllI, • rosewood .tack is found with dark brown, walnut colored Itaint) very hard and don pa.i.n.ed; on • Me h.utdmad~ !lmtl\UL Ita lIt&test clrawhacl it. the di5cultJ' toulh and. durable, Seasons and 'WOw well In aynm()D DIe in of obtainiD.1 it in piees nd6cient1, larae, II Dearly all the su.pply is this count:ry for bcws1 also extensi veIy used for too:l bruila, mat. m.ade up into nDeer. [ti color is variahlc.. cenc:nUy • rich lip t red letat etc, S bould ta]u: checking well I and. p:od. fin illh..

strabd with a deep purplish black, and wim vuyin, colden yeDow BEECH (Fozm $,l~ti(#). This wood is licht reddmb brown in tbadeL It is dense and hardt with :fine dale enin, heavier thaa eoler, fine lOin, smAll POJ'1!l, with annulat rings ana medullary ran wUn'Ut I.Dd lOJDewltat aiDte brittle. A-.erage ...er;h.t 33 pallO" per rtronlly marked. It should be sawn into board. or pl'"n immedicubic foot.. It tim & splendid polish "With oil. wbich deepens the .t~11 .her fell in I.. B~1!:Ch has been used in conltocb beelu:ae of itt c:olor and improva the appel.r'ncr. U suaIly it is easy to clxd:t dOle train and rich coIorl which da rkeDJI 'With oil rubbin't but its bcin& 10 b.ard .and deaR ... that there is little tmdeocy for the mol to liabnity to .attack by worms makl5 it lOmC'Wbat und.esirable. It b.b. fcIlow the~. ~ however. thee .W1n be I contr&ry hard checking well! aDd i. ~1'J ItrOng and elastic. Thill wood it. mUDd ia and 10ft (fu~ ~ dlfti.cqJt to haadle even ~ tbe sh~rpeat of tooIa. Grear Btitaint Norway. and throughout CtlDtral Burope 10 Spsin;

HAHOGANY: There an: .. many VUieba of 1hLt well knowII abo ill Alia Minot and Japan .. The Asiatic: YUietie! are liebter in wood ~ ODe -wonder. ",!by iii ~ Ih.CJu.!d be 10 Ja-rplr ~ color than the European.t with IDOl"e uniform color; are alto someta furmt1l1"e.. Mahopny It f~ 1ft Africa. Cenml AmerK2, the what IOfter and more euil,._~rked,"

Wat Indias. Cu~ Casta ~ Guatem·J., Hoadunu and maDY BEECH TASMANIAl'l. or EVEllGREEN BEECH (Fqu other pam of the 'WOrld. and. the differmt ap:da V"U7 10 arcan,. C •• 'lJI.,~ii). AlaI called M.yrtle.. u.d Niaer-htad BecdI.. MaiD appcaraD~ and character that ma.ay o£ them would not he rrcog- fiR of Tu.mam.. and rlCtOria.. A -rich btoW1li.sh u.tinJ "DOll 'V'PT-

aiad at Il1I.bop.ny by the aver. penon~ III a Spa niah * I mahopny 88

0lIIleI &om the Spaniab. poBKiriDIlI in th~ Wat lnclint and DDt.

u mmy IUppoee. frow Spain. ::. fram. J'ftyisb blOWn to b oown·pink. Cuts to IDlOOth eurface,

The Vlrieti5 beat bmwn in tllil (ountry IlJe the Central .Ameri... wearI tmOOth. V cry JtJOnI and close &rained, with anata

em, West Afrlcan, and Honduru.. 'UCheny" Mahogany is & term IIrmath than the Eurnpn.n beech. Alexander Lt Howat"-. ill "T'lDlapplied to oy variety that is similar in color to our OIeny wood, hen of the World" recommend! it for felloea, mftl, .. dd1e trees ... is not a diltinct sped... and pRItOCb. Oulte poaibly this II the ~ 'Myrtle~r aold lor Itock..

The color .".ries from. a light cherry to • d.eep redd ish brown,. .. the dacriptioQ. ~Id indicate ita dainability for that ,urpoll!.

Ilthouah the eclor of mOlt mahopnJ furnibue is deepened with .lthouah I havr: nevu seen It used. .

aim.. Most of the wood. used. in fumitul'e b ItraiKht craine~ the BEECH .. AMERICAN (Para' jl'tntli".d).. A hea'Pf. h.lrdl wry W;nin !seLnI" laId in altcm&tt 1ll1eB a half indJ. to U1 iach wide. fA'C'h tJIUIh bJd ~rMll' wood. rather (':O.I.neiy 5rT8ined~ Wl.IPI in dryinl. runnint; in aliPtly different dirtttiou.. Thil males mabop.ny yay but tahs a Yety srnaot'h beautiful polisl1. Color rallpi from whih d.i:fkult ta work-rol1ptn.l ~ Ittad: wbile moQthi0lt anotbcr. to lizln brown. Uned for pla.nc-rcocb, .boc lasts, tl)(Jl ha:ndl~ and

MOlt mahopny has a r. mer open ,...In, is .... fter than walnll~ IDd fumitun.. Should take checking "'Wdl. and mU:1! • .1110111, durable

pnenlly Ie. desirable for rurutotb. The man who. hu • uhaner- stock. but would liktly require sta:ininr. -

in."" for a fine mahr.guy stoo::k may, it lacall!d na.r a dealer 10 that WALNUT ~~'!ftlfll1U rrgi4), BoUlg:er .. tea that the Emopeau he caa make hi. schctim fI"Olll & larp stoek of ~ varietiel. walnut was ori" J a native of Northern China and. Peni... bay· ~ in indinl' a piece that will be the everlutial envy of all inI hem· introd.uced into' Greece aDd Italy in. the earl,. tima from bi. ebaotinc friends. For th~ is notq in natu.~ more bautiful P~nia ad irom -cbmc:e iDto other part! of ElU'Ope. The trees are



, ........ ·111 walnut is a;ood if it is pod and· poor icc.e lof it is worth)



One thine I haft noted in the PUl' is that much of the C"n:usiaD wam'Ut imported lata the U Dited Statu is V'ery l[ght celered aa.pwood wid: little fipre .and some of it is UihriDg ~d Jy from dryrot .. The only way 0 ,asa:ure quality in the pu n::llase of fomgn walnut is to 10 to the Ewo,ean deal rs and. impect the wood. at tint hand before bu';0l'. There are :a. few dealers w he h VI! ad vcl1'i&ed gun Hock. blanks; in this country who have supplied very nice woodJl but

lib - +.. 1.._111 I _ , •• .

1lIJUI£ I p.. 111 PO-..c II .&I,ways an uncertain prop~ldo:n ..

ENGLISH WALNUT. High grade English walnut is as, • rule liner I:r,aintd and soraewhat hariler' th an most Armri·can W',alnut or also IDmewhat lighkr in color. With proper sde:tioR it mak~ 'U'erJ ~utifu.l steeb and itl together with F renen walnut. is the PRferred material of some of the best English gun makers. Considerable quantitieIJ Df English. walnut ue also importee£ into this coua ..

try for cabinet . interior purd W1lrE ..

FRENCH WALNUT is usually strurbt anained and lighter in color tIum En.clish walDUt~ 'The French waln'Ut I' have seen is a,.. parmtl,. '?fDewhlt seiter tban the Ellllish" ,althDlJ,gh the two woods are vcry mmllar.

ITALIAN WALNUT iJ IUPPQSed to be .rI&: in color and well

&.cured. ~ have never had t},e cppommity of t dying my that I bunv pmlltivel, to be Italian $Q atD not La. potition tm mah any asse~ dollS but many gun stoeb I have l!Xam il'led which weft sol d by ~,e mabn u Italian walnut haft been very light· in color and of vety poor Knin, will scarcely more ligun: than whi teo pine.~

SPANISH WALNUT. Enrland imporb • moderate quantity of walnut from Spain and the genera] charaeteristi cs 0 fit are 10 'I milar to F ru.trh waiaut that ene might be - mistaken for the otl1cr.

TURKISH WALNUT. Tbis is also Q'UiR similar to F~ walnut but ill usually d uur with; a b.YJe·r proportion of fi.~n:d wooL

AF.RlCAN W ALNI1T (LD(1~tI KloInmtlJ1). This wood IDOre nearty reseables AJrican mahogany in grain, finish and weigh t than it rc .. nhlea walnut and is not a true walnut t all although well

dapred to gun rtoc:b and the Clther uso to which walnut is put. In eoiar it is similar to much ilf the Eu.ropcan walnut but i.s samewbat lighter In wdght---about 30 poumds to tbe cubic foot. Ot:casionallv ,dl.cwiM b roWD goIdal rill'bi are iound. wb,dJ live quite a. unique ri"&L't1 'This wood is ,DOt available in ·the American m: raet to my tnowleap"

B4CK WALNUT' (I.glmu aim). Thi, wocdl which · the omly rut Amcritan walnu~ iI much better dian mOlt people rali-.. From 11 is manufacru red. JDDst of t11c so-called French, r taliar.lt Enpsb and Cin:a.ian walnuc fwniture sold in 0111" s.tarea. One who hKnvI, American. walnut CIIl aWe the lie to most clain of the &ve.np: fumjtu:r~ saleJDLu .. ho rlibl, ca1b PIUIU ~tiCirel8liau I-


if it mow. gmt dell at 'hurJ aria FreKb and Italian waf at if it happmt to be liPt in cDlor. The IIJDt· - - - W111 a]sQ teU you that me pil'Ce you are lookinl at is eoIid walnut, even though the paiD anOWl identital OD tDlJ, edKa and end proving it to be ftDet!!!l'!d. Sueh. pwt quantity 01· A.met.Ka.n waI.rlur iI DOW lIladc into wneer mil thus U&ed in furnicuJIC th:a t the IU"p1y ... being rapidly dccrsmL Year aft!r year we ~ow find enough for our UJe: despite commOll belief that the suppl J' il nearina an md~ The incra:sing :scarcity qf the better grades. bowever~ is ~ dem:ed' by one fact wbid} I h:an ttOtat Rill. stodts made by the JO'Iel"flllleDt 1Omi!' Sfteen ,.ran qo are mw::b harder and cl· . r lJ'lioed wood titan thgse tumed. OUt· more receutly. This iJ particularl, Dotica.Lle 00 tie Springlidd Sporters IOld \y the Director of Civilian Marbmuu.h ipm Every one of these I ha~e iupeeted an. Ilandial lui bcm of very IQft wood and so nry pcd'OUS that the lin~ nil· ~ whieh the, are aipped h tume.I tbma. almost black. Apparently. however. ther Ie stdIideatl, ~ and are s· -lahr: ~: &111: their ~era1 eharacter Hems to irldicue Ihortage of the ~. 014 hard wood. used in the Krap and evtn the SprmgfictdJ, bdore the war.'

Tile walnut of North America all belongs ta the same famJly and varies only w-Ith the toll d eli tic conditions j lilt u Europe . walnut docs. The finest cnUQed. ltudest ami heat figured wood is J)rOOUO!:d in tile roo.ah or 1IIOll11 bUnOUl country when the fiOil ~ IIOl!If:iWhat rocbt wbile the parow, lVO(Jd coma· from the low or MlV'UIlpy dhtrktJ md fl JUlly unfit for gun ~

I believe it· i f~ to apcrt that there is I greater proportion 0 f IQGd -Ilgured. American walnut anilBhle than theft! is of an, 0 f the


European varieties, The color m generally darK t and richer and by careful .,ltction the mcsc: beauti ful stock. can he: procured :It • fnrtion 0 f the cost of imported wood of equal gndet

In lOme of the !IOU thera sta tes, particula rly T exu1 the walnut producrd. i.s "Very close grained with Ii De po res and is marked with lon g clark strtab not unlike Circ:aSrian walnut. I haye known 0 f tb il wood being sold as Ci rcassian in mo re th an 'ODe instlnCc. I t bas, howeYel1 m.o re of .. reddish C:3St snd if lOiter t yet it ra nk, h i gb u I wood fo r stach by reason of its dmsi ty 1M the splcnd id finbh whim it tim.

One of the lar~t manu factu.rera of walnut veneer tells me that the "tT fiDest. mOlt beau ti full y _ grained cu rI, walnut in. N ortb America -coma. from Missoun Kans,st and Indian., in the order narraed: lad the poorest, from the ttandpoiftt of dtnSi tv i' figu re aDd ttra:Ktbt tODICII frOill IOWL Some very finely fi~ "frOOd .lto camel from the teml-moun tainOlU .districts in !ll'Jutheastem Qklahom.lt U weD. u from many eastem .tatel.

Americaa ..tiwt will Rverap betwem 37 and 38 poun~ ".lIicb weirht - PMUte! • ~ whiclt balances IIboat riaht with our modem lIl!iIal:

I gil


s.!s .iii)::!

~,:! &

h ...

;d~ ~~.il


- -

iJ --"'til

£ :...,"tII



• 0. ..... A i:iI =:;II


~ -=



'SEi ,.J c::t-if.l :;:I}f"l!!ll



.; !~

! G..c

~ul:; ulra,


~:Ji °l~: i-=je

~i s

~ifill a~ ;:

:Do.~"'9 ~i =' 11£1";

>cllil ....

J:J .. - !lit" ;;



&:i t' f:


5~= :a:=-

92 fin anDSt particularly rUles.. The Soutbern wood iI somewhat lilhter tban. that erown fit the N orthem .... tes. Almost all A...eric:an walnul will .show ~·fidd]e-bad.n when quarter sawed with the ~ption

of the ~ CD! walnut pR'Vioody referred to.. In selectinl: wood for .. hi gh grade Itoci there is a natural tendrnq to choose a qu arter

u.wed. plank in order to ~t th is elect. Dteoi'erically til is it th.e WI'OCII thing to do if maximum. Itrmith is IOUPt. FiEUR 38A show. I. aeetiona1 view of .a, waln ... t log div[ded into quarters. Two "Upper quarters arc quarter sawed w hile the lower hdJ U. 011 II boll 01 ft saw~. Note tlat rbe quarter sawed. plank, have the edge .KRin I' raented on the: Rat surface while the otben haft eel p grain 00 the




Fig. 39


edle: with the layer Clllled by thll! annual ring Eo rmatio!l showial on the 8a .ida.. Eelp snin II prae:ntecl itt! the quarter .. ~ ,lank " ItFOnpr if the strain il broupt to bur apilMt the 81t aida. H~ ever ~ the Itnlin on a Ittd: 1IIUII11, CIIIIII. iD • direction of the at the IriPt it i& fouad that the c'boardtJ .. wed lumber .. better IId.apted to resist MJtb stiUn. (See.,. 39.) But, if 0.


ia careful in his tel~ he may clIoose quarter .. aI ...... for bit ,t:ock with moat ~leuiDC rewlta ... without Ul7 cllqer of braking. for aood lnIlnut pmIlS!a III IJIIple marain of stftacth. lW"ricu1u1" if the stock plttern iI prcperly Wd out 011 die WOQd with due regard for d i!'eCtion of ~.

Figure 40 shows tit! ideal selection of a piece of waln \II: for a m..:k: blank and the proptt method of laying out the pattern. It is not at .11 unusual thaI; a piece can be fOUlld curly at Ode ~ tb~ grmin zradll ally :§traig-htmin( aut but with a .ligh t bend which can be wo rked into the grip portion so u to let the -tmipt crain in the rorend. vain curvi.ng with the lTip and with pleDtJ of ficure in the butt where wanted.

Your choice. howeve r I maT be iD favor of a piece of quarter .. wed wood wit!! the grain running practical1,. straight. 111 tum Cd! ft is


Fig. 41

be: tter to layout the pattern as indicated in :ficure 41. TIaiI &iva the grain run.niog up towrml the fo.rmd which is not obj ertiOll&b.le ., it renders quite cur the inlettin K' of the barrel, pennittml chi" lJfOrC mainly in one dirr:ctiODt

Firure 42 sbow! . the right and wroDg way of layinl out I butt ilotk for aLotgtlll ur two-piece rifle .tack. WheD the (Tain panllels the ;Krip and bottom line of stock nther thaa the top line~ the grip it I1Utlr Itren,Kthened, ad the dancer ot ,pilttin.. off the toe (& very CCIIIlInOn .acddent) is eHmlDat!d ..

TI1e usual oil treatment provided for hi~ grade stocb d. rta. the

theo... Cut with a IhfJTt 8I:l&Ilp. ttr brttc: t yet~ grub them ou.t well down into the roots.. Cut oft the bt'Ulcha aDd let the 101 lay ia the 'WUthel" for tw(J yean, or pouibly three, ThcD cut 01' the mob at abOUt the gro\llld level, and stole the 101 in the opal air but LlJJder sbeter for anotbu year.. It .bould then be quarter-taWBl and. cut ialo planks three iaches thick. to .allow for further sh ri.akage. Stack thc:Ie planb in. the weat'hcr for three month., thea UDder cover for the balaoa oj the year, when they may be pllJled mel .-..:d up into stock blanc., which should thea be kiIn-dricd. or We dOre them inside in a warm d ry ,pl~ clo.e up under the roof of

• bam during a hDt Slimmer win bake out any remaininl moistUIe.. Wha:. )'CU haft an. entire la, to select from, therel, alw.,. • temptation to CU1 1lJ1lI It1M:l from tbe extreme butt. where the roots branch out; for l1cre~C!U PI: the 1D00t wotlderfa1 Jip.re ~d colorina:~ Bur DON'T. Too much of • 20Dd thine is Objection ... ~~:::;..:::;;:::::;~ .bIe- f.IKI tbi. wood will aever get th..roup warpin, this way md that; it will never Kg'" ID become moroqb], dry i aad thue 1a every libUhood du.t tbe Ired. may split m)' time h tabs ~ notioo. J'IIIt above the groand line. 01' oar a CIOk:b where luKe bnacbes occur. illbe bat place to ., ju.cy ItCds from • log. Fipa 38B .bows the portiont of the 101 from which the I01IIIdeat and lu"aapst wood ID&J be ohtained..

Witb the IUpply dimiDilllinl' and - the dcmtnd incrcaainz it would .:em du.t a ~ program for the- pllrlti", oj •• 1..11: tm!I ia loa liriCI where they will produce tbe 6ncCt wood.. Iboulel be i:acladed m a National pu of rdorestatitm.




wood cunsiml!lbly IUld in uwill fuI hand. may ftBUII in hidin& IDtIdt of tbl! beauty of the pain. For tb .. reuon it' .. well to Idect wood tlat il not extremely dark im calor with. due care to DOld tapWODd. Aaother thine to be avoidei iI tbat van., (If walaut 1DIDetime. ~rmed lOY walnut hy the tnde. wIUcI1 ,.,.11,. I1IIUI to


the rtrayish purp Ie tlllt. and which is very 10ft with brp open pora..

I n the rouaL plank this "WOod of.ttn ~mlI mare attIlCtive than the I ich~r colen hut it soaks 'Such • que'tfty of oil that it beecl:a15 aImo.t t.lad: and the finiming process u na:dleuly prDlon£edl Moreover mil wood dOe! not wo rk well undl! r cbec:lcinl tools, fuzzlnK up badly unde r me cutten so tha t it iI almose impossible to ,harpen and smooth up the d itmonds in the proper manner and this is in ..

R.ight Way

cresmed by me repeated applica nOD 0 f eil RecelS. ry to liMIl, secure I. 6oish. a feen the ligh t~t of American walnut (pr07idinl it i!l not upwood.) will finish up sufticimtly dark to ~e a truly beauti .... ful 5tock..

From the iortgoiof rmnurs the reader win probably ptller thlt I am eomewhat partial to AmericaD walnut as compand to the fordID woods.. The fa~t is~ I am partial to the wood. which is Itraq,cst, !IOWidest and most beautifully ~ed. reprdIcss of whether it JUW in the CarKilla or the HimaIayu. This thml a£ specify.ing mreill1 walnut because le is £onien and not because it iI IOOd .. all bunk. Some of the most beautiful stocks ever produced bave been msde Df American walnut and SlIDe of the ~ botb .. to dcsiil1 an d appearance, have been 0 f European walnut. Thia is nM • R'!nt raI condemnation (J f the latter I howeverl but refers pa.rtic:lllarly to the lack of knowledge of what one is getting when be orders a foreign productt 1 hate a Circassian walnut stock blank that w UDwually dark: in calor and th~ most beautifully &~ pita of wood I have ~ve r seen anywht!re. I h ave been -cffered $50 fCl r mi9 'piece in the rough blAnk and was not in the least tempted. I have another piece L of American walI11J t of equally fine :finish and which from my own v i.nv point is equally valuable although i1 would not bring IS much· if ofie red for sale. The main o'Ject in deciding in favor a f Amman walnut is that if it cannot be insp~d pcmcnally when bou~ t it CIJ'J. • t leatt be purthaud from a linn in this coun t1'y to

whom it can be returned if Ull58tisfactoryt _

-The ~UlXeu 0 r failure '" lny stock depends q uitl! U much on tbe selllDnmg of the wood as upDn its. other qualities. 'The demand for wa1nu t today is such that dealers cannot doni to u.:p tbd r stock in the loa for 11 ve or six :ran IS required for best results.. Grecn walnut contaill5 8 sap which if :riot thoroughly removed will CllIIe mfcellive warping and cnckin:l. ProlDna:ed air ItUOAiaI


UDder ahdte:r dmIO)'1i the cfio..""t 01 thiI up.. Some authoritiea claim tItat the lap mould be aoaked in ",.ter for the :lint few wecb alter CU.ttmll to aoak: out .. much of thE sap u poariblc. At all hMb the -.ood Ihould 'be .. snned :for at lssr: ODe year and. preferably two yea.R in tbe 10& and mill two to four ream after die pl.Db a.re awed t and rh is treatmen!. should. rbm be followed b, ..... ',;0& in the ,teaDl kiln and. d ryinz' in the dry kiln.. ne -.1.1 kiln dI'Jlnl time is 30 days but if I want to be certain of the qualitJ of the atock blank 1 amd the wood throllP thr: kiln a acc-...acl tiale. or .. total 0 f 60 days. A pecu liarity of walnut wh ich rcnden ic particularly valuable ir)f gun stocks is that once p rt)per I, ICSSOned it U TinuallJ immu.n~ frolll any W'iUpiog. eltMr fww P:nmenion in water or by exposure to dampness or rain.

All over tbia OO'llJitry there 8ft lIIIall patcllal 'Of walnut timber &I 'Well IJ others Got so small; and fortunate indeed. iI 1hc fellaw who Au • few fine .old waln ut trees on his place if he happena to be • d.yeci in the wool CUR.-.cIGL He aced. not worry .bout material for the Itock he bopetii rg mal:lI:! IOUl.e day-lor Europe Qner pnMIucm finer wood. then the best of our AmeriCUI walDutjl

Tbl!!! man who plans ahr:ad to Fe out .ant!! nati ft walnQt for shd. shoold cut his bees, if ~ble, five years before he expectl t.g use




T Itt earliest IUD ,tack W&I merely & ba.ne by ",hicb the piece

eeuld be held, after a :&.1biIm.. Laterl u it: 1¥U lamed that the belt way to :lire a pR was from the Ihouldcr. the butt MOd: wu denlopad 1DIIIeWlu.t al(JDg the linet leal tod-,. au euly matchloeb IIJd "b~ IDa, the stock wu vay lbick---tom.et:i .... two or two and one bali inches. and was muall, ftuted. and b~,. carnd 011 the lides. GWlI of this type wen: exceedingly hca 'fy and lIDpinl,., and. little adapted to the use of earl, American hunten ; comcquentIy. whm. the PenDIYI vania (UQllIlitha, to meet the n:quiIemed'I:l of the rK'W coWJtry II developed that mast flIDOUI of all araJI~ the .Kentucky Rifte. they went to the other at~ mui na: their rtocb very &mall and Yery' tbiftt olten-ia iaet. Ulall, with what

ia DOW coasidend exceui'YC: d rap. .

III .ppN1an~ alone, the line. of the J:a3tueky Ri4e left little to be: desired; tile,.. ~ my iP'aeeful. with smooth, Bowin, l.inel, aatl poaessrd • utnap'· whoU,. in keepinc with the tpirlt of tb~ pioneer. who used. them.. Their small size; howcvert WII j lilt as much. a iniatale then as it would be today. 'True, the Y~ry heavy barrd. abIfJrbed moat oj what little recoil, thue WII from the reJatiwy liCht powder charge ~ yet the stocb, Plrticularly the ,rip" Iwl DOt .u5dtnt Bhength to withltalld the ripn of bud aetvice---iQ iUppOrt of which ~ h.& ve the fact: that in tbe specimeaa ayailable today ..

~~ !INri, .w:rl 0.' Ibow. .. cnQ: in tM pif' Ulw.II, OD De right Ilde Just baa of the lock rcast. Some 0 these have bear. repaired with aeIeWa or by wir.ldinl widl. wire. wbile ... thers were DOt repaired .t·.n. It ia IC&I'Cdy ~nceivablc mat these &Ktura were cauxd by tEe r~:e likel,. they were the raul of drGp: piq the butt OR • pGWld.. The bet .." in. that I riRe lhouId " capable Df withltlBllinl IUJr aomtal IbIin to wbim it III&J lie PUt in its rqula.r line of ~97

Most of the Kmtuckr Rifles aim Iud r#a8ive drop. and "try tIda combs. The former was puh.pI: permisn1lle QWin~ to the 1iPt recoil. but the thin comb his always been • m,.,tc-zy to me. apparently the: early rifte:nan tjkrd to uoot with his t:1head up _

tail oYer the dasbboardl• and .. diet of COnt pane and veniaon mud ba1'e made them • heap fuller in the face than mOlt of w today .. Some of these old rifles bad cheet pieces, usually very smlll ill diet ad located. too low on the stoc:k to be of mw:h Ole. The butt pine wu four or four .. d a half iDchn lon,,, and a d.eqJ crescent iD Ibpe--anotber &.tun pOssiDI~ by reuon oi the Upt recoil. It is • notahle fact, however t that the heavier 1:1:1 ropcalI II%IOOtltbora of tL.t ~riod. mini Iaqe balIs IH1d trtmendou. powder dlarp bad wi.~ heavy butt&,: the plata nearly or quite straipt more atOllg

the liDC8 of our present shotgull 'butt. ~ loatcd midway between the triner and the toe of buttplate..

FollowiDI' the Ken.tua,s came tbe army muskets and C8lb.ine5 Many of our best band ro.de doublt gum~ and. pnctically all our with larger II more comfortable. d1O~ sen,ibl~ stoeb-developtd as tnpgunB are to~y [Dlde with straight grips; while it is tbe almost a result of the heavier charge! they used. 'The under edre of the innriable rule that the properly made rifle Imck shall hlve.& full., stock, which WQ u'lually square in the Kmtuc:ky!, was now roundl!d; tbarply curved &riP located close behind the triuer pard ..

hutt plates became larger and strai&btcr, with the .harp tamen ne modem, properly designed ri o@ stock is • thin&' of beautJ and

rounded off. . pace and Ij11tmetry of linea: and it! beauty u onl, equalled by the

The H~ Winchestcrs. &ad other fKtory made arms thC!Q w:De eae and oxnfort with which it ia t.:ndled. pl.rtimlarl,. j f bm1t 10

Gut w1th 9tOCb .IOmew-hat a f a compromise betwt.leD the two. The 99

£rip was larger i the stodt was considerably thicker. but. instead of order I to .fit the shooter .. Yet and "here'. where I Ket alped.the lDln: -:mible military butt ~ they lIiJed .a. creseene Ihape the.nck +h~ nor yd hem built which ~Iy conforms to the phJBi~ amulf to the early ~le loaden. At this point :firearms desi~ ~nstJ<;I of the human hand; aad probably it never will be m.ade their first grtat mistake, in the development of the two-pi«e ,bui!t-at le~t not unlms and until our fireums are mropletely restock; yet it wu not 90 g;:rear a mistale as it is tadar,'by rellOIl of dCllgmdr Whl~ seems doubtful. The reason for thia may be underthe: nth" light loads to which. the earl,. repeaters were adaptcl .. srood trom Flgu~ 4~. By c]~ng the hand, u in gropmg the lI'ip Marksmanship training, as the telm is known today; was then llD.- of a rifle stock, It will be cbSiCrnd that the .lower joint of the fen-

hlawn. Shookrt dQuhtl9 had little: idea of .. bat their titles WCle r-- - - 1 redly capable in the way of accuraqr-they gaupd it by the phe- ~

nammal lucky shot instead at an a basis of Bledy perform lace. jUit

as lOme shooters still do. 1

SGIIlt:hOW'"t 1 am unable to enthuse ftry much at the recital by some I

old timer of what 'Wonderful shooting be used to do with. bit old I

ri fie. 1 un reminded of ao, inci .lent relatal by one of our Iocd I

lian. oonc:eming & shot he made whm a men: lad (What a pity he ..... pennitted to Dut,I'OW IUCh proficiCDCYI).. It -teems that biI dad I~ kept &tore' I in :I small setdement in one o£ the nonhun ltata, cIoin£ • considerable: tnd ill g buainlS with the B.1JftteI'l: and trappen of the district As he teu. the Jtory:

HOne old feller ki nd ot took a lim· to me-l wu j \1St • kid baDria' round the 1tOrt-m1 I wu alluz ~urn hint to letll~e try

bb ri8et One d" be "'-' in an' be poinced ~rd lump·n Ibinr .t~I·Ma~pdap~~~im~~mt~~~~rt?~~------------~-----------~

In' I tell 'YI:P. jest kin !lee neT' me' •• pllOll 17l11p bw:bt..~ ~dJ./ P.lc. 48 .A Fig. 4B B

1St he, 'Ef you kin hit 'er in due .bob the rilet• -,oum--pmricliDl .bIer is in plolcnp~ion of the foreanu (I., Fi;. ·43)~ and. DDI at

98 :It. forty-five: d~ne angle with same, wbich po.ution it is fo~ to

yon. pappy let you hev it.' Wen air. I Jlicked up thet 011 riSe-- assume in grasping any stod:: (b, Fig. 43)_ The ~tiOIl to this biaerJn I wu--could jest hard, heft it--m~ dra.-Wecl dcwn 0Jl that is the grip of almost any automatic pistol. Here the hand ia in • bucket, an· let drive-DAN &d. e:f ] dido't knock • er oti the lint natu ral, com fort-able pesltion, the mrefin ger in the same ho riZOR tal pop I Well sir. Y*outa I&w that 01' hoyt, eyes stick out! He pactd it of jfSt a quaner of a miL: I2&Ctly from where I stood 10 the stump------aa t be gimme the ri:ftel toot antI had her fer yean.! A.", t I W'U .Uus a I:ood mot--comc nateherl to me--my dadd,~ he was ODC 0' tbe bnt shots in the COUlltry m bis day-.a.n! hi. daddy blfurr: him .. Why·I've seen him stand o£E sixty paces m-it

At this point 1 i ~polittly interrupted to iDQuiR U to ~ make, model and ~ble of the rifle witb which the syrup bucket ,,~.., mot. He didn 't remcmbe:r~ bu.t his studied answers to lrading quutions seemed to indicate a J' 3 modd. Winch este r i and he was lure it was a uthirty ei u:ht~ '--to I assumed. it was a .. JB-40, bbct powder cutridge_ Now. at 600 yanb, the 1/20 inda blade of a Sprincfi,dd j \1St about coyers a 20 inch bull; and 1 couldn. t t help wonderin;l bow mum of an e:i(£ht iaeh syrup bucket the bis coane hwrtinl sight of that '73 Winchester would bide at 440 yards, assuming the shoote1" could lee the butktt al all at that dLstaa.ce.. I won.ducd aJso how U1 untutored lad of his yeaI'! could have learned moqh uj the trajl:Cl:vry of that Tainbow load to hold over su&cieady for I hit at that r&ng:ep and how he would mDW wncn: ill! t:iDu me bucket was while boldin..: oyer.. But It the vety first question h.e ou me oR with EtAw, hell, sonnY-YOll you.ng buck, today dono what shootin~ ie--W1: kuowed how to shoot in them da,.........bad 10. til So wh8l'. the Ulel


But we were on the Nbj-ect of stock design, 01' at least appr~b-

mK it. Apparmdy the fatt~ until a n.ry few rein &PI thougb1 tUt the: O.D.ly purpoae of the comb wu thlt it provided a meanl of -reducing the stock to triP diaroetet &I that poi" t, CoDlhs were whittled down until they aernd no useful PIlrp.cre wbateftr., and midtt better have hem omirted-io. fact, the (.Omh is omitted on the Britilh Lee Enfield, and on our own Model of 1917 --and might ltllt as wdl be -on 0\11 Springfield !ll!:rvi.ce Jtock.

A few yean ba:k the piltol grip wu pradia.lly unknown on I rile, but 'WU 1nyariahly found on all American ahot:poa---tve!l the cheapest 0:1 than---clD.d is yet.. Gradually~ bowe\'ell' we ha'l~ IWnM tlu.t • pistol triP ill a hicbl,. d~rablc thine en a ri6e. and. DOt 10 .entia! on the scatter-:pm--particularly the type that is m.erdy a




... -.

~ --' . ~

_ .. r •• _..... -

_ .......

.. . --

. .


Fig. 44

plane as the trigger----not reaching d.own to it from ·abo..,e. .. ""hen shooting a ri8et shotgun or revolver.

From I si-ric:tly utilitarian standpoint, then. our ideal stock should U!JUJlle someth in&, 1 i ke the shape mown .t FigUre 44., giviJ1g a pip limilar to tm t of the a utolJU1tic pistol. With p uamt actions this is not possible; and if i t were, we should lOon ti re of it, by realM of the ungraceful lint.!! of such. ·a stock. A gun-any gun-sbould


apPfal to the eye quire as much as to the hands that hold it·-e1.sc why do we spend ou r money for fiIle finish and decoration?

Evidently, then, we must effect a happy compromise 50 mat cur stock:, VI hile f 0 llow i ng t I) a d egree the con ve nt in nal lines Vle h 3. V e come to ace ept as st a n d a rd, y-ct is so. d. i m cnsione d as top roy i de maximum quickness of nim, and cQmlort in holding.

Flg, 4Do


Figure 45 shows a sreck illustrated a year Of $0 ago in the American RiH.etn:iln-the work of a man trying to attain his ideaJ of pra(" ti cabil i ty. I have nO d CU b t t hi5 stcck wu fa r ma re comfortable and more ea,Uy held than an}' Q f 0 u r old stand-b)'s; ye t~ wlthou t k:nowLDC the owner. ltd be wi Hi n g to bet my shirt he bas before now disc.lfd ed th e idea. in fa VOl of a mo re conserv a ti ve design.. For de~ply rooted in the hear t of every shooter .the re is a secret admiration. a real a:ffeerioD:p fo r a iUD that itJ 0 11 1 i ke a Kun t th e familiar 1 ines 01 old favorites that ha VI: b~~n our companion5 in field and to~t will not el.$ily be supplanted by new and unfamiliar shapes, albeit thry ll1igh t Pl'OVIf thOTOU gh 1 y pr:u:tical ..

Andl happy to rel ate. it is w hollr ~ssible to design ou r stock il10n g co nven t ional Ii nes, yet: mod i fy d I men sions j n a mar ner to Improve th e hand li ng an d the beau tv of the arm mllfly fold, I t is 51lrp risin g- wh a tad i ffe re nee little th ill ~ make, An r:igh th -0£ 2I1 inch in th ickness or he; g; h t or romh-a hi r 0 f ca! toff a.t the b u tt~ a sl igh t change L n pi ten. -a U iffc rent cu tv ~ in th e grip--thE:S~ are some of the points. that make or mar a stock. One may have two stocks that to all appearances are identical in sise and shape j Xet sHp t d t 1'&r~nces not read it y d .seE rnible will cause one to hanale per feetl y w hi le the oth e r feels slow and d urnsy ..

STOCK NOMENCLATURE: Before going further into a discussi~n 0 f these point SI 'I rudy F igu re 46 if not alread'Y famE i ar with the n~encIature of a modem sporting stock. f;~A~' is ~ forend I or forestock: ~ ~ FT t lis the forend tip; • 'G" j 5 the rri p, e r aI the- English stockers: call it, the: "hand ;t~ "PGt~ ii the purol grip; ,I C 0 f, is tn e comb-and th c low up pe r sa rface of rrip jwt ahead of comb is IOmetimes spok.en 0 f as the ~4hand II ole ;'" oj ~ C·' is the c:h~ek: piece i ~t B tt is th e butt ; Ii H l' is the heel t and "T" me toe ,., f. bu ttl




I t I I

J r I I

~ I I I I





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• I




r I

~ ~ J I









• I

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I ,

I '

I 1

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J t , I I , I , I ,

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.- . ..,


~ •

, di

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\ 11

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t h ,





Tile line- • ~S-S~· repreenta the line 'Of si~hts when let for the DSlp used IQOI.t--UlU&lly 100 yards j from this line all d rap Dle&hll'emenu are. m~ wbile all length meuuremectl of butt stock and. forcnd .re made hom centtt of triaer •• 'e," ThUl, the leDKth of Itcck usually refe rs to diita nee from center of fonvard lUnate of t ri"er to cente r of outer. su rfaa' 0 f bu t[plate. "c-c, II' al thouch tb.is may difRr flOm the mtaJureIne!ntli to heel and toe. ~ 'c-H t. and j 'e- T • IQ:

Lenrth of pistol grip is usually measured from amter of f roar 811C" face of triner to fOJ"W'ard ed(le of pip cap 'f.«;" and is of far leD importana than is cenertlly supposed; the curve of the griP. its thitknms. ib cro.~ction, and lut and most importantll ill beipt with relation to the bottom me 'Of atock~ have faI moR to do with the feel aad ba.a.dJ.iDg of the IUD. than this distance from triuer .. This will be further· aplaiaed later on in mil chapter.

PITCH: The! line H-PI is a.t right angle, to the lioe oj qb.t. and the distance from. PI to the toe of butt, T t d.etenDklQ the oj • pitch t. of the srock. if any + Pi I:clJ means the distance Df the front si,lht £rom tbe perpendicular t wben both bed. and tee of butt aft in a hori20ntal plane, LC. f resting on the floor.. If a stock hu too much pitchl' Of as eo~ urll if the toe i8 too mort, the heel may strike under the shoulde.r u· the gun is b rouebt to the firinl position, delay.i1J1 a quick allot.. I i it bas tao little pitcbt or Done at all ( u when the buttplate tOMS a rLgB. t _,Ie with line 01 =qht) there is a tmdeney .of the butt tel dip dowQ on the shoulder. apecially wben sa~Dtinll prone. Moreover. shotgun shooters and some ri He lIhooteIi Uso1 claim that lac:k of pitc:h, or lenpheninl the toe t mak~ a pD shoot higher i and by th £. they mean that the bullet or shot ell-IV actually l~aves the pm at a higher J.ngle with relation to the line of aiml

I eaanot concur in thil beliei~ I see no J'US9il why tile angle cf dePl~ would be altered the least bit r<rardless of how the butt .IIIigh t be shaped.. Th.i!J ~ ye,. us &cine the alternative theory that with a 10.llg toe on Otl r stock the n:eoil throw. the muzzu lip, ClmiDE 'UI to !lIh DOt b igher-I can ~t believe this either, for me simph reason that electric spark photographs of bullets and &bot cbu,la in 8iP.t invariably prnvr:: that .. id bul1et I'J£' shot charge is well out cf the. muzzle and on its way jrlore ttl: m ••• I, IuJr Jtm,J to rilt

/rvm_ tire rr:cfJil. .

In seekinR the caUMI therefore. of tb is .almost universally acDrowI .. edp fact that the loni toe actually does cause 0I1e to moot higher, I have come to this c:rmclwion---th.at hard prtaswe of aw::b & rtoct 19ainst the moulder CJ. uses it to slip dUWD!I jll!t .. the be.eled. lad -of a door did. in when the door is pushed sh u t; ",d that. since 99 per ceat.. of Iharten Ubuck't their ah~ L tIt increase the pranre Gf the ahoulder wh ite pulling the triqer.. tb is buckinl" causes a .uab~ .nd. entirely 'UMotieed elen.tion of the muzzle a fa a::tion of aD instant /Jt1or~ the dilcbarp rUes place--aad rutturalJ.y Ike mot .Ilea


hip. I mKy be ript or I may be wronK-am plumb willing to be shewn the e r~ r 0 f my .W8yt.; but it win ~e a lot of IJltUDlen t~ and a lot of proof t to con vmee me that manllnl the pitch of any steck ~Ust5 the least cbance in the rc-latioD oi the bore to the line of 8lKht--and that is what determines whc re the p n is shootin g.

I have said that 99 per cent, 0 f shcote rs buck r:hei r shot). 0 f the othe r oae pe r cent. who don't t those who are ri -Br:l]lI::n mow -tnough about .stucks u a rule to have a pi tclt that keeps the stock in p I.~ on the shoulder ~ and those who arc: shotguo users 8; re usuallv ab 1 e to do preny good shootini with ·anythlnl that bums powder t But tb. it A rgutnl!n t ~g ~d.e the question. Shoo tt! lB hI. v. vary ini: opinion~ p to .. the ri gilt p itcb :to l' ri fi~ stocb1 Uld ~ny morlun users prefer no pitch, 0.1.' ill leW! t Y I!'ry lit tk.. Tbe thinK' for a mld to lUe is w!ta t he _can UK + btlt-w hat he believ~ in-fa I con tldtnce "l~ys .a m ichty bll pa rt ID the shootinr pme. T O"WDSCnd Whelen prekrs .about a 3 inch pi tch On hitii ri He. :l..nd I"hi~ .~ ,hI!! rn ni~ "f m =- ny (Jthet' expert tllf'j!et shooters and h \J n ters. E. C. Crossman allows be wants frgm 4 to 5 ~nd~ 1111 d for O£fhii~d mootinlt with a. h untlng ::uIlJ t!lii amount of pi reb hlUld le6 bet t! r for met But on severa.l ri Bes of my own ~hat .I hlv~ .. sro:ked for D£fha.nd. Mootingt I have .no ide~ what the III teb 1St havln II never measured It. My OWft rule is to t'"u t 'hoi! WIt $a th It it forms a ri:iht angll!!: with a line drawn from Cfntrr vi butt ta • 'POlnt in the forcnd t.ip bel with the bottom of the bal~l chaonc 1; in other words~ making the butt ~ (b-~. FilU re 47l at nght an ~le! with tht c:ente r of form of the Ito t. re ~tiQct. ·l"b L5

lives me a definite rule to ap.ply on ~y own. stocks, as on bolt a';:0(U1 ri'fles I want the io:rend tip about 18 indies, from the u"iuer; othL!tS pn-Rr a shorte r fo,rend ~ II owever ~ so the rule can not be fmC e uni ... ~C.naL

When a man &,p~ciDei the a.mnunt elf pitdl he wantlt On a slOcik't I DUke it as he wants it" When he leaves it lip ~O: me to fit ~ I usually ioUOW' Illy cwn rule, ~:rrying a line from center a r butt to 1I point O.Q b(Jttont of barre 1 18 in(:he; .ahead. I) f the trigger ;lnd rutting th!!: butt at riglLt .angles. to it~ and be usually remarks thar Ib.e p·itch &e!!ml to he j ust righ e p A stock 50 made wu L deliver the remil wry nea rly to rnuJ.h its teDte-.r (l f form, MId. wi] 1 cl in I: to thr . shoulder in ... y of the ,:hOOting ptlSiriVDS !iL,': a poOl' .~Ia.tive du.rtDg a bard wmtrr ...

CAS;T OFF: IG(]inq bade tell FiguRt 4611" m! smru 1 "head-ea" view of me butt HI u-s.rntes what ia. m.C3nt by Hea!·t oiY' in a :stock~ The line R-I is in prolonp uoa with the ~n ter of· the ba're-iD orner 'Wo.fd~ the original center line of the stocL The buttpLa te hI.!' been sn iffetl. to the Tigh it a tri ft e IGl ttlat its tttJte:r comes on the "line f.f;; Tile st«k is there fore cast ofF~ or bm'~' to the right.. d ista:~ce equal to that berwtM these two I iDe$~ Thi!l slight bend. il ,of course unlIrot1('able when the atocl: is. '" i~d from the side; aad one must look dosely to see it from a top vi·l!'W'.. :BUt it II there JUSt th~ same~

J04 ami while some dal, the value of ea&tDl a.Dd win bave DGM oi ,it,

I 6Bd, in CftI?'mml: with man? omn-I. that it sprteds up my aim eo .... ftderablYlil Cutoft is not ll~tl.ted. by either a tbid: or a tbin «tIDb---in faett comb r;hieb3aa hat· DGthing' to do with i.l. aucI neirb.e'r ~ a ·dieek piece-t '. contnuy to c!lDlmOn b!lic~"" ~ut take a atock"( T ~)l:-t' [ FlJ;~ 4~B~B-i\ker ebeE!' k pf.e;e.e~ W1"tbou.t cutoff whlm fits v·on hi rly well; brtlil.g It up so that you Ce·Q t er F 13'.. 4O&\.- )VhelNl cbeek p lecp.~ PIDQCI ,quickly throop thE ape.rrure of the re~ apt; and you are r~owe'r Fig'~ :i3-Scllnl7.E:n cheek p·i!iic~+

quit! likely to oMe:rve thit the frOB'!!: ··sigh t is oi! to the left of where _ _ _ I . "

it uugtu: to bell ·u much as a half inch or SOt and a perceptahle f"rae- 11e'Cl9I.ry to ad d ~tlmb thu::kf1es~dJ.a.t Is not what it it for. Y DlJ.

tim of ·time is required to iP'n the slip·t twist ttl the n.eck that e;m msb VtJur oomh a thi·ck as you like--even the vcry thick ·combs briop .it into line. TbuefoR~ mOVlnl Ibc butt a trifle (_., 1/4 on s~e Parke r sb()t~[I stocks K_n: D'ct un.pleasing. But tab up a loth) ~to the right" ~UQ·t9 to movinl the front silh It about twice ,WI W1thc!u ehee~. pJeQe t l!lcl wi t~ a mm.h that fits· you perfectly, thlt d metanee to the nab tl so that as you look th.mugn the apertur,e J Ult throwlD"~ you UU)D thl: line of st·.gh"l: when face snu We!· the s~ l.t "'. pnetially centered. instmdy~ All this explanation presuppo_ N" ow roo 'WIll Bnd that. YOll ~an slip your for.dinger b~ the the shooter is rill'lt handed-a. l.eft handed shooter would DaNnUy ~ck and l\lWCr part of the: Jaw~ n slun:t the face I'B mpPOItm rcvuse pfiXe-edlnpt making his stott bend to the le:ft-'~cast en" i ~ the ,stock at DIU! ~int ?nly s1ight~y belO'W' the cheekbone.. NOW' II it is U$ualJ, gllcd[IJ 10mr the gun .and brIng It up againf so U to bear the whole .Ride

, Cuto' mar be from 1/8 ·to 1/2 inch MCOTdi.n:l to the 8b.OOte:rt•. 011 flC'~ a.Kdn.t the s~.. Now the qe iB net looking' through the build and m'cthod (Ji .imioE'" Usually it is well t·o hay! a little mofC! slpt hoe, but a hal fInch 01 ·so ~ the Ictfr of it. Shoote n ;Iceuston:u~d

mstoff .at toe' dUlll a.t beel~ :Ilnce the hQllow ill ·mrr drLoulder ·w·h.ere 106

·tIll: bu·tt· sbould. rrett slopes o-utwar.d 11 t-rifte aD mott pmple.. My to .u"OOCftlr a stad: without a cbtei piece: h~ developed. an imtmc... '0.0 auroS d 11lll!nPmlS arc 1/4 inch at heel and 3/8 inch at toe. dw hlbit of coctiDI ~,I!' bead lli.g:b tly to· tb= nih to---and they do The bead rsb.,wd start just back ,or the trigger and run in. .1 !ltraig;bt this Uru#lctiv, of tAt ,AicJtlrtlf 01 t" CDm8. The mO!k piece liJm to 'ebe butt. FiguM 48 ihows dl~ stock"blank laid out f·or a cast merely provides II positive and ,controlled method of canting t'he '0·1 st.oc:kt the Iine .1. -a-a heing the origiml ·cell tcr 1 ine. aDd. IJ..b- b the head, tbereby l!£SStning tln: time requlred to l.mc u p the ey·e with. t'lle ~ ceRn: r w, .aim the stocm will work in sb.apiul' up the butt. sigh TIJ and providing a fi rmer .hold~

CHKEX PIECES: Next we ceme to ml cheek piece. if one is The forward. end of a. meek piece as described should Iall at a '00 be uti.. I preferl Uld ha;v.e w.eiI for years a eheek pif-=~ of the r---~-----~---~----~-~-~-:

pa't'lem designed &rut r;ecomm·md·fd, by V{bel~ except that I Un it set I triBe hi'~I on. the :s.tock.. its upper outline b,]endml into very ocarly the upper edp of 'me ltock~ FilUR 49 snows the twO tHMJl A being the cbeek pi~ pn &ned by Wl·elea md. B" the one on my own favorite spo.rtrr. The d.istDi.cti~n is la[gely tl'l.eorcricatt ad the whole quatiOIl :it pretty .~h I. m'ltter of p.enon-m pn:h~

The Icheek piece must bl!! thinner at its fonvard end tba t at the rftu' ~ (Set~ Fir~H:~ SO) otherwise. -,0·11 will, we severe pumshmen t fmm. RonL. Wht-n prop:riy a·aped fGrwatd, hOW'ev~r i the rcctlu thaws the p·ressu.l'c sliglu:ly away from the f.a~ rnaki'OC the stoc};: both sale' n.d comfortable to shoot~ and permitting a iligbtly ·tbiebr

d meee mugly nttin.g comb.. Figure' 511 :is a (::ross aertioa of a "". !I.tni.X with. w~l d.edgn~ cheek pi'tC'~notc that it fa'nII! " straight ~1IiIiIIIiiII

lid ham. top to bottom edle, and is not holuwed or roumdedt It may also be :pe:rfrctly straight from ita. frol1·t to ita rear end, Il:thourb I prefer i~ vt~ sligh tty hoUaM'd in tail di.reetloa.. TblJ. ahapedl the IKe :finds exactly the same positial1 every time., w'}ailc' with .. ~-~~~-~~~-~

CQ.ftX ·eIl- ,i,q :you will :6ndl yo:u.r:telf dlifti:ng about HmewiJa1 :I'l" w~ U~l" Wbe.te:n-LQWEn," Baker cheek pieoo

hom _. tD !botl. lOS

lefcr:rinl apin to Figure 51 nete that the ch.cck piK~ J OLf s' no t add any tbicl:ne. to the comb o:r upper t!dge of etot:k j the thi~kne51 ,!arta increa1inL cf aurae". immcdia.tdy below thill. edp=.. ad ~tiftun to tbe ~ottcm edge 0 f ch eek pi'e~_ The ch.eel:: pi.e~ is not





Ficwc 531 this being a n old Stevens Scbutzeo stockt on which tht cliett piece is ~xtra fuU and roanded oat ttl what ahould have been the thicknaa of the atock itstlf-i. they hadn't made thei r butt pl. tel 10 blamed. narrow in mOH· 4ay1 f Thm tJ'pe shown in Figure .52 thoula blve the Atme CfOII-sectioa t"orm.tioa as the ooes pteriouslJ de:!Cr1Dm, it beina: merely carried forward.

A friend of mine rccmd,. made the ttod: :lhown in Figure S4 for

• M. 22 Sprinpd~ aud WIC:I it with ·the Er;enest delizhr. H-e. is

• '-stod:: ~Tl.wle:ru in every sense of the word-virtually wrappinl hi. rilht eyebrow around the SlKht d.isk md ratiDI his ched::bcne when: the IriP ourht to be t He made this stock aut of one of the IDOlt beauti lui pjrccs or burl walnut I ever hope trl sect and I· d have &i~n a lea:, almoetJ for the privilep: of workiq; it into -one of • more Chrittiaa tbape; DeYcrthelell, if this !tock fita· him and. hlndles riahl :lor him, I can't hlaDIe him • hit 1M \Iliac it.


COMBS: Puaina the chcek. picr;e in. OUI %orward journey on the .tad. we ttlmc to the comb,t-and here is· where the cranks ydI their· vinn the joud~ aDd where~ in my opinionl Itoc.k makers most oftm fall dO'Wn: A comb may se rYe ita J:urpote "¥Cry weI]. and still look like a WI: ~arl. bird nest. Or it may be u sracefully modded as a Sapper'. axle-yet ICI''Vt no more useful purpose. Probably the first comb evcr shaped on a .tack. wu • bappen.-so-the retult o£ cutting lway th.e wood to form I place te WI8.p the thumb reund=-so it w.aa cut back. plenty b.r enough so that there 'W(]u]d be no danger 0 I interference with the hand &:rasp. I said. jim", far.

E .... mtulily I no dGU bt, some en tr:rp rising shooter d i9COV~red that wbm he s1ipp~d h is han d back all inch or 50 ~ pumittin& the base of tbe thumb 10 be supported. by the como, his hold was much tltmtr and more stead,... The properly desill1ed stock he the comb 90 plaad that when the grip is Irasped. far IIhootiftit with tlae :finp r u.. position on rriger, the buE of thumb is sa .supported.. Just wh~rc to pIAce it to, pet sueh support is the problem. Some ten us the point of the comb sh auld be over the ccnkr of the piltoi pip; some _y over the l'QJ haJf of ~p_ But since the pOsition of the IIi p may be .... rl.blc:. the rule i!n~t a ~ eae, Mo.rcover~ It)mc ab.ooten pup me Iron: with th urn b slon it thr: ngb e .idlet while others place it' across the I(J'lPt JI'UPif1i it as they would a pitcbfOl' k handl e, The former tad use a comb fully a half inch further fcrward. than can the latter. Th e type 0 f rear Ii C!'~ t has soma:hi~ to do with th ~ lOCI non of the comh a 15Q. Cocking-piece and bel r sleeve 51 MIN often atend 10 far back:· as to interuu with the crGSa·pip un11!18 the tDlQb is [:ut back. a bit.

It ii diBicu 1 t to lay down a hard ad fut rule fo.r the posi don .a nd thicl:r .. :ss of the comb-the "cut and try" method heiDe of COurE

Fig. 55


the most rel iob l~ wh~n it iB. JHftiibl .. ~ The m9ft Rli.ble method I

have found when a try-Oft of rlI.e stock is Dot pout ible, it to menu re from tip of forM nger to ernteh of thum b, then proj cc::t Ihis measuremeat from ceattr of triuer t() u~r eds;t. (Fip,re S5).. On m.y


.and thJ. IDelI'Uremrat it jwr .. 1/2 i:dc:hea, which u the -act .. taDce from cen.~ of tt~net to goint of comb on the 0 t C. M. SPOitlti and thIS mmb • correct felt my hanel. N umu.,. fit'dDp by thil method by mail _ve worked. out 'RrY .tisfa.ctority.

Formerly, combs Wf:Te made much too tllin, but in reeent f'SJII both ahooters and. stock makera h ave awakened to the advantage of • pod thick comb.. Here alliin there is no set rule, and the rutInd-try method is best if it em be followed I Ff it tannDt be, then the hat j udrment of th~ stocker should be aided 'by a photCJK18Ph of the owner of the run. The thinner the- face the tb icker the comb should be. and via- 'We i Si. A man with a wry thin face can Ille a ~b



up to u:r. inch in thiekness. while the very full face will require one not more than. 3 j8 inch. P~rbaps the beat .vt1"I.ge iA 1/2 inch. wbicb win fit almott anybody fairly well provided the height is rip t.

It is • mistake t9 make a aJmb too thick. or too hip i but 011 u.t bolt actions it II 'llmost imposaible to. make- it too biRh. With the com b barel,. clcarinll the! cotkinc piece of a Sprincfleld. it ",LIt atand from 1 S/8 to t 7!8 irieh below the lim! of IiKhtt depend inK Oft t:Jpe of sipta' ueed.. The biEher comb is preferable when it can be worked.


ParenthctialI? ~ I knoW • IUnsmith of fart,. ye.arI aperimc:e. wbof because he· corwidm 1 S 18 incll too much toInb drop~ ..,J'RI the problem. to his own lati,factioa by mUmr the comb hilher-and cuttinlr It bad: a «ruptf! of Inches sa the balt em be withdrawn 1 He invariably docs thil, regardless of the culhmer I spee!fic=atio~ and all Temomtranc!! is in vain. Forty ye.TlI hu ,tallcht him how to make a Itoek, so he says--md he makes them all to the ame dimensions th rouPOllt t

Tl1"!' -comb ma.y be UNDERCUT or Dot. .. you prefer" :But u"lew you Dr you r IttfM"bn d:~ are adept in shapmg an .. m,de undercut. best make it without. A neat, plaia comb, wen rouaded. and abou t . the same thiclneu for a distance of half an inch WOW' the upper edge, then :rr_dually ,wtDing eo tM full thickn.e. of tb~ pip:, is V'Cry attractive and 1 00 ~ amtt pnctical. ] f undertUt, the ani'li anSI should run nearly, but not quite panlIel with upper cd IIC 01 comb---not d rep downward at a .barp dele. .II it dam even on many high priced. st«b. And. tIM! rat portio. at the udnaJt should blend tuto the mnlU::e cd th~ .ack with no perceJ)tible ande. iaatad of be~ a bl. Bat cut that loab lib it was done widi .. pocket btl fe. FiKUTe.56 shows the richt II1d "toOl way oi .hap.ing up an unde rcv.t comb.. FiJ'll"e ~1 sb OWl the rip t and W1'O!li way. in mr GPmion, of shaping the drop" to the pip" Here • ., ebcwhere !)11 the ideal ltock.. .treun liDei Ihould prevail. Th~re it: nc exctIIe for the aha rp dO'wlI:ward drop 10 often .een~ nor .bauld thH drop., hD wever .-rad uaJ ~ DIn']' to· tile .... n .. pip diuoet:er ..

PISTOL GRIP: The mraUat diameter of t1te pip MoaU 1M!

Jlat bEk of the 1'mE. md .t the 'lower flu1 wbae the Irl, cap iI 109


(J C
~ tJ
"" .s
0 to

tJ ..
. ~

I.L.. U


, ... - .... -

... t.



~ ,..,01

...... ,.

~ ...












t 10 __ """'""",- ~ __________

littt:d, i I on~ is used, W e speak of the dn:um:kft!r1Ce of pip in ..

• ~ria!tJl '1. ";nee in the w~l1 ,biped .teek i1: -ann~t be the same cl rcumference at all points. The specl:fied. diameter .hould he liven

it aw. t 1/2 illclJ back. Dr tanK, (on tbe line I-I, 'leu te 51) t whfle the circumference just .forward of the comb will be slight'lr e:reatef, (line b-b) ~ Th e ci rc um£ ere nee at bcttom end wile re ap is Ii tted ..-

. --





Fig" S9



An impo rtant point is the angl ~ 01 bottoIQ of ,rip and in forwa.rd edge. When these 9U rfa.ces form an acute angle lib "I·'. --- Figure. 601 th e I'ri p looks lik:e something had heen forprtm; and • widely ob ru se angle licc f. b" i! eq u31ly und esirabJe, indicating ei ther

L- __ -----~--_____:::=_____=:__-----~~---- a pip carried too far back:1 or a stock that is too sballow from top of

FUr. i58 comb to a rwMnl: behind the Clip.. A ript an;1-t!, :u .. , "e" gjvn

• pro~ rly sh aped grip of splfndid appearance, and permits a full mouJd be sbou t the same aa lit ~a. The aida of pip !houtd be sized e:npreap I and .abou t tb L! righ t depth :It comb . • bOlJt pi ral le I along t he line e-e, except that a dipt swell on rhe ript aide to fill the hollaw of the palm Is ·quite pcrmi9&ible~ and aftm desirahle, This wu a hatun of Ludwig, Wundhamll1!r"s stocb which p leased many shoote.rs- 80 much, This:rwdl is q uite notice. hie on rhe Sp rill giield sporte r srnct 0 f which a bottom vi~ is showit in Figu re 38.

N ow we come to the length of the pistol ETiPt i. e., the d i~tan~ from center of tri~Eet to near~t paint of pip cap. Recent decidGrlll inm h.adqua rtc n an: to the d'hct tlL.r this dirt.ance KllouJd be front 3 J /4 1:0 3 S /8 inches 4 inches being the ~~renJe' for the Iarpr hands. Now I'll probably raise- a smrm of protest with D Sh.tement that thi. dimtnsion deesn't mean .. binned thing-and (1m lOing to try to prove my a,I!C rtion with Filll re 59. He re are shown a number of dif&rtnt grips dT2WD to exact iCal~ aDd each one mctI1Irini exact1y 3 ]!2 inches from center o.f trigger. Tnt it on the cut 'Wi rh a. p~r of divid~. The eu rve of rile Inp, wh.t:ther lUI arc or ... parabola, and the wrtiNl diBtanee of the· point' "x" ~Icnv the cente r ol trit!'~ r t in iu relari on wi th the disrance front trigrert is 'What determines the grip", ~flicie:ncy or lack of it. In iii'll"! .59, IIU'GU is the- grip of till! D. C. M. Sportrr stock u issued; while ciH~ J .s th~ same vip s1i Ih tly al t·ered,. but with the distancr from triner n(Jt increased. n e curve was originalI y an 1.11: of a circle fit i3 cat back in I'HII to I pBr":bola,~ i~ c. 'II the: cu rve in CreuiDg toward the end. I D thecry the ~. as· isruedtl grip loob b~ .. te!\ And WID! Ute I c=loaer g,ip; bur handlln.m me rwo BilOW! th a r the one at U H n Ii ves the nrnter hold-the sb ~r curve at low~ r md giving a '·hookll eflect, while there i, I sUgbt but deddedly noticeable tC'nd~nt'y EO!'" th ~ ha nd to !ll ip d IPWTl and b Itk 011 th~ othll!!r.

"The ~t" gtip I &:1;[0""· of r5 one ha¥ing Il sli,ht parlbolicd curve towJ.rd the rea r ~ with p Imty of nuger room just bid: of guard t th~ len~ from center of tri&ler to Mae of pip-c;:ap to be anythinlt deIII

ul'!d from 3 1/4 to 4 indica; and. the fUr/jetU distance from edge of grip cap 10 em ter of trig.tr t abOUt 1 1/2 inchesl

I am not in sympathy wi th e~b ttDf: grips like some of those in Vi I\1I'If: .59 pro j ectill& straight downwa rd. which form a 'proj teflon from the stock at rhei r rear ed ge. The mO!t litfaCf: ful grip is the one wbose bottom ed It' just meet! and forms an anele with the bottom line of stock. If a grip cap ia uscd it will prg j eel: eomcthir.tl like 1 /4 inch t which is au fficie., t for appearanc:e~s sake.


:rh~ dcpth~ or vertical d ist.an(e frora 0Jmb to point JUSt bacl. of Ir;t1P. IS another pomt where many stod:mal:ers fall down. Too Ihallo~ a stock at thi! po int a1 ways resul b in a grip set far back and vtrtuall y useless. ~ and fiu~b a st?CI. i f ~t actually ladti.d.r in strength, a c least ~ Ye5:. the ~mpresstoD o f HlID.siness. Api n, too ~reat a depth at thi.s p<Jln t ruins the 1 i nt.s and makes any atock look like a boat oar. The attempts of some of the £actori- to ..I~·I

t-_L ith + 01 .. ~ ucs gn a

~ ~ WI. Plst ~p well forward has resulted in just this died----o.

F it Ls parncu1ar ~Y JI [] riceable in the old Model 20 S a. y~ ,ttX k. .which I he nestly be] ~e.ve to be ooe 0 f the homeliest ever prod uced I The new Mood cl 20 13 rrruch bette r in th is respect,

There is" no set rul e for th ick ness of the ~ri p, but ape ri ~DCe has




Fig-60 mo'i'IQ that it should be from 4 3/4 to S 1/4 inches in circtl mfere.na. My pre fenntl: is 5 i nches in Ame rican w am ut, and 4 7/8 inches in hieh vade Eu ropean wh ieh usus 11,. is a li me str~~ ger and harder. In cross section [ favor , itI'lP of ve ry Iull uval-e-not round. but much more Dearly round thDJ1 many atoCkcn mike tbcma. The oval Gu.tline Fi&U re 61 ~ is 5 1/2 inchetl in circum fe H:D~I and an oval lfl Ih~ proportion, seems re be abou.t right. ~ grip can be roughed out to uta ou tiincl then reduced in Dnrahing to the desired diame~r witbDUI: changing the- pr.aportiom.

R 11TrSTO C K : The ttock i rrJ'rn.-d i:A t?] Y ba("k of th I: ;&rip 9hl)u t d be the same th ickn.esa as tb~ grip. A grip bul ging out from ~i de. of :ltod 1000 lib .. he d~i1-OI' WOJH~ The bottom ~dge jU:Sl back. of &rip ahould be full and rounded to about a hal f cl rele, an d narrowing in a 5traillbt taper toward the toe to confonn to shape of D'Utt .. p l:lt It " "" is i$ j "'~$t t he reverse of the u p~r M ge Q i sto('~, W h idl is th ici and lull rounded at butt' end) narrowing in a Btraigh t t~r towlrd the comb. The thidnw and shape of butt i! controlled by the tbape oi tb e bu ttplab!t the sh ape and dim~nsions lbown in Figure 62 being about ideal. 1 f you I buttplate does not cnnlorm to Y.?'u r idea. of what ,ou want, i t sh~uld be filed to shape before .fi ttmgt then the etock worked do1llll to it. The top and bottom lines (ri lted: Jhould be- trluolll ttl1 .l1r(Jj~h. t. There is DO ext:UR in rh~ DOt I'U$On fen the madbcUr curve often Iem GO old stocb~ but no ...... t m.nk de Lord, dill.ppeariD:r. A very sIiliu full ness ma,. be perm_'blc on the sides wbm. it it de5ired to pid. weight, but the aide turfaceI Mould run as nearly rnalgbt u possible from bunplale to &riP. I may add also that thida bulEine aides on • stock do not add mough weigh t to materi.tly redQI:e ~a. If a buttpl..-:e of


the dai red lie and M3pe iI not Imlablel thick~njn, the ttock 'ahe!.d



d I
I "
a. s~
c Fig. 66



c i butt will add only an oun~ or so. I t is lrea of buttpl.tea DOt ~tod: thicknfSl at sid~, that distrlbutes the reeeil over an area whidl

makes it less ftoncea ble, Recoil in a l'i ftc of t30-06 or lesser caliber Ihnuld n[J~ f n my npi ninn) hnth fII r tn,. mill p h "i~ 11 Y ~'p=:l h 1~ "f ':' rryinr a gun in the woods-particula.rly if the atock it propc: fly dmg:ned and shaped, But if the shooter is leDIi rive 10 ret:u.i i and must be p rotetted f r01ll it~ he mould use " III bbcr reeeil pad,. opeciallJ if he eannot get 3. buttplste 0 E the proper iize and. dlmensions.


ACTION SIDES:: BelinnillC al: a paint dightly bad: of the tang th~ stock o:t a bolt -action riRe commences to swell to acmmmod~le the action mgrote3. Many leading stockers apparen rl y try how thin and fl iltl51 they can md::.e the stock: at th;, pain t. True, a ri.8e is mo re easil y carried if not too th.ick. VI he re t ~e han d oatur~l y II rasps il, at the point of balance. BUI: .str~lrtb IS, ~ven more I ~. DOttantt an.d ri Rhl here where the magazl~e and. reee rve r a.re le~ m is the th i n 11m poi 111: an the stock, I f the gr;a in happens. to t~~ a ml,llt sid e turn about thiS' point, you. can expect the 'Stod::: to sp.1Jt 01 break almaat ,c.rtainly, iIJOncr or Ja1cr. I am. CIlnvil1~d that th~ Itrw:rshould be at least 1 7/8 i nehes th rough :It the thickest point. l!'hic:h as I M4pe them, ~tne$ I /2 t~ ahead of ~ar ~nd. or. mapzmt"my own a r~ 2 inc~es at th IS pom tJ In~ ov~ 1 In Ic:.~$ secnon: not slab sided. Tn!!: a pp] res to .II] bol t acnons bl big game callhe~5. . A atock by • i aDlQ\I.S make&" wb KA iii :W:-'W on. ha nd In T d II r 11 r-.2I tl on measu res but 1 5/8 inch at this porn tt and the. sides ale Rat as the proverbial pancakr:.. An ad di tional 1/8 inch 0 f wood at ceo ter would ha ve I11.aLI~ it. more pleasing stoEk. with fa r grmtr: r strength ~ aod the increase in weigb t would have been trifling.

The re is ano I her big ad vantage in ha vial" a stock ex ~ n. full oyer the action; i ts li nes caD be car ried forward iRa Sf raigh t UlPC r, ?f ve ry nearly stIaigh t" eo ti p of forend t and the fu r-end rh U,S fo rmed WI U be a com rortable hand f u l instead of the rid icu lous sli ve r iQU nd on .so many ri Res.

FO RE N DS : I am a staunch bel ieve r in th ~ europa ra t iv"t ly J u 11

forend· ytt I do not wan tit at the expense of han dsome lines in rhe bal'ance of the ~toci:, no r is i t n~c:rS:'N' ry to gai nit in this; ":3.y. The stock above mentioned wnil:h is: 2 inches thick: over the magazine, tapers ro 1 I /4 i rn: hat foren d tip, and th ickness at pain [ w he re h~nd IT~'P'" to"J1 d ;~ , 1/1 n inrh , ""rhi ~ i ~ j ll_U· 1/1 nun del" the 1 j ;4

FIg. W

inch endorsed by Captain Croum&n and this extra sixteenth of an inch COlt 1 d be added with ou t aJ)p reciah ly eh ana:;ing th e cnn tou T n f the ttoCl:t w h ich t at wn I be noted from Figu re 63 ~ is not extreme at any poi nt, unless it is in the Imgth of the foread,

I 1 ike lonl" fnrcnd". I like them 10 ni:tt by an ineh 0 r w tb an most stockers rtc.Omrnendr the U!alal ll!ngth ~ng n lne ro tfl n i nehes


lrom recr:.vfr. while this nne is 11 1/2 intheI. Such a forend add~ • bit of weight- out toward the muzzle whn-e j t is needed to balance me rile hay inK .. light' b.a rrel with COIDparari we ly thid:: buttstock.. It pet wits the shooter to grasp the formd well forward, for better coatrol o.f the: piece. And i ( pel ..... i ~ u £ lll~l ter lirus in tb e endre srock. And .finally J it eliminates to a Iara:e degree, the skinny appearance of • riBe with thin barrel; and. when tLe £oread 'u DWle aJn:don.ably b and :SUing, the extra. or .so length relieves the otherwise cbl.Ul1.y dect.

But then) I ~ OUTJ and use a rifle 1IVeirhiDI 8 1/4 pounds. I weigh J 60 pounds and am 5 feet 7 1!2 inches taIJ.-which means I ~ m carrying a few pDund! of fat that I ,bouldn t t have II and wouldn t t haft!t if able to spend more time .afield wing my fUns, inStead of in the shop working on tbem. N~rtbflesa I prtfer this ri Be to a ligbter one--its weight iI • real belp amr a PliffirJg dim b up a hill wh~n a. quick. shot prcscn IS iTld t II: haIa n(5 lite a shotgun, is very quid- h2.lldlinB"J snd t:~tu-'r'ly m-l. lighter and Wimp I~te:r lor me than SGme otben weil"ninl nearly a pound. less.

If ad:-ed to lay down a general rule for forearm Ico'gth t I think




I would make .it read thiB way: Let the dist:aJa from receiver to -I ~---- ----- .. _- ...

mreme tip of rorend equal approximatrl, half die barrel-. leqtht hut not in excess of a 12 1!2 inda forea.d---provided. this dimeulOJi permib pI acing the front ding ftPt'ivel from 15 to 18 ladles ahead of triuer. I f the swiftl is attached to barrel &bead of fotmd. thil poin t CU1 of rourwe be iprored. If it pet tb ruuKh dIe foreml it will I be ~ty to have it of aw:h .. 1en1tb -81 to permit the desiml dis- i tance, The swivel wru look better H pi aa:d 2 or 2 1/2 inch.:. hd: I from tip of form.. '

I often wonder il 80JDf cf the pnsm iths who imiat on Jiving ua i '9!!'ry short fotel1 cis. are not th in0ne of the eztra time required to inlet • barrel in to the loo;u one. and Df the extra care whida mllSt be ~ercised to bed the barrel wirh eyeD preaure at all poiDts. ThiI does greatly increase the labor~ "and the dimcu1 17 ot itt aDd the beeimt r may well be eXCUBe"d. for making bit forend the miaUaw:n Imp which he tan handle to ad'V8.D.tqe..

I:a crou IKtioo theformd: DIll}" be ::J: lb. thai rats COIII- •

fortably in the hand with & minimUDl alley toward roc:ki'DJ or I~

eantinr. Whelen pnkn a forend Ilculy c:ylindriaJ. in ahape,. Some of DUr best stockmaiers shape them nearl., :Rat OD the sid.ea. Ih&rply rounded 011 the bonom. My own choice ill· I. moc:Wiecl pear "pc lib Fipre 64A---nearlJ Bat on bottoJn., aliIh t Ind;e oa .itl~ and dn;wiq in taward 1larm at upper maa- Tbia Mape .... O' ... d blend rradually into lin. of .-ock over tu:tioa., lIBel ihould alwo Iap!t off forward to the tip~

lirure 6;5 skovn .. Spriapield IIt'Od: whicll ia Oile of the ... IX'" .rnplea I ever .... of hO'W' .. It1X:t sbouId .lltil be dcaiped. '!be romb h too low~ IDd sets too far hvk.. nae pip hu the '1Iook"

117 dLcl preu'ic:nJlly advocated, but teo much of ~t. and it iii too thick-

Iix inches in circumierence. Buttplate it 100 Darrow; barely 1 1/2 inch wide.- and the stock swells out in to a rqulu Molly Ful.Ibomm ia the middle.. The aide panels have no place on a modem ritle;






thq erve no useful puIp(l!le. :apoU the lin.el. lind aaa.b the IUrJ very cl umsy.. True particular Itod: is 2 lJ'2 inehes th.rouP the plnm Iwbile the formd where left hUld FiPl it .. but 1 3/16 ind.t tt:idt ud i,,. V -shaped. 013 bottom edpoa Note, ~ that ~ t!otf:rpril.inl:

I'JDlUlith hu ...ved himself I few houn wort by mUinK the ullper edp of· forend coinclde with the I«eite:t where the .bell, are e] ectcdl iastead. of bcd.d.iDK tbc barrel ta WI ill depth, u it Ih.ould M, mel the liae dropp·ing to ed.ze of re&:eiftl' at rear Df b&rrel ria.. A comparison Df the two doe-up. ia F'q:ure 6SB ud Fipre 65C wDl make this clear.

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The last point for eonsidft'ltion on our rt.oc::k is the FO REND TIP" This m.ar be shaped in a variety of wa~ u shOWD in Ficure 66, in which _ua' ~ in ustrates the Ihape commonly used 011, Krq

carbines and D. M. C. Springfield Sporten Ilractic..t eooqh, but ICJtrtely ornamental; I 'b 1'1 il the E 11 gl ish idea of .. pl •• n forend ~ "e" VlO'wI one of the sev~ral ~ of saobble that Crossman haulhtil,. ~ferl u, as I .. ' cltair l~K", and which is .em at it! wont on the:

Savage bolt .actions and Model 3D Rcm.inctODI as ,tocled. br the factories; "d J. is a tip of carabao (A!iltic buJhlo) bern, ebon'l bakelite, ivory II or other material. U1d i, uNally ahaped like the plain tiP' !lhown at "b II. although some mann sia.pe it into a snobble if desi red.

Th~ properly designt:d snobble is not 50 unattrad.ve in mct, scme of th e cdd er ones seem to me PI. rtic:uIarlr rr.cefu1~ bu.t it must be admitted th at tho&e II!en in reeent ,~an merit all tht! criticism they have recavl!d, The average shooter may wonder just why such desipi 1ftI'!" made. and wonder if the d.mpera are proud of t111~~m. I think it likely th ey are n.~t. Doubtlesa the 1"CUO.d fur suclJ abortiom Urs in the modem idea of meapt rapid maclline production. I t is- re8.S(.'lnable 10 suppose that much more hand shaping and finishlni W3!I done on stocks mmmrl,. than is don~ todar .. S1Jch a g:raceful, well propo rtioned forend as that found on the old Winch ester S i 0 gle Shot rifl~ for example, Dluld not: have been shaped by m adtinC! rr. The saebble on this forend. by the way I is ideal t and can be copied on almost any ltod: wi thour detractioE -from ita appearance.

Factory ItOcb aM s~d in what is knO'WD as a copying lathe, which operate! on th e same c ri nciple at the li ttle machine locksmi tbs


use to cut duplicate keys. 'The stock hlanl:: is mounted bclwtal centent in line with I (lISt iron pattern ~ and both are revolved slowly. A cutter wheel l'UI1ning at high lpeed is brought apinst the Iroci: blank, and this is· guid~d by • guide wheel betrinK RPbut thr! imn pa:ttfl!M ~fn("~. Ahou t -nnf!! m i nu~ nr 18A H. ~ulftd to «mgh

out I. stock: 'M sh &pe4 The cutter wherl t being about six incha in di.am:etc I and an inch ill th kkncu. the knives set around its ~iphcI'J' takin.g a cut at least 1/4 inch wid~, it it nridmt th~t miDUte details of stock forma non cannot be followed with INch a dC'rice; hence the Hock must receive its final . formation. by hand. H anne .-.en Itocb bein.g rOLigh tu rned I an irup:ction of many factory maids .,'ll convince l.Ilyonc r:hat quick Ii ni.tftilll, with minimum Mnd lahor t hu played III importan. t part in the shape selected hy the mUen, rather than an V !bought of ~uty Ot uo1ity j Wbith is D.Il!: more reason for maki n£a or havi d Ii!' you r stock made by hand.

TWO PIECE STOCKS: ThU'B far our attention has been principally centered on the more or 11*1 conven.tion.al "J'OrteI' type of n Ie stock. We must now consider othen designed for • apcdal pUrp:IIe. or wh& desilt' [s 1£m.[tM by me r:ypt! af ~dGn used.


The one piece- holt action .tock wu mOlCIt £or d.Ucuaioo tint,

herJiI* it' BDhodiH pmrti~f all of the poimb. found in. ather stneh,

me! a:me of ib own haides. Two piece ltocb" &I required IXJ. vuioUI linlle lbot rilles, Ihould follow pretty mud. the same tina. _ the ideal O~ piece stock. There are certain En. tures of the acriom, howeer~ that may n.~essihte modifications. For exmrple. the lon, upprr hng may fora: the ..rod:rrr tel ~ th-e" cam!. back further

than it Ihould be. A .tni pt lower t1UII may preclude the ,.."bility of wiog .. piltOl grip~ 00 moat: single sho[ actionl this iowtr un&: may be bent to form a fairly &ODd IriP.. but: em BOlli" Rpe&ters this il impotllblet due to action parb atmdmg back: into the It'od::,

FilUrc 67 shows a Single Shot ~ lIlchester remodeled for a t-Ui~to~.r to m. QWD id.eu. Dew" ~f thi. job are dftiCribed £ully 1ft Chap~r 301 A comparison of tbil with. the oriPW factory daign!hOWl very cl!lrly rhf frI~ bnuty Old imp~v~d IUII]l111n& qual:itia ~ble u a mmlt of re-deailP1il1.1 and band workmanahip ..

The Fa:rqu.aL non falling block S. s~ action, made in Endaed ha itl ltftPt!r hn, Wfill th .. ~ to!" • full pUlMJ srip. (Fip.n 61) Amaican 11lMIIUth. bave awabned to th~ poII1D.ili t:ia of thia ipleadid K:tion" Ind. I. pod. m:ln1 of them arc bcinr importal uul fitted witl American made bam:1s and st<dB.

Fipre 69 ilItlltrates a Zl caliber tarpt title on Martini ad;iOtl limt desilDm by Mr. Russel Wiles. This is an UDuaual .tocka 1Ul4 ;Ill ua.usua1 :fo~l1d. but wen .adapted to the particular use for width the IWJ WII dcaipcd. The aigbn,. both front &r1d rear. an [emovabJ.~ ud me ~tDCk is made 10 Ilnight and with comb .0 hip .. to Kive the gme cl fOP dimcnaiozu. wben usia, H16tO)IM!t .. w'ben tit! ICDJ)e it removed and iron ri pta .ttad:liI~d. The heaver-tail fotad • urlusally heavy and mit with it. tofW1lrd lectica tG which th. .lin&, .. attadJ.d. lormine an ab'Ultmmt ·pim wbidl the crotch of the hmd. msta in &rinK. Tbia permits I vet]' ricid hold. wfth tllht ~tn.lto and ellmiut!l the dfEomfort of W: fnDt nri.,d cliaiaI: into the hack of the haDd.

-".- ~r-tai1 forcmd it prderrecl by Dan!, tarpt .~ aDd while .:GWW"lIat clumq ill qpearance it pfrmitl of • .,e7 lIteadJ hoJd~ In ib 1l111li' fonn die emil ICCtion i. about Ukc


Pipit! 11)* lIat on thle' bottum ad 8:ariol very full on the sidea.. Quite oftem tue:h I forend ill made '91icer &t the forward end than at the m:eiftl': ~ma the 'WiGen .aion iI Ln the C'EIltzr, at the normd h....a grip.. Both of these p&ttems I helirt'e to be W 10lIl11 -I think the formdt nprdleu. of it1 type; mould tllpCr mlhtl:v tow. rei i~!I tip. This fa r the naton that the left !land will in ..



variably ex:ut :SOJrtC backward pull an the forend; and die fuwer h.oId it posIl"ble whm the haru! !Ju au irltreased tl1icbaa of weot behind it to pun _nsL See aIao FlEure 640.

:> ~) a~--...

: : : J

1':11'. 1D

MOlt. of tile I isht .22 wiMr ftpm te1s a~ 'f1~rr paorl,.mcktd; .aa while tIleir actiOIll place • good maay limitations in the way ..,.f the stock deai goer. it ta nevertbeleu poiIlble to grcadJ impl'OVe their hand linr qualities. A loralef .tock with I-reer buttpla~; Ie. drop at heel ~ • bigh.~ and thicker CfJnlb; a pistol ~rip It t1e action pewits; and a thicter~ ber..er lib. peel , and. posuDly l~cer forend. will oflen mab wdt an IUIIL hartdIe like a ftI..I IWI inIted of lib

• !ft~ 99 IIUldcl Savqe u another that nuY' be: n:-stutked 10 ad ldYtftta~L lirure 71 !bow. • spaid joh on one of dieM II_ whir:h resulted in at tfUt 100,. imD~Dt in ib hand1ia£.. A higher comlJ is the thiq mGIt needed on this rifle u turned O\lt hJ the f.ctory,. with a mieker pip~ 1al"Jer buhplatet arul larpr hi ella l1e"1't in order of lmportanc:e.

SHOTGUN STOCKS! Thul far I hive ..uI little about

shot.Pn lltocbl Fittinc ~ the lock action of a double run. either box er I~~ loeb. is • job beyoBd _ rrat'h nf 1liiy mna teur workman u.ntil b. lUll hid conoidrnblt mrparienCe and ~i1" • fllW' trtocbYet .arne coQSi.dfratiDn of thll! ~tial po: nta of shotpn fit will be of value tal the mD having. a lUll lI:tI:tal til cml9'. Dr 'Wbo thrvuah aJlJl'lie and perseverance will even~ ItCd: Ilia vwn pal

The .uthor lap no cIaUnt to beiq an expert wd:h the 1hotpD.

Th. ri 8 II! i!l '~r d WI ", 1 dftll't I!W'~' IW,e In ~ that...... .. the work, in my hands- progn:*. f.r more s\mrlr th.a the work mI • rifle stOc:k~ and becomes irbome. I halJe my g,m ideM en the iUbject of aboqun stod: design anI lit. -.bich I will r:m: for wbatwcr they may be worth j md the ftad.er is refermd 10 the more exteuli'e ud c:omprehfnliw: views of Charles Aski. Paul B.l~ E.. C. ClOII1Dan. Ind omen. a' expresaed. in their variOla boob IIUI 'fre-

quent Plapue artideL 12J

The IhotKun ,tad: Ihould inViriabtr be lonpr utd 8traiphl' than the riRc 5tad;; and the J'UR intended. tot' 11K at the tDpI both lonpr ar-d straighter thm for field use.

Shota:u.D Ihooten. Ire as • rule t somewhat IUperstitious in their ~ien as to the way th~ r gum perform. A strai~t: Itock: with & b.igIJ coinb win not make the pn ibd f ~oot one .it hip-cr I but it win make the owner I" ~Gt ir "irll,.r,. by £Orcin. his ere hiPer aboft tbe rib:. whldi Im.aunn fa dit IAmt mlnr .. rUIng I 1U.f' riibL Auotber thin K !hI:!: straiiht~t' stod: wiU dot is to absorb r«:all bettet- .. aad elim iaate much 0-1 th.e ~ ij UJIlP" of th e barrel "hen nml. whkb j WDp'. while U: does II.QC oa:ur W1til the darF i. out c f t.he. Durel,

1ltU#ly causes the shooter ~ believe it il raponaible for wild shotL

Due to its triggers place.l u i ncb cr rna re apart. the dDuble pa must always be steeked on a camp romisej I thorouzhl,. tonCUr in Charle!fi· ~ms' heHef that tb~ left barrel should he the mon: opco. boml of the twol to that 1hc ~a.r triqer W111 be fi.r:d 'ntT s;~ 9() per cent, of OD~ts shootiriK will be Blnltlts. the: stock which .. dimensiun~ 1rom th~ ra.r 'tr:i~r II a lltartirq: ~nt "CSIII be lliYerJ a mare comfortablr. shape for 90 per ceIlt. of one". .shootin.. "Whea thm front triaer is wed lor the HDr that-wltich it to "'v, :for IIIOR Df th!l! MOobI tUf!1\ tit.! .J.op~ rear porrion Of the .... ard "frat PUD~es the second finan :5eve-reIy. and • h.bit of 8indrinJl' developL

Despite tbe usu.ll pricti~ 01 atodaa, then: i. no ,oed 1'tMCD lot rmldng the grip of • Ihotgun so thin IlIl.d fragile tlut It r. ~ broken. The .shotgun eriP should M comfortLbly handfillinlt the I8lDe u·. rifte (riP. and. it should M :I full Ol'al in cma section... not di.mcl!c1 mlped.. Ii many foreill1 ~terl make it.

The comh: is let muc:h further bl~k an molt Ihotpu dan iI DBB- 51.ry---no num that I knO'W' of why it .... ould DOt be ~f lOme UIe in w.pponiag the tb\lDlb. the a"It .. on • rile IbJCk. True.. me Ihotpn il handled mote rruick1y,. U I. nile, than is the riRe ~ .u the mOoR :muon why it -mould be fittt!d SIO perfettiy that the -me hold wou 1 d become 1 utomatic.


Shooters a~ a lot over the value of I pistol rnp on • Ihotpn.

What most makers call • pistol grip is nothing: more than ... plmple .bout the center of the atocklls bottom cdfC! & to pto9ide I ttadiil!r 101d.~ it certain Iy does not. Bu t if we dedan • full pi,tot grip "mi1ll" to our xdeu ri fir IriP .. and place it in die plOper ret.tion. to one of the trialers. it wiD be It.~ly uaelea when we .~ usina: the other triger .. For thil reuot1 it is ~, eeeeeded md the ItraiKkt ariD i. p~fen:ble on • dcru hIe «W1: while Jrivlnjt more ncr Ii no. ~ th~ stock .. it abo permi" I auld:: sl1ift from ODe trincr to the other~ witbou~ aiming: the feel of the Jrlp ..

'When uSnI' • IUft fittal ,nth tinpe triG'er t or I .ande band trap IlUft, pump lUll.. or .lllftm-tic; the piaral grip ean, if det1' red, he worked out 10 U to be of real uae .. ruI InY penow prel:ere::a~ I. Inr NCb • pip ..

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The shotgun stock may well be p rol'ided with I tbed: piece it is quite .. uaeful at 1 t is on a rifle: and the lime &pplies to CIllo!. With a shot,C\Ul the pointing is almott entirely instinctive,. ma.nJ Ihooten el lim ing they never see the front Slight W' hen .bocdni It pme; and I reasonable: amount of cutoff i! alJnost in v·. riably a big btlp40 In fact. more cagtcfi is tnU~ly pennJssible tnan on a rifle. A llcht 16 bore of mime" with a 14 inch stock has 1!2 inch cutofft snd it the best pointer I ever had in my h.nds.

Many ahatrun !tach are mule with Ilknik·edge'l C()mb-t-always • aenMll mistak:e~ The comb need not be 60 th ic:k as to mak ~ the .toa: .ppear cl~y I but a C() mfor tab Ie th ic:mess DC t only red uees the pu.nishmmt from m::oilJ, but enooungel Ipredittt more attuT'are aim. Of tell the sb otgun stock: will M mad~ wi th the same drop or De.l rl y the ~ d I'OPJ il t heel and oomb--th i~ is a; featu re p re-



ferred br _ ~ .. umber of mooten Ifter ,un of experimmting with stocks. They claim that such lines speed up the Ili~ and p rewnt over or undetsbOO!inil ,ince the ajm~ng eye is held at the SUD.r." relati",e heipt aholiC the rib. no matter where the stock. may be m«:ked.

Th~ man with I long n~k or very sloping shoulders, however .. finda that IIlKh a .tott .brings the butt too high Oft h is shoulder 10 the IO[ utien for him is a Mont~ Carlo comb I IS shown in Figure 72. Thii Jives all the advantage; of a high J level comb. yet permi ts the necessary heel d·rop to bring the butt snugly into the hollcw of the abouIdu.

We hear so mllch about the high crnnb and if3 desirability on both ritle and. ihotpD, that the maD deligninc his :6 rsl st(lei: may well heed .. "WOrd of waminc on this point. Theoretically the perfect camb iI one which wileD the cheek i. pn:aed quite hard aplnst itt with the chtekbopr: r$i ng sn ugly em title top edge. the ri (hi m will



I2.:J .


i!ii ..~l~

~~h 1




rear po rrion of the act ion Is buil t with a bend to the righ t. ~ IIC~· shows the Rigby One-Arm Gun~ developed principally u." a result af the W nrld War. As one hand has to do all the work it WlII necessary to give a gnp at the best point Df balance." This I aeee .... til. ted tarryi ng the rrigge r mechanism well ill rward 0 f the b rcech IV i th COIl S-CQ.uc n t sh.ortcn i!lK ur mlC' st~ u~use of thil! longer .mi reach. A il ngle t rl gger IS also essential. aDd i~ connected to the action ~Y means 0 f :steel rods, wh lIe .a th amb opaand ufc!ty is placed. on rhe ~ght o~ left s~de- of griPt ~rding to whcdlcr the rig~t or Ie f t .h a.n d rema! ns. S Jnu bu.t ana hand iii available ttl ho I d the' gun agai ltrt recoil, shock sp ri ngg h ave been inserted in the butt at'otka and hti ng held in 1 i ne with. l.i gh t metal pistons the RCXlil is dlidmtly abso rhtd y.' j th mi []i mum disturbance of Atm ..

ShD'tglJ n shooters are gradually turning from the small £mend. to t~ larger, handfil~llg type on aU dasses of gun... Th~ beaY!1'ttlJ !,!t: preferred O!1 Blng1e t rap IOns. and i9 often IeCft on doubla 8S w~ll. M.any :fid d shooters also p:rder such a fomtd on doublet

127 I

the favorite type beio( shown in Fi&11le 74. Tbis f"rend not oDly protecl8 the hand from tbe heat of the barrels. but abo givetl belter cant tol of the armt and It tb"c lime time p rotecu the fin~n of the barn:lzi from Wt~ where the hand ;i1'Upl them in sh 00 On I. TbCI larg~ round fo rend ",rh lch j! standa rd OIl pump guns is V'try ~ t but ... t(]O short for many shoot~nt Deassitating aD uncomfonably lonl reach with the left arm I T Q overcome th is objection a typ: known a the ·~trap-gun t. formd has been designed, and can be had

on Remin g tOrlt and pc rhapa othc r pump guos- at a. nominal addili tiona! dlarg~. This forend is il1ustrat~d ill Figure 7 S.

AI a closing i nj uncti on to the beginner in the .field of f\lrumi.th ini, -and perhaps ro 0 tht r.s whD a re not beginn~n. 1 wish tc q uate" ~x. ce rpts :f Mrt:I an article d lscoven:d in a prin. ten t ~ock of type sped. mens; while: rc:fCtrinE originally to typographyt thc advice it RiVal !1lay'so ap.d y ap ply .to the fiel~ of gun design also, that I have th ought 1 t WO:rth rep rodut:ln g, d cletl.n.l' only the reierences to d. e (l rigina l subjtc:t:

H AVJNG selected :and procured. piece of wood suitable far a

"-The bn~ Idnd of originality i!!l tbat: .hidl. CIJIJlil'I lIftll!r •• nJnd :11.13" stoc.kt and d.eaded on its "form dimensions and nn:ish 'We

prl!mtiCf!!Jhip j tbilt wbic:h shillli PI"(tvC' to be the bJendinl!t of iI. firm cDllceplioD ready to go into. the wbject of zctu'au,. .tod:ina" • riRe or' sbot~~


be lookj ng though ehe 1 i ne of sight!oj I once stoc::ked a rifle in this manner .ad took. it to the range for t-Mting. After half • dozen mob [ wq quite ready to lIeritlce some 0' this ultra perfect stock fit for a hit of D)mfDrt-tlll~ puoithment my ched: bone took from that 0lID b WIll equivalent to • fint el ... llulIPD-.L IIJ1d the apot remained lOre and b ruilled for a week afterward. Such.:lit ID&J well


be so ugh t on th ~ ,'r:'ry 1 igh t cal iber ri R~bu t not on a big Pf!I.e tifle or a shotgun.

FR EAK STOCKS. Numcrou!I rr freak.'~ atocb hive been built for shooters havin g St11DC physical deformi ty Dr lmpai IDlCnt. and serve their intended purpose admirably. Figure 73 .haws a fevv sucla guru.. UAU ls an Ithaca stocle d~gnM ~or a right hand~d shooter W b o, tb rough im pal rment of v lsiont must shoot wi th the left eye i thl: comb is cu t a way to perm i t of laying the face ...,.~ 11 acI'OM the :stock. j, BJ tis the Holland and H o Iland jC ~Cro&S· Eyed 1, gun to fill

t he saine need. A job of th is 50 rt i:s necessaril y me reo expmri'Ve than the CUI +-:lWa v ~tock. of th eo I thacQ. since the stock wood must be se leered 'with a ~a tu ral bend to gh'~ it sl.dftcient lit rength, and the

U'ppoef": F1.~ l~-Rm'llnll'tOn trap fOl".nd..

LoW(lll" ~ PI.c. "'-ttbaca. btanrtail foreJu1.



of all UMful precedmt And the prop .... '! teDdl'nc.ict af •• able mi.ad. FOI" let _ IJla.n be .. able ... d oriciual •• hI! mJ.y~ he eaDllDt a1fc.rd ff) dlKud b~ led. of wh.t hal gotI_ before Ot ,., hat i. DOW' gD:i ng m. i!Q his (n'f"D

trade Of p~oa. • • • • '

fIIIAn t.hoa .,.'~ned lD ..,bat are aeftPttd •• th"1!: be iIIrtI., tha l...,ecI

.aClIKet. .u.s ,rofc.h.iou. nrrouDd thcmHl"tI witb the h~.tQtyt the lit=r.tu;r~ .nd mncrete- t'Iample. uI the WIJ rk 'Wi lh 9VlJ ith .... ~y m .... ' he p. nicLd .rly ellA

,aged. • • • •

'·Art don not Haunah ia bIdden pl~ 00' unde r re.uaim, ner ; n

i p.u rI.Dee oE ,,13 at. raJ!!!]! al1d ge"bLH.I ha or!! a.t:mn1pl i.an.eti. and IlU- fttt\W ill"oJlDpliabtr.g t. rGughDUt ch~ Wtl eld, For tlII loU OW P r.fC~de;nt wilel,. dod Dol me .. u tu ilui,.ce .l .... i •• t, UP':- KJ'l!I'I: e'.1l!:luplill r.. but to ICUd,.. .U tbl: m. In! 1'1 fa i ~h fu Ily ~ I etti a.g their ,IInilt dilt1f-eoUJ3 t:t !lib"k. Ilowly into t_ tnind 1. o:rd er thlt WI!: may p.tie:u.tI, d-criYI!: frorn the rit:hncu of OUf acquJr~ k.nrrw I~d p! and arp nl~ 11.&i1.rm aD :II uitudof cf ou r O"'D.

lThI!: .p riP tIy m Indlll!:d you DC alln,. "'ftb" with bl. 6nt bLlSin.:n bre iIIth proj rctI [he Dt!.... and Iu.nl hIlt lne .. .itably become.. d r-ea:ome. and is d .riRn tv aD early dlnppc.rlDC:C: 1'f:bi~ the- 11",lI:!r~ ear'; Il)lidly erJ.Cio"Yfed Iwdtnt ",in at II! .at IPIDd •• mm::b IDf hil. tiau!!l ia .TOid iUI miltakll!:l •• IQ fl9'OJving "riJUtn'l: icllRIMI .,..her .... ilh to daule bil coDtemp.orariH.'R

In thi, chapter I han: avoidc:d, u far u po~iblc., laying d.own aact butt stock d ;m~nsions fur either riHe or shot gun stacb. T~ will va ry Ileal rdina; te the bu ild and characterist ies 0 f the shooter" and IDU!It be determined b, tryina out 2W1S un til the nab t fit is :found. The follOWing tables give dimensions which will handle wd.!" .nd be crun£orrabl.: to • 1. r&if pcrg:ntagJ:" of shoob: n ';



~ cmJe r of lriaPJ tJJ ccukr of ~uu p-I.tt:l 13: l/:l ED.

Urop at COIDb ... I • • • • • .. • .. • • .. • • • • .. • .. • • • • .. • • • • • • .. .. .. • .. .. .. .. r 11/16 ....

DI"Dp .t ~I II. 4 • ~ • ~ t I .. I II • • • • •• 4 III ~ t • • .. • , • , • • .. ::I 1/1 .. ,

t..cgtb. from hcd to poiDl of ~mb • 4 4 , + • + • • • • 9 J I, t.I

Let1gtb f:rom tiD I ~ poi&n af c."IJID~ (on bolt .utiOIU) a l./ J I(

Ullph from ee..rlter af InlP r to palm of comb I • 4 • • • 4 $/8 1.1

Lelllgtb from ceneel of trilPl' toO .. are ... poiDt of piltQl pJp CIP ! r.1 ~ ... D I"Op oj froDt edge of piat!)1 !rip e •• be" ce~ of tnu-el' •• .. S/I ~

l-tDph of butt plate- ,~ ~ ~ + • .. • • • • • ~ :rIa u

Width of b\ltt p]&tt:: at thicbSit p.rt .•••••. '" . t t •••• , .. H •• , .. • 'Z.~Jl' ..

Fitth of butt "., .••.• , .. + oil , ••• , • • .. • • • • S II a III

Ci:rC1lm.f-cnlll;e= of pip + + '" • • • •• • • • • • • 4 ,'I tl

CaItoI .t 'L......a.L. H~ · · ... oj •• • • ... • !III' Ij.

... ... u •••••• •• t • ... -II • • • III • • • • • • I • • • • T _ J ~ t.

oe ~.,., ~ . • . • . • ". I v

NOTE: Th e,e :are lIWf'"q' dim cmi. oa.-agt 1.Dy.. one ,.001",. ideaL .A rilt 10- ltod: .. d will fit .1mo1t ~ ,..... IIWI wd.1" ....-d molt -of IhnD PC' ~ f~y~ rot either ollled en prarae Illootiq. a the ideal ,tack botb t!IC Fi. tJUcD~ .wd wid.h Q:f buCiplate: ,.,ould be' iAI:rc .. d lIli..ehtl7 the fol'JQCr itt j inche.. eel thll; latter to J: 31+ inch.:.. ro[' OAIIid. ahootiDK II'Dti lel.y the heel dr:,oP ..miRht 'b-c it.:.reued to 1 or ! 112 jnC:hu.. ud for I'rl)pl! IhcodDr end relt nl.l.sJi1 be- dec:r~.sed to -s 1/4 1)[' ~ rla iDch-eL


I.e 1JCl:b.. c:m.u:.. of bODt tniii=' to li:mtc [' gf I"utt plate ~ ...... ,.. 14-

D rc::Jp .1 comb ..• • .. . • . I... • ... .. • ... • • .. • • • .. • •• •• • .. • • •• •• .. • •• • _ I

D rap at ~1 .... III. • .. • • .. • • + •• •• •• • ..... "t • .. • .. • .. III •• •• ... ... • • • • S

L!!:D~ frol'D beel to POiul OlE ClImb • + ••• + ~ • ~ to ••• +. •• ... • • g

ungdl from cente.r of fo.r-w.rd tri I;P:r to pvia.t at" conibo t.... 5 Length f ~m r~.r tt:'igge-l" to- Ilc~rnt po1 Dt "f grip eap (double

,111'- ) + •• • + • • ." • • • t • • l !/I ..

UDP:n. frl;lm trigger (_;lingle triggctt pump_ or .utoIDItie) hi

DC.ret! paint of :l!!:r.p c.p : ~ • • .. . :1 I/:z. .,

D rap to f root edge of p1p call' be low I:ebtu of trlUf.!r I. I/:J. ~ ..

LGD!tjb of bUb pLate or rtCOil p.d + 5 1/4 -It

Wi ~ d butt at thic:kesc: part III +. •• • .. :I II/I IS 4:1

Pitch. oi! butt ~............................................. • 0 til 2 II:=- I~

~~ f f·

.l"C'Um C'rtn<t!i 0 p1p + ~ 1. + 4 S/4 .0 .5- ~ ..

CI.toff .t butt · ~ ~ •.• ~ ,I..:' ....

in. ./1. a lis til I/~ ...

Thcse :aoo are" average dim ensL on"S , OU t will ccme ve ry close to litting the gtearest m3-jority for .11 round &booting. Stock thicknes5 and grip circumieI"enl:1i!: ~ould be rm uced to:ll1e'What on light, mull bore ~unl~ and increased a trifle on hra vy tmp and wild fow 1 guo..,


CHAn'HI 10


130 a

Ff~m76~o~~ecompl~~r~t~ivera~~ti~n~mhly ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

of a Springfield without fh.e stock, Study it. Set it up on the 'bench inK is at the recoil lug and rear of tang-two points of support in front of you and fam.iliarize youmeli with every curve in the .gainst recoil r:amp:and with St:ycn.

receiver formation. Note aJ.ICfull, the concave and conva sur- Now study Figure 78. This shows a sectional view of the 'tWO faces temallCtering th .. t where~r a portion of th. metal has beet rtcels, one in]e~d by hand, the other (In a routing machine, The hollowed, the wood of the stock: at that point will be rounded out di~ren(e in the amount o! ":~ Il:ft in the stock. ~t its weakest to fill h. In in[etting the ,stock yOti are sim.ply carving out a N"'rJ~ points shows very clearly, Indicating the: extra raargJn (If strength

-- to be -expected. of I; hand made stock. Now set your barrel and

- receWer in the mach me made stock. Probably yOli will find that

~ you can move it backward and. forward fIOlD 1/32 to 1/16 inch. Tb is tolerance f$ necessary by reason 0 f the inacc.uraty of m acbine fittinK'~ and the slight va.riations which occur both in stock! and acnons; for in quanti ty prod uetion, a.ny aetlOIl m lBt :fit in to an r stock. Set the magazine' into position and. I:lgh ten up t be ~ rd screws. Now note that there is clearance bad: of the rnr md 0 f tang of about 1/16 incb-tbii, to fDake IUM that thC'n iI n<JthinE' to prevent" the neoil shOtlLkr on recavey from setting back tight Iplnst the wood.. [n our hand fitted It'OCk-aaumiDC that: the fitting is property OO[u:, this gap behind the: tan, is not oecesaary. For it will be read it,.


undentuod that the thl'llK.of the blunt, NUnd end of the tlDC apjnst the wood has little if any tend.eacy to split the grip. The reuon a pi, rpUb Wlder recoil it usually due to incorrect fittina: of the

___ ~~_~_--------01 tlpered portion of the till,,; unJe. there it nll110Dablc cl~

ua.demcatht tM !anI acu as a wedge, and heiDI' unsupported at its rear, it comes drht DD b..ck. At its upper edge the tang may be fi~d quite doe to the wood-rbe deaJancc should be down insidewhere it doem't now. With the wed Kin, eHec.t thus eliminated .. the tang IUpportl!d apinst rear thrust at the end, and alao at the points 41a; *, "b, n and. "c," in Fir;ure '71 there can hi!! no movement of the action in the .tad: to start a split.. I t's the lime principle u d.rivinr a aail in a boanL Try to pR!15 the nail iJJ with the hammer, minK all your weicht and all mgth f and you will make .no headway i but when you swing the h81 mrner on it, it i1 Quic.kl,. d riv m in with mod~atdy licht bl.ow8.

The amount of wood I"(JU ted Gut on the imide 0 f .a machine made .tock ncce.itates the use of .toc:k screws to i(ive add M strength.. In a Iwtd made stock: of normal dimensions the$c are neve r needed .. ex~t for mapum eartridces h.viag "¥eJY heavy lttOil-uruming of mune that the stock is of sound, hard wood ..

Look &Cain at the poi ne "d" in At FilUre 7', against which the n:coil lUI bellS. The I1!CeBS for this lUI is a tri 8e wider than the front md of the mapzine mortia; COIlJ!QUMtiy, at its extreme outet edges thia lug is well suppamd by IiOIid wood extending cleal back aloDI the sidel. Certainly the wood i. not going to give way It tI1ae points. But in the cmter of this moolder ~ there is IOIid .. <XJd for Daly about an jneh, r.:lChing to the magazine mortice.


By reason of the many types of ,stock n~CHSItartd lly VUlOUI ac .. tiODS1 it is pia in 1 y impossible to live in one, or even 3eVeral chapters, detaile d instruct tons fo r stocking every gun in txistence.. Our dE'-ortl therefore, must be ron Ji'nrd to gtncral in!tructiona applying to the principal type$ commonly used, n.melYI thl! one-piece bolr action stock, the two-piece stock in whi,h butt-slack and forend are separated by the action, and the ~hotgun srock., whlch is also in two pieces, ~xampl~ at th e n rs t named are found in the S prinpeld.r the M ausers, the S4 Wi nchr:sterl' 5211 56 and 51 Winchester ~ Modd 30 Remmgton, the Newton, the Ross. Model '17 Enfield, Modeh 19 and 23 Savage. the Russian, the Knall and in fact moat military arms. The ancient and honorable .45-70 Spling:6eld. CruDS in this class although not a bolt action, as do many old arms. including all the mu xz 1 e loade rs, bo t h rt Re and shotirUn.

I n the second c lass W~ find all of th e IC'Yer action rifles the Winthest~rs,1 Marlins, SavageSt Remingtons-s-the trnmbonr: or pump actions in a11 standard makes; and the Winche.stert Remington and Bro1l-·ning auto-loaders,

Sberguns .. whether single or double: barreled, or of tbe pumP. lever, at automatic persuasion, inva.riably have the stvd uul £orend. !e'parate] with ehe 'Single t;!xcept.ion of the muule loaders. wiich have one-piece ~tocks.

ONE PIECE STOCKS: Since the!: gra.test majorjty of am.ateu.rs an: interested in making a sporrini[ stoCk fol' a military boll action ri flel we will star r 'Wi rh this t)']X; and we: will iUu.atrate on the Springfield, sinc-e that iS1 and witb ao.od RUIlD, the mosl popular of all bo1 t act:ticm.

Fir. T6

impression 01 the m~td parts of the pn. The barrel and naiver may be regarded as the potiitivel while the stock is the ne'ga tift 01 the c:amp!cte arm,

Now 3tudy 1 ~'O' Y tartfully ~ Fapres 77 and 78. 1 n Figure 17 I A mows the aetion moni Ct!!S on a SprlnK£cld service stOCE. cu tout on a to utin, mach ine in a few minutes. B show! a stock blank inletted for the same action by nand. rcquirinrr aeveral bO'UI"! careful Iabor, Note particularly the diffe:rltnce in Ihf two from end of tang to rea r of magatin e mor tice, I n the machine-made s.tock contou rs. aTe limitl!d to the scope of a revolving cutter .. while in the band made job, the re a re no lim itation:!. Onl y the wood actually displated by th e steel is remo.ed, the reby greatlV increasing the stnrngtb, and al50 hl:lping to absorb vibrations when the gun il fired. Note partieular1r the eJCtra wood Itf! at "a" in B, FiZUR '11. Thill mIs up the hollows cut undtm~llh the tang on either ride. Note also

h ULn 4 II .. t' B Flo 77 rr""i... L!.. h ...

t e cuts UI an C III 1 19Ur! ~ .1 nese nt mto t e portIOn

under rear of receiver which bolds the tri leer mtdtanisrn. Note the diftenmce in method of beddinl' the reD' of t ... , 10 the two ~ the ha rd-fitttd job sapportinK the metal It' all pant.. while enl, t\ .. " or three euauial points are supported by wood. in tbe senrice &tOcl..




At the POlrlt "d" in B, Figure 77 t note how the wood extends fu ether fonvard to bf!3T hard 3gain'St the r-ecoil lug on under side of the receiver. Thus, in the hand inletted ,stock1 the receiver has firm bearing in rhe wood at pnints "a," "h," "c," "d, n 3nd at rear of tang Uc ~~' whil.e in the machine- inletted srock the! princiva1 be:3 r-

F i q. 77


Erid.en t1y ~ rom I hea vy pressure api nst the recoil lUI recess ill the eeater win oreak out tbis wood. SOt if we fit the lug intD perfect rontad' dear across its 8unaa-l· then nlieve tb~ tenter by taking off a i gh [ cur, the back thrust is taken 111) by the .,lid wood at the sides. .and there is IlO p reSlUl'E: in the center to cause I break, Th us we can well ellmlna t~ the unsigb tly stock screw at this point, and • t not even neassalJ' to insert a pia:-e 01 metal on the inside. More uft~n than not the cutring required. to fit such .. recoil plAte .actually weakeas th e stoc~ w hiJe giving the owner false enlri ty in m= belie i th tit h S fen grhen d it. Recoil plates and strock: screws annot take the ,1 ee of perfect hand fitting, with the removal 'Of as litE II! wood as pOSI iL Ie,

N ore tlRl pain t 5"£:1 U at the rc!ar ald of the recess wh icb attnm .. modares the projft:oon 00 rilht side of receiver. Hete is • paint often ~vt:rlOC)ked which may easily cIcveIop into a ,r~splitrcr.'* It may be fittt:d quite close On the side, but where it curves in. at the HAl'l tntR must be little clt:arance~ Not m'UC:h is needed-tbe thicmm of ah·ed: of paper i :su.ficicDf, 'but presm:re here mull: Ii: tdiewd ..

Now tab: fOur seniD! stock and Nm it over, stud-yinl the 1Ilapaioe nd guard mortices from the lIoder ·de. The I'I'I!Rpzi.e, heine


. ,

.. ~ 1_*: : .'.

.... -

"'J nshI if: l'a c1S" on actio n mo rtl ces In .stoCkg_ UDve l' ts 1. l{ rag e:t ock !OJ) ~u I E'n I!tt h w 19~ til) 1I!I11 Ow 5hLll'Ii:' o:f CrJi ti!!:, Ce:n te I" :! ho.wa iJUI ida o! m RoC h. i ne i n ~ etted S..,.ri:ngfiald service stfJ~k, t",IJWe!' anowa In19ide or ill hand llllle[t~d 5tO~k. f<Jr ~:ri n gill!! Id act! () n, N 0 t~ ~ 00 !111: Y ~f'"a l p.o i nts: wh ~f' & e~tl"i!l Woo d ~. l~·t·t. In hi!!. Cli.-l made stock. resulUng tn a much trongeor I!HOtk. "WHI'l a..ct!on !UlpJ)o~t"d :H Pt'"1~tj(~.Uy ElverY JloJL"l.t . b3Q.blng much of the vlbl"";tl1(Jn of FlI'lng- Elr..d !II! n-lUlU! toe. lm 'tl':rtI \I' e- II. ceu IL' n cy 0 r the gu fl. Lower!B n:a r.u:i fn).e Ued l;r m'!~,


wieler at its . rear end has I!0 tendmcy ttl spl.!c _tM stock under rcccil! &0 the nttinl may be qUlte dose at me udeL But:. the rounded COrneA of the: r~:II" gf wapzine ~ and the inn~ r (-.0 rners !"l'iJere ~e auard joins itt CIa;' and .. b1H FilUM 19) ean d~l~ decided split'" ring: t ndencies unl s til! wuorJ is re le\l~d at th~ pcnots" I' '

We h;.ve dwelt at 10m length OQ thiS analy-sm t)f the Springfield



stock mortiee.s, te mow the reader how to study the. ~uireme'- ts of an action, the dan~r eiats, and where stock relief must occur. A imilar analysis of other stoeb will net be necessary; study your action camfully and oca eo !Yery poin t to be supported and ev1:r.y po1qt to be relieved.. They will be stlf evidtnt .ooce the principles are umlentcod ..

LAYING OUT: Now we arc read., to start actual wa·rit:. To provide an accurate outline [jf the mapz.in and guard you will require a temple l;r wh ieh i·s mad e as £oIloW5J: Take the origmd mJck and rub a mixtu.re of lampblack and oil around the ed.oes of the mortice; then prm a. sheet 0:1 stiH wbitt! paper firmly OVf:r it and rub the paper down smoothly with the M~n.. Remove it and you wli have a fairly clear outline of tbe' cuts, Carefully trim. this out and paste the pape t ~pl et 00 l stri p ~ f brass CIt" tin, 'rhen fil~ it to shape.. Locate the eente r of the gtJ rd sere w bola It each and drill a very small hole at tILes!:!: poin n--j U8t large enough 80 tbat a' small b rad am he inserted. N ow try this ternplet .in the original stock, note the inaccuracits, and 0U't'! fu11y tile wh re neeessa ry until it wat en rer the mortice eoH 1. Then go round the edges and eareful ly nIt! templet abo\! t 11M inch SOlI) I er .aU round ~

Clamp the sttd blank upsidr down in the vise I .and with the marldmg gauge mark a center .line alone its entire lower edge, tOefl CU'ry this liM round lboth. ends and c:ontinue alon:1 the en ti re top edge. The oop edge should of course have been prrnolBly planed to straight Ii e, nd if the blank happens to be warped, it sbould be straigb rened in planer or jointer otherwise tbe center line wiD. mot be straight. I i you etpect t1J provi d e tb swell with a cheek piece, the line may be run oft center: to the right, 0 :allow the maximum thickn5!i cf wood fM cheek piece" It sheuld not, however, be less than 1 inch from ri gilt: side ..

Now, witb the stock held as .in Fj~re 80) place your magazine wnpiet jn po&itio·n~ so mat tbe center line of stee shows til roup the small hole in each end 0 f tcmpJetw Fast!n in place with a brad driven tbT1llJgh each hole, and mark carefully round tempIet" with a sharp awl or scriber. Be-Eo removing tcmp1et~ retrace the scribed line: with .a sharp pointed ~ncil to sl10w it more clearly, The rear erui of templet should be located. in relation to the putol e:n.P &0 that Ktip is aoout 1/+ inch toI"W1lrd of where you. want it in the finished stock.-thia 'to give you little workinG ]CfWay.

:Remove tlI,e; tmt})lct.. and bang it up, until tbe l1ext job. W"IC:~ I. try 5qwu'e mark a line ,ttaM the stock. at each ~f the brad bohs.


ContiDul~ the 'fonva rd line 1I p both. sid es of the s'mck, squarinR' from top edge. Lay the blank -alO'ng side the: original stoc.kt and with try SQuare and sharp pencil mark Croft liOM where eadl hcmlder ap'p~n io the original, NoYi set the blank: straight up ia th~ visei and wi til a. 7 /B inch augu r bit bo re a st ring 0 f h DIes through th e portion where the magazine is to he let in. 1f this IS your firS! job. better use a 3/4 inch bit to play sa ft-it just me-ans a 'bit snore chisel WOt'~t but it is safer, ill rase the bit should run a triBc sideways. BQre until only the point oJ bit comes tit rough the- wood,

~ Addis ChjxI is almolt indispensable for this work. II you have IIOI:hing but a pllin ~:rpl!Tlt~r's ch isel, the cu ttin; ed ge 9hou ld be iEI'Ound and whet"tfd to a sligh t curve. Push the eh isel strai g:ht through until the side! are strai,~tmtd up and th~ maguine will .tart to enter, N ow coat the entire surface of maruine and u nd~r lide of guard witb Iampb lack and oil. usin, • stift briat I~ b rusll and a1)JJl.ying the thinnest pOl8iblre coat. Try the guard. forcing it in as far as possib1e without driving it~ The black smudges will show you the high 'POD which must be taken. oft. Trim thml glow 1,. and carefully ~ alwaJ9 ac rou the grain. and alWlY8 with P. Vl! ry sl ig btly curved chisel rather than a perfectly Rat one. Re-blackr:n til! magar.i ne and try it am r every few cuts, a.nd as it app roaches its f n 11 sea t ~ take the ligb test IHlssible cu ~s: to avoid l~vi ng gaps. 'When fully seated the outer surface of guard will lte perhaps 1/8 inch b!Jow the surface of the wood- tile blank should be suf&cientJy

oveulze fur that" . .

IMPORTANT: When fitdnK th~ ·Jnt&rd~ the edp of tang portioru must be tight agai.nst the woodt This of COUl'V witl blacken t lie wood each time it i.. rried, So long a5 it can be 1~a ted with moder.le p ressu re, do n(lt: keep cuttin~ away tilt wood :at the lid 5. or wide. unsightly glp~ will result. Remave (.)oly the wood where it actUally prevents the parts en.terina: ..

Colllpa re you r wo rk: as it proceeds 'With the m a~hioe ell ts in the oricinBl stock~ Many points will be noted wbere you can leave in extra woodt providing .additional suppOrt to the IteC.l. Work :dowly and :fit II closely as possible at all poin~ particularly where the wood and st~l join at the outer -edges.. where lifap!I will be mast unsigbtly. Be sure the aaaguine gees in stnidn-nllt 'canted to either :side-. If the thickness or the blank Decessitata sinking the

pard much below the surlace-I the su rpl. wood thould br: trimmed hom the outside. Use a wid.~ slightly hollow chiJel for thil. !at it an the surface of guard tangs .nd rut Iowa nl the ,idn;. but do not brin.1 the woocI c1aeer than 1/16 inch itom the surface of s.teel until read, to du.pe up the 1t'OC:i.

i' 138


and then nnish From the other side. I f the point ia' missing- the center lin~ you an C~ t er it from the othe r side. and possibly~ a .. oi d trouble.

I NLETTI NG!' At rh~ forward end. where thr: brad holding the t~plet was driven in. drill clear through witt! a 1{2 inch augur bit. center Ing the !ip\t r in the brad bole. N ow take a steel straight ed ge CIt ruler t and a 'Very sh arp II th in bladed kni fc. and cut down dteply along all rhe straight Iines, turning the point of knife.3o trifte towa rd the center 1 an d using care not to en large yo ur au tline. Use a 1 IS inch N u m ber 9 or lOA ddi!l (hj~l for ell tti n g thE: rOWld corners of th-e maga2ine mortice. and a 3/8 inch Number 8, 9t or 10 for cutting around the extreme ends. (See Chapter 3). Make tf1 ese cuts 0 f tile out! inc about 1/8 [nch d~p then remove the wood

by eross-cu td ng with a ,"ery shallow guU~j such ID • 1116 i ncb


N u.rnhe-r S or 6 Add i! Chisel. F igu re 81 mow. the method cf Croll'" cutting from cenrer toward each side~ to avoid any splitting or tearing. DO matter how curly or cr(IQ-graintd rhe wood. All inside cuts an: much more easily made acron the paint but the too]s mwt be kept ve ry sha rp j SO as to really curl and not mE Jit!l y ,. dig. " ~Igougetlll or "rear: .. ·' This cross cutting lea'.e!I a ridge in the center which is removed with II. 1/2 inch Bat chisel J.t first, and Iater, as the eu ts a ~ deepened, th e bottomi Dr: tools deseribed in ChI. pte r 4 w ill rome ~ n to use. The~' are especial] f necessary in the end ne,ct the griPt where the chisels cannot be held at th~ liMper angle.

Having rem-oved the wood to a depth cf t!8 inch Or SO i.ns;de the o1Jtlinet the next ste pis to let in the magazine. Use a wide, very sliihtly cuIV~d chisel ior this. A' /8 inth OY I inch Number 3 or





-- -:;?"

-- -

..... -- ......... ~---.--




.. -








All of this ,,'ork with the c:hiscb baa been done by merely pu.shinc the teo1 with the haJ1ds. The oaly plate where I hammer or mallet may be needed is for CL1 ttin.g Itraia:ht dawn th rough the wood at either end, The COmtllonly accepted method of uchiselingu-strik: ... ing the chisel with blows of a hammer ,or maUet-has no place in stock makin't Hold handle of chisel in right hand Ind push i I wi tb a firm, stead'1 motioDt ma.kio I: she rt, light cuts. Rest the left wrist or fcrea rm on the wcr~ .and ust the n. Tit and second nngef! of Idt hand to guide the chisel pointt resting the fingers firmly QJ1 blade, but witho u. t heavy pressure.

The iUard. and magazine should be litted suf1iciently tight thai a tmart blow with heel of hand 1, n~ed to seat it to i ta depth. To remove i tl hook the forefinger in the guard 2nd t;!P the wood around it with a hammer, Eventually yOu will free it up a bit to a slightly looser :fit-hut leave it tight for the present,

Having i n1rttro. the guard and magazine. the barrel and teCf!i ver come l"J;eYtt The eDieat wa.y, and the mOit practical way i D large shoCp!. is tu have the harrel out of the receiver; and nt the receiver alone first. However.. aiDce the majority of readers will da.i re to fit: the twc together. We sball consider that method first.

It will be remtmbered that W"hm fittin, in the guard we bored a 1;2 inch hole dear through the blank at qont end of guard-this to lI.CCODUdodate the pro jrrtion through whir:h thr: f·roD t guard. IICteW paues. P rob ab I y th is holt had to be trimmed out a. bit: wit b the chisel &S the guard was bed dd.

St:Ctlrt a piece of UoD or mild .steel rod. just !arp enough to .lip throu,lh fron. t rua rd SCl"e"W' hole, and thread ene ' end for a half inch to that it may he screwed into guard scrtYt hole in forw.a rd end o~ receiver.

Clamo the blank in the -riM right ride UPl and wirh magazine and guard fitted m IDUg!y. Insert tb.is red, previously screwed into receiver, from the tcp d8W'11 through guard tcrtYI hole in guani. Thus the PRIB are held in their. proper relation to tach other. while the ~ard and. barrel rest upon the top edge of stock blank. with only the m:oil lug rod the muward projecr.:iom on uodenide ()f receiver touching the wood. Mark arollnd these with • pmdl ami rough out the wood beOl!!!ath them with & hollow ehisel or gouge .. untit the receiver and barrel are l1!Stiag on the wood... Nm# ma.rk around both barrel and rtcd'V·cr. tumiDg the pencil point tnwardt


.1 ways k:t:'eping th I! out! i nes smaller than the parts being Ii tted.. Aaaia rough out some wood t un til the band and receiver an. !lettledt a li ttl~ way into r:h e blank. makinl sure thlt born barm and receiver tang 2 re centered an een ter line of stock:. NOW' remove barrel and receiver, and ceat undenide at all po1ntJ with th~ lampblack and oil. S eet]e back- into place in thl: stOCk~-alw:a.,. ltaviftg the red KT~d into receiver 10 guide it to ezKt location; pre. down firmly, and note the points Wb~R bIact spotI Ire left. Cut awar the wood


at these pom t:s~ selecting the chisel that fits be.ta and cuttin, ac rose the Kl ai n whereve t possible. Use. 9/16 inch Number ~ Addis cl1iseI to roulh out the barrel channel-this will of coune ha"e to be c.u t wi tb tbe - gRin. Cot riCh t up to tb~ outl inc. un til the barrel is re!l:inll d own tightly Ipinst the ~dges of the wocd.. ~p wornng out the receiver mortice at the same time, so mat the whole ISIt!'mbly is kept Ievel as it set tles. "Wh en the barrel is bedded about t/8 inch less than half of its diametil!:rt you may outline it careful ly-g n d t be re:ei ver also lVith a Te ry sha rp scriber o r point of I en i fc. Be BU re to tu m the point slig:h tly inward, keeping the out 1 in es a hit narrower than the parts. New remove barnl and receiver, and work out the barrel channel the full width of the eurline, are fully cu ni n g to the exact center 0 f the kni fe 0 r scriber line. Stu d y the Ifain of the wood constantly! 50 CUi net to cu t agai nst it. possm ly splintering or tearini btyCtDd the lines. U Ie a small steel try-square, or arty piece of steel having a right angle to me r! to ·gau ge tJ.1! d~f h of the chan net F i g:tJft 82 n I ustntes the me thod of depth-ga uginr h .. If round grnov-es known to all pattern m arer&. Wi t~ th e bl ade an d head resting on the edges, th e com-e r WIll just touch the bottom of groove when tbe ri ght d~pth is reaehed r mereover, w hen ehe groove is true a nd round, the corner of square will h)uc:h at any point on t~e inner surface (''',U Figure 82).

A templet li:(.e FiitllTt 26A (ClUlpur 4) may be convenjently used fa r gnu ging the dep th of reeei ver eut tt its extreme front end. Th is. is m ad e 0 f sheet brass, being one half of a. 1 1/4 inch circle, By cutting clear down at .once at thiS' point. you have a conve nienr iUid e to r many 01 the other cuts.

N'OWI' ha.vIng CUt the barrel chattnel out to a true half circle} you a re ready for the final fittin g. The en an nel will be diabtly narrower than the bar rel, due to the seriber point h. ving been turned di(b t ly inward when the outl inc was mar ked, Thus the barrel is n:st1nr Dot quite h21 f its dep eh in the channel. Work away !ht ed i8 wi tb ~trem~ care, ta ling oR the tb i., nest mavin g j m II g;nabl~~ at the um~ rime worn o:g ou t wood as n~edtd in the rec:dnr morrice.. Fin ally t the barnl wi 11 be ruti ng 0[1 the bottom of channell ,but is not ~ te d to quite half its dqlt"h. btcau5:e llU r Il rigin.t au tlinn i'Ve~ a b l t na rrOwer tha.n the ba rrel.. The wide ~ nearly flat dlitc1 II ow com 15 into play--ud for this use it is worth its wetlh r: ir..


pId. This may be a 7/8 or 1 inch Number 3 or 4 Addu" or it may be: ~ C'OIIlUlDIl 1 t nch soc:k~t fi rmer chisel luch u carpmte rs Ulet with the end ground to a very IUgh t Cllrve. Hold it Q mown in FilUre 83, .tU1d g,ta~ing at the extreme edge, OJt toward and alia;htly pat the Cl!nter t)£ bottom of ch&nnc1t meanwhile rodcinc the handle outward as ind.ir:atd by dotted arrow. ~he cuts thus made 9 bould ~ w.: ry shallow, over lapping eacb other sl igh t ly. and scarcely more th III scraping 0 ff the 5U i face. Th!! rn i.Ei rnu~t· be b D riM and srrop~d u:nrll h: 'INtlJ :sht vt th~ hs,i t l:rOm the back of you r band. ( S cc Instru«ions for :!I harpeolnj.! all d care D f ch iseis in Chaptl!: r ') ~

Coat the batnl \V i th lampblack. aDd try it freq uen tl y. When th~ I""n==- f'I n.e 1 i., 01'1:' ne-d ~ P fJ) that Y01.l p1: bl a~k Im\ldG186 on ~ttom and both edgesJ remove no mere wood from th e edges-keep them • iJOl t IKlinst rh ~ bl~l from. nOW' on-If.ld d~tn cl1annel only in the center until th ~ ,,,,tire trIrJtz~ of ehanntl f rom eel Re shOWI the

im.~ression of the lan1pblkk.. ,

Toward t l-... I :;u,,.. th,. Ii" ~ 1 d~n i ng Imy be- done, Ind tb.!! tg.ol



mlln:. remcved with No. 1/2 und or prnct paper wrapped abour • round stick. Extreme care must be observed Dot to rub the sandpaper against the eilges.-jwt a strekt' 01" two! will leave uaiy gaP'-

All the while you have hem thus bedding me barre], JOU have alto been cuttinl away wood in the nceivt!:r mcntice 118 indicated by the black smudges" beddlng ita t the lillie time. When til,. barrel ii down nearly half its diameter ~ you can re.mOll',e the red which i! screwed i:nt() rhe receiver, and substitute therefor the short forward guard screw. Sll!t this K!t"eW up mngly each time you try the barnl lar :litl uMng the screw t~ dr&'1V the receiver and maguirn:: tQ~th~. A Littl~ later ~ wh~ n :almott.. but not q uitl!! th~ ful t dt:!pth has been reached_ drill the h ole for the rear gu;ard screw.

nus can be a very ear job, or a ~ry difficult one, acoordiol to the way you 10 about it, The receiver tangt heinl j 'blind "t on the upper side, th e ilnt thin g is to Inca te the ten kT of the holt. Coat unde r side 0 f tang fa th e r rh icld y wi th lampblack .and p~ it hard. against the wc:xx11 lea vi., e- th e $::rew hole ou t Un~d thenon in black. Cen ter fbi, carefully with divide" .nd pri~-punda the ante r. If you have :t lathe. pu t a 60 D center in the tail-stock; chuck • drill the sam~ size al the p;uard-screw .ushiog ia the head .. stoci; ; 'Oft under side 0 f stock hlan k rna r 1: the pc!iti~J"n of rear pard '::1'eW hole with .I.W 1 or seriber t and center it with di viden. Now bold the blank bet w ten the lathe center and drill point_ _ that the ce"G.hr in tail-stocl: of lathe [s pressing into tbe punch mark lD top of .lock. .and the drill point in to mlrk ia under tide. Run the h.tru! dc-ly" Uttl1l the hand feed Oft ta11....-tod: to force me 'W'OUfi .pinst the drill ul1tl1 .you feel dri11 meet the point Df the dead center, Remove, Ind finish the bole with handd.rilL • Tb~ the hole il absolute! y lined up to rettister with 1Cte'\V holes in pard and tmlg. Tbil bl particularly d iflieult when umnK a hnce or breut


d ri 11 on the "b' (lJ ~ and b' 1DSh" ~ system, as the screw t.kcs avery .light: angle :fc rwaTd, w hich il hard to ccn troI. If l1e(;elll.ry to driJj it by hand without ruidesl d ri 11 f rom both sides uS ng & drill un.Uer man th I!!! req u i red h ole, aad fin tshing it our. to size with • small rat tail file.

I f the shop m 3 krs a good many stocks;, the drill mg j i I: described in- Ch apter 4 wi n be fOWld in d ispmsablr t fer d ;riIlinr for guardSC rews, :stock-M:rcw5, and maDY othe r pu rpoBCS.

Wi til both guard stRWS in place .and set up tigh tty ~ you esn tee just how 'muth more cutting mwt be done in the stock. When both m agaziot! and barrel and recei ver are fu II y seated I the upper cdgt's; of magazine should just tollch the bottom of reeeiver, with lip ae: rear of m aaazi ne sea ted smooth! yin pi ace api nst rear end af mqazine cu t in recei ve r, U .su.alIy it will be foun d neeessa 17 to j nlet the m agaz: ne .a t ri Ill!!! deeper to b rin g it to finaL position, but tfris mould not be d one un ~l ba rrel an d receive r are seated to full deptbt-half the diameter of the barrel. The projecting portion on Ie ft D f lac ivt!r w he re t::utoff la located m uat he ~ re funy .fi«edits r~eSI heinl cons.id erab 1y deeper than It is in the ~ stock.. Keep th e uppe r edge. or it-ock on left side in a ttraigb. t line from rorend tip 1:0 extreftl eo rear t'J f cu toB-th is looks much better thad to slope it (l:fi at frt)nt end (If nceivcft as manr factory .tocb are mad It.. E v~a up the bnr; ng 5U nacE:S in receiver mortice.., .0 meR it no rock or wob bI~ at Iny point+

N OW ~ wh-cn yo tL. tfl jnk MI'ytlting is fully seated,. set the JUard scr~ up tia:ht] y ~ and look at the ti p of fo rend. Quite liktly th~~ wi 11 be a pp of a stxteenth inch lJnd-er the ba Tn: 1 at this point. Sandpaper 1igh t1 y the m ti r~ inside 0 f ba fret channel and receiver mortice to clean it lJ p~ then COl. t bar-reI and receive r again with lampblack and seat ca refnlly, d. rlwing up the &CMWS again. N are th~ poi nts nta [" breech of har~l .and 'fIGnt end of receive r which must be CUI: down a tri fie more. Work thtm down until preasu re tht rC' is Vtry ligh t I ill1d Quite n rm at ti p of fo ren d as indicated by t h ~ b lac It: .sm url ges. Th~] ft$ide work On tilt stock ~ thtn finiAhed exc;ep t fol' a very· slight· dressin g ou t .lon ~ th e walls an d at rear of ma..pz] ne to Te Ii eve presSure.

F:i~re 84 shc.ws ~ strippfd receivl!:r being i111!:'tted without the E;.al"rti, I t i. much ·!:il&i or and ·faster to inlet th ~ ~i v8f ugn-., an. sbop! doing a considerable amount of stacri ng on anyone model of .run mould Ila't: a :tpart rtttiver kept for this pu~. Wh~ the receiver is fully in:lettect then the barrel. and receiver to«ethe r are pu t- in pi a~~ th e forward en d of n::ceivt r bein Ii!: raised and the b.rnl nsu nil on th e- W'(Iod. 'In" bar rei is Krad. "411 y bed ded by




cu tting (lUI' the wood Irern receiver forward t all work in barrel di fe.cd r , -rai nat the screw.. The ends of Btoci: screws maybe COlI-

ch.nn!,l being. done in the same manner II!I already deacriJ,ed.. cealed, if desired, by the methods d~ elsewhere. (Page 145).

This meth tid of first inle ttiDK the receiver without the barrel can The S4 Winchesnr is quite Ii mit a r to me Springfield, but the

he- .dopted by the man who;' having a special barrel titted to Jail receiver is simpler in outline. The square poni01l oa under pde

14-2 runs in a strai Iht lint from tang to bar rel ri ngl making a "err

receiver. After the receiver is inletted it is sen.t to the barla maker; simple mortice. The magazine is separate from the guard I fitting thetlt when rttumed with the new barrel fittrd. the latter is bedded tiehtly into the r~etver. It should be drivm cut and the barrel in the .stock as described. and receiver may if desired be inletted before the magazine cut is

The fOTtgoing instructiOllI apply to what may be termed fully made, The guard an d floor pIate being ieparate from maguinf; btd ded ba. rrels, Th is method is usual I y followed on hilh ;&rade may be used as II. temp let for itself. Aher receiver is in let red, bore custom bUltt bunnftg rifles. The point or greatest pressure betw«n and cut our the magazine mortice from the top aide, thm the magabarrel and formd should be at the bottom of fcrmd tip. but light Eme may be driven ba.ck into receiver,

pressure should be: maintained at all points.. The upper cd~ should The Model 30 (temingtoD., along with itJ daddYI the Model 17 be tight against the barrel, with equal pressure on. both tides.. This Enfield, is oonsiderably more: complicated. tbu either the Sprjg&:meth od is qui re 53 tistac tory unle-ss the eondi tion of the wcod maket neld, Mauser or \\i"inc:hm:er I when it comes to inlerting. Th ere are ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ uo ~~~ inrtN~ioMj hcweve~~ly ~~ ~e ~ri~nd ~

mortica care fully ~ .and fallow the rule to remove as Ii me wood u possible, gi\'ing: maximum IUpport wbeRYcr you tall.

The vari0ll9 .22 cal iber bolt ldinm... IUch lIS "the 52., 56 ud 57 WinchesterJ and the Savap Mod.els 1919 and "23 sporter seria, are all qu.i te simple, ~cce the re.:civer .is p racticaJJy cylindricalthe Stvage receiver being men:ly a C()fitin1Jati(lQ of the baud. the wbole asse:.mbl'Y being bedded in a half round aroovt in top of stock.. On these riRes the barrel and receiver IIU¥ also be inlettfd 'ntt then the ruard screw holes and mapzine well are located &Ild cut 144

from the t()p, after which the pard it fitted. On" the Win,c:bes:tn

rb~ re is a hole: in the side Clf stock:: over the 1QI.p.zine. th roup wbich the mapziae catch cpera ttl. Thle hole .hauld be 10000ted by arcfully measuring the distance from bottom edge of stock to itt center, "and the di5taOce back froID front end of recew-er.. Bore this hole undersize, thea work it out carefully with sharp TI ttail fi.k and hollow chisel until the mapzine catch bushing nut will j1JSt fit lIlu,ly.

The Model 5 Rms a1so has I. receiver nea.rly cy 1 ~ndrica.ti .and is ----" very easy to inlet J the barrel and receiver beillg ialetted fi 1St, then the guard, after the magaz.ine has been removed flom i t, will fonn a scli .. templet like that of the 5. Winchester. The guard It: rews are used to d raw the parts together as the inlctting proceeds.

The ptCuliaf coil!{truction of the "ICta~ ne~ rates certain cha n grs in the usuu pnxed ure, T'he first cut to make before doing anythine else is the rect:aniUl~[ recess for the mapzint. La y you r hlank with the left tide up on the bench; lay the 0 ri ginal stock on top of it. and outline this r~ with a sharp pencil, Saw and. chip out the woodt keeping ahaut 1/4 iach imide thil cutline, then with chilcls carefully m large the recess until the magazine will start In. Spotting- frequendy with lampblaa as previously described, gradually 'VVOrk out txeetl wood Iftd Itt th-e mapzme in deepe r, until tang and L.rrd. are TC5tinC 0f1 upper surface of stock: New mark your 0\1 tUna :all round J tu minK the pencil pomt well in; rtlugh out su rpLw wood t thtn continue spotting and fitting slow iy an d tarefully until all parts au lully sea ted, rtud ying the shape in the original mdt conatmdy ..

The Krag has no recoil lug; the square rear end of mapzinf actin, in that capacity, I t is important tbertfore ~ to kt~p the wood ve ry full here and fit it up tirhtly againrt the back of ma,azin~ Tbe pud-acrcw boleti Ire locatecl" -from the ;Mi~~ hy marin, 'Under sid! ef receiver thidly with lampblack" and drllliog in the center of the imp J;'eSSiOD$ thus left. La.y the iUllrd in posi tio ~ OfC r the holes. outline j t with a bi Ie pointl cut th~ outlines and remove exce. wood~ and d raw in the guard ;as. fitting proceed s by tighten in, ttp tlte cuard lCl"e WI.:

The 7.62 mrn. Russian is one ci the meanest of all to inlet. The IOnKt narrow guard and mapzLne is very msily thrown Ol.1t of a1i~tl and tbe sh. of the aidu is dif5.cult to cut into the wood... Make a te:mplct for it by takin; • paper impnssion of the old Itod:" as deICri~ for the Sprinr;fiel-d. These templets should be made for aD jobs where the magazine and guard are in one pift:C~ like th~ Springfieldt Mauser, ete., but arc not D«DAry on guns hl.vinl me gtlard and magaZine separate. As a aeneral rule, aU actioIU of the Mauscr type should have the mapzine i~ctted firstl and on olber1~ with ruard and mapz.ine separat~ the barrel and

receivtr should ro~ tint. 14.5


it likely that the ior~l1d may sometime warp And develop undue pressu re a gaunt one side 0 f barrel-s-and if the ba rrel is of the pipeseem vuiety:l the point of impact will be chang.ed th~by.

'This may usuall y be guarded against in very lia:h t barrels by the semi ·"Road ng system of in letri n g. The bRrrd is bnJded ti-Jbt as above- described t thm the wood is !hayed OUt all round except at the up per ed~S' and at th r; tip of fo rend, SO that there i-s about 1/16 inch clearance at all points but these. These points are then ~ by ligh t]y sand pa perin Ii: until they are j1J:ft dear of the barrel -"10 tha.t a sheet of thi n paper mg,y be sl4lped between barrel and 'forend. Tb is much. clearance is scared y not"i~ab le ~ GOO allO'Wl. for tlirht warping of the wood due to atmospbuie conditiom, dampness, etc

Examples of the full floatin£ bsrrel In: found in. many militlUT ri Res---the Sp ri ngfield service rifle, the Lee Enfield ~ Ross, and pet-


haps othe rs, Here the ba rrel is le£1 enti re)y free from the wood. touchi [) g now he re. The hJ.ndguard II1d forend are bound tol,!tber by twO or more bands. and the barrel hu clearance of at lrast 1/32 inch all round at the muzzle. I bllilVl Captain erolsman ". old favorite target Spri.ngfidd by WlIldhammcr is stocked in thit manner~the band encircling both for~d and handiUardl and the

b. rrel ~tirely free f rom con tact Wltb the wood.

Having successfully tnletted one or more Springfield stocks. the begin ner will have acqui red experience e nablini hi m to do a good job on any bolt action arm. The ~otials are the same in any cue, with a f~ mi nor diflettncr:s wh ich will be briel J discuaaecL

On. the Mauser, the rear ~rd screw "usually sets in from the top of the receiver tang, and is :it right angles to the bore, making it I'Ornewhat easier to bore the bole for this 5Cl"e"W than the SPrini:- 1ield. The MauscrJ moreover, has fewer projections and irregularities on the recel ver th an almost my oth er, md is somewhat mere easily inletred for that reason, The receive r tang; is narTOWet _ more tape nn& moreover in rear end does not enter the woad quite" so deeply .. whir:h increases the diIJze:r of its splia:ini the -stock. "When 'Stocking an y M auser ha vin g- more 11:CQ it than the .30-06~ or wciihing lC!S than 7 3/4 pounds, it is. advi~ble to ~ at lw:t one sto~ &Crew, placing it in such a position that the recoil lug of receiver bears


UR i'Ma screws IS a .. ~Rgua.rd apiC.5t; splitting :f'~m Tft.1li1., 'lJ:1' wh~Q

-... ~. ~ 1... t... .-. ... L" ... :1..

putting in ·1 S( rtw In repairIng a IJ:ro&~D 11:,~~ or llJr any owltr

reason~, rhe 'screw may be concealed b,. inlaying a' picce of wood..; ivory, bak,eji te, hornl ('bony i' or etbe r matel'iat Tbe mlay is not cur: and .£lrd to- the shape desi red-a diamond.. d.rclej: ete., and its ,~dgfS sligh tiy beveled on the under side, I f the WI·Y' is used to OOftc stock SCn'\l\'S~. the M:feyiS :SllOuld. be eut 5hort cneugb 50 botb ends are ~bDut 1/8 inch below the surface of ,t:'be' wood.. The inlay is, then hdd ever the hole, and its IDU dine marked ('rut wtb a sharp knife~ Cu.t the outlines. ~pl!'.r with a thin bladed~ very sharp chlse1~ Ul d care fu l1y t rim out the wood. P reM 'd'Jie' inlay into p1.a-tet notinl; .b,en: th't ~dges, .IIDlst be t rimiiled. to- :fir. When 6.nally n'rred, cement in .p,laoe with Du FO.nt CelDeDt, and ho·hl in place for ., bourl b, ciampi ng in:a vi~" U se ,1. .pieCe of fell err soft I~·ther to' p~n.t' oreakin·g, and.' be su re the inl JI are beld ·fiat against bDtt6[Q of r~s. These, inlays should be. made thien, than. RqW'l'rd, then rued Ind SRl1lded. 01 t1us.h w'b~ the eemmt is, dry.

Another way Q,f bid.inG 5~ewhea~ wbleb i~. knQlwn to expert cabinet makers, is as f.ollmvs, ,: BiC:£ore drillio g: the SCliC1V hQ!~tI take a thin and: VI!t.y sharp :Bat ,ch;~l 1/2' inch w·ide. and after WftUIl!l the ~uriace af wood tD dten i t~ cut ft, sl1a mil abau t 1/1.6 inch. dli. and 3/ ~ inch ]ong~ l~aving one end attadreit W er 01' steam . this shaving ISO it may be t.Ul med bI,ck. out of the way w:imout: b ~t,kinl 0:61 then lxn~' 'th.~ )\01c: an.it Set in "the SCJ"e\¥' at the diMuet!. PQin:~.. lIot zl~e ~r e.~ment i:s DO~~" appiild Mti ~:e m~vin,t: gi ed. back in ..2~.ce. w1"th i. psece Q f blottIng pa,c rover 1 t~ and. fumly clamped. Whm the ,g1 U~ js hard., ~lJld the 5pOt Il;L1.ootb and cleaa, IiUtd if the- cq.t was rude with a sharp tool wbich did ftot b ruise the cdpli l·t wiJ] be . .. ·bI

lliV'aJl' e.

Having 'illlettied the mR(aZme' ~ ii'Jd the barrel and receivef:l and b rQ1Jgl~ t thm1 together to ·the p fnp~r .£it:! tab a sh.a.fP p'end) .and llU..~~ CUlt the trigger curs, fr,om 'the op~nior in. boUDD} .~f receiver. Drill throuE h wi t h ... small d till or a ugur bIt, maJdn g- sev.tral ·holl,!s u requi red Ii thea cut eu t the space betw'eal ~hem with a 1/4 :inch chise 1" iOU01N'in.1 the!: lim!; 0 f the 'rob in the: ari'ginaI stock I but lea 'Ying in wood wh-er.eyer fOU til i ok you eM" Now fit ,he trir:{ef t sear, and other f'maH parts' into the rt:~n:rt and. try it ill th~ $toc:k .. eGa! th e tf'i g~ Iilechanism with lampbl ad. and all, and the sPots whe re more' wood, P1US~ be" .,cut out will 'be d.es rty indica:ml;. Re .. place the cu w££, 0 r bolt rtlea8eJ! H -it W8I p'reviously stripped. i:wm reeeiver, and likely a 'few- ell Uf will br nef;d.-ed to mi.b it work frply I' Wh-tQ ,nn are ut:idied that .the job o,f inlettilll is comple~at t:adl pa rt il fif:tcd as ;e~u'ctIy as may be, and when the bolt and

- n rP!i.L. ... r 'I"nilitt ..- J! I'tl' rbe - ~.alII ... - . d f·· r.,....If! -t:o U L"""",...J ~ 'I' 1'1 &U. uUb;. .t"""'I'5 wor .. rree ,fl!¥ rme IS :re,a.y Of ~ II.[1!iIl, S-Ih s \;!'ILlD 1Il~

uSHO.OTIN~ ]St~ THE STOCK: Tighten up the guard,

~~ If· your fittiDg is right" they should set up Vtry' tiihd:r ,due

'. 146 . ..

to preg,u:re of tbe woodll bcion: stopped by the bottiui 01 boles In

the receiver', With a little pnctiCIe c:m.e GlQ learn to tdl when the acf.e?n are in their hill depth, If beior;: ttopped by the pomta to-uehinll the bi:lttmD .mf the ·tilol~ it i'l WEll to pind. oflibo.- ooe·thrud~ to pr·Qvidle ill. 1i tt!~ more take--u'p to! tigbteDin~ l:b viag H:t them u ·rJg·El, tly u posibl e t takt!! the (Un. out belli ad tile barll~ or any place, where tbe ne.gbbars, w~nj't abjoct, and flq twmty or thirty ,of thlr! mea'Yiat loads you will eve r use til rough i t,t holdin I" tb:e butt qainst something .lid such as'a t~ee 01 SlUmp.. I f the ttock: is ever g4linll w sp.Ji t from sc:tilack Or rtcOn~ JOY 'want it to dfJ $C n,QW t before .any more pneious, boun ha,.e ~m expended ·CD it-so give It m,e ·VVOlrts. Split it if YOll am

The 5ltocE 'ha'Wing p'~ :su~111 throu,gb this ~r~ed'l ami yout' lI1=rUQUS gau having rJis~vert'ed no ¢V.idmces Df Jaul ty :&:tin.l, you are no'w [,cady to shape it IIp,; This, hi cne of tne bright spots

· 'b ~ _.t.._~t 'L ..I'!'d'" . N

10 t e st~.1 s S01DeWu.a.t sonn 91St1l1CCo ow you can see ",'Ilr

WOI'~ bl!gin h:1 tike sbape onea the tools-you Rdl,· :f.:fi that ;om~ thing is b~inl accompllished ,.........-and. your d~aD'ls or ,'- stock ~.j ust for yon ontyl t ~ stIJck th.B!f jirs. you to a f11)1 haif is About m be re~li ~d ~


CHAP1:lll 11


IN shap tng up a stocl:: 1 Like to :&ta'rt It the fol'Clld and wort ngb t nn ba~1L:. Th·~ is rut goad ,I. p~. H .any ,to d£i~r.ih~ the method of ATTACHING A FOR-END TIP1 10 w,e/D. bel~ft with




JJgun 8 oS ~ the blank with tip of buffalo horn, iVQry, !Cbony or. ",mu have .yOUij clamped j n to place widl the hOlme-made' C-damp dacribed in Chapter 4, "mUe· Figure 86 shows how the tip was prepa."Rd br:lon:: &ting. Make the d,O"!"Vd.. of a p~. D'£ 3/8 inch hardwood dowel rOO cut about 2 1/4 in(lles long~ This' . plug

Ihould be sanded tn a ~ot.h, !Wugt but not nlhl ~t in the hale in horn" which bole sbould 1M drilled with • ·twis.t drill to:a d,tfJ,tb to f about an mcb~, O[ mor~ ~m,di"(Lg OD the Itngth Gi m~ horn. The lteel pills am not to, he put in, yet ...

Saw .. ehe formd 016 square ,at. the lenlm .d·es1ll!d. pnf-cnbly in Ii mitre box-this to 'be d{)fle 'befOre u.y .apj~ Drill the dowel bo1c in it directly uader &ow. oi barrel channeJ, • that it mm!:8 ;iJJout 1/8 to 3.116 HJ.QW' 'bottom ml dunneL Now Iem1J,Vtl the ,dowd &om the 'tip., mat ·the tip with Lampblack: ad oi~ replace


the dowel, :and push it into Rile "bole in jiIlHnd W1tU the surfaa: of '~p KI'ucbes the wocd. W tlrE ·the horn about sIilotly to ltd] the hlack qainst tb!i wacdt t.h~n. I'Imova ~~ now the $pot! of COflUCt.. WOlk th.£1D cf£ carefully with a medium ,cut fi~et ~gain emu the hom with bla.ci~ and fit ag_in. Conti.Due ulltJl there is Pil:~aly evm con tad: o£ the two ·sUlfates hom and wood---czt rill pfJi nt.,~ In some forttlS 0'£ ·g.l lied joints, it is permbst"ble to have- perfect COft .. .au on'ly 81;1:"" th.c: 'Outer edps. ~ at 10 in this ase-:fo.r til!:: Iwon tbat 'We don"t kn.ow yet just whe.re ·the outer surlaa: Of our fcr~nd will be'~ Absolu.tely perfecc contact IOVe( the end re s·u.nace i. what 'w-e lequire here, and DOtbi1lj" ehe·will. do".

When the weed and born are. fitted together so there is DO gap anvwher~'f wipe 0:& rlli!! lampblack and serape th~ horn to remove every bit o.f oil or gnase~ ~ serape the end. of the wOOd. ld·~ Drill holes as indicated. which will be 31 tight fit for t\VO. six pe:nny Dail.. Keep the holes ill fairiy dOle tll the clawe] I $0, there will be no ,DlSibil"ity oj c.u.ttinc into me Ca.M m dreMin~ aDWo the tip.. Dlive 'i:h~ Dalla in.to the bcrrl. cut oil the kens .Dd·sharpen tbe plroj eding ends ..."w. a file" Tha.e should, be abOut 1/2 'to 5/8 inch lang.. Fit tht "tip into place GIl fOHnd and mar. wieIe the poinq of nails .rike the w~')! ,and ddll two ~ flO they will e'qtf::r tud:lly.. Now mdt \I.P some whitt; flab glue !tfld. let js &imm~ at just below bollia.1 poi.o,t.. Re'movc Ute dowel from tn~ b'orq and a,ppiy :slue in to . the hole wer the authcc If. the hom, .ud in the dowell bole a.nd 00 aurface of wood. A.lsc coat the pto.je.cting co.d of dowG. with the at De.. Work fast while thf glue is· hO'r~ Seat the' up firml, lWitb ~ W~ Q.f a maUet; tileD clamp tightly IS dO'wn for 48 h"ou r& The j omt will :mcn. bf: finn and S1l~ and the. ~ for ·the barrel may be 'Olt with cltiJelg" j1USt as it was CUt in the .mreDd. Be careful ~ thiS horn ·rurc i& -de'8oth Oill miseli~

Now for' THE S,HAI'ING. The only tool JO~ 'Will use f'M a wbi1e.'Will be the hal'-I'Gwd e.ilJ.~t r.p.. wbich sbould be: 12 inches long for etmv.mien·ce in handJing.. Gear the ~m::h of all othifr mo]s

mel paTtS,. so that nlltmnl will be IO-It in tb I! filiRP~ Keep a PlctuK o:f ... lUll h~v:inl tm. kind ,of tip 10\1 wan t before you!! .a;nd study 1 t It 'frequent iotenah. First toood off the end of bom tip, .fl'Qlll top to b.ottoml tbm 'from Bide to side. and mab it the shape you want1-

L ... u b· ~ Ii - 1 t:! iji Il.. .. ~ T __ .... t.. .J

WU. e ~ tlflgm, It u[W}st to nJUSu SIZe.. ..IA:ilV"C: cue· ull'p.er 'Cages sqwue

alelll the barrel channel"

Continua me rup wort bd iDeo ~,; wOmj an ~h 101" Ga, thm IfOP wart M thii; e.rul and move bjet t·" the POr~1l l~r tblf maca ... ziH. f.I!reJ me Pftatiss H~,. ]9 viR pm-va mvaJuable. for me mil jaw enables you 10 bold the Jtock on its, sUle, the j a'WI IriPpinl upper and lowcr edps, of bu ttatoe-rl: I while the swivel" enable. it to be I'WUrtl' :JIMu t .. .;1..1 fiL!d i:lnd lftCW in In, COft'l!ft~t pot;~.~_ Shape tilt sides of stack u desi:Rd O¥U' tke aapzir:u: mortict====-

either oval or tlt-usinc the round aide. of the nIP to roup 01 able you to sa: through the si r:;htt1 and the rifle is READY' TO BE

14-9 S I G HTED IN. IurtructiollB for fi tring and align1ng sights an

-=be .urpl UI wood, then th·e II at sid.~ mr the 6nal shaping. Allow fully cowed in Chapter 29<1

about 1 /16 ~cb extra tbi~en all f»'cr for ~i1r. Now .. turn. the Wh~n the bardI ud tecei.vcr we(e inletted, pr~bahll everything Ituck top edp: up, aDd WJ~ a ~;U-P blad pmdl ~w • line from was .tripped from the nc:d~r. If y"au use ... Lym~ 48 or any other tblf: upper ~ge you h~ve established over the magDll.l~. £orwud to recei ver sich~ it should DOl: be fitted until the stock has beat fully the I!d~ ata.bluhed at the forend tip, umng a 8tnidt~aell (Sec inletted.. Thee, aftf!1' sight if a:ttachrd. to receiver, at explain-l!d ia Firu.re 81) Clamp th e stock sidewll,' in the rise again, and rep Chapter 29. set the action. as hr .s it will EO in to the stockl and mark the forcnd d own to this line. wgrnng actoSS the crain .t w.aJ1l~ and the! position or the !light base on slde of stock with I sharp kn.ife. IIza;ut the 9qUU.e upper edlP!" to a ,oid, sliverinl.. For the presentt Tab & cupiDl I&W or serell saw blade (uiing the blade cnly. with .. regardless of It!.:hnal shafter Ieave the bottom n-f forend very mum CUI' the" II.'W' fmue,) and revel$t! ends witb tlU!! blade 10 it cuts .. you 'W id er than the top. W c r~ down both tides of forend in mi. man- p"ul it toward you.. U sing it rhus, cut dow n aoou t • quar:ttr indJ Her, then tUI'1I ·stock bottom edge up in vise, d.mpinl it abOut the Into. the wood at .£runt and rear of s4gL.t base, and carefully ~ (Tip portion. the wood between tile ell b with I 1/2 inch Rat chisel. Coat bottom

The o riginal center line you mar ked on the srock blank still shows" of sigilt base with lampbld and 011 t and press dawn into mx:k.

Blac:ktin it wirh .. lead pencil to bring it our clearl,. Draw line. Take 0& tile wood .1O'W~1IO .. not to mlu the notch toO deep. The CJlt should be dc:i:p ene t however !to that the wood doa DOt q'Ui~ tD~d the silht base, u the Itr_in would tend to (ooten the ~ There should also be 1/3.2 im:h clearance be~ the back of licht base and the wood ~ for there is V1!rJ little wood. at tbil point, and.

151 .

lOy b&ek tb rust that might deve10p ~uId mailr split off • piece.

Ravin,· sigh ted in the ri fie fo r the desired range, .nd set the sights firmly ~ the line is tstablished lor m~uring the drop of stock. U suL .. 1,. tbe rmge ~r si gbtiDI in is: ] 00 Ylrd~.

Set the ri lie Ii gh t· giut!' U(l in the vi!te, :and attach • hea v,. thread to the tip of front sight, by wind i Rg a hea,~y rubber band around it. Run r:hil thread rh rough the smallut aperture of th., peep ugh t, and d.raw it tau t. k~epi ng the thread not touehing the rim of ape rture • t &DY pOint. With rhe ra.5p work down the heel until its vcrtiea..l distance f.rom the thrtad is about 1/16 inch 1-. thaa the requJ red drop. In lIke manner. work down the: com~. if you want the mmb IS high as bolt win penait~ keep it aJ it it, WL th the ooclr:inp: piece jwt d ran;i ng. N oW' rasp th e upper ed gf 0 f :s~ be.t1'leen heel and comb ti) ·s serai ght I ine, and immediately rq1laa! the center lim!

on the new su rfaee. .

I i the stOck is· ~(lff1 yOu need not replace the on gina} center Iine, but draw a Iine from the hee 1 casto:Jf ~t butt, fo twa rd. along tf1 e top of atock un til it mtelsecb· th.~ on Kina1 cen ter at rea r of tlil.ni ( Li.ne b---h---ht Figu re 48, Chapter 9). D raw .a similar li ne on bottom of nod:: £·rom rhe:· cut(l"ff poin t DrI toe a f btl tt, in ttrseaing origi naI cen tee line b.ck of tTip:er pard ..

FITTING BUTTPLATE. The buttplate 01 recoil pad LI to be fitted next. J\ssuming- that· ynu will we a .steel shotgun tJpe but:t plat~ 01' one cf t~ MannI lcher-Scboennauer type. proceed u followl :

Fint. fmlOVe the r rap- and springt if thf bu ttpla te ~a. a. trap. Hold plate in position on butt so that the een ter 1 ine, or the c:astoi eente r shOW'! cnctl,. in ce.Dtet ·of screw holes in bu ttpl at e. The lip at heel workin& irom ret.r of chee:E. piece bact toward tht butt outline. For of plate- ·should come ju .. below the surface of upper c:d~ cif. wood the praeut lmve th e butt its· full lcncth from: heel to toe. maklnl no at bed. Ma rk th e au rl i ne of p late ca·,~fully on &utt't _nd ",un the • tttmpt to eetabliah the d rap. . rasp bevd off the stoek all round .almost to this line. N ow rasp the

The su rp r UB wood. di rec tly below bottom 0 f cheek pletZ eo be butt to • .1 i,tl t tUrveI toward th e Jl1 i d dle, W.or king down the edgf!!I

rou iJ:hed. out with h cllow chisel . Ii !'Sf, and np]adnJ! the center line ·a!l f aft as It is worked off~ Sta rt

Now tu In the: stock oyer !lnd roulth oR tlu! Sll rplus: wood em nlh1 the: not-ch for the lip of buttplah!!l but d I!!!t!pen it ;;rery !lowly as you sid-e of buttstock leaving i1 ye ry full a1l oyer. The bc:tt "Way to proceecJt· Fa I th is DOtCh select bo~low chiSel! wh im fit the curve- ~ and hoi d I:~ ·sroci: YiP h He working on butt it to la, ·a rotlDd tapered. It:ick t:1lt Itraight in alollA the ~tli.ne.. .nmo.vin K ,be wood. between outof bard,,"",d. such as a piece Of br~lD!itid: Dr • du.i r rung .in the HDa witli • 1/4 il1ch flat chisel. Coat -mtirc undenumce of -plate barrel channelt and hold the stock s~idewaya. by die. to1e11cL the J.'" of with lampblack and. on, and. prtsl into place. Most of the :titting an vi$c pR"S!ing ·against this stial' w~~ must be· slightly sma1tc:.r the be done with mp and half-rcund If'OOd file. Sometimes it will be th ~ burd ehannel t so ·u not. to Bplat It. F Gr. the p resent do noJ, rasp fmild convenient' to u.e I. wi~t Rat chisel whh very ·,1 igh t cu rve for the stock nea rer th a.o 1/4 i nch of.~ ~ta fi~~ thi.cknest.. taking 0& the hleh spots.. We rk d own ~e butt unt.il the eft ti re out-

Nat com~ THE GRIP .. WIth dlvlden measure carefully I~-e Uae i(l·in ,erirtt oontact all round. when the plah ill pr~d to place r~ircd distance from tb~ trlggt!J" ~c wh~re. the f~t ediP: ~i ~np witt. the hand~ Do not 'Ole the butt !Crews in fitting plate. ft'tr i~ to be located -; P3ark the bottc~ line Df gnP.. aad. s .• "", to this line. the; r p'RSSure will IIlring tlae plate f!iO as to chao R: 1 III cun'e sliP tlyD resi the end 01. square and smooth with .. Rat wc;JQd. ~ then re-- tIIen the tr.af) will not :fit. ·'11:u~: 8Crrw Irole. dlanld be hoted only place the center line 'Yh}ch was -,wed off:. If you USC II; metal. Of .:fter D'U·~r edgetl of plate an in per~ contact all round.

horn grip cap, plsl£~ thm In the required poIltJ.on and mark. lb. -ou~~. Set the upper or heel1CtC'W f1~t. Drill the hole at .. Illlht davinIf not ulins; a caP. th~a a. paper pat~rn uould be ~ad t the denre4 ward anal~ 10 the ItttW Wl11 dnw the. lip of plate ilown tightl r .. oval sh~ and pasted 01110 N OWl USlftI'" the .r(lUnd lude of the nap,

round off tht forward edge of pistol .gr~pj tbm work down the ud.ell 10.. ISZ .

bu't leaving', the KriP at least 1/8 i nc:h thicker allover th an it is to Turn I~ thiI ~"W, then cenh rand drW. the hole: for the toHCteW. be when. finished.. Not file dDWfl the comb slowly ·and carefUlly, and lit It. Ord-.:narily elunh!tlu~ h~ wood sere,," are lUUIUy beUl!r .. th.t wben the bolt is drlwn fully to the rear tbe sear notch on cock· than ~e rculu COUll!' ~ttplate ~ The thread hol~ well .. inr pi!a! drags beawy .ow l" it. Round oil upper edge of stock. and but heiD.I ~hat .1!Da1~erl ~e tcre-wl can be ~ 10 that the. r $loti thin th~ sides cf comb and upper patt oj cheek piece 'just enoudl to etI- atand Yerti(allYt I.I1d In line Wltt. each other. Ltttle things • .ucn as



lr.Ig. 87

running in tht same d i reetlon but closer tog'dher .t the tip 0 f forcnd. to ettabl i"sh the taper. then rough 01 the wood to thete liDa. ne foren.d may :now be round ed up ~nd shaped 2:1 dtsimJt ualdl' the. Bit Bide of rasp fOr most of tbl:' W'nrk.

Thr- stoek is new sh aped in the rollgh from forma tip umoit ltaa::k to the pip. The next question to be decickd is, dI.dl the atocIc ban A CHEEK PIECE, and 1haIl it bave CASTOFFl ~ that it is to be cast. 0'1 first muaure and. mart file. delired.

£rom center of trigger to center of butt; d n \'IP" & line for .pproxi .. matel? .. the desired pitch.. and· saw off ~e buet, aIlhinl about 1/4 incll at ra len gth. Remark the Qrigind teeter line ,OIl butt:l tIIen establi ~ h I new' center for the cutoff at mepla:i ned in O:ULp.Mr 9. (See Fip~1 46 and 4.81 Ch.apter '9)" NOw make a brass taaIPlet

the .hape of buttp I ate nJ be ugd t an4 1/8 inch 1. ~r all %OUIld1 DOtthinr the eenter of templet At both ends. em ter it on the cut .. 0.. Un~ on butt and mar. round it. Now set tbe stock In viae at ahown in Fipre 34 (ChIlP.tc!r 7·). decide on the "'.ape and poaition of cheek piece; md p:etch ! tJ Qut:line in pmca. Cut ·round it with • hol..1O"w chisel a3 ~hOWll in Fi gure 34. mak:iDI the rut ~r toWard bottom of .!rto:k.. 'Wh-en about 1/4 inch dcept ItIrt Plpin, this aidt of .rna with rasp. wing the: reund .de to .peed. the wotk. and




POOR lv'AK' S JAMES BOND vor . 4

keepinK screw slots in Ii ne, make a big d i:Herenc:e in the appelr&nN: oi a gun" and often in di' ca te me e%ptrience of the maier.

The screw heads, bei n~ large T and d eeper thlll the eoun tersink in the pia te, w HI "tid: out f rom the surface. Pi m lGOlen. them three or four tum!Jt then deepen th e ,lot with a slottinl file or hacbaw blade. Ti gil ten them again"l to be su re ~he slot comes well below the I!OUD terMttk. The n file the head 5 dow n ,mooth an d A ush with sur faee o I plate. Thb. makes: the screws nearly invlstDle. only the d.atl showinl. Later t whe n nnlshinl th e lUn the plate and SCfCW heads will be polished d t)Wf'! with erse ry cleth, the serew-s ccrefully removed, and all pa ra blued,

The D. C. M. Sporrer bu ttplate j:g the emNt of m!, to attach ..

Merely.nr the itock on J. strai:rLt line~ smooth up· the end Wllh a file until edgaI of plat!! touch all around, and tum in the screws.

Fig. 58

After f tti ng the p1at'!r. and before d resaing down the sc: n:w head",,, test the butt for PITCH. The II1'J$1: aero rate way 0 f dolo, tbis iI to rilFet er braze an emnsion to the lOll&, blade of • steel .square. [ike Fl(U re 881 wh ich also showl this d evjce in UIE. The short blade 01 square is held against heel U1d toe of butt plate. wi th inner =d~ of long bl ad e in line with mid dle Gf rear sight ape rture, The dist:m~ fram I!nd 0 f long blade to tip of front li,b.t indicates the pitch of butt. (See d iscllssi on 0 f pitch in Chapter 9).

I f the pi eeh is teo grfat t remove the buttpIate and dress oft a bit of the heel of butt, setting that end af plate a trifle dl!epe r until the requi ted. pitcli is obtained. 1 f more pitch is desired. .homn the toell TIn: distance from center of triggrr to center of buttplare ahould be carefully lDeuUrM. whUe the plate il beinr fitted ..


:RECESSING THE BUTT STOCK. Sometimm it u d~~d to bollOW' out the butt ~ either to lipten it and balance the ri9.-e. OT to pnnide a cempartmenr far d~ ing m.t~tUU~ n a tnp 1ruttplate - i. used. The reeessinq- should. be done after the stock is 12.1 [ .bIped UPl read y to san d, Ho Id the ,~clc in vile ~ with j.,." .at plddcd ~ butt vertical M I.rk eh eo ouTline of recest in bU1~11~ and. mlrk centers for two or th ree holea, as preferred. The MunlicherS.:h~nnaucr pla~ will ~mit two 7 /8 inch holea.. and one S;a inch, U se a .harp augur bit with smrle cutter Hpt ~ the spur carefu lly ~ an d have someone Itand to one aide and tell you whethu to faiae 0 r lower end of brace to keep the: hole at the correct angle4 WI tch the hir: IS ~u lle'1'er watch ed anytning bek re, and. call on your favorit~ househ old ROds ro k~p it in the center' of ltod:. I never yet had one run c.ut the side t but never h.a ve 1 bored. out a butt withou.t serlO1ll miaci vin: ~ that th is very tbinJ would happen"

After bo ring the hoka the" ed lei shculd be beveled 06 with • knife~ Tbe wood between the holes nay be removed with the '1lCI'apcr 10." dalcribed in Cbanter 4~ or may be left 101 id b!twe!1l the holel the: u..t practice.. This makes a stronger stock than [f it is reduced to • mere IIhdll and holdt more than you will want to put in fa i: t t most likely. N oth lag' th.1'OWI • rifl~ out of balance 10 b.dly as 1\ join'kd Itftl rod and a lot of tips in the butt; I Wlually carry my rod in pocket or PICl;. with only I pull-th rouP. • few patdHst and SOl aU oil can in :eta.

FITTING RECOIL PAD4' Ue fittin:l of a rubber recoil Pad. to • new stock just being- made it quite easy. First of all tb~ bult lhuuld be sawed oil on •• trai~t line ROd trued. up with a wood Sle, and tbt (!enter line replaced. Now carefully work the butt; down to ~ nearly ita final shape and. lizt. allowin II not more than 1/32 i oeh ff)r ; finishLnI'-t St:t the recoil pad. in pl ace and with an awl or scriber rna ~k th,= pm dun gf th. two IK'UW hoI. on me amter line. Drill the \apper hole. Next d rap the J)1td in to boilinl water for a moment I to IOften the bae--unlw mr. fs done,. tumIDg In the Kf!W ma, crack me hard rubber base. Set the up ()er .screw in fairly ,QUlZ1 then



i nsert the drill tnrough lower eclew- hole and drill I the hole. Set in this screw. tben mark the outline cf the butt on the hard rubber bur, and III etnOW- the pad.

A fut runnin( motor Jrincer is essen ti~ fer shapiDK butt pad".

R~place the Krinding wheel wilh a dist of wood .ven or ticht ineh~s in diaJlleter, and OIl the aide of wheel Clue • Iheet of prnet or sand pa~1'----abOQ t num her 1.. U Ie this to dna the pui almost to the lint! mubd 011 the bue. Now coat the hare rubber bast! witb lampblack and oil, and lpot it to ~rfett: ~ntact with the buttt jUst u yeu did t" buHpI.~. Be care.fu.l not to press it too bud and break the bu:. The center ~ 01 butt may be ho.Uowed very wgbtly by teI.pin. with .. smaU steel .:rlper. 10 insure tirbt fit at edpa. When the fittin. is completed. put the pad ia bm1in.r wat!r .pin. to IDftea it;


wipe it clry, and quickly eoat it with du Pont Cement, alao coatiJl& the butt. Put pad in plate and tipt:en tJp the IUC!WL Thick .shellac [!:lay be used ilutead. of cemeut if .PRferred. but the cement it better. It completely dOleS the jomt and pmtmtl dam.rmaa aieeting the stock th rough the en.d gn.ia.

'The next step i:ll to buff down the ed gel of pad even wIth the wood..

Th is is done on the sandpaper wheel u ahOWQ in. Fitrua 89. Work very carefully, blliding the stock 50 that irs Sl.1ri8C1I! is parallel with the !'urf~ 'of the w heel, and move stock up and down so as not to

cu t too fasl in any one place, B~ esp~aI1J carriul when 'W(ln.in'l round the toe and beel, partiCLIlatly the to~. [t tabs steady holding' and East th inkin, to avoid cutting notches in the wood at these points, and also to preven t beveling the edgea of the pad. which should be iD continuation of the stOck. lines at all paints. Use very li,iht contact between the rubber and the wiled, apeciaUy when finishin, the cut.

The red rubber pad! with hard black rubber base are all &tb.ched in the above manner. Thil include; the Hlwkini. the JotlOm AntiFUnc:h, Hi-Gun, and the 'Various SiweR type pidL The int three named all ha" ".riou.dr shaped holes cut th rough. the red rubber from lide to "d~. to inaeue rail.iency. while those of the Sil vert type are IOlid. but with a hollow OJI the i ... ide. wbicb provides an air alshion.. My own preference is for the Silve .. qpe pad. par-.. ticularly on ri:Ba. Having no b.ola CUt in the rubber. tile pad is ..tw.,. clean aDd free from dirt an. trub, which is bound to ac-


cumulate in the b.cla. Tbil typl iI wgbtly Ie51' redJ1eut than dte othe rs, .. it it thinner.

The thickness 0 f the pad should be C2rCfuUy meuumi before £tting. and the stock cut (]Ji 50 that it will be the rip t lm~ wbm pad i. fittrd •

Of the pads having holel C1Jt in the sides, there is little choice 10 far lIB com fort Ind d.un.b IU~ h eo rlrt!! n.ed I I find t bowtver ~ mat the Jot!Om Anti .. FI rnclJ can he!: bu&d to 8. smoother au rface th an the othen. The HaWq p.d it sontew'hat prone to scaling on the sandpapr:r WMII![.. wh n II!I Ihr !I] i gw, tly tou g}, f"f rub bet i 0 the J ONoJ:o cut~

much more IDlOO thly. The Hi-Gu n has the same quaIi ty 0 f robber t but the Ih apr and size 0 f tilt holes leav n till! ~~ very thi 11, w lti.:11 make! it II ani to finish smooth Iy.




T~ re a re other pad.s made 0 f 11. ye ra of black 5p:inge ru bber ce- .lI.ide over the hard places withuut (UttinCt cawinc an uneren or ridgy mented between layt!" 0 f soft red rubber" which are popular with surface.

shoot~.ft prone to 8 inch, and who gnnd. in fraT of recoil. n ~ Plr1:i If the tip of forend it to be shaped inro a mobble (See Chapter 9) I' have no lard rubber base, the base being a layer of soft red sbeet rub- the .abble outIin.e may be fonued rouply with • hollaw chiel, ber, on!! end 'Of which is cemented to the pad_ Te fir the p.~ p~l .fter which ,it is thaped up with the rmmd tJde QI the wood:fi1e. Do off this sheet t and tack it to the butt with the small tac:ks wh it'"h. not aat too deep • hollow ktk of the 1ftObh.lc---try to retain • come with it. There. is also a small tube 0 f rubber cement with 'ltrrvnJ im: dIect lit .n poUrt.

w hicb the pad is then amen ted 10 this soft rubber bsse. The p.d Thl 1WIeI't"'Uttiq of the comb i. allO done Int with • hollaw

is til en dressed down on th e $andpapc r w heel-aJ'ld it iantt the easiest 157

jo b to be found, ei t her. Due to its IOfmest, tb is spon gl: ru bber is cbile~ thea ,he lilla smoothed ad bleadl!d into the aida Df nod euily cut out of shape, and it is necessary to hive the wheel covered with small mel of file. .me the :round. aide. (See Pilure 56. Q.Pwi rh new ~ sha rp sand paper t a.nd use the liahHt poi!!I~b Ie pressure, IU' 9).. It iI impoui&le to daeribe exactly the mapLnI of mch a

F Of' mysel f I haV'~ I i ttl e use far a recoil pad on I rifle ~ at though it comb. Study u IIIIDY l'bXa .. you can. pt hald of but do aot uis • necessity an most shotguns. Th e m2l1 who is phpieall y eapable Iume that III 1ft COl! Ret.. Learn to remanlze dtetr. faults u well cf going j"to the wood~ after big game. and doing a miD t I work 81 their good pointl; cowin, Galy the latter in }'OUr Itock.

about aunp, certait11y should be able to stand up against the recoil Exr=n:ise the rreateat cart in shapinI' the aides Df stock over the

of the 3\te rage big-game load. For with a rifle ave racinE ~ilht' map~ me. to cet them. exactly alike. Tau time to etudy them. care pounds weight and :stccked to fit the hunter, the recoil is .Im.ost un- fully ... you work. And wben shapin, up the porti()Q around the notilUhl~ _ L" good steel buttpIa~, for me, is in all ways pre fe~blf:- t&ilP, it is well to have the action and band fi.tt~ into place.

On ri flea. using any of the magn urn loads., however II there is • l~.. W1lere the WI' 1d: into the wood .. 11'",-" work .,tii", t th e ed IC! timare reason for the recoil pad, as well as on ftry light weight riBelI to .. "oid .pliqterina. Go slOW', and work the wood dawn almost~ usi ng a losd like th ~ . 270 ~ 7 mm .. , or .30.06.. When me waFt is but no1 quite ftwh with me steel ..

red uced below 7 1!2 pou n tis the recoil is often u.np 1eullOtt arid • pod. Wben you COIIIC' to the grip, take yo'Ur rime and don; 't pt in a

pad will ofren cure a bad habit 'Of Hinchin,- butlT to lee how it u ping to look. If you. have iii. Ktip caPt it·

Th e gunowner will often wish to fit a remil pad to a gun he al- ahau ld be fitted. and properl, centered be fa re the pip .is thape.d np. read J' h as. The method of fj tti n K il essentially the same u. wllen OUtlim the ap with peDen. bring: it to a position where. ita forward fi tting it to a stock in. process 0 E makinl: j except th at arn.ter Cl.1'1! ed.p will be the required ditta.nce &om ceate'r of triepr. Mark must be exerci sed in bu Ai ng the pad dawn to the au tllnes or the the iCltW hole and d"rill it caRlnlly at nlm UlKles to the .llIfacc~ iltock, 50 U to remove 89 little of the C)riginaI Snuh·:1.1 possible with Be sure thil b.oIe is la.rae mo1Jlh so the ICrtw will not split the ,pip. the !lnd:pa~ wheel. On under -side of '"" t:ap. 'k:Dtch ID'IDI!! killd of mark to show which

After the pad i!I lib aped. sand paper the stock caRro lJy 'Where the :II the front edp. After squiring up end of p-ip with the file, cup whrt!l hilS touched it" Irttinr the bare spot! blend gdGuaily into the it very sliptl, with. widtl, nearly Bat c:hilel1 10 the cd .. ~ fit finiM.d po rtion. If t"h. ."t;td; hu 811 ail finiIh the bin 'P"t m!ly tiPt. S;ftW tb~ ~p imo pl~.f t~ p~ ,,.. ftt~ ... hl! tt"P duwn be Dh1ir~ rated by proctedi.o.g j1llt as yo-u would to finish • new 1tCd::, flush with ib ed~. and. th ape it up allover to desi reel shape and

156 dimenaiOJ1I. Stud,. it fmruendy flOm both tqt .nd bettem, noting

. _ . . ~ Ii - .. ......J allY unevennaI in itl side con tours. I t it permistibIet and oftea. heJ.p-

~nr plenty. of OIl on the ~e lpom, and wqnn.r it Oil the. fit",!1 crJ. fuIt to leave .. riaht aide a bit fulll!r than the left, 10 U to &11

pornon. In time the ~pot Wlil take on the .. me ~ ~ iah.1I the ho11ow in p.llm of ba.nd. more com plete I,.. Brin:c the IUn to the bal~ of .ted:. ~ work ~y ~ hastened b, Judkiaus use of lhootinK position at lhort i~ and try its feel in the bandL

the mI 01] and Ihcllac mixtu re f'VtrI ~Il .IOaapter : 3. " Next mD1CI the J!qping of sides of ttocl:t comb. cheek Pl~ etc.

~en the ~toct bu been Ylrnl8hedt It IS ~~ ~t 1:0 ~Patr ~-e First of all, .nle down the: RAt IUrlace of check piece untO it feels jUlt 6num where It bas ~ b,!fled off.. Varnishlftl this spot II • n1l'- richt u you look throoJh the 8ipts~ Trim the ed~ to shape with tab, fo~ the new "ml_ wIll not hav.: the tame ~lor u th1! ald~ and. a IU,bt1y 'hollow mllet (M v flvori te fa r this is • Number 7 Addis the lap IS IilJre to show. Most gu~d:" Ute a ~ft of ~ut ~ Chilel SIB inch w1de~ which ltives the edge a neat ia9ll.Td CUl'W). parts o!,np shellac and 15 p·lrt9 li~ o.it.. Th~ II rub~ u:'to ~e and fia.im it earefully wit. the round side of cabinet file.. Thu Ipot WI til II rag~ then w"hen .. dry poJisb~ hcht 1, wlth pumLCt and oil. CIll\"ed mRe IW'TOWS rracl udl" toward UP£)ef edge of .toclr: at badt then ano~er coat ru~ beel In and pol}~ e!d.. AfteJ?ll.rdi t~e .. h~lc end.t. llDtU finally blending- iDto the stock: propel" and dUappearing. butt stock II usually grYlffi a good rubblnr Wlth ~ltun: polISh. The outer edl'= of cheek piru should be round ed off smoothly. A

~n .um ~Dds, however, are cheap ~~ and mould be Will bead or Iqun c:dp wh~n:: c'h~k pl~ 'john tic body of ItOCk avold.u1 unless. the (JWJlI!: r m U5t • use mt lUll Immedl~Y. The GIlty . i. perminiblet and iI of Ulistance in retaininr COrM(t linea on the

thorough~f satlSiact?ry m.eth~d 15 to rem.ov~ the ~la fi~ aJ~1etdy t stock.. (SlEe FirlUTe 51, Qapter 9) _ .

and nfinnh the entl R butt st1lc:k1--pn:~blY With an cll finiah. The entire left tide of atcd: should. haft the amt lines _ the right

F.:[NAL SHAPIN~. Bur. we h~ dlll~d IDJDeWhat from ,our .de. ex~ for the cheek piece. It is atY to cut in too deepl, IUbl~-that a f shapInI' up th~ t;'8e stock: ID proc PSI a f mlldn"", .1'OWlti cheek piKe. md: it it ~uuly ftSJ to nnt F d~ e"Ionp H "'VlnK titted th.e butt pia tc or ~11 pad .u tb~ cue mlY be, we are Cut. tmlplet from thin w DOd to fit the right tide of ttoct after it now ready to bnn~ the I~ to Its ~al dlURDllO!". ~ A~t the cnly iI .... ped up from • point an indt below h~ reachinli £onn.rd

tool needed for tIlll wo rk 11 tbe cabinet file. which II IImllar to the • 158

rup, hut hal finer rem.. The nod. il htld in the most Clnvmieut JM)Iiti(]n in the Tis::, using the f~l t 1ined .,.i-= pads to prevent the j aWl marring the wood. Wbm gripping tile ltock by the fonmd, alwAYS liB the ~W1d tap~~d tti(1:: in b:=ll rT.l!l ("h .nnl!~ 10 that the viSl!- jaws do not come in contact with ed;es, with the ~ present .... ibility of IPlittinll; them uJI'.

Start in again at the formdt and work back on tie stock. Ullng the ftat side of the uIe on all Rat and co.rrta: IUrl.~ and the curved rille amI, wile!? t},~ IU ,.f,.~ I.. ~nMl"V1"_ , t thpn ia ~de ral.k wood to

M rtlDovcdt you may ute cooaidcrable pressure en the file; oth~rwi:ae, use it very lightlY1 so .u to jwt take 0& the .. tid left by tbr: I1IIP and enn up the su:rfaet. AIwa,. make the file ttro&e ICf'OII the 'Taint or at lifut dJagon ally ; if the! file moves i D I ine with the rraln.1 it will sl"l n!d the wood1 leaving deep tooth. mara which must be worl:ed out.

U" t1l1, gtJf'JJ 111.., filul It is poor economy to ketp on udnl a file afttr rhe teeth a Ie bJuntM :a nd. worn. Th i. Applin particularly to wood files, as all wood has bard .nd soh spotI, and a dull file WJ11

to t..t of romh-. Thrn cut away juat mo-ugh of this temp1r:t to tlfa!' ml! eb_ piece, mel USI! it til uruR! CDl"r!Ct' !iDa on left tide of Jktrk

In th&ping up lower edge of Ita back of griP. don't leave a deep tiller.. U ~ th., tqna. r'f! ft:I V nf " fil~ .11 0 (2 rTf the ooftn.., I in~ ri Kht up .g.ainst the cr1Pt making the anile between. butt stock and ,rip and clean .at lu we r 5rulC, the gl ip Weau il ~ g i;uto 5lUl:k. at i15 thick .. at part. FilOI'!!! 9C ..

Now our sto(;S: is all shaped up except for.£. Ii ttle tlimmilli( around the aWOlli The rccci vcr beini:' ~li~ly ;q'Ci away for the ~ie<ti(1rl tI f empty cues on the right aide, the wood iI sticking up. I. liltl~ alool this edg!:. T ue a ra Ttlil fil e Ind CDf duWD It each !fIul t apirut the barrel rin g and rees ver b rid ~ I then ell!· out the exaa ""WOOd hdween tbe file cuts with a sharp chitel. then .file the wood thinner in tow'aM edge of ~I!jvtr. making it IOIDtw hat lik~ Fipre 6SC. in CMpter 9.

If deaired to use the mapzi!1e rulD£t .the norch iOT it mould DOW

partially Rpa:ra:ted for I. shDrt distm~ and the powde'r>ed rDtten wood beneath lifting out.. S~es such a p.J~ can be WG:rUd, out by rrGaaDI th .. dim.tmiOOJ· ·s'f.hdy~ but u • rule the deeper rou c'Ut


thl "one the .coDdidon~ The 'et thinK to do is trfat the place wi~ 1be!11£. as described for windlhakes,. .lter lint soakin&r, the q10t with _Ilac minJdd. down with alcohol uotH sauwy thicker tbm water .. Len. tIlis d fJj thm bum in the duck ahdlat:· IC:'ftrd ti~, and SI1"td 0:1.. If this doan't '(Ute till '(rouble .. thmw the steck aw~ ,Near" 'The latt£r inj waetiOA ;s doubtless supelil UOUl ..

Very smdl ~!lpiD·t1' mothloles can be plu.. Wltittle out walnut

Iplimten to fit. dip dum in du. PO·llt Cemen.t; and drive them in. cut

them 01 tlU$h~ and .nd mroo!b. . _ .,. . •.

Largn knotholes are se-meUma ,lUPt and sometimes QJed With

Plurie W,ood~ The bes·t way is a comb.inalioo of the twO mrthodl. Find a scrap .of walnut with ·1 knot about the riKh·t s~ _ "Whittle UJd file this kllOt until it fits the hole calil,. Coat inside of hole with du !OR·t Cement, then I. llyn of Plastic W OO'd.. emit the p,iua: with the cemmt md d. ri'Ye it SJ1llilly into tbe h.~ lettinl 'the p1.ssttc 'wood anti iurplw, cemmt :Bq'lJteze ~yt I~und me ed.ges. let ml.s dry at leut 48 mur:st Ole oJi ,mooth~ and sandpaper,.,

Afte'r all de·t~ ha.vl' 1:leen l'~ired, and the std etOSHaDdel., it sihoul.d bt! sanded ImlflnVise of the grain with Num.ber ] /2 '81114- Pl1Ipel'" or prl1l!t paper t ~ when it is r·l!'ad y '£or 'the final sandinl ad finishing' as duaibM in Chapter Il.

FITI"ING TWO PIECE STOCKS.. When the principles ad practice ·of jnll~tting ;and sh-aping ha 'V~ been learned 00 any one stock. the workc'!' will be able to 10 Ilbe~, 00. almest amy orbe r kind "f smck with littlt dilicu'[ ty II

159 Tbese .principles vary j however ~ with the 'MO pi~ :stock!! on which

'When. the sitoa seems, to be «Inalr rigbt II to ~nn and size'~ it mme further ;nltruction may pnve h.ellli~l~ On the bolt: .aetien is a good plan to assemble the pn .and Olk:!: it out for a H ttle target stock the setiaR is bedd.d .·rlight down illto the woocL With ..

· T· · ~ 11 ... L .. • two ry;ece stock. the tangs must be let J own ana hel into_ the grip

p.I'sctIce. . ry 1 tout In B..I..I me pla boa you expect to use ',fOlz. may a- Tb

fi.od I few changes necegaq" The h4l:lt mU.g fitting comb that portion., &qd a clamp Uke FipU'f: 28C is the lint ,essential. ' g, ma:y

seemed. ·50 perfeet in the: shGIJ~ mar pllnish 'the cheekbone. severely ,....--.;,--:: -. ~==.",.-~--WIlde r reroi!!. .neassi ta ting cutting it IOOl'trn a sixteenth incl:t 01' .so~ Apinl' tbe Domb may 11c eoo thic·kj 0 r the cheek piece req u.ire taper .. i[lg a bit more rorwanJI' or thinning at 'me baumn cdp a tri4t,. N Q h~:nn ".iU be done by ra.king; ·the wood file te the rau.ge and 'WOrking d[DWn 8. little here and there Wi requUed.. AJter au. ·there?s· oolthini ~i1:·e the ~~cut-and-dry~' method. to r·eally .tit a stod:l

Havw.g assured yourself Wt the ;stock rs :right. the nat step is sanding+ Held ~I: in -du~ vise't plfotected b, thee felt pads;. ani go, aU over it from Clone; ,end. 'to ·the other with a strip of N"OiI 1./2 carborund u.m cloth, used like shining a :dboc.. Do not bear' much pressure Dr Y'uu win .lII3lie de~p· CTOSS ecratches, This preliminazy cress ~ndilll lIo------+-~_-_~._~ rtm1)'VD all the file marks. a.md u..tes out .aD,,- sJil!U in,equalitits in tile lurt&oe.

S,TOCJ{ IMPERFECTIONS., Now look. carefully over the eq ..

tire su r fsee for imlErfection.s such 0, u6haka," dQ'-l"Ot, G r lIIIaU splits or mots... a fteD, these do not' ·extend to the outet surfte o~· the woed J and sh r}W up only when the s,Mek is about 1iDish.ed ..

A ~ ',btte. U is a sman ( 'l,r ;fom.t'rimes latge) .se,ara'aoa 0:£ the hbus of the wood" caused by the fatigue; ~ultin, from. the; ~al Dt the tree in the Willd" It appea.rs· II a small craCk or spli't, almost ooywna-e alrOng the side o £ the stock J! .may not be deeper than 1/16 m,cli, 0 r it ml.,- run no. rll' through the 'WOod.. U nJ.iu Ioca.·ttd, where it materi ally weakens tb e ItOc:k.t such as at tile tanCt a ib.ak~ will do no harm, and may b~ pl!rmanmtly !'epaind M fl:lUows:

Wet the s'todt wbere the sba.ke appear, th~ dry o\'Cr a good bot bla.ze. Tbis will open the crack slightly. Nr)W:t while rlle wood is qwte warm, rub lome; ·thick o,range Shellac ower and mto the c1'a£k1 H1e8 t a bar '0 f iron ahout as hot as lor oolde.rin.g:, and rub it over me shellac, burning it into the crack" The iron should be hot mouth to make the Me Rae !m.ole and smell, S and off the surface.. 1IIl:d H th e crack iii n,ct fullV saJ~dt repEat the t'%ea tmen t 8~veml. time!"" 0 r umtU lit R seal,tdlll Tbm sand down smo~th" and. when msbed. ·this end;; win ocv:e:r open.. Ver.y small sp.lits and. .sea&ODlDK CI'I.Cb may be tl'n ted in the same manner, unlles located where th~ will wemken

'WI! stock" -

Dry-lOt Q·ltcn 'oocmn in imported wood that hal bf'~ iu etorqc for' ~~ with w:!ather conditions Aot right............and romeOmu it does not show up un til the 5tOCk. is, an ~aped and Mndcdtl I t is, evidcnccd by I. litfieak where th e woOed looks tCCp,owdery /. the ou.te r layer being


. ~ j

.... - --- - -_. _ .... p.·---- .... -----~-

be 'C!U t in leit si de of stock.. Since a eu toil is 'DDt nr:m~d on a sporting riH e, 1 p·re-fer to ami t tn is n.(ltch on a S,p do_field stOCk, lOunding 0& the I·rock at hdt of action ;utt tnO,ugh so th~ cutf!ff may be turned s'traigbt wt tor rc:moval of tile belt; I~ 'the m~h is d~'1i ~ .. ever, it need. not 'be cut 1.8 wi-de or :as, dee:p ,D In titlE H;I"IIZ stoCL Make it j uet la rge enough to bold the 'cll"tofft! lind let the 1;a.ttu 'lurn. clown to an anile a £ only about 4$ degr eel, imtead of nearly straigh t OOWOi



.- .... ,. ~. ~

". 'e,..L .. • .. I. -~_-:.. .

, r

. . .


be IJlade Gf avo 3/1 inch bolts about lS to 11 IRehel magi utd two picas of told rolled .Itenl inm br 3/8 il1ch~ and ,4 1/2 imm=t 1oal.


These picem If! d titled K eadI erul to tlip lail, Oft;t the boltL As the nuts lie tirbten.l~d up, the ad:jon it drawn; blek: tightly into me stock 1fte5R$.

On man.r nOn 'the lowU' tanl mary be removal frcm, tba .rueiYft':J while on othem both. taop. :an mad~ in OII.E ;piece witb xcclvel' .. When po!8ib1e~ remove tie lower 'mnl; Bd the upper 'tallK in pmti~D om uppa .part of grip pQ'rtiOn of blan~, and mark mum4 it with a peli£tl.. The tant '01 (:Ob.rBe will. DO! P bad: to lllace, D'U.t.m be lOIl1ew.hat forward 01 ·itt·propc:r .posi'iiOd. Cut ow: the receaa· to.r the taD , workInI in the mmn.er deiCribed for :imettifc the Sprin~d ~tti~K across the Krain wherever p0$5ibl~ C~ tmdenid-e of tang 'With lampblack: and. oil and tIJ' it in the- channel you. 'h.aR cut\! Remove the surplus wood u Uxlicated by the black SlDud~, and carry tbe tUI mortice back at little Wlu.!n wlthiu 1/4 iBm mf its final position, p,tlt· on tbe clamp ·u '!Shown in Figgre 91 [I, and tiPltcD it u~u'r flot '90 much as to split the Il'ip. Rr:move and continul: the cut~nL UtltiJ fina·Rr 'Che cllDlP draws· the receiver limd, against the end of \YOod. I f the angle beR il. not' oor~ it shou11d be WGrktd of u required. with chisel or file, Iud! the t.ma mona ~d bad: tbe reqw«d diata nee , ·to make all i,ointl tiPt This fittiq sbouhl 'be done wjth an woranl par~rinp~ ~J ham .. me1S, ~tel rml~ ~rom the- actiod .nd. inside of tanp..

Now latp down UDderside 0 f 'the grip to nearly in, Mal sizel H.d

P·OOR r1.i\Nt S JAMES BOND vci , 4



with the receiver and stock. blank clamped torethet~ fit the lOW'tr tanK cnten at the proper angl= at fr.ant end of lript It il evident that in. plAce in receive r * and mark i~ outline on undenide 0* grip. Cut the me mdan..ilm of tbe arm would not function if tbis bole wt!rc nat dwtnel for it sUlhtlr UDdtn.ize~ then fit it tilb tty into m::eiver in ProDerly lOcated and let at tbe correct .angle-hcnce tb is l:u:be in perm:lnent positiODt and gndually ler it bad: into tlur stod:~ jud method el1minat~ all unct:rtainty.

u you d. id. the upper tan~ When botb tanKs are fitted, locate and I t may be desired to retod:. some. riRe ha vinl the magazi ne located drill tan" !Crew bole before the clamp U ~d.. Then ranovc in the butt. lib the Remington or Wmcbcster .22 Automaticsthe ~~ replate blDlme r and tri:ner Iprinp, and other inside parts. here .pm we havl! the only aa=urate and euy method of drilling;

On. o1d stock: note the Cllts for these partlt and rouch cut tbm. in the hoJeI in the rigb t place and a.t the CCJ rrect an &le. .

tile IltW stock. Coat all parts with lam,bl~ and let the .. mblt:el The fitticg of a stock to a pump or aowmatic shotgun is qui~ action into stock~ cutting a way uy wood where needed, and dnwiDg similar to :6tti.ng a ~piCQ nfle stock, and the glDe ~Dera1 inthe receiver 'Up tiln t wi th the damp un til the tanK !Crew: may be !tructiorls will apply.. Once the tang is fitted to the blank, the stod: turned. in to pla.cc.. may be sh aped ill any marine r desired, fellow ing the workrng derails

The bbnk l>eing fittM t.e the aetio~ tTy the triaPt" ha mlMr t lever alreldy laid down for rifle stocks..

I.l)d other paI'ta to be su re the wood i. Dot bindina; at any point. If· But stocking a double gun is a differen ~ ma ttcr-as previously it bind.. coat all part! with lampblack to .how whe~ -woacI must ltated. this l$ a job I d [sliker and avoid whenever pos5ible~ because IJe. removed, and trim aut as required. it is so ~I:rlasr:ingly slow and to!!WOU5. Most gununiths,. however,

Now draw • amtu line back from the center of both tap, and get • ~at deal more shotgun work. than the.y do rifl.e wor~ and. you are rea.d,. to ht the burtplatc and procctd. .. already dISCi ibcd. h«olJlI: q uir~ adept at stocking; d.ouble 2UOB. The Waf Ii: is reany vc ry

The work is c:omiderably more d~t when the lower tang: ean.. much the same as .stocking a TiRe with a two piec2 stock, and is not be rem.oVM It om. the receiver. Take ca.reh.d me;uurem~nts from only slowe-r and more dif&cult by reason of the great amount of the old ItDck j cut the grip PGrtlon of bltnk ftearl, to ript thi~ wood removed from the stock. due to the design of the action. Befnxa canl to tang; cut both tanK re:aM:I sliptlJ ";der -aize. ad allSe of tb~ the thin walls of wood Ie ft are not. strong, and the

let them baek grU ually ~ u the dim., • tiPte:aed. greateSt .('2ft must be exercised to prevent ~ red in g thr: edges.

On mOlt riRta the tanp are tlpered. toward the rear. which eDIbles The fint move in wetting a stock: :10 r l dou t»le gtU1 wi th si de

162 .• • loeb, iI to completely Blrip the recei...er of locks, trigger bar, top

the .tockcr to SCCUft ti p. t lit aloal the ed.p by car:rylUl th-e inIettJq; leve r I locking lug, safety and eye rythiog that win come (1ft ~t th~ b-=k toWard the rornb. mg:1e o~ the recoil shoulder and saw your blank IS nearly correct

TIle s.:vIge f99 Model rille is eUly stocbd, a1th~ it loob for it u possiblcl The blank $hould be ext ra full in all dimension:).

like • tough jlJb at' Smt glance. Hive ycur blank au ~ch or so Now inlet the upper tanK md draw it in to a close fit with the:

IOr:lpr than required ~ and. lPark O!I ~ end .the center pllIot £0£ the claml'1t just 81 you did in the two-piece rt fie stock, Keep you r tools bole to be bored th rough Imgtbwl!C, mto- whIch the 101li: 5tcd: 1Cl"~ ,-e.ry !Ib:ilrp and cut the. edges clean-work slowly and take no rno re it inserted.. This must be a twO-diam~r hCJ~ u the bead of HUt wood aut than absolu tel J netessa ry. I f using a full, "square IJ 1.301::, iC&eW' goes well up toward the grip. Mcuure ~e screwt and ~Ik let the tang in an ei(nth ind".~ Dr so below the surface, to give you the positi·on of the head DO outside of ,rock.. lavlRI Ilboll~ 1/2 mch lODle leeviay on £nal meuuremen ts... I f using a Tough turned stock: extra length It reaiv-eJ end, Now mr-Ute back from tbll DlIrk to almost worhd down to size, you wilt have to tike drop measurebatt, and set a bit or d rill of the tight tize to accummoda tJ:: screw' mat tB as you go. This: is done easiest with a long strai gh ted ge ( I h n.c1 in the chuck of a mach ine lathe. . ~ use I har D f hardened taol st~l 4 1/2 f~t long, 1/8 by 1/Z inch in

This bit should project from the chuck. the exact. dt5tJi"Cf! required :size)1 ftSting the edge at one end on top of front .s.ighl, Il1d on the to man the. hole the right dep~ Set spur of bit In anler poInt ~ matted rib a.t breech, the other end projecting: back OYer the ~toc.l-:. bvtt,. ad set the den eeneer in the taU .. WJCk On ~ ~int ~kCd From thie edge! the heel and comb measurements are easily madr: on reeeiver end cf blank. Turn the lathe :dowly~ In)ubn~ the stock with inside calipers..

blink in the h~d to P rev~nt turni n g, and. feed with the hand feed Next remove I he triggers :CInd tip rl ngs f rom the trigger bart n e on tail-$tock... When the hit iI· in the wood :15 far as the chuck peT- the bar in place Ln receiverl and let it into under side grip.. This mitlt withdraw it, and in~rt another and lonpr bit In the eh \lck. is a job req ui rinK are IJId patience. :Ltp the receiver tight apinst rb is bit to be the liu uquircd for the stock SCmV" I Replace the blank the stock aI l the while with the clam p. 1 t is well at times to set a as belore and contintte the hole (the mi,alJer bit will readily lind the mort wood Kn:W into the \If~t tang WQ., The lUI" ror tang: IIClCW

center left by the spur of the large r eae) until point oi drill touches 164-

the dead center in the head ItocL · L. .. - 1.._... ..1 • .. 'L ~~-ld Til· .. 1..._ •• 'd n

Now measure the wid-til of tangs and Jar out meir outline 011 eenkt on tngpr oar u.. • Noptnr ~ er: It 5UOUJ er, at "!! .u

I: __ f --....... I tb drill b d to run a triBe sidewaJ1, the top of the I UKI rout fit tight acunlt the wood-otherw1H: the

llUll: C .I;'.A&. n Cl!JeI. ~th .. L~ ap;oe f ·the hole. With ri~ 'hnI screw will spring the trimer baT .. throwing me whole works

ocate rour CCIltcr In-ea WI. [.l1I; ceo. er .0 . r=: out of itki}ter/t

IJId cb.se1s; nmove the f!xca8 wood and lnlet the tU1lP to final. pon- N · h lock I I I fil h d a I

tion wine the stock screw to cl raw the blaDk up tiKht agaillSt re- ed '~dtlpb t he h:P 8!ta ~P' d-thl: Y]. ~1.. r_ e lwoo. Th~ nfo~ar 1 tod

.. t T'L... ...L .. d f i:!-al :l-.rinrr up P roper WI t w en: t ey JO In, an et In U1C p arcs. C1t rwar

C1! lve I. UI: st[)'-.:L IS now tea y Or lUI :IU_...... · ..J_ ill til' • d th L.... -- .tual(

The above method of drilling a stock Imgth wise may be employed ~~ W~ atart Into t e 1 eceu d1 r~c:eJ.1Jer r Bn er may IJI: gnlU. • Y

on rbe Lee En fiddt the Ballald, or any Qthcr etock held by a screw let Into the woad at. rea.r by COl. tlng the undersid e aJ?d e~ ps W1th xt in through. the butt. On the Ue Enfiel~ there. ls :& deep socket lampblacl:. ~ Now .. WI~ng. the .old stoc.l: to go by. sketch In Wlth .a. pen-

f . • b 'ch the - ·t ".t:.t ...... "" d the d·ptb of cll the outhne of the inS! de recesses \.lnd~ lock plates, then locate aDd

aor: rear D rfCtl;ver IOto W l gnp 1 II "'!;out ~ bo b hal 1. th Thi should be bo d th h f

this lOCket mUlt be allowed for whm cutting the blan~. to lenllh. bo:h ~d~ e lor c &eaTSi I rc roUi rom

1n Mapi ng up a stock thus attached. the exact p05l'tlOC of the Az..~ ...a.. ~ tb I bl

1Crt:w must be Ollerolly penciled. on botb sid~ of the stock. so that neT rou.,u cutting e!. recesses under the lock patti! auem e

YOll will notj perchance:. cu t into th.i. screw in cutting tbe pip to tbe I loeb! mat .11 plrts WIth lamp black, and start them. In to place. sb . At Ie this hole comCi clc.e: 10 the suttace of the. wood Gulded by til! black .smud~, cut out th~ W'~ :p reqmred,. to the

. apc:- "- _..I &f ~ b loeb will CO IDto place. U Ie ttre when mSl!!rt.inK and remOVl ag. the

J U9t aIl~B.U 0 TIle com .. I ~_L la ch· · th -..l f od 'D.-..-.... h · fl

FIT lING SHOTGUN STOCKS- Se:.:end of the pump sbot- ~ p~ to prevent lppLDJI e ~ga () we · ~. ave a trl e

IUnI ba'lJe the stocks attached wi tb • loae IC:!'!!W thrcup the but~ of cleaf.an.c:e ·all ;aroun.cl~~ut enou:Kh .10 that a thin pu~a: a i paper Il1d the lam~ method cf boring, the hole may be applied. to than ~ ~f Inserted and the oiling later will §will the wood eJXIUgb to also. Thil scheme be a aumbe, of other practical URI for example, .~miute any ,ap. Bore the hole .fer the lock put! 1C:te'!' from ~ch the deep hole for naiil 'Pring which TUns bitt into the stock of moat .Ild~ and set m the &Crew... Try .thr: bammen to Bee If they Cock autonurtic .shotrunSt. Borin, thil bole with brue aad bit iI ID UII4I GIlly-the tumblers may bInd aphIS! the ~ as the ham m~!8 In certain DH!thod. n~ po!ition of the bole may be laid cut on the !»raucht~. N ow tum tbc sto::k bot~ s.de uP. fit the tnlgtn ildea of the blu~ IlI1d it! cmter liae ptGjected to I point in the -!Dto the tnn:er barl ~cl "pla~ "me In stock. Copy the receua

ID old srock; wben fittmg the tn~l1, mel be "JUre they work fretly,

163 If they bind or catch~ eoat them with lampblack to locate the trouble I

bun. ,..hich [I held a.p.intit ths aed -ccaoer ia. laWI .. bile tl1e d ... iU Wh~n..11 i, workinl' fMf)Othly. let in th~ .frj;ll"td. ' I f 'th~ th---PI= ('Ii




the ,rip on the old atoc:k u to he chanp I the ns.r end of :lOUd dreaed. dmro. to & IDIOOtb alidinr fit in the hole throup forendj shoul d 1M! fine bent u de:rired, then let it in carefully to Pi t vent eIl.1- aad this rod may be held in the viae while th~ .baPlnK is done..

inK its sh ape. and tb.e crip will be right when the wood 1a worhd dowJ:. Forends for pump pru md trombone action rifle ate bored out fltuh wi th guard, Now remove all pal'tI from the ItGc%, and ap;ia al ~ ~y dcsttibcd, then .fitted oVlEr a hardwood arbor and turned ud' ng th e 014 lrock. • a guid.t.. outline with pad the additional to mape and aise~ The upper ed~ is tbm plaued or rasped fta t to recesses required UndtT thE:: tang, for hlp snap -prinK, ulety, ~ d~rcd width. and buret cbaood. rut as beiore; after wbich the and eut out the wood where nca:ssary. Do the: final nttin&' wid cad capa are fitted by lpotting with lampblack.

Lunpb lackt as bt!fOll!. In tIte face of srock au out the hole ror the A Mrmd for a Winchester.. Remington. or BfO W IIi ng automatic locking luE,: aDd other reccssa. .. indica~d by the aId ltocL Now sbotpn calls for p.tie:nee mel careful workmanship. Due to the reassemblel making 51Jn that all parts wort ~thl"l and. proceed laree bole for the maza,zine tuDe, its side -walls are Vel"} thin and t? I~pe the .tock .. daired'. (See commenu on shotgun ItOCk de- euily brote&' Bore i t ~ut betwee:a lathe cen.te~ ~I • very sharp 11.rn 10 Chapter 9).· auger bit~ and turning the lathe slowly by band, while holdin, the

.. B~x loci:: guns an :fitted in PI etty muc:b. the lima mU1ner _ 'ar the blank to prevea t it from heini turned.. b, the, bil~ ~ t may he runs-Job It =asier beca\lll! mere an DO lodt plata 1D be let In. Proar:d ury to use In cxpanlive bit for this job, the shant. of wbicb will • be:fcrc t lettini in the top tan, first, Ibm tie triaer bar :Ill" other be too short to permit boring: clear thrcup the bl:ank. In this caae, p.artI that 10 in from me oo.ttmn. So much woad .. ~ froca bore balf throUPI then tum up a hardwood cylinder to a aug lit the flce of the stock tiaat pat care ia: lIeceI.ry r u.o wry mu, tcIIth. La the hele, Reverse ends, centerin, the dead cenUr of lathe in to ptevent .splittin;r.. At all lima be sure to t.b. our DO IlIOn W'ODCI center of the wood cylinderl and bare until bit cub into the cylinder. than it .absolutely ~ere'. little enau£h leh at bat. Now to m up anothe r cylinder several inches lODI« than. forerui~ on

FO RENDS. Siner: we ttarted. with ri!c .rot:b. 1n wUl JO btck wb ich to hold it in' the ~ this type of foTeod. mwt: be shaped.

165 with the rasp.. .

to the point where our two piece butt stock wu iDletttd IDd ready In my humbh: OPinioDt one of the meanest jobe in. the whole .field

:for mlpinc. Now coma me foreaL OD ri:les, IS • rule, the io t- of curwrnithing" is the FITTING OF FOREND IRONS of double md w euy to makE! and fit, beinll in most CIRIt _rely • pvoved •• otpQ&. The amateur who is short on patitnce wiU do well to buy piece 01 wood. belel to the "barrel by anI! or tII'D sae... with iu hi, fORnd blank wi rh i ron :fitted.. from Schovrrling.. Dal 'f and Gales, rear end 80Clftimes In lrrtc • mallow socket in front of receiver. un),.. he is using the orlKinal iOJeDd iron on the,run. In that

First tab aff the old forend and study it cudu.lly. Note any event he must fit it himself .. as DO twa irons ~re made to qtJite the peculiaritia. it hu" and decide how they may be alHt alii, copied. same shape or dimmslooa. The 6tting, while seemingly simpl~. reHave your fo rend blank sawed OUt Iq~ and .. inch 1000000t than quires utmost care, Plane up YOllr hlank: unto. it it just s1 ightly desired. With tile markmK pUle scribe I crater Ii:De all :nnmd" thicker than tlfe finished fotmd is to be. For the first time:. attmlpt Mark with clIalk the exact point on. barrel wbae tip of farend is nothing more el-bora te thin the plai D~ sbalkrw '-C:xegular" type of to be. Meuure barrel at this point wi'th outIide cIlipen. UJCI"'With iorendt Strip tile o1cl foftDd and keep It beftJ re JOU while you work. di-ride rI prick half thil d ittance OQ each side of emtel' lin!: near ~ jolt is similu to inI&t:in&: the u.ppc r t&ng' of the dock. AI the one -end. 10. the ame marmer lay out the aiameter of barrel a otb.,r W1II: is eeated into the wood, the end of wood mat at the lame timl: end" and mnnect the points mu, :Iormed with • :tux IiDe. be brought up tightly against the faa: of tlu: iron at cod.. A wide

I f the harm b.a a str.aigh t taper ~ as molt aia.gle .bot riSa do, the openin, rile in 'Wbich the lorend may be tighteJJl!d up endwise. iii W'Grk. ill pilll to be euy" . If you ha we or can borrow a nbbcttiaI: a hiM: hdp in this work. The tanl ID'I'H "be b~dcd deep moup to plane, the I!DOVC may be eur out III MOlt to .jUt m4 fiBiahed 10 tab: care of the shallow barrd lfOO'Vei CD upper surfue. When. taper with chisels,. 81 already d.e.:riIxd~ Gauce its depth and round... the upper lren it fully Ii tted, drill holQ, for the eaews. and. lit the IlCI8 witb a try-aqU&M by the methocl liven ear lief in Chapter 10. outside plate. euttinl out wood where JleO! Iialf to pa mit the tatclt Makt the Iloove to fit the barrel euily at • Plint 1/2 inch _ul to operate fmel,4' I t is d.iffi.ru1 t to hold this type of forend .....mJ.e of ita. final position. Now coat undeni.de of barrel .... ith lampblAck __ I UJ), and it will pay to bave the bJank .bout three incb.m

and OUI and fit the barrel clOR}y, puall, warkin, the Hrend 167

back to final position.. This method. keep' tbe eciK'* tiPtl ·without lcn.c:rr thilJl WlJJ.tcd I lID that this end may be held in. tile vise while any pcsaibility of IPP' between barrel and ....rood.. · the pica II rasped and filed to sh I~e~ The barrel challJX15 Oft

J f the ~nd of nceiver has & aod.et lor the focend, .. in the s. s. u.pper aide of fORnd should be smoothly sand~d. and mit sur fa.tt Winchester, coat this with lampblack and tap the Iorend apil1lt it ;polished mid fieiahed BI carefully as the ouhide. A fermd with --tbis aive. yOu th~ Mltline fat 113atiftl me tad.. Cur: the Jbaulcle=r mild! unfinJlh!d. Jnd icatm a !Uupp y wtJllma!I.

shUp and ~ua.re. u 1'OlJ work me fo:reod back. Sometimes the owner of a double ~n w ill waDI: • big, ~ thand-

To locate the CltiW boles, lim (leu. out the hole- or holM m ltot- furl forend. on it. This i! made in the sam! manner IS j'UM: described" tom. of barrel, and aandp:apu the band. chanad dq,D~ Coat the except rha t the deeper barrel channels must be cut before me fanod barrel thickLy with I-mpblad: at this pojm and prell into formd. Imn is fitt~d. SPfJt the firtin i with lampblack. and cur the channels Drill bole frem the inside through the IpOt th 'UI MOWIL To:fit tile allDOIt to final deptb. Then fit the fo rend iron, and deepe n the escutcheon or bushing Jor the formd ~rew. UIr • sharp eounteebore chm~l!11 until the catch operates freely.

of the propel' liz!! to .tart it. or DU tUne the holt with • .,w 1 lOGIC 1M

of the ript lizct UJd chip out the wood Wide the line. T~n. 1IIC a CHAPrD. 12

Fonbler .it of the lime: diameter .. the huhi~ aad Prell buMinl

to p\ao!,.

Mmt of the :Jhapml' up !If the forend CUI he done riPt 0lI the CHECKING AND CARVING

barnl. I l is nearly impouible to hold L t ia the -n.e ...tt:I, and 6rml J.

A pod plan is to tum up a ba ... dwood rod the ."'e size and uper I T ab ld tal: 10 all th .. b · d th b-

u me barrel. aDd a few inches lonpr thaD the foreadl whith iii held ou not e DI to sa, ere IS to e ilIaD e su

to it with •. wood screw thIOV.~ the buahint:r. thea dle md. 01 this ject of chdinr, bca.UII! the lOOt. used 1U'.r:I Iimpte and few, and.

.... --.. the ~ opetatimq Ill'I:: .eqQily .maple. About the !IDly rule to

wuod bar em be hr:ld in the viR and tu.med. about u raqu.U-cd. be WeI cl.cnm i., Snt. harn the proper method of handlini the tools

Mding • forend for tubular mapzine rille is - ~ dlt'lleWt .. to CIIt.ItniPt, psn1Ie1linn th~n PRACTICE.

wNd .-ppar. Squam up the ~Iankl 1Cribe, the center liDe aD round., Some yearw &10 Cbarle. Aaki~ in anaweriDg an inquiry throup ~ bore the hole for mapzlDe bJbe in a latbf. .. daeribed. for Ou'blDor Life. remarked· in. an ofthand m'nner. uAnybody can bariaa butt .ttd'w. L.,. out the -pc of barrel d'Dne1 OIl ... -. d:aecker a Itock.II I am not disposed to contndict this statement

166 linee CaptaiD A.N;", placed. no time limit 'on the penod that !Dicta t be

IiDd rut out with chisels. Spot rear end and :fit to receive r witb required to enwhle an operatar to tum aut a Itrictl,. ndt class job; lampblack; fit formd cap in the .. me rnaaiaert Thee tbape up as nor did be limit the Dumber of .tocb one miaht be permitted to

desired by rapin, ad filing. ruin in me leamiac.

When .bapmg the outside. be careful rlot to cr.:k qr IpUt the Ch~ ar to UIe tAl! corteCI teona, checking" ill .an art requi r-

forend. wh ich i. rm rely a 8btll 0' wood- A hardwood rod should be Iq the ul:mOlt O)tw",tratioo t patience ~ and pc:rsevennce to leam ..


Moreover, it requiRl a let of optimism; for just as lUre at the in· experienced min picb up- a checking tool and .tarts in en hi'S fir.st job-just 10 lure is he to ruin dut job. Make up yaut mrnd to IpO.i.I .. ~d in Older that the l})Cilap may 1101: mount Into too much 0lIt~ start i.n on plain pieces of walDut.

CHECKING TOOLS. To start at the begionillr, there an but two tools C!II!I1tial te the stock checker; tbete are the line lPacer~ and the V.tooL or dccpmiDK "toOl, .u it IliaJ be c.aJled, Tbae are il1~ la Fiprc 18 aad the lDIIkinl of these .uuI othertl it deIC'ribcd. i.e Chapter 41 The gunnitb will b.ave & .umber of ap.ICen nttint' J j Del of varJiq 4i1tanee1 Iliut 1 aacl he may .110 have • Dumber of V ... toolt "viDa diil'eHDl Ii .. teeth, for brd ami .. ft woodL TIle two tooll. howt'Yel't .are all that are needed for the jobl with • 6ae file for lIIIOOtbio, \lp the .i.mna.I •.

But Blm imp>rtant than the cuttins enol.) if • I\'&itabJe cracIle


for boLlia, the tto:k beLnc c:hecbd, 10 that it may be turned about II JU.I Mh"k. DeactiPtiOlll of the checltina ,roc C I J \lNl.lJy OPdt all meatioa of this end.let without which it it .btolutely impcaible to do B' kind of • j o~ I f I had to choose betwe91 dolnl without cbdinl tool. and dome without the cradle, ] would choate the cta4le, pd try to do Illy checkinl with I JaW file! Detailt of 1he cheeDn, cradle &re alultratM md two different types are $hawn in the foUowin& photor;raphl. One is made of • piece of b.iclmy.. 2 by 4 incbaI in me wi tb. iron bradeta IlidinE in • poove 011 top. and.

Chec.kin g Cr ad I.

rl,. 92 held in position by a ca-p !Crew and wine DIlt. The other. is made of 2 b, 3 jDclt T .. ba r. md is unoeeeaaril, beavy and clll.1DiJ.

The cradle if lint eet in a conveni"t poIition in the rise, and. the mXi: set in the cradle u sbownf wUns:. round piece of wood lai!l in the barrel channel and - held by • Bini;le wood iCltw,. u • hearinK point.. The two act acre". should be richtened up e.noup 10 the ItOC:k will not t1.1 ra under presIUR of the tool, but ~J be read i Iy turned by band.

PRACTICE CHECKING~ Before startinr on a btMd aew Job of cllfckinc. it is best to have lome practice re.tnclng 10 eld Job. nil Jequira the use of the V-tool only t IIlId wh ile mil • usu.Uy the second tool. used on a ;001 it ;. by fa.t the molt dlIlc:uJ. t to hanalea 10 it tbauld be m.utered. &m:.

n.e best practice I bow of for the bclinncr is • double- barrd motpm forend.. and Iinte most forends. have the f!hcdi111 pretty well .om down. it im.~ difllcutt to find ODe. MOROnI', the practice 'WOrk: I lID goin& to deactibe will ROt damlge the foren.dl' ~ if this • JOUr ,lint IIrtmnpt. So dontt bait&te to tty it. on the forend frDID your own gun if unable to borrow one from a maul

Cut a pi~ of 1 by 2 inch pipe Ions enoup to fit bet.a n cmten ia thll cradle. Set the oICIeWI up on NCb end of it, md :futm the Emend, bott.a up, to the midd.le of thil pi~ by a wrappi.D1 of tire ~ .bout eKh end. Now tale the V-tool and -tart in at ODe of the rat points in the cb.ecki,,1' daiPt boldine the 1001 .. IhDwrt in iilID'!· 91 Note that riKht fore&nIU ill cmnded aloapide the


lhaal: of reel, Dot 'CD top of it. The right hud exertl DO pteSlUre other tlUIn weight of the tool.. Pressure is I11ppUed with the left tb umb, aad should be f1ery li,h t I

Now push the tool forward in the llae 'Of chttkinl, wedinK it back. and forth with a filing; motion, but tdvancing it a.bout one-hal f inch. with ram stroke. Let the tool follow the groove cuilYI and do not stand with the ~ directly abeve the 'WOrk. Keep the h&ndt aIi~tly in front of you all the rim~tr.i3 mates it easier to ate the groove and follow it in a st n.ight line. Make DC effort to de!pm

this groove to its WI depth the lint time over-barely clean out



the bottcm with the edge of tocl, Work carefully to the extreme end of lin.e-thm STOP. No Deed lor funning the chcckin" out over ~e border ..

Now go back to the sta.rtin~ point and trace the second line in the lime manner. Keep a stiff bristle bruah. ha.ndy IJ'ld 'brush oft the dust amI rn.c:in ~ each line. Cnntinue line. a £ter line until you have re-traced the entire design in one direc:tiont then change your position, or .win I: the crad le arolllld and «trace the cross 1in~9 in exactly the IIIne m&nnfr.

The appearana! of the chec:ki nr will dOW be creatly improved dapi'te the 'Very light eu t. Brush otl the S1iL rfaee t lnd start at the Ileginninr again.. deepc ni T1 g the 1 inca fliEJul,. :Make every cut the full lencth of the Une-dont thiDk you ean no, in the middle and meD finUh later from the other side. 1 f cmlt h. Jo.,...


The than k 0 E the tool should be in prolonga don. witb the bODes of the forearm and wrist. N ever let the tool Bta rt the leat bi t to OM aide t and neve I tilt itt or it is sure tG ride up the tides of the diunon.u .. d jump over into the next line "'PDilinr a line of diamonds in the j umPinl. Keep tb c tool well out in front of yGU II t all tima, ud "sJght'" .long the lines frequently to mak.e sure they an nor lVaftring~

AfteT going {)VeT the d.eliln fou r or five times you will .find the diamonds "mOlt ,harp pointed t and if you have done your ~rk carefully t they will be quite a.r ~ven as the original cliectinl wben the gun waS new.. l' ow tue your 4"chetkin it file .. tJ which is In

Amerie:a.n Swi. threr-sqUl.re escapemen t fil e wi tb the point beat !lugh tly t 8!1 described in Chapte r 4! and using it in the IIIme manne r as the V-tool~ car-l!fully go over the lines once Of mce. hringing the diamonds up to sh~ points.

I f the 'WOOd is dry it il I lood idea to keep 8 few dropl ot lin~ oil on the brush which you use for hnuhinz off the d uat afteY u.dJ ClI e, This nat only polimea the diamonds sliptlYI but also maies ~ ~ rut .haw up nry d.i:!!ltinctly t help illK 10 prevent rurm:inl off the Ime.. WbeI1 the job • campIet~d to your ,. WJfaction~ n'tract the DUtIi nes ca.refully with the V -~ then with. the file, then emur the diamonda vigo t'Qusl.y with li IIID!d Dil on the bnab i wi poe off ~ oil with a soft cioth, then brush dry with a clean brushf and tM job is hnisbed.

Havin g successfully re-traced. the checking en a shotlUn forend. don't gt!t the mistakm idea that' yO\l are able to do ched:lO~. Reopeat on three or four more forends. by which time you will begin to h. n some understanding (Jf the poaibiU tie! and limit.tiODS of the V .. tool. Then try • shotgun bun stock in the same manner, To bold the stock in the crad le I carve out a small block of BOund wood to fit squarely apinst the recoil sboulde:n at front md of rtock, with prO'j ~iom on the wood to r~ into th e action cub... T.a.ckinl small bloch of I!. ther to this piece will ~ahle feu to Ih.pe it easi 1 y

iO it wiU not slip 0& the III:t)Ct~ 'Set one 0 f the set-.serevn QD c.Tdl~ bracket into this 'bl..x;k, and thl! ether on~ into the butt t after ha'¥mg TemOVl!!!d thle butt plate" If 'the .ock has .I recoil pant. hoUnw out I blad: 0'£ woocl to fi,t over etnter of pad~ and set the !Crew' point into !tiL

Begin on. one of the upper outl ~n9 of l'IiJ.e !P"'ip dLeckinri and {-oilOW' it 'With the. V-'rool in the SIm!!' manner as yotl jonow~d the Gnes CI1 m,e found. Tum the stock 8S you advance: the I~ so thar the tool is a.1WRYI held in apprmclmmly the ~ pO$ition~ Retrace.n the Iines one wa" then go over thE' cross linm.. Then take the otru~r side of lrip 'in the same manner, Tha lD'WC'l' curved. portion OJf piJkJl grip !s the moI,t dltEcu.lt point to, died., u io {oilowinJt tJne umequa! eont,our It iI qu-!te lay to Itt the lin~ run off I triBifl! to one lid! wbid is ndft'DUS to Ii £l»d 'mecting JODi. - 11uJ. motpm


stDcl:: i5 sel~d. fo,r belim~rl~ pracdc! b!CaIJR ~ lrip' A~ It. 'C'Ut'Ve1 and 19 easier to handle 'man a nOe stockll TIll ehllctll11 ot

Fed dose pitt,al ,~rip on a d Be is job fo'f' nfar mm. and DD· borsl'. as the IBying ~nd r,he dos!r tnl! dsilD approach.es cite ml"W'lrd, lower curve oi ,rip J the hi rde'r' it is to handl~4 1\10 reover, iii very full rounded mp Il(f~ rs fa'f more dUIl.cul ty at mi. pJint th aD one that is mo re n.'~arly fla. t on th,e sides~

HaV'ing completrtd this retracing at the pip deliln witb mOore Of" l~sutte~ r~ ~t Dn a half d'~n o~erst~. ~,t~nd n~t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ S(!IOlll!f-J'OU win have acqwred. a f,air m&at!ry ot the V-toot which will he 8 big help later ~ Som,e exeelle!ftt further praeut.;'f mal" be had if you can pera.uade your locil b,lt,dware or .portio,g: goollb d,ta] er to' II[0W you till finisJI the ch e(.kin.( en hWi c:heapeT IUDS. Thrse muaUy an! not cheeked at aU, but are merely' seo~d with shallow Ii n~3:1 an d the: appl~arance can be ~onderfull y £mp~d by an hour 'DT 80, 0 f wOIrk: wit b. the V-tool" As a. rule it is, impow1de to hurt the appearance 10 f these rtocb--and you migb t improve them som.e.'

Wfl ile dai,ng th i's reo- tracin,g c f old check ing for p rl'diee. you sbould PRpa.R!! scme scra.ps, of walnut fo" prlctice with '~e lin Npeer'l' S£lect pie~5 about the !iize (J r a sh o,tglln fo'rend~ tUld lOund th~ Dff to about the sam,,!, shape, .smd them $mj!Jlotb~ .and Ii·ve 'them a relulaf oil hoi sh, Tiley should be as well finilbtd H any dockt a.nd the oil should be pntty we 11 eured in.. In seJecting scm,s for this PUlb).ase, try to find so m e th at a re S(lft~ some that are hard; 'lOme eudr ~ SOme stfRightl' se me open gra ined, and S~ denH.. It is im-. poulble: to (lxpla~n ,on plaper j ~st how 50~ walnut handles under the wolle-this must be Iearned by e~rience" Some Wt Inut wiU pf!rnJ it' th e we Q f fin!.':! r line spacinl tllan 'oth:en--lb it aho mUll l1e ]a rn ed 'by 'e!xp!!!'riell~.

LAYING OUT CHECKING PA'1"TERN: N,ow yo.u are r.d y to staft leanling the mst stept of ch,ecldng.. Sd~ ene 0'£ tbe pil!!e!s JOO hia. VI prepa Rd~ having awry hard, dense, pm,g. 'Tape it On ro the pi~c of pine as you did the, iU-st shCltSUQ. Ianni.. Ma lk a p~"dl line down its center, Aoou~ two imcbea from. one end of this lin, p r1cli: a dot with the di vidfll' poin·tl or with III awL Measure towa. rd the nearest end 1 1/4 inches, and make another dot.. On tI'eD side of this dot" and at l"il11 t anltes 'to your een eer line ~ maR anoth'er

a-ot 1/2 inch from the second. dott Now lay a flexible Itraigbt edF't '0 r st,rip e f th in cell uloid 50 that the edre CODDeetl 0111! or til,!!, si de dots W ldl tbe tint dot you mad,e, on cenmr linfl~ and mlrk a nne with p!!ncil connecting the twc, and cIl'.ntinuillg un~i1 it runa iQl 'lll~ Ii de of the w aln uti Next COIlJlett the ,other aid!! dot with this lIIDle cente r dc!'. mel ~n tin Ue tlie ),ine until it nDl o. the other aid:~ Tbt..1C bVo lines now form an angle wbid1 will make tkc dJamcD,ds tl10 Ind on~fourth Dmt$, H long as their width.. Cbdenll ideas 'ViUl' u to what constitu tea the correct ,roportions for diat!lmuD.

6.llB elf'en m I 'In·:11 tIl,e l~h 10llt tim- ~be lVidtbll U mally the

111 most pICHi-a it or.tC~ wi U run from tvto ,md onc-~urth to three tiOlCl tb~ width~ If mad,e more nearly lIquan: th~y w]ll £aD far short of berni, ,attm,ctiy&

Hav; rut th e two, rui d'I!' 1 in~s laid :on with p~ndt, tak~ your Hni!' spacer whi'ch, cu:ts p ill2lJlel Mines ab(lu t l,8 '~ !b e in.cn j ~0Jl ttt~" to ~ a fintr $paCf: r ,n t fint. eve rg though p ii'Il.CUC~ n G: on ,am pIC'G '9 f hard



elose r.rained. weed, Hold the tool as shown in Figure 94 and we it wi eh a filing motion, the same as the VaMD,l, ad,vancin g the cut I,hour an inch Ill: each strcke, Kf~P the tCJ:oJ well our in front of

Ftt. 94

ycu. and xu nit stra,ig h t co An, bend 0 r inaccuracy in th e fi rst cut will be OOPle4 and incRMOO in subsequent cuts. The. right fore:Snltr :sho1.dd bear on the: tool with ,.'C ry 1 igh t P'['~SUR!i the left h ~d :uMing slightly 'to' the pressure on the pa,in~, but not gdiding it .. The righ t wrist and fo rearm. does the guiding.. Ad wnoe till: cut carefWlly unti~ PJU have two ve.ry. ]jrb t Unr;r r one. o,f th8J.1 (B1 t~e pencil :lUlde linc. the othe r close beside it, DON'T TRY TO ,CUT THESE LINES DEEP. TiLe Iine-spaeer is just u'hat its name im,pI les, and is, ru:lt intended for deep cu ts,

After cutting the h.i$t guide line, sw'in,g the stocL cradle nlund Ina cut the seeond q.ne ill, th e HIJm manQr! r t othcrwisc 'the pe"lIciI minc:' will be obUtcrated" Now go back to the 6nt one, and condnue C'Uttinl par'allel lin9i. Yau may work to du: ri£b,t Of' left ~£ the


fim line, as req:uiftld-both edges' ,of thil ,tool are the ~'"' Set the curtini. cede close to the I~t line:. "With Ii pt pRl!lU re in the wm:wi" move it sideways- ~ 'click~ ~ -the ed ~ :snlp.11 in toe the linel, ready to guide "tie ,next eut, Use a st-ud, nune; motien, always ad vancing .. little with Hell stl'oke, ~d using' Olmrtanl: care thaI: the guiding ed ge ,.ever- rides "I' the side of the ,cot.

At. firM you will find your liner spreading ou~ ian~lhapea, or numillg tt]g~thtr. 'You win swea:r that the to,o1 is no good, and the ty'5ttW wtJI'SC'. On 11' by practice 'can. you a(:quin thee stea.d,; CVf!fl stroke that pushes each line forward paralle'l .with the pr.«!dinl ene, Another faul t 'Will be in penni ttiml tbCl lines to curve aligh tly toward ri gilt 0 r le It., They m WJt be absol u eely :S,tI aigh t ~ :teg-ardless of the sl1apel of the 511l t'fa~ over wh leh ther i.U'"(1 OiL t, Becau.m tiler' I re' almost DO ft.,! pI aces 0,1'1 a stOCE, it is, bl!lt to leam to "NO rk -c'veT ro~nded surfaces rich,t from the start-,thell a flat III r face will be Imft child.ls play for you" Leam to at t.he Unes as, straight as a

die from ,one aide tal the other, 110' matter how rau.nded, th~ -mnacl!, ,Inti you ha\rC mutered the ~ntlals of d1eckin,g~

. ~lr9ljn!1' successfully .. cov,ered dle 8ur~ wi t~ paralld linea running ItfWg~t Ul one d 1 reetlon r f!l!l:t tut the cross lines, lta.rtinE "With the ~~r euidc line u~ady cut.. [::ut ~ry 11m!: itt full lcng,'tb withrtmt h:Etin,1' tbe loot If 'tb ey run Mit ,an yD'U and you 5f)oil the piece, ~ll! ~nd ~d the $Uri,a.ce amoo~b,. mb: iu 81Jm.e J~d on Olftd lay it pule wh1le yau try an'othir;r piece ..

Fint practice 's.hoUlo alway! he wi tit a fai r Iy ooanl! spacer-----<ut-+ ring 16 ~o 1:8 lines Fer intil~.Rd m..!bu ld a[ W,Rf,8 be On l1al'd" dm.:

W'Qod~ S[Jtt open grained w'rJod is "ery hard to' cheekl &00 some of it w'ill not chr%r ar aU wirh:out Jffuzzingt' u,p the diamonds.. The


wtlnut U!M in the D. C.. M. Sporkr stock, is 'tIDOnl the worst in this p.a rti eula r I for 'Which TC!ISOn I alwa)"J duck • ciJdinl' job on one 0 f these wb enever I can ~ Later t after you blve IDAltend the techo ique of the spacer t you can use narrewer cu tun:t spacing: the 1 lnes 20. 221 or 24 to th e inch-e-thls: on hard tlcse enined. wood on 1,. S tiek to the 16 to 18 line cutters for $Oft:er wood..

Haying successfully sp.~d off the surface both way.---wirhout .ny attempt at outlining a d.~ilPl-take the V-tool for a chance and 10 OYer the- lines to. deepen t hem, Th is will be. cary .her you r preliminaty practice on old stocks. Don't try to fini&h the diamonds up to pain tl--juflt go over them DIlCe or twice with the V ·r001 to keep JOM hand in. Then start in with the. spacer apin on another practice-piece. U Ie up the hI. rder piec:et fint, then tTJ your lm.od with the soher ones. Be sure ro keep the brush band, and. brush ~ut each line YilOroDs1y---;. nd .always use .a Ii trle oil on the bnuh. A fter you haw luteessfully spaced oiE six: or Rven pradice piecet, you may 10 back: to the V .. tool and bring up the dIamond. to altar» point& Now an d not sooner-you l~ ready" to try chec:kinl your first Ito::k.





f )

CHECKING DESIGNS: The first thine to do is to decide on the d.esign. You may copy one frem the plate. shown herein. or you may mpy the design from another gun. or you IDay make Ull I daigrl of JOur own.. - The bepnner, while admirinl some of the curred. or scroll ou t1in~! on h igh i!;radc gu ns, i! mare likely to dedd~ on I plain 14 pain t t, design for his first .tt~pt.. And therein, mo re than 1 i1:dy~ he wakes his fint mistake. The point designs. while 8pPCarini :tar mo re Iiznple, are really much. mo re dlfIiculr of execution than those ha vine rounded or curved border Ii no. Tbe reason for tbis is 'Dot hard to understand when you consi der that the wpe and size of the poi n u depends tn ti rely Oft the an Kles formed by the linet: of check·

ina:. One mil,. lar them out properly to begin - with. then the least v:uiation in spacing-and there is always sOme variaticn except with a .few ape rts 0 f long expe rience-wi ll cause th e checl:iag to take a sljRhtly different angle than was. originally planned for it. 10 that the lines do not come up parallel to the border .at the poin'tl, but C 1 ('t=F""'" iIIlIid

meft this border line at a slight angle, Thus we have a -"bastardH ~--

design lnstead of a true diaroorrd-point-and you can find them on ~""'-----;;-==-~~-IIIIIIIL""---r-~

tl.e ~t e:fiorts 0 f some of ou r Ieadi ng makers,

'When properly done tile checkinc itsdf should form the border line of the points, and when it does. not do 'SOl you may En?"" that someone has erred in his calm lations. There. an: exceptions.. 0 f course, a' w ben a des: gn must be worlted out to C01'I fo no ttl some :pccul tar stock: formation, what it is permissible to cut a border at_ ... an angle difiercnt from th2t of the ebl!:cking 1 ines, The very best English shot gu ns all have the points of the derign fanned hy the ( .... --1- ___ checkin.:r lines themselves. and a p~riect paint design thUi iom.ed.

.~ ~ ... ... W (!II MCKD4'O ."TI'IIIlN8

il the most expensiv c of all to prod uee, 1 "

N everth~l~ we have come to conside r the varioUl ClJrTCd. border id IlUDlJbJaa, to- w Web & Yf=rr little turpentine hu becn. added t traDIdesigns as the m05t ornate and repr esen ti ng the. b iJhnt quality: so .fcrtin& the dotted. Dudi DC onto the wood.

there is no objection to the beginner selecting such a deaignt ·11 be Before 1&_ out any pattern on the forcnd.1 filSI dr ... w a. center wilf do much betre r wi tn it. and be prouder ()f bis ftIlll.b.. than if liD.~ .in pmcil. ~d take. dl melSU n:menb from this line. Thm he attempted a diamond-point and failed to do it ce r red I,. t And lay on the enel pattern. if o.a.e il wd., and. t rauler the outline, iJ successful l II: js not aecessa ry r:hat he 1!"Jl1 ain all th is.. Sketch in the balance. of Ol1tline carc:Eully, ~ at all poinb

fram the center line. with 4.ivid.en. tel pt it alib on both lida. The

t:he phot~1 and lin~ d.rawings shOW.D h~r~with 8bou1~ prove hdp- ?'«kinK ahoald extend up the aides 01 forcnd to within 1/4 Dr 3/8 hi In .. ChOOSl!l' • de'lIP". or at least In gI'ItJ1g .. ~e DPl!'Hl& ch~tr ir.clt. o.f the cdp. It iI ectircl.y permiuible to work u.p a delip • StaTtJnl pOI.nt f,rom whIch to work out an 011girW. d.esagn fer him- whcnm the' ~~ .. in two sections, '~rated up the middle by ae1f I Full ~ out~ pattcma should be uieless. as the varyioC • Itraipt Dr wavy .t ribbon·· of -unchecked. wood. The Kt1P may also tbapes and+ srzrs of (11p! .and fonnds do not lend themselves.to any haw sw:b • ribbon .aeparation tbrouab the middle of tbe daip oa standard Stu or shape. Some of the end eurres, fteur-dHlI. and ncb side, and if artistically vm rked ou t they are wry attnctive. ~ sR8JXIt may be transfcrml. h own"~" and the: resul t of the d:- ¥an, &. mlU1 hq Qved. (WeI the ciai2ll of chcckinr llSCd 011 his pD~ $tiD worked. cut froJl! them. To tr~sfer a des. lilt 6~ trace. It little tlDnkinr that the ribbon was worbd in to .rate the otherfrom the page on fair I y heavy tJacmg paper: then W1 th • -111 wise lone lines, thw TNlki e.g the job much essler, and h.elplal to

paiuter·, '~OWIce whee!,,1 (.imilar to a drmsmaker~. "~n.d .. wheel· t prrvent mistalrl!8. I t"s • wise aurmoith who recopjro the limit

lrut much mJ sller) the outline on the paper .. per !orated.. This is of hiI ability I

then called the I:,pounce pattern.·' To we. lar it on the wood in I would IJtronely recommend that the bqirm.er"J first forend job cornet poaition. and rub it over with a unall wad G f cotton dipped llIoullil haw: the d1cd:inc thUi aep.ratcd up the ccatc:r II Cuttiq a

perfect liair! tram 0I1~ side c:lear across. to the other taW onel, :abili ... tiel to the UbDOIt; and while you may have hact plenty of tbia IOrt of practice on the !to. pU::o::s. remember thil ia a .stock you tre about




to work on. aDd you· can It alford to IPOil it. Kecpinl pc:rfcctly It:nUcb t even. spacing ~r-om ane side of a d~p rounded found tl the otb Cf is not a j eb to be undtrtak~o facetiously t nor "Wi thou t nu I(:h prajer :and med iUt1on.

·Havin.g; the design muked OUt carefully CD the forend. wlaicb we will tackle :fi nt.. take the cheC:=Dl1g Jile with plLnt Iliah tly beat. and go orer this outline vc-ry ca.rcfully, cuttinr it very li,htlr into thE: wCKld.. Now decide OD the shape diamMru you Want4 If ycu decide on Jil3 to I, ~I let us aay t proceed as follows-: M~uurc 0:1 1 112 inches from the end of ciCSLgO ilbd mak~ iI m.a rk 0(1 eearer line. NOW' make ·a ma rk on each side of center line at end, and Qne--half inch away from lt. Connect these points with two liDe! which will cross etch other at the CO rred Ingle to :live dilmonn 3 times u lon, .. thei:r width.

N ow decide on the width of your Iplcin~ mddn.c ute of the experience pin~ on me liClap pieces. Better not QD~rta.ke to make roo gn all di.amonds on this tint job. The p racticc won: may have led. you to have confidence in JOUrKli. but it iii best to tab! no chances. Good. 18 point clec:kior il preferable to poor 24 point diUDOncls.

CHECKING THE FOREND ~ SeIrct me line 'Pacer you PJOPOSe uIina, and start off exactly u you did 011 the .:rap., fiut ClJtting the two pide li05 f()U .1:.:": ruled D:ff~ then .in& bad: to die first 0.De and :OlinI' tile entire outliae with paral1cJ lina run-


ninl in one dir.ection. Apin-;l., "'IJ~ ."., to cut 1m. li.,1 rtk."z,.

Just. faint scratcb the first time aver j then, the other side of spacer tuD.Dlng ill this scratch as a gu Kle will deepen it, while scratcltina: lIlo(he rune:; ;aga in, the second line will be deepU1ed w hill! the third one is scratched, 50 that when the spsee is fjJl!d each lint has. reeeived twO lia"h t cuts-and this is enough.. Brush oH the dust afte reach line is cut, and 31 ways use a little Iinseed oil on the b nab. When all the lines are cut one way, start in at the accond r;uide line, and cut them all the ether way. Sbo uld you fiad the spacer riding out and "wide ;spacing·' or "aarrow 5Pac.ing~t at any time, stop immedi.a tely.. With a fiee Ale 'CI. ~fully work [Jil the linei at this paint; rub smooth with fine sand pa per, and go over and carre« the &patin g4 l' othing so ma rs a job of checking as extra or Ii dutchman" rows running pI! rt wal~ across the design" and tapering: oft into nothi ngness. They are absolurely inexcusa ble, and no selfrespeeti ng stocker would tum out a job with lhem!! e:vell if be ~ild to make a !lCW stock.. Here is another reason for making the spaOftl' Ii nes Vcfry light-mutakes may be corrected. with ou I manrially :If.. frrting the shape 0 f stock..

Start the liDes as elcse to the border line B9 p:.teib le without actually touching it wi tb heel of tool. The finish enM can be brought up clese to th e opposi te borde r line acrually touching it. i:f one is ca re full wi thcut runnm, over ~t. Then g<J back from the oth-er side and finish the first end up :against its border Iiae,

The line! having: been evenly spaced in both di rectiolLlw they are then deepened. wi rh the V-tool ~ war kin I care£ully up agaimt the border line, or rather the eutline, at each end of eut.:·· Uee the V·tool with lirht pressure, just u you d.id in ~lIcing ~ old ~~~nK: design. DQ not try to fin tah the lines to full depth In onl dIrection .Ii rst-you will 81 mply obI iten.tr: the CRill !ina. and it u imPJllible eo 'Pace: them corr-ectly niter the first Lines arc cut d.eeply.

Keep lOing over the lin~~ lint one set~ then the other. pad 'UaUy deepening both sets until the diarn()nds are near 1,. sharp. Then finish with the bent file u at ready described,

Getting in to very small comers, sbort CUtvea and angles is diftieul t with the spacer u wtll as with the V -tnel, Do Dot try to work too far in to such spac:est or' you 'Will run. ave r 1he, out! ines and spoil mil!! job. Wark in _ close II you can c:onyc~dy br tippin, the tool slightly toward its pomt, tbml mate the reat of Uns wi th the filet U there will be oaly four or me such liru:s~ and they will be veJY short .. It i. oiten best to omit this, tomer work until th~ diamonds hllY'~ been enD rely completed. Then take cate of them with the :file when touminc up ..

aaviDI checked the entire design, KO rouad the en.tin ourlizlt -with tJ.e spac~1 the iMide of tool ri~ing in the IiEht outline lint made, and the outa' teeth cutUq • .econd line. U lie the cutnr thus 011 .u Itraitht sectiODl~ ad if roll handle it well ~ CUl UM! it oa the


wider curves. Do nat try to run h amu.ad -.cry .hort ClUVn. bow~., bar usc: the point of the bent 6.le, meL IIPICC it (arefu.lly by



eye. Now d~n both these outlines wi tb the V -tool aloog .straight 8CCtiolt$ and wide CJlrvcs. On narrow 01~ use the small veinina: ebtstl mentioned in Chapter 3.. This double border 1 me mou ld be about the lame depth as the diamon-dlt and spaced the same. Fancy triple bonier lines are aut of p.lace on curved d~Jgn!l, as the: thr ee-c u t bordel tool wUI not follow the eu rves, A single outline is in iti II better tutc. but should not be attempted until you have bad conside rable experience. The double line is recommended as. being neat;. and is a help in MdiDg any small marb where the tool haa run over the fim: outlinet

Inspect .the cl1tcking cartfullYt tOllchini up the: lines at ends with the file, and deepening sligh t1y where neeessa ry. Finally t give the checkinC a £OOd scouring with stiff b rush and plenty o f linseed oil Then wipe off all the oil, brush with a. clean brush, polish up around. the edges with the hands-and there you Ire.

F'i9' 95


CHECKING THE GRIP. Now for the P;PII Select .. design to h·annoniste wi tb the forend d!.signl and if possible make pounce pattern for the end shape. T he same pattern ean be used on both sidn. of ~ip by tu rn in g the: parte m tlVf:I. Fi rst, d raw a ee n ret 1 i ne A-BJ Figure 95. follawiog the curve of the grip. Layout the proper dUtanct: to form the desired !duped diamonds on this li~, juKU you. d.id on cente r line of formd. Cut the two ruide Ii nes in the .me manner af'k r mlllrkin.l' rhe outline ·of desill1 and cu rung j r lightly.. Then fijI in lbe spacing; linea lUI before, working on both aida of ,l;Uide linea un til the apace is :6Iled.~ thea deepen thcx linn with the V -toel and finiah as before.

In laying aut a ,rip design, tile .chcdinit should nt)t 11m! too far under bDttom of 2rip~ for he~ you p!t into d i Dind tim. Y DU aIE: curtina on an inside curve here. mighty dif&cu1 t thinK to do,,and the less you h8ft of it, tbe better you will pt along.. Draw a center line OQ bottom of griP. &om rear of pard to grip t~p, .and for FfjUl' fint jDb, ~tte I let tbe checki OK .(tvp 3/8 inch rn.m this


center Iinr!1 leaving a 3/4 inch ~Il unchecked. 'W'hm the secoud

OU tlinc it cut th L. will be red ueed in wid tb to nearly 1!2 inch, wbich is .. clQie 811 the deckin;K runs 00 most hi~ grade a.rms.. One may b Ive • terrible yearning: fer checki ng all o.-er bottom of rrip--but try and do it ! Tlu:r~ is rtio cb jectian to crOS!!I ICOn ng me vip at th is p-oint. but it really is not nec:e!IS8.ry. Good sharp and ater.cove rodina: on sides is enougb ior mOlt uf US a Iter one attempl: an me bottom..

Some of the best and mc.t expensive stocks now have the cbe::king extend across the top 0 f grip bKk of the tang. This ia an excellent idea for the shooter who platCi his tbumb acress the griPI but is not nc:cessary for those who shoot wi th th umb along the sidet I f the grip is to be checked clear a0055.. plan yow dai,n wi th this in mind~ There are 'Very few cases where one can 10 plan to cut andes on each side so that the line. can be coctin ued dear Kross. I f you start from one aide aDd nm o.n ovtr to the- other I the diamonds en that aide are almost sure to tKJlnt in I different di rection. Quite likely they will run at nih! angla t.o the grip instead of the. JODI way. ~ .. ic plan iii to IOOre & very lil'h t Iine frOm em tcr of t&n.l. bad: toward anteI of comb} and work the theelinl fram ~ach sid~ '_toppinl ar thia line. Or, the design O'f each side may :ftop MOrt or the uppe r I1J r 1ac.et on w bkb a wall separale d.eDJI1 u ua::d. Th il meth~d el.iminllltel tiuI break in the line of d WnonO' at ee.o te roe zriP4

POINT DESIGNS. If you do not favor the curved DUdin~ paterna, and decide to tackle a diamond-point deailD. lint 1.y OUt JOu.r center line as described. thm loa.te the dcsimi poaitirm for the nnt two paiats an one end j space them at I1JCh a distan:ce from each tide o f tb~ center !iDe tlat w ben connected with. it they will ;rive you the desired shaped cI iu:u.onds. Now lranin&" R these pcints, eu t the fi nt




t·wo IUide lines 89 be fore. Wi th a narrow It rip of trarupa.reot eel I u- oiled arid ca re iul I,.. rub bed to a polish with the fin ge IS" taki ng cart ] oid, lay off the other points and. mark them. ligh I:ly with lead pencil. not to get too mucn oil in the ch ecking., which will fill up and gum DO NOT CT.lT THE OUTLINE OF DESIGN YET. The between the diamonds,

first two guide lines form th e outlines of the 6.rn twO points.. Pro- Wh en wo rking up a 1 ea £ desi go at the end 0 f a eh ecked area. the teed with the Spl.c:I n,l as before:w but do not work quite up to the poin ts 0 f the leaves shou Id. aJ ways run in toward the cbecllig. 0 rigpencil 011 tlines llntil you. set: where you an! :gollq: to came ell I. Any mati n II in the solid wood au tSid ~ the design. When the leans point vuiatioal in spacinl will throw the points fdrmfti later into di:ffi::rent out away from the checkin( th~ give one the impression th.at they pcaition$ and aneta than those YOli atartm with. A well desicn~d are reid y to blow 0 if aad leave the stock. bare. . The stem ends patte rn. OIl a .II i&b grm.t: Itack i. a bir help at tbi. point. fo r you can sh ould be wo r ked au I to blend and d isappear in the wood outside .. tudy it Id1d sec: bow the checker bu worked out h.is desien. Aa fUll the design.

ron tinue th e splcinE you will see where other pointe can be developed There is anoth I: r method 0 f stock nrnamen tation tha t I h I'Ve never at ends o~ deti an , and these should al wayt be in prolonp rion of the seen descn1ltd] which 1\+U q uiu populi!' for other uses SOIlle fifteen like spacinp. ehemsel 'RS. SGmetima. but not a1waya. the first two or twen Iy years a~ Th is ia called. :Pyrography I or wood burning, rui de line! w hic:h form the lint two points can be made to form the find many readers wi] I recall it u .a popul:u fad alD'Ong young I ad i~ seo:md PJlir of pomb :at the opposik end. TbiJ. will depad. ilrply on for making alove bOXl!sJ wall pjaq ues, and other l.1!IeLeas 8rticles~ the Ihlpe ud pro~rtion of the diamDftdl fOrmed. If you ClDQOt ICt which were Ulually constructed of th in wh i~ w(]od t on whir:h the the shape you wmt on du~ points by extendidl the eheckfnl Iins, aspiring artist burned pictu res of Bowerst frui ts~ GDson gir ls, Du rch thea do not hesitate to make I butard d.aip by cuttiuC the pointl III illsJ and th e like It seems B pity rna t .some really practical use for

. 181. . Pyrography was not discovered before the man u&cturers stopped

• JDU want them~ and lettIng: the checkin( m~t them at .& all~t making th; equipmmt ..

InP remember better checkers than )'Ou and I have dcne th~s Pyrograpily out61:1 are hard to lin d today ~ I bough tone th ree or

oftm. .• • fuu r years agrl fTOm • CQ'npmy located in St. Lou ist M BSUU ri, the

~ spleng lia'8 are cut~ d ee~ them WI th th~ V .. ~ol and cost as I recall it being a boo r. e igh t dollars. Wi th out a doub t a &ailb .. b: iore, then cut Q. double ?utline .11 ro.und, or 1f. dest.t;d U5e ll ttle attic. explo ri ng will b ri ng mao y an old. 01.1 tfi t 1:0 Hgh t,

the three-line border tooL You WIll have no difficulty wlth th 15 tool Tb e C'U tnt (onsi ses 0 f a p latinllm "oint or need Ie which is .b onaw ~

on straight outlines. • and is attached to a cork insulated handle so that it may be used as a

CAR V [ N G. I seldom attempt much or aa y ~I'YU1g Oil :& gu n pen in tracing the designs. Tbe handle is connected by rubber tu bini

i~; fint. because I am DOt • wood ~rverl Iln~ ~lalm to know very to.a bottle of benzine. which is supplied with air pressure by a small UttIe abou t the ,,"otk; seeond~ because 1D my OpltnOd, elabo rate ca~- band bellows or rubber bulb. To use. the point is first heated in iDr is out of place ?n any ~n. Stud y the '!Ork of the bat Eng~iIh • n alcohol to rch until whi te hoe, then P!CSSU R On the bellows feeds mDlem, and you ~ill nnd 9ItI1P1et hut he. un full y exeeured (~dUli' ttl e benzine vapo r to the point;! ma i n ta loing M incand eseent heat: .. even on guns havlnc hundreds of do-lis r.! wo rth of en gravina: on The po int is then used to trace and bum in the desi red 1 ines do~

m~ parts. Ga~d fine: ~~ni is an art in i~lf1 and so is wood or other .b:apes. t

canUla:. Thc~ 18 ~o ob jection wbateve r 10 nnlsbmr: the end. of a Flgure 96 shows a Pyrographic ou tnt complete ~ also a walnut panel ~ed:ed area wnh .11 simple ~ ll!.~f pattern, or ~rhapl. a conv~tional- with :I. number tJf background desigru that should p rove both art rae!Zed dor.a) sugceshcn: ~ ICWld.e:d you C2LD d.cvel~p th ... e skill to do It well.. ti"c and p ractieal en a Stoclc:~ The work is qui tc easy, and a ft ry Ot:b.nwige~ better I~ It alone. for poor CI. TVI nK 15 the cheapest, Rnd ] i tde practice wi II '1 uid: ly pvc the operator the back. rnahlin& him

Moddied looling thing ·on the :face of the earth, 183

If you must have a csrved stock. I wauld re;:(lmmend that you ~~:IM~~

.rudy "lim one or more of the several elementary textbocks on (UyinK. and p rSJ::t:iee. (lO pler.ty of scra~ until able to tum aut ~e-th~ you are DOt' aua.tmd of~ The hollow carving driHls made by J. B. Addis &: Sons are best for this worll and you will use uzes of 1/"· inch and smaHer almost rntinly. The chisels must be honed and Itroppcd until they will cut tbe softest w hi te pine or basswood da"GI' the grlic without fhe least bit of tearing.. Then p ract.ice makinK curved cuts with the rault1t stnigb. t cuts starti ng Darrow and shdlow and endi,nK wide and deep; practice with the l /16 and 1/32 inch round and V .. veloe rs, until you. csu cut in any di rection without teariDg or !plitrinll- Then practice sketching. desirru-always of the simplest sort-un til you can tu rn out IOm~th.ing ardaie, ret IlOt cemplicated or hard to all.

W'lten planning a carved border 011 10wu part of rrip. to r example .. the In p where the cam n:r [I to be should bt: It It .bou~ [/16 inch thicker OD both sida. Then. d~ your dua;gn on. tranafe r paper t 1ftI ke • po1;1DCe pattern of it. and transfer the pi ttern to the stock. Fint cut the QUtlin~ with • 1/16 inch V ... veioer. then deepen it as ftquired by srraiih t eu tJ wi rh 5ttajpl: or hollow cb ixlst aecordi ng to .... pe, Then with • nearly eat .hollow chjapl, eut away «he back ... rround portion. b.rmp" the rest of .np to desired. tbicD1c. ad centau.r p leavina: the portion to be carve! stand .aut in l~ n:lit f ... Carve up the lcaves, .erolIs. or "Whltn--p!r the: design contaitil. wing the willers for forminl th-e outlina, veinJ and other shad in I Uaes. DoD~t cut too manrliaa--siraplicity i. the keynote of pod caning.


ROOM th~ ed I~ .nd shape u the de!ilft I:all, lor. The ru tl mould be 110 !lDDeth that no -sandpapering; it nqui redl as this ruins :pmd carring. The places whe rc the background WII cut away. however, must he filed and sanded smoot hI and WtU ~iled before chedina:. Work the: checking up clase to th~ carving: and wb~ im~ble to .... tbe tCMlls in small corne rs, finish off witt. !rlppllng, usn&: a. N o~ 6 wood carvtrls marker. TheM can be purchased from Hamma~er & Schlemmer &. c,., New York City. Or. a small prick punch, WIth paint ali&h tly blunted, may be used., but th~ won: .will be slOlVtf by reuon of tbo! sin~le poin.t. When:6nished the ca rv~ng u.ould be well



to tum out I a-editable job~ Thus a mapzine picture at • pme

head flon1 or other d~p. can easily be cut out and made into a pou;ce pltt~n, transferred (]n to the stock. and the dtailP1 burned in. Very nn.e .. adinr of deta il is ~ible, u almott hair-ooes can be made with the p larinum point. The same pom t will mU:i£ large d.eep rcund CT oval dots which live a· splendid pip.


For pyrographic decoration the wort mwt be peried:iy dryt clean an d free uf oil, pain t ~ varnish or filler. A-y of these will rum the th indelicate poi ntt and usually bred: itl DD the work before any finishinl or polishing bas bun done. Wllm the background work il finished. take a stiif brierle brush. or better. a brass win brusb.t and brush aut ill the eh srred wood, making it IS dean and. free of d.ust as possible. Then oil over design and 1.111 but scrub ~ eil aUt of the burned areas before it d.ries..


CIf..:\PTJ;a 13


IF ALL the ma~zine aztides on this subject were assembled in~ • MnKle vol u.me it \V'Owd probably (OBtain rna re pages than thlS 'book.---tJld v.ritty would IIO~ be L tI cutlh.nd ing characteristic. Every t:imc: the I1Jn writera run out Di material they sit down 00 the typewriter ud hammer out a Nt of stock finishinl imtructioru, which .Idem vary in .any ~ntial detail from. d~1 of prnious blurbs. The gub,tance of all of tb~ seems to be that the HLondon' t uil &rush can be prod ueed (Jnly by bone-brt:akingt mLllCle renciinl labor extending through many manrhs. whh pure, unadulterated ukettleboiled n limc:ed. on as the .Ie medium. AIld WhetteY81' the fia:iJh prod uced does Dot COJm! up to expect;Itiom. the 'Dimer invariably blame. the oiL

nere~1 plenty cf absolutely pure rlW linRtd. oil 011 the mlrkctand by limeed, I n:fer to the natu rat oil pressed from tlax leeds. and not sduleerated with cotton-seed Dill or :fiab oil, .ru for .. lkettlcboUcdi" oiL th.r's a hone of another colorw

The Arch~r .. DanieIs-Midland Company of Minneapoli~ mes the followinl statement: et As fo r boiled oil, we do nM believe the re i! anyoae ~lling the kind. af boiled oU JOY detaibe _de in a kettle over .. fire, • ruc::h a product would. be of so dark a. color that paint manufacru ~rI and paintus wauld not \lie itl Our boiled. Gil. however t is bn.t treated and the proper amount of mitab 1« dIJlng compolllldt mcal'p{Jrated into the oil to pvt the desired. dryLol time. Boiled ail coolted in.a kettle 'Over • fire will dry • I itt1~ Euter than raw: oil. but will not Utilfy the pUnt trade which requira III oil dtJinl in from 12 to 18 hours; wbereu R:'W oil dries in from 72 ttl BO houn.. tt

I WU 8CI impraaed 'W"ith 1;Ite: iranbJe. of the·above concera In statin, 1hQ' did not have what I ....-:nted, imta.d of tl'Jinl to len mf:l "hat they had. mel evade the question; that I trsted their raw oil


thorou&hly. and d.:c:ided thl.t It ..... the bat &VIiI.1tle ~or pmtcek work. Thcr guarantee it to be abmlutelr pure. and its pel fonauc:e indicate's that this It tru-e. A .. D-M nil u .. ud rnA .md by many paint =-no.fa.ctureflt jobben. ptd cletden, and em. be obtained with· u u t di Dicu] t)l if yoQ u ilusia;t uu ill



I also decided I in view 0 f tbei r cxpIlD1 t.ioD~ to qu it wo rrying about U kettle-boiled n on and use th~ir ngubr prepared boiled oil for better or we rse, And it hu pro.en "all to tht: (COd. t. Li !harge is the principal dryer wed In tb ig oil, which cannot be considered objecdonablf in view of the following. quoted frem U. S. Army specifications No. J--.14-2t dated &I ... rch 24t 1927:: .[·V ~ DETAIL RE .. Q UIREMENTS.. &iled lin!lftd oil shall be pure Iinseed oil that bas b~n treated ( preferably by bc:a tin g-kettle-boiltd ) with CDm .. I)OUDda of lead, and at the option. of the manufacturer with suitable col11paunda of ether dryin i metab~ !Q as to produce a product that will dry rapidly. It shall be cie&r, free from. sedtment! and shall meet the following requirement! :--'~ (This is fnllowed by technical IpeciDcations of no interest or value to the stod:: finiuer.)

A compariJon of the &b.on- with the lll.Uu:Eactun:r"s thtemmt previowl y quoted, ind]wCI that this c.omplJl}' _ it produciniI .. 011 which is in ka-ping with pyemment requilewe:n~ and :furthcrj that the gov~ mmen t finds this proceued boiled oa suitable in all r~e~tI.

Be that IS it may, the subject of boiled oil doesn't worry me very much for I UN migh t'1 (j rtle 0 f it. Pure raw linseed oiJ will do ( for' mt, • t le~t) uythinC- that boned. on will do--and it will do it better, It is more penetratiag, lOin, dreper ioto, the weed, hence a bette r preserva tive, La it be known. however I that dcspi« pop". lar belie-f, linseed oil iii not a ~~rp roof finish; and the b igb.tr the polish gi vrn an oil finishll the mo re lUJCepb"le it is te spots Irom r&ind lOps 0 r water splashed on it. 11:5 chief value lies in the fact that It will not th ip or crack [j-ff like \"arn..ieb. leavine: the WDod totally unprotected j .and when th e stock is thorou gh I v impregnated t the absorption 0 f moistllrt in damp climate! will be reduce d to a minimum.

N OW let it be known that I do not confine my~lf to the use of linseed oil ad lJ5i vely in the finisbinl of stocka. Call it heresy e r what you wi 11, I use, as occasioa dlCDand!t raw orr. lmiIed oil, va taLe, abell_c, and cup i1 e.e In·d ill a pinclt I un. prod u:e & pd ~~ on 6nish" with Boor ~mish and axk grease 1 Now th at the bullets of the horror Itricken erano have all lattl!Jled and rieochetted ElIIGm my tourh bide let~1 .co OD ..

Va m lsh il nOrnilJK on ea ftb bllt boiled linseed oil I pl w a little turpenrint, and perb IPS other d ryerst and a libc:r:al quanti tf ol copaI, qu.r. 0 r Dtbr:r hard minI' "ltrcL It it applied to the surface of waocl. and dora not penet r&h. to amount to anything. 1 t ptelCrveI Goly while t~c cea tinE is inlact-rlot brokr:n or scratched. on I.lOll~ on the om e r hand t Binb below the surface of the wood, IU1d the protective 001 tin, it fornu is • part: of the wood itself. Oil Jinishina:


man ReI. the character of the 1U rface of a piece of wood, wi moat actu.ny formi ng an ad eli tibn al coating. Therefore} if a means 15 foun d fo r unng vaTTlish !O tha 1 it functions 'Wi drIft the :6bres of t be wood in .. stead of forming an eute r eoaei n g:~ such a m~t h ad wi 11 p rove val u able in many ra ses as will be explained I a rer,

For tb ere is no set rule w he fe-by all stoeb may be finished t ... j more tl1an there is a set:: ruI ~ lor trea tin It all diseases, Some will rc:spond better to one t reatmen t, ;111 d same anorher. It i.s up to the stock fin isher to study h l:!i wood, and em p10y the finish rb ill: wi It prod Ute best resul ts in the 1 fad: time~

V e ry hard t den 9C, cl ose-g rai ned wood need s .it fin lsh rh at penet rates well i so ftt open-grained wood requi res a method 0: f stop pi n lit penetration when the 0; I has gone deep enough, Map 1~ ... '-pp le, H i~ko ry t and Cherry belo ng in the Ii rst class, aI~ng with tne better ftrades of Walnut; while the softer Walnut. Koaoj Mahogany t Oak. and perhaps othe"t be- lone in th e secen d' elass, The w hi It: 0 r very I iah t colored 'Mi"Ood!i such as Maple an d A~ple must be stai ned 1'0 .rive th em the much desired dirk: color. Walnut~ Maho~anrt and the darm woods will d arh., su ffi(ien tI y ( en tin! y too much tin so me cases) from the oil alone.. Somet [meg Walnu·t becomes roo browniah, and lOm~tim~ too mid ish. All these th in IS must be taken in to considt ration by the fin i-shrt ~ -all d ~.orm:ri~ Illtlsu res a~plied ..

Somcti mes. morecn'er. the Ii nish that wiU prod uce the deg r-e:d color tone wfJ I have the ef'ect of hid: ing much 0 f the brauty of the IIfain. Any finish that d-oes not inerease and develop the n s. tu Tal bta uti' of ru n: wtM1 hri inellidrD II QuI tl!: 01 t'=II II. e1Q:C' u f W .111 uL LlJal "p'pt:;In mediocre ill the hIan k:, mly, by prope r finithinl, ~evelop un-d r~d of beauty of pdn~

The' eIHII tial stcPl in prod ucinr III Gil 'flnish on 8 _ock, In! (t) prepal'1lvon of the 'Wood; (2) atainin," (if ntceaary) : (3 ) pcnEt ra .. ml oiling for ~lof tone An d 'to prClene the wood ~ ( 4-) Jto;p"i" s


penetra ti on wh en it has P roceeded I a r enOu gh; and (5 ) oil i ng for pol ish and deve 10 p men t 0 f nat ural hea u ty •

PREPARI:iG THE STOCK FOR OILING .. Let us assume we Ire working on a new srock, which hat ~en shaped up and san ded (with No. 1 sa nd pape r) $uffici~nt I y to remove all :Gle ma rD. TIe purp~Sie of the present eperarlon is to make it al smooth as it can be mad e, i nd at t he ~Ille time open the: pores to recei ve the oil.

The No. 1 san d paper wi eh \l' h lch it has bee n smoathm up has 1 e ft its own rna tnt and the: pressu rc. 0 f the rubbi 11 g h as mashed in to the pore; the Ii n~ s livers or ~ 'wh i~keTS It wL ic:h wilt blo~k the oil Ind de I ay pcne.t ration if not rem oved, The brgi n ner will be in ell ned 10 ,Urt in all d d ry·sa n d pa per t h~ stock as smooth as ~~ible now.. But iii mome nt's though t wi II show th It the steck may he '-Whiskered·· at the lime ti m tit' is smo()thed up t th·e~by Slvin g much time ..

Wi th a spOn ge c r wet f a( KC over the su rface and wet it tho r .. ouP1y. then dry oR lightly with another r.l£. Immedlately, hold the

IItock close to a gu bu mer or tJM~r source of quick beat, movi 01 and tumi~1 II I bou I:~ dryi n g: it wi thin a minute or so. Keep the stock dOlI: to th e heat so th at the wa~ r is turned in to steam rapidly II and in acapi 1111" it push ~5 out the w h isle rs futthc r th In j f dried mere dow Iy. Keep it movi ~ g slowly to avoi d scorching-tncl be pi rri.eutar ly care ful () f the th in roge1l at ba rrl:l ch anne 1 and. acti-on mortieu.

I!s soon as dry t ~ over it care full y and Ii, /:II IJ with No. 0 san dpaptr~ or ptcfeTably garnet paper. Heavy rubbing will mash t-he wb iskers back j n to. the pOI es instead or cu tting them oR.

Now exami ne the sur face u nder I good Ii gh t i if the coa rser sandpaper hu lftt lef. tehes that ShOVl, go OVI! r them with rhe N 0_ 0 un til they _ re el im ina red, and the su rface ve IT am ooth at .11 points. Don 1 t we a sand pap~ r block ~ but: f~ d a 11 ua rter sh~t for cOOVlEn ience in handlinr. and hold in thumb and fingertips. DO JLL 8AltiDING IN LINE WITH THE GR1IIN FROM THIS POINT ON .. ex~t aroun.d the cu rve of me griPt wh ich curve may M followed, as the sid ~ 0 f grip will be cove red with c.h ecki ng and sligh t sera tchea here will not matter.

H. ving removed: all eoa rse sa n d p:=I pe r In a rh, n~ the wet ling and d or in, and a and in g W l th N o. 0, un til the whiskers will no tanfter raise when stock is ~ tt ed and dried, U ~ plen ty of san dpape r---d lsClrdi ng it wI. en • t sho'WS wea r t so ., to keep cu Hi ng the wh is"ken off in!ttad 0 f m ash in g the m in. WIlen no mOrl!!! _ill ral5er take sCJme W!! II-worn :98 nd pape r and polish the wood as slick and smooth as p!lSlib le.. Good hard wood ,,·ill !.ak~ :I 'Sort of poli~h u nne r th is t teat .. .men t t and th is ~ II dry shine·' greatly imp roves t n! fin al n niah. N ow I having t~ stock. as SDlooth as you can make; it, and, .all whiskers 1'emoved, 'Wet and dry it on C'e rno re to e,;: p~ 1 the d Ult f ~om tl. e pp.I1!! Ihld OPtn t h ~m up. Th j s compl cfet th '! P repa til tion 0 I a new ItOCk fe, oiling.

OLD STOCKS to b~ -refinished mu.st be deaned oH down to the bare wood. DOrl tt: attempt 10 t~mo\te 'Varnish wit 11 san d pa peT as you II never get ita 11 0 if.. an d the: Ana 1 finish will be st rea~ed. Mak:i! a boiling hot lye solution-abotlt a ~eap]n~ tabt~poon of lye 1:0 • half gallon of wate r t and hold ina: the stock aboy~ i t ~ sp I~ and lCOur with a Ie rubbi r.I g b rn s b un dl th e va misr. is d i.ol ~d and wuhed oJ!. Rintt: in clean WI rm water and dry, then proceed -same RI WI tb I. n~ stoclr. Th is tl"eatm~nr ~mQV~! all th e: D I ~ fillt:r and ltl~ the wood ba reo I t will appear quite da ri: wh.ile wet with the I~ !!iolutiant but afteT rinsin~ ·and dry~ne: wHI have im natural col'Or ..

This same t rc.atmen t shGU ld be 3 pplied to o(d se nice stoeb, wh im hive: beet1 p arti a 11 y temode I~d. 0 r to D, C. M. S pOrter atocks I ft::et trimrning dow~, to remove as much of thee old ail as popible---other~, $U bttt} UM t (I i1 in g ()pe ra tiona will reau l tin I lpotted finish.

ST AI NIN G : To darken maple .or other light colored smd very dDSe rrained wood, the CDmm~ rcial stains 'krown as uadd'" starn. are bett. Both Joh~n 's Wood Dye and Ad .. EI-I1e stains .re ace11mt


for this pul'pClR'. U SoC! ~~w a 1 n ut·~ or 'Ild.a.bopn yJJ or ~ ~W catbered M issit)n Oakt lor any othc r colo r desi red.. G!nerally I find that a mixtu re cf twO pa Its of ~ ~Waln ut til .nd one part U Li gjl t: Mab.oe:anyn civet the best cclor for stotks" Apply the stain with • bruth Dr sponi~ to th I! ha re wood; let dry hal f an hour t then rub with dean dry cloth. If the tolar i:l nct dark enough a second coat may b~ applim.+

Beware 0 f sra t n ~ on w:a! nut I U nlesa the colar ia V~ ry Ugh t in .. deedt the (JiUng may be re~ulatcd to rive the desired color torle. If



stain must be used t first o.pply a coot e ~ linseed 'Oil, let soak. in for an hall r ~ wipe oft and dry rh fa: 0 r four days. The n app ly the stain and the grain wi II not be hidd en as it is with 'Btain appl ie d clirectly to dry waIn ut,

Old time gunsmirhs sometimes darkened maple stocb by appli-c2.tions of aqua to r t is nr ammon ia ; SO metimes th e.y wrapped the: srock with a p Ieee of tarred st rin g wound spi rail y, then hu rned off the s t ring, vr h ich see rche d in a so rt 0 f ", tid dleback t t effect. Some 0 f tbeir ~tccks were va rn ished, an d some w·e re hand rub bed wi rh soot a.rui oil. which further darkened the color.

Sometime~ a backwoods gunsmith would j,(flgure1t.3. ;t.oek by Iaping on a. train of gun pow de r .and bu rnlng it off. I once tried this 0.0 a li gh t colo red wal nut $tCM:k:. with fai t results, but the color, as pro .. duced with black powder, was very shallow, and much of it disappeared under the oili njl. I tried math er pi eee using a slow bu min I smokeless powder wi t h bet ter resulb. But whU~ such mcth cds of artificial gra·ining may ·fooi some, th~ never fool me nwner of the run-so wb y bo ther ? Se leet th e r i gh t kind of wo.od. for you r st-od and you won't need to sill ge cu r leycurs on i r l

The \l5C af any p igmcnts or so lid coloring matre r should be a voided $0 fu as pOS5ible~ pa rtirular lyon walnut.. TaU. is. tile reason stai ns Ire not very aucc:ess ful-tbey cola r the ligb t spots and the med ulla ty rays all the I8nle shade, and h j de the gl'ain. The real brauty 0 f waJ n ut j s in i rs cont rastin go colors, and rh ese a re b rou gh t ou r 1:0 best advan r:ali!:r:: ""'. i th t ranspa ren t lli1~ con t ai ning no solid pigments ..

PENETRATIVE OR FIRST OILING. The purpose of this ope ra bon is to d rive into the woodl as deeply WI passm let an oil which will afterwa rd oxid ize slowly and bind the ou ter fibe n o f t:l1 e wood firmly together, while partially sea1ing the pores, For this ;ttl rpose there is nothing bette r---nor hal f IS good-u pu re, raw linfeed oLl. Warm the stock: slowly before a fir~ lor a hal' hour, until it ia quite bot a and al5iO warm the oil until it is just il bit uneornfo rtable to hand I eo. I f the wood is v.eTY close-fTai ned t th in the oil wi t h 1 part pure tu rpen ririe to 3 part! oil-e-oehe rwise 0 rni I th e tu rptntine. Apply the oil libcr ally wi th a rae: sw ab on a. :!It itkl both i naide and outside, and on the: butt end. Rub with the S'W2.b while applyio.g. and keep the stock: warm while applyina:. Stant! it on end in a pan and let- it drain, turning: it end for end and applying more



oil every few minutes fo r In hour or IiO. N Ow let the stock al-one I 0011 't apply my !nO Ie ail I and don t t do anoth tr tbing- ro it b lit tu [0 it occlsionalIy for at least • week; and if you l.re not ill too Ileat a btl rry. two or three weeks will be bette r still.

Timl is the ben stock :finisher in the war ld; .and j f yOll keep on. applyi ng oil before th i! fi~t coat is completely oxidized. by the air. ~u 11 hav~ to do abou t do" ble tht ·.;mou nt of war k aetually neeelSaryT[)Q much oilt or too rapid applic:abcnl is WOlte than none at all.. The thoroug:h and CC1m pJete drying 0 f this n.rH coattn.g is me secret of a perfect finish.

A mmewhat b~t~r met'hlld1 but practi.c~1 only in shops doina conaide rable 8tock work ~ is to use a sheet j Mn tank like Fip re 91. !II Igh fly 1 arg~ r OV~T ~ than the stock ~ and five 0 r six inch~ deep.


• I

~ .

_- ... ------J..--~--------------J

~~- ,~


Ii. 97

A gallon or 50 of oil will be sufti:ientJ u the stock: will d isplsce a lot 0' itt and you only need enough oil to cover the stad::. The tank may bP: tape~d roward. one end as mown to reluCt! its capacity t and seams sh auld he Wfl ded t not 8CJldered.

Warm u.e stock. thoroudlly. and h~at till: ttnk: Q f oil over sl'Ove or gas burners, but do not let it boil. When the noel:. is well heated through. put i r in th r: hot oil. tu rn oil tbt: hllTIJt:lSl and 1~ we the _rock un til th C oi1 bas cooled to th-e tern pe ra tu Ie 0 I th~ sh(Jp. R-emovc stock: and Sblnd Up to d rain, I ~aving it as long as possible-four days at I~aat. Compl~te drying will take place quic:hr when the oa is, applied in tbu manne r.

STOPPING PENE:TRATION OF OIL. "The first I.ppIic2.non shoul d have pcnetra ted from 1/16 inch to 3/15 ioch below the .l1Jrface of tbe stock.. I f wood it very soft and spongy this p~netl'lcion may 10 on ind din i tely, re!sw tin&:: in an oi] soaked stock which


will .oev~ r tau I COG<! finish t and which WlU ooze oil under the ched1nK tools. makiDg clean sharp diamonds impoaihlr!. Tbl!: aert 'tIP, therefor!t is to stop furtbe r penetration. 110 t bar I\Ibsequent oilmp will build up in the ou [C r pores, prod utinl a finish.

Theft are leVeraL WAY' of coinl' this.. If the wood iB very 'IOftt with larrr: ~M I»~ apply a ~at of the foUowing mixture with a small wad of doth ~

BoUed LlrI .. dI 011 t t • • • .. •• • ..

Wbite Sb.tJao DD:t In A.lcIGb.dl n .. .. .. .. • ... ,.., ...

I!D&r V~.b. ... .. 4 ... I • • • • • .. • • • .. .. • .. • • • • ••• :I .a&

v leI TuJ:'pn.tlu 4 _ H • _ d •• 1.1 dPOptl

CHI ~ lA.vea .•.• ~ •.•. A.~.~ ...........• +II ~

0:11 Salubll Red. 111 III •• +. •• ..: ~ CIOIor



the stock un til dry each time. And at the end cf each trip to fARge or w~ rub in half teallloon ful of oil--pre ftIably raw-witb the handa ..

The coating of· oil thar wlS allowed to dry on the surface completely £lIed the por~ of the wood Ievel wi ill the 1\1 rfaee, SOlD!


Oil soluble n:d il • dark reddish black: powder .sold by larp drug

stores and ~hemital b~ it.it.the lime mlHriaI ued to rolor :finishers follow the pumice rubbing- w;th powdered rott~-stone .. using motor i?'~n.e by oomp;lnle, W.lshl~K ~ ~ three centl pe! callen a rubbin&: sticl:: (Figure 98) a.bout a foot long with a p.ece o~ heavy more for thel~ product, A ~uanb.ty. at thll p?wd!r the me. ~f a leatbcI dlJ;ed OR one side. The rol:'t:en stone is sprlnk.Jed on tbl: m.a tch head wdJ colo r I hal f Plot c£ 001 0 r any oil mo:ture a brilliaar leathe r and the stick used like a. tile., alOldy acton th I! grain. B'I red, TIl is red in a ,tock fini:sb merel y imparts & ricb 1l1aw to the thil ~th(Jd the rotten stone helps to fill the po rcs~ but may we rk

w~ wi thou tactually I.tli ning it red. .I t may be omi tted if desi r~d lout in time. .

Or .& f the wClOd has • pronounced reddiah CiU~ 1.UC: alcanet root. In- Checking should net be done W1tU all the eilin g ha! been finIshed, w;ad. 1?tis urua}Jy com~ U I vile ~elling .. pew-du, and lhould be pnvided time pennits.. I t may I however. be done when only the In lxed. With the Linseed 0'11 befo Ie 0tl:'er mgrecbents an: added. W. rm last two or three oilinzs remain ~ if the IUD is needed aa 1000 u paso. the all. and let the powd er remsan for twO or tb ree hOWl, thm lillie. Afret checking treat the stOck to one me re oilinL well rubbeli

rtraln. • •.. in· by liand" and whCJ;l the oil haa stood in the checked secriom !or

Verucc turpentine IS a thick iubstance harder to pour than molaues IJl hour rub it cut well witb I stiff bristle broth to prevent &IJ!llmln~.

~ wi~ ter t Violin maken ad d. i t t~ ~arnish to p rev~l1t cra.c.k:inr: . I t in the d~u.mond& •

19 ad ylub le t.ll ~ a few drops oj It ld any· itock rmxture mil hilling Thll! foterainr ~ !Dr pet method. for prod uclng a hi ,b p'.de

VlI1Ilsb and.. It also hd.,. to seal the pores D f the wood. fintah when there is time for it. It involves all t(]ld four to SIX wecb,

This mixture . quietly dab ill and p~trat~, ~nci I ~uld be al- yet the CNallabar time will Dot total more ~ two or tb. tee boun. lowed to set 24 bouts before ally further nni.eh l.t applIed. Some It it the euieat and best method I bow of. Yet the time COIISumed stoclers muely coat the stock wirh thin .mellac Ilfrer the firll: pnventl itl ~ ~J tlDlfS, when a man wantJ hi. aun within •

oiliDKIL and this is a desirable practice on extremely Ctpen K.nUncd wed: or:109 193

wood. 'When it d Ties. it shcu ld all be ligh tly waded from the surface before you proceed with the 'Oiline:.

Hard ~ elese-grained wood with small pares may be .sealed wilb this mixture:


For 8 .pedy job" and a very &DOd ODe at that, procu:d as folloW):

First oilial' lime at with previous proce.; then apply .one coat of natural wcxd Eller, thinned wi th tu.rp.entiru:: to ronsi!llmq of rhin CJ'dID: let this dry an hour t then rub. of with burlap z let stand ti It

naT Lln 4 ou 4 • • • I I •• j' D.mt next day,. then applr one: coat of raw ail, rubbed ill vigo raM1y WE rh

~~.,::::::::: ·:: :::.· .. ·:t·: :: .. : '::. 1 --::. blre hands.. Wipe off next day, and a.pply spar vamisht and bOlltd

Venlce ~entlDe ••••...• ~ •••. - • • • .• • • .10 d.roP' oil. bllf 1Iftd half. This should iFllm in 12 heurs, and be wel1 gumm.ed

011 &Jubt. -ned + + 1 pajA, • ~ .-

t omit. If de .. ln4, or .ahatltutt .I.l.~ I'OC t) in 24 heurs, Th!n grlnd rJf wir:h pumice and cup RTt&se u befe re

W the L slj l.. I d pi boo" ·th b desc:ibed. Su"batqUtflt oiling! with law or boiled. oil may be applied

arm _ stDc~ t ~ an a~ y a. v~ miXture 'W1 a ",a II u t:ime permit1~

~n~ over: Not~ tune :requl(cd~ fur It tu IW&: Ill. If t11L~ wuud .. ~rb~.. A job may also be speeded up by alternate applications of Formula

Ir nnmcdJa~~lf, It .may be nfewa.ry ~o .use the firBt ~rm.ula C1ven. No. I and boiled linseed oil applied a d.y apart.

I f ~ lot of It rem.a.Lns.oD the surface, it 11 probably (OlO.i: to be O.K. \Vbco & ttock h. bad two or three ollings, and it becomes neees-

Th IS should be pernu ned to dry for two or tb r~e da.ys. . sa ry to mmplete th~ nniM It once, rub OD a coat 0 E. pUR spar va rn ish

OILING FOR FI NAL FIN ISH J With the pores below ~e mth a rae. the oil at rady In the v,'lJod will preven r its hard~nlng., su rface ~ re ttr wellsealed, we aut ~ ex~ resullJ f~m our WOl~ but it .. ill gum quickly and in eigh t to twelve bou rR be abou e as hard from this pO.lIlt" I prefer to. \lIC ~ltber Itntgbt raw oll.11 or red 011 II. well dried coat o:f oil. Grind it ~ff witb pumi~, polish with { p~ Ie ra w linseed ~lored With + oil soluble red) attoCdlDa to cal~r rotten Itoae on the rubbinC ·,tic:l:t then polish wi tb Formula No. I deu red, Apply a ugh t coat wIth a unall ".I' or swab. lnd let It on. mE. Uling it j \lit aI you WQuld furnituce polish. CtlDclude W l th 5t.a.nd for. an bOUT. Then rub brisk~y with 'palm of b~ for. len or • brisk. band rub with a few drops of boiled oil ..

5 ftt:(:n m.utu~ Set t!tc ~tocl: up With .. than c:oa t of oil on lurface. Sometimat ",hm ,tocb are; very soft, I :find. the follO'wing p roc~-

but not run~lni c r d npplng. ~ dUR dnirable: Coat with boiled oil and let stan d nntil oil begins

Repeat this tre:l'bnm t at 12 to 24 bOil r ~t."al~rf 12 boues to let; then delay actting by rubbing tn hard cup g1U!t:t Wipe ~f the l\lrf~c:e looks dull. OJ; every 24 houn If tbe 011 IaDalDS on lUI· oft.try in 12 houn ~ and apply boiled oilt and repta.t process tw-o or face tha t lon~ A f~r fou r cr five auch tn!.t[l1.entl. dlow the I~ three timtL

to atand ior & couple·!of daJ-It ,ben apply IJlOtber mat of ra,., 011 When an oil fin.ish hat been C'CmpIe~dl it is always improved by ft

192 light fXat of cup Kruse rubbed all ovel' it. This grease should b~

(or boiled oil if YOLI want to hUrry the jab) I Kt the .tock .awa,. and wiped afi ad stoc:k rubbed wid:. tbe bare hand before uai ni the iUn. farpt it. I;n th ree [)r four clap mil 1ut coat thould be budmed ID refiniahinll old stocb urel.dy cb ecked II eJ(1I!! tcise due care [0 p feand pmmcd over the surface-about like a coat Df .,..miah~ rouPl, vent tbe oil running intc the chl:Cked ptlrtiollS and gumming r:here. applied. would ,,-ppear.. Afttr each oi.linrt ICrub out the checking with a Itiff brush to r~move

With • small wad of rap or WlSt~ coat the .tock with hard au. !l-urplua oil~ and • .ftu the jDb 111 completed.. n: trau all t be ch eck.i ng mobile cup greaae; a.prinkle sparin,ly with powdered pumice and with the V too~ then oil ligh tIy and brush ou t clean.

"our off all the /wr4en.,. coa' of ail. Grind it richt dawn to the The time honored method of flnishing a srock. by 10 to 50 COats (if bare wnod~u ca.ntt bun chI! finish. Then rub ,nth tbe ban oil laboriously rubbed in by billKl often pto-duces i. nne finish -; too h and. You now bavc .. fi nc I! finish than any fa.ctG-rr evcr turocd out. Qif[en, he w ey'e f. il n:iul t!i hI bujldi llg up K.[} UlJ l~ 1" !!Jlin ur l:ua r~ Il g and tht gun is lead y to use if you want ~ al ttiouih the finiab. is much like • COI.t of v.amilh t which show! finger prin ta, and w h Ie h .till • U ttle '~grem.~' and had. best be allowed to d.ry .. tew days yet.. will lOme times be seriously damaged by a h~avy Tam or by immersion. T.de it up whenever you kd lila: it .and hand rub for a D:vt roD- And in many cues it resWf8 in the wood a~rbing ~ much oil th at men ts--uw.£ a Ii ttlc cup gRase OD the handa "'''ill .aho help t but rab much of the (lllin is hidden and tbe wood is tu rnr:.d. :tlmasr bIle(- ..


'There is no aaon. tradi tiona! 0 r othetwise.. for a. black or Rty dark: .tod:. A rich deep brewn, with perhaps a dilbt reddish aut t .,..ith th e dark and light portion. showinl in pieuing contrut is. to my m.ind. the most beatl tiful .toek of alL If JOU want it bla~ ,au can

• •

p:aLQl it ..

VARNISHING STOCKS.. SCPle ptople think that the only way to finiah • stor:t in • hurry it to vlrm.b it. Penoaally, I -lee 110


excuse for a .... rnish finish in any C3Set since I can. by one {J r ()t II U of the: methods above deseribed, tum out an oil jab about as quickl,. u a good varaisb j obi if Ipet!d is needed ..

N evertheless, VI rnish is the thing: en lOme woods other thao wain ut I and since it is 00::: a sio nall y prefer red for wain u l by som e, a few lema rb en varnish inc: arc in order I-

Ant t the sto~k has been . sanded and I 'whiskcttd, u Ii.! fo r ailia'l mix up some nltu ral (llnaJlored) wood 6lhr with 5J)i rita turpen tine until me conmsteDCY of thin cream, Apply with a stifi paint brush and let dry fo r an hour, Then take a piece of coarse c:loth such as bu r liP, and rub off across the grain,

An easy way to hold a stock while working on it ill to have • tapered stick: righ I: or ten inches long which will rest easily in. the bar rel ch all ael, T tarn th e steek "Sid ew~ys and clamp th~ iorend ip vi set using it vise block. or lei t or leather pad to p muct the bottom. lurfa.crl Now yo u can use your rag aero&! the &rain lik! shining a shoe, Anothe r good way is to hold the 9tock in the cneckllli cradle I as described and ill uat rated in the cbapter en Checking ..

After rub biD!' aft the fiUer t let' stand till nut day. tlxD i:o over liEhtll' with very :Une sandpaper. Wipe 0& carefully with a dean rq~ and be sure ehere art: no pi rticla: of grit or dust on the surfaa. Get 1./4 pint of bard rub bing varni$h and 1/4 pint of good spar VI rnish ( V aJspa i is gnod; abo d u Pont's spar varnish):. mix the two and pour out about a f~ur1 h of tha mixturc~ to which add aD. ounce of turpentine. Apply til is- to the stock quiclJy with li:a:ht, long stroUs. win I:" brush fai rly full but nat drippinl'. and Ir ft~w iDII~ the varniM. with. • minim um of brushing. An CXCCII· a f varnish wal run. causin, thick places in the liniah-tb.U must M • vo.it'd. Let dry until absolutf:Iy hard. Test by pmtiag hard with the thmnbif i r shOW's :I, 4 ~tb. umb prin tit that won "t rub off:. it un It hard eno.

When well hardened, take a tbid: piece 0'1 felt (Dbtaif.lablc: at pain t sto res) I dip it in to w ater, IPrinkl! with p:rwdered pum ice, and :scour the varnish down tel a smooth even snrface. Be care ful not eo gt ind clea r th TOUgh.. but grind. off all the "pimples, t.. of whic h there will be plentr, unless. you have a dWitproof fOGm in whicm to do _ you r varnish in g. W'hen surface ig smooth u pouib Je, tpOnp oil with clean watct"t wipe dry, and let stand for an hour or so. Then tlb the ronainder of the I varnish to which no turpentine was ad.ded. Mix in j Wit a ftw d reps of V eniee tu"'ctltine~ and apply a smooth even c~at. This shouI d dry for two or thr~ d If! at lea;t. after which it should be K:IQuitd. as before witb pumice stone and water; let stand a day I pOli5h with rotten stone and Ugb t on DI1 teh:. Subscquen t coats mar he added H desi red t btlt will only thicte:o the va rnish~ maklng it mote liable m cnu:k"+

Some paintr:rs prefer to usc shellac instead of :6llert hut it teudt to m.a.ke- a more brittle outer enat, and rnO:rM\'tl"'t requ.iree more nruish for a m1O()th finish than when recullr filler ia: used ..


If cemme rcial filler II not available a good me can be made as follows:

Pt:Iw4&:r-cd pum lee 01' 1tUa.rts • ~ • . 1 -.n

JI'1na 'Wheat :fIo.1I1' ~ • 4 1 p&J't

Mix to a stii paste with boiled liQfted oil, color. wi th alcan~t root, TaW urn ber. or any plgm~nts avaUable to make at dark; thtn for use wi til tu rpen tine as needed.. Common pu try can also be ~ ducrd with turpc:n nne: and u~d {or filler in a pincll" but it will be improv~ by die :addition (] f a small amount of boiled oil and Le Pa~1 s &:;1 ue.

Always use a dark 0010 red fill er an a. stock that is tQ be varnishedt and I w bi te .fi] ler IN hen srflCk is to be oiled. The oilinil will darlr-en the fiUe: r ~ but the varnish win not.

Cherl"J* Maplet Apple, ·and other dense woocb, or wO?ds f:hat ha.e been stained should receive one Of rnere coats of varnIsh wlth'(lut any :filler. Tht varnish. should aD be gmu nd 0:11 the surfacet leaving it onl y in the pores~ Then a third coat mar be appUbl and



:rround dow n lICIY th i 0 I aJtc r w hich such wood! w ill take a ni ee naish with boiled or tl.W oil

M.a ~ogany and similar Open grained wood, soak. up so much oil that i I is almost implSSible to complete the job ~ . Tbe M: tter plan is m use nile r sod varnish. applyi ng seve ra l coats and gri ruling eac h. coat down thin; alter which apply Formula No. 11 using it lib: fu rni tu re pelish, Mahogany and oal:: are abeu t the two meanest wuod S to check that I knnw of.

Once in a while one can get hold of a piece of African Roseweod, and it makes one 0 E the rmst beau riful stocks irnagi nab le, a lrhough too showy fa r some peop1c4I This wood is nsm rally very oil Y I and its ii rst tTl!a tment should be pure tu rpentin e ~ wh i ch is a llowed til dry 12 hours. Th en use onl y boil ed oil t .QDd use it sparin gl y ~ Rub it in by hand I and gn nd it· off wi th pumice if i t rommences to mat the surface. You will secure a beau ti:ful :finish very q uickl J to Rosewood is a little brash fo r stocks.. and wo u ld 8C a. rcely be se lected fo r runa with heavy recoil, bur it takes the checking better than any wood I bmw of.

LACQ UER.. H ere is the quici:est finish 0 fall, :and weu J dundoubud Iy be more popula r if it we reo better 'II: Down... I n .addition tet ill Pant:!! clear brushing l:acquer there are several other branls almost equall7 ROOd.. N 1) :filler and no prepa ra tion 0 f the w(]8d are Deed~dl except sand rna and wh'-skt rinr. S u pport tht ~tocc by the ends so that you can work all around it {set i ~ up in the; c h eckin ~ cradle if )'OU have one) ; thin the lacquer 20 to 30 per cent. wi tn the til inner reeommended by the maker 'I and sp ray it on with a pain tee' I.i r-brush or with 011 e of the commercial hand sp raye rs sold for two, to th-ra: dolla rs, There's a knack. aboat wing 0Il~ of these ap rayers that must be acquired by pr:iet~, but once !OU get it you 11 neve r want to


Q8C • brush qun41 A Juque r stocl!:: will be d rid. hard and read r to use in .30 minutes to an hour .nd thl!! .fin:ith .111 be ",ate r p roo! and neuly all other kinds of proof I I t will look for aU' th!l world lite ntridhl but lacb all the diBIdvantl.ra ()f Vlrnilh~ A second applitatian may be usedr but q seldom ~!lary, I f you cbjett to the shine ~ the nnis h may be d ull-ed by rubbi ng down with pumice stone and watC!r~ utinl plenty of both.

Lacqller may be used over a stained .tock, but not one th &t b.u oil in it. It wolb best on clean. dry bare wood.. r t it. • thoroughly p rlctita 1 'nish t but win nat brinK DU t the beau ty 0 f the grain as an oil finish d oes, N otbing wi1l.




PERHAPS the pnowner may ~b.te Ilt re-stocking bis tun until cx.puicncc with too. _ pven him a meuure of coa:fidence. Remodrlina: an old mUkary Itock:. or a factory ItOCkt 19 P'Ie a better fit ."d to conform more nearly to our pmsmt ideas of .ooc:k desip will .not onl,. provide ~l.Iettt practia with tools bu t will ohen result in & milbty practical. pod looking scod::. The job of course calls for far IfS!l work than the. m'kiDI of • ncYi stock. and the tedioua,. particular job of in1rttiaK barRl and ac:tlDll is eatire1'l


The stocb on most military tiRes are extra thick and heavy in all

their dimenskalS with the exa:J)tion of len.gtb. and these may o:hen be con&iderably improved b, mereil' working; them down to more comfortable and plcasin, size. Somctimm one: can tab advantap of thil extra tb.icknea of wood. to do • 1 i rt Ie ~-shaping to improve the bmdling ol noeL An aample oj this is the Kra~ stock, which has vtr1 lilde L'OIDb. Yet me lrip j1l§t ahead ~f the comb hi Te~, thicl::1 and will Ibnd IOl1lc reducme:~ By cuttulg dOWD the Inp Just lOl"W'lr4 Df comb,-in Dtbu ~Ids, deepening the uhand hole1t_ the comb u -.de to ~pear kicber... ThUi we tab advlnr9 of the grip~. thickne. by daiq: ill our reducln. on the top and sides.

Uld DOne Oft the bottom.

Since '\Ve have- mention~d the Krag.. we will take thi~ aa an ex ..

... ple of what au.y be done in ~pletr: ~k ~n;. ~e Krall stock. ill lcri(er than the Spnnetield--ll1 fltt It II • fmrly

pod fit £Or mOlt thooten ".. issued.''' The mmb is too low, and Ids ttJJ fu back; the trip u. too thick.; it lacks a pistol ~p; the batt can It&nd. ccnuiderahle thiDDiDg, abo R--ihapi nl:l and the- nttw, of a better hutt pl.te. or & rubber recoil pad.





m.ay be done m. the way of reo-alI.pial tbe Kra( butt stock to live any desired sh ape and dimension$. 'The dotted. lines .how the c ri~na1 shape c f stock, while the he.a¥'y lines sho..... its .final shape .til fter remodeling, The thin solid lines indicate aaw-cu ts macle lo. thee CJ .riginal stack: t to w hich larger pi~1$ of W~I1Iut are fi tteed. The first cut is made in upp~r side of grip about 1/2 inch ahead Df where ,ou want the po in t of comb to be located. TIliI cut i. from J /4 m 3/8 inch deep, and slopes forward sli£D dy toward the bottom. Wi th the rip saw a ell t Is made starting at a pciJlt Od. the butt INm 1 to 1 1/8 inch below heel; the cu t pt& fotwud to mect: the Ii tit cut.. I t is advisab~ to make the saw C"Ut 1/16 iru:h outsid~ the line, an d work (3 re fully down EO th e line with a cabinet.file. Then with tile and scr.aper~ work this edge into a perfectly straight line. and scrape out the center of the .Bat surface to a,,,,., slilhl hollow f rom side to side of smck. N ow cut a piece oi walnul to fir. leavinl i[ considerably hia;her than you want th-e stock. Fit this very care:fully with flle and scraper I spotrlna: the twO su rfaces tagether with bl ue chalk. Ru b the chalk thickly on [Inc 8U rfa~1 thm place the othe r piece: against it and rub back and fo.nvani ISlip tl,. Then ac rape 0:11 the !pO:ts left by the chalk unci 1 the NO -.urhces are .in per-fect ronra.ct at all poinn.. B~ sure m gtt a good :fit at the forward poin e, N ow sligh rly hollow the surface of the piece heina ntted.-

j lUI: a ligb t scr.a·pe Dr twu is sufficient. Bore two 3/8 i~ holes in srock :at the positions shown, for dcwel pint. Coat the wood 2tO'1nd

th c holes with d If lampblack. Press the piece in to pla.a:t 10 as to

get' an exact imprint of the h olea. F Ied .and mark. the c:er.lten of

these imprints, tbm bore the hO(C1 flOG'" 11M mel. 'off &,,.t,,. .. tDilhiTll

Ih.J butt, i~ tiil Ii'~~.. This causes the dowe.la to "draw~1 the piece

to rward to a very figll t fit at the paint. NOw t'llt the dowel. -from.

l reg'll Iar hardwood dowel rod, aad :tit them. into the .tock. umnc dJ hot white flake glue, Cut them off $0 that they prnjttt from 3,18

to 1/2 inch~ and bevel the ends slighdy. Now wo,.. jlJJl coat edge

of stock and edge of new p ieee wi th the hot Kl ue, set the ~it.Ce in

pI ace, fa rce it dawn on the dowels, and clamp tightly at • point

about two inches from tach end. U se cab LDet-muen' "C" cl~ps,

Of i j )"QU have a very wide vlse, the clamptil need not be used.. 'Tbe

main thing is eo ret plen ty 0 f p rasure. 9'l a9 to aqueezc the cl lie out oft he edge, 1e.8ving wood touch i nit wood.. with 00 line of glue between. Let dry fot· 48 beurs,

For a pistol grip. saw the stock at rizht angles to Krlp, at • point about 3/8 inch back of end of guard. Thit cut Ihould be f,.,m 1/4 to 1/2 inch deep J :d ~n ding Dq the Mine. of 0 riKinal

(rip. The cut must be carried. far ~nough up the eurnd aide 10

u to p rovi de ml! fu 11 thickness desi red in new &rip. T1o: COIDlDOll mistake is to make this cut too shallow ~ makin, it n.eca.ury to latten

the grip like: a board whC'R ahapjn.l it up. These old .to:b are

-\Dually of ~troa.& rtraigh t pined waLlut. with an. sraple maqin


of luen&"th; and they are nol m&teria1lr weakemd. by lnlaYUaI

pieces ill this ma·Dner. especially if the pieces it tiPtly at both end&. mOl tUme up the back thrust of recoil"

"The 1ft!' 01 t m()ukl" be made aactly where the rear en.d of platoi

crip is to come, and Ibould If:xtend frc:a 1/2 to 11/16 inch intO the stock. To Ieca te the pOIi tion of thil Ol t, layout an oudin! of the

old stock on paper, then mart out on it the cane uuI Ihapc of the desired. g;riP. &ivinS the bottom. of pip • l.eqth equal to the JODI dimensicm of the lrip cap you purpoae uainl- From I 3/4 to 1 7/8 inch it about rilM.

Saw out. bl(Jd of rood sound walnut 80 that the rraiat when shaped into • grip wi 11 run well in line with the ill'aln in the !ted. .. B r careful' at lec:tio.f1 it it oiteD poaible to match the grain. T rm ou t the wood between II. W cuts in ,rock with a Oat chisel, CUttiDg and -:raping: the bottom 0 f cut to • ,lOOd Itraiih t line---cut a piece of haCk saw blade rhe ript length and me it for • Itndch~FScrape the center 0 f th is su..rfacc to a very slipt hollow I N ow lay the IrtDck over the block: you h:lvie PJl!Il&.Rd. and C1.Rfull,. DUI rk the shape of this dovetail en bloc:k with the point of & ui m. Do not :cut the b1fXk quite to the line at Ii~ but 6t it carefu.lly and dcn.v:ly lata ItOCk. Chalk the IUi'face of dofttaiJ. mel staft the block in u far as it will 10, then work 0& the cha It.; lIIludKel .u required.. It should be I. ligh e d rivin, fit" .. d .bould ai ... Y' be pushed in ad withdrawn from th~ same side. At you approach the final fitt file th e saw cu ts It end of dovetail ill I'tOCk to a wry II;'''' lajIIw ~ 10 that the fu rther in the block: is p\Uhcdl tne tighter it win fit. N ow coat


both aurfacea with hot Kluej dri.e in tbe bloek-bciag CArefu] not to drift hard enoup to 'PI it the.tock. J WI: • Iood· 11111& fit iI w -t 1Ou. want, Thm damp stock in vile for 48 baun. Mttinl OJ) ~ vise UJ.Itil Ihe due squeaa out of the C!d-pL

In Olin. hot d"De, .it ia important to pt the we rk. cl.mped. witb.ia

• few .taDd, f.rom mil!!! time glue it applied. It ItartI to c:001. md Jet WI!' quic:kly. IUld the difierenC% bttwcen • perlec:t joint ami a shedd,. one that will sooner or liter break dq)eoda on. pttiAIji the two ~.rtI top the I and under pressure withon t to. of ItO instant a The right kind. of I ,1 ued joint • inv:uiably strollpi' than the IDlid wcocI ~d k-thc wGod uwall,. breakinr under Itrain before the joiDt will let ~

1 f Wred • dowel CIa he put in thn;nlKb center of pistol ~ but it ia not really 1HO.:RU'y. The bat pta.a is to UIf: • pip-c:ap IC1"eW Ion. enouab ee re-=h 1!2 inch put the joiDt The bale for w. iCieW lhouId be larpr than the thrads before the joint t. readted. 10 that anly the threadl that are ill tba .tort it:aelf do the hoIdiall. nUl the .rain mnatmdy draws the two pi~ ropther,

RESHAPING BUTT. Nat coraeJ the:· "'pilll ap of the butt. which W.-= of COUrwe will be gh'Cnltd b, the .. of your butt plate.. If you have a po4 Ibotpn type butt plate it wiD be acarly 2(N)


- •









• I


I ....... ~

t j

• ,

• t

• " ..

• ...

• I

• • t


• •


• • ~


• •

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• • •

o a





h.ump at hm. whtch lnCrella tbl!! pitch. Then RncI exact ceotel' of Coat them with hot II ue, apply glue in the holes, an d d rive in the Itod: and mark a line from heel tt) toe.. N r:JW i i J01I WUlt aatofi.. plUIJ. Afterwa rd the ,rock may be recessed as des red fo r a. trap

ID&.tk tim casto§ cent!:r u dt:!l:ribed in Chapter 911 and run a lille blltt plato!. . ~

fl'Qlll thia poiat to center of upper IIIid lower cdps of ~P. jtat back -P A TC H I NG. I have t)ften KeD i nstructionl for build Ina on af tine on toP.. and just baci: of JrUU"d rm hottom~ I f nil astd iii pi,tol grip!. which recommended hollowing out :a b1 riCk of iV,l n ut to wanted, mew,. run the lina in exact tenter of ttoct.. fit the" round side ()f tile origiftal pip. 1 ionllt like this for twa

The Striae of mil!! Duttplate or rubber recoil pH. add the ..... pinl reuon~. First, bees U~ the correct :fitting of t~ round IV rfaces up of Itud::~ aft done In the ame manntr II for _ tlf:W' lIock-tbe tun! into more time than aDyon~ is willing- to pay for: and more-ii:lerena: heinE oat in tbi. toe there it less work. All of the R-- overt due to the oi1 in the wood, the glue joint ill goinit to have .. mini nd.ce of the old Itod: mould be filed oR I. triBe. u do: migh t]' little Stnmgtb. Rquirlnf I lanl ICff'W' or a dowel to make ..,.,. iI Iibl, to be well IO&ked with oil and greucll and a fresh it RaIle t and even then it will p mbahl.,. come loose in time. Finally ~ cIeu IUrDce .. dNirabl!-: for tbe new 6nish. Moreo.e:r, ailed wood the fnthered. I!dga of thl! false pip wherr tblJ jolt! lid~ nE stock~ does not .mdpiper very smoothlYI hut mIIUrn -fuzzy" repnllms are hound. to mow t eft:n if the pip it checbd. It'l .jWlt contraTJ

of the drae IIM"t OIl it. to the laws of woodworking to pi: • pod joint in thil manner. If

If. :llip cap i. ultd. fit it u soon .. tlac pip is IQUIhed ",.d, to 203

... the. W'Urk to me edges ~ get the inalihape. one fccb that the dovetail mc.thod. il likdy to weatca the atoct. be

There hue bcea lOme fQrfuJ and wonderful sunatio,. for ltack mar 'lJIe the other way if dmired: but I never knew a stock to break iftnadding mn~naI" in various lBapt!ine lrti~ from time to time. because of • dOfttaii ",

One IIIU:, I ftCIUt lllid he fittea • small ,red p-abaped piece of waJ.. Wbm sJupinR" up I" mx:k on which • false comb hu been &l oed, ow: to the toe nf tile Eng Itock, where it i. rounded oS. It lOy it IlIA, prove necesary to undercut the comb .l.i:eht1y (See Cbaper 9). 'be *t be wu able to do • IQOd job .ucI m.a the Itock looi: lib as the on&inal .tock is 1101: very thick at thar point. ad the Plea: may 1IGIlMthinrr.. but perwonill.y I don't ~ for ....:It trick& If the trdn have .,quare edIt showinr after shll.pir1g tc) Jequir"ed thickn~~ Unof ~ • piece nuu witiJ the grain of the 1tOCk. it d almost sure dCl'ClJitUng here blmgl the ILlI faa smooth and also helps the appcuto IPDt DOIICr or '-ter-- ana probably SOOIIft.. Ma~r it wilt look mce of ItDCL

}lilt IiQ whit h &--a patch. Alul tiMDJ there isn"t one lUll in "I The foregoing- will apply to a aumbrr "01 itocb baving atrqbt thouIIId who could fit.m a piete wi~onr hutnc the ~thin .,ips!, wben it is desi red to bave a pistol grip. SemI! riRes have "a Ionl -alp chi" or hreakt Ia. ... inl I IlllaR gap -under the Imttplate. The tanc extendinl back tjf t.riggt:r guard, and on such Ibc practicability thin, to do if you 'WUIt to P:I rid of tim rounded toc-which. in- of:fittiq I pistol grip dependi on the type 0 f actiOIL I f the tanl is cideatl, ia not • bJd thin.. u it pret'mbl thl! toe Df Itoek crackinc 01 mud)' to atn:nlthen the trip it may be beat to the desired. cu.rve. whea Itruek on the I1"OUl1d, it to .... the butt as shawn in FilUre then tlJe &riP doV!wled in, and tang baletted into it II th ut .d.di(ll 99. ...lticb aii'ti leur or fin mmel pircb, &ad it miahtJ ecmafortahle Itrtl1gtb.. OWte often some 0 f the actioo. Iprinp or ether "WOrking lither ofihand Of prone. If this Illata the stud: too .hart •• R!COiJ. pam" Ire attached to this lower WIg. in which ~t lOme careful pM QUI he wed to Imrtbm it up to 7 /l1nd:I~ or ODe of various GIber study ill .driJablc before attcmptinl' to change ita shape. An example _thOCIa ~"he wed. ()f ncb • job wiU be found in the description of the remodeled

LENGTHENING STOCKS. One way 'CO leaathm • ftOtk h Sitlg!e Sbot Winmc.ttr aescribed in ChaJJtu 30. Chapter 24 aI.sa to ect I -.lnut black, with de: ~ ftII1nin.c In the dinction of the gives detaJ1ed irultructio89 for hendin g u.ngs, an~ maim.. lieu: a T1 acl, fit and llue rt to the hurt. whlm - DIIt t.eea •• ed 011 aqulre inside uterations.

.... die lUI r.:e :lCCUratel" finilh.ecI" I lUll lIflablc to caJlider tbb at all TIlI!:.Jtot:gtm ~r w h<"JSe stock. has a pimol ,rip back. under the ... PI 1Cdce,. Jin~ it 1-" lib • P"dJ. which It is.. n.e. pm. middle of stock wbere it does DO good~ may decide the stoc:k wollld .... 'be- ,.. mardted, oor CIIJl • IUOIi joint be 1DIde.. Due to the look b~ltf:r with a straight grip and wuaDy his decision u jhe pIIa IUlulh. tile .un .., at. ~ ldca it it cliladt to _ • pel\" right oqe. I t it quite cur to male the change." Set the stock in the

• :.:ru~ . • II -rile and u:w off the grip~ then use the cabinet: 61=- to round oil cdp:s

feet gI~1 IU rf.ac:et" an~ w~en .uJlcimt ~tlltlre IS app!ied fot .. A to conform to the lin.eI of &tock. Be ca.reful not to file fu. mer into

"ucd JOlllt. the block willliketJ ~ NMrthe~ this practice tflif checking than neceuary. Carefully sandpaJW!1 the bare pl~ .. often follow-ed, so I~'t yoar consamee be your pldet Use tl1e thm ,traighlm out the tang of trigge"r pard. Moat thotpD ~ i"fe'" ~atQP ~t. the fori clamp L1lutmttd m Chapter 4 for clamlJing the .~ mld~ ot 10ft irOfl md may M re-ahaped cold. Use & anoath bleek In pMl't10llt and h."e I hardwood b lock un~r tile sehCteW. fated. ),. mmrr and teat the Juard CD a s~el~ iron cr brw beach Mod:

S.omet:ima I.~ of hea "Y l~th':.r - re URd to length?, the stock, with a hea'f)' bthn on it.. 'When the tang IS thl: riih t shape, ICMW Thhcllb DUlceal a fa,! ~~ aoocith l~LDI Jcb, ,~nd abo m":s ,.It .. e~~ .. t°thfit in the KUrd. then inlet the tang in to the stcckt .u described ill t utt p Ite, ~use tn. a a~ amount 01. £lYe In e Chapter 10.. Finally refinish th e bare spot and check the pip,

lHrh~.. The pieces mould. be ~t • l~tt1e larpr !han the butt ~ coat lonawing the lines Df the origil?-d cb.ecki:ng as far .. lbey p~ ~ ~ ~d~, of all but me OlltSi d e piece: wttb .flu PDnt Cement~ and cllbJSP Usilll' • chaing liner ~"I, the .same wid~ lUI tbl: onp.aal m pasltU:tTl as alr~.Qy descf1Ded~ Let dry -48 boo"" or longer. Then d illllD'Ddi.. Dan~t try ttl Ft by with • liner thl.! II oJ tlltut corre:t.fit butt" plater USIDI file Ind ,undpaper to shape the leather buttt fOUl" cbedilll will come out" ".11 gal Iey-wa mpus" If you lla.,en!'t the attach plate~ set the !Crews up tiEl. tt th-m buS a:lliearher on sandpaper riKht lize liner make another.

w"heel. - descri~rJ in Chapter 11 :for fi~g' rubber ueoil pa~~ REFINISH·ING~ Any stock ha-wing an oD finish may haW! my

~nother ma.tenal that may b~ URd. 1D the same ~a.nnr:t 15 lihn. part worked off or reduced lrt siu; amy whjdl the baR !pOt JII2)' Stn,. of red ; nd hlact fibre c=emented alternatel, pe I rood Rp- I.e finisbed to match iDe balance 0 f stock perfectly. 1 un: {oUow iDpeltt.nct Ind mo~ lem lib: ~ patch ~han lealhrr. .~-ormver, thry -strurtioDi for nnisbjnr DCW Itncb, doin, most of the mUnI em the tHe I better finish. The ilnseed 011 UItd for nmsb.ln~ the stock "re IpOt, ""d then. wo rking on m Ii zoe rtock a the finish nm n COIIt-' don not do SO well on teath~rt 10 t_1: it ja ma!ar,. to do a lor: of pldiolL Alterini' or cuttinc down a varni8hed .stock necmsitatm or extn rub h.inK with shaem.k~rl!l "'heel ball, lP' hc:eswlX~ etc... tD COlD- duruld aect ';we, complete relinilhia&. some pnmUtba would lru h

plett: the finish on the leather-thea it WIll bt! rough mOlt of the 204

tisM.. No sped.l tratmeDt d needed tot' finilhing the fibre--just .. ill.. · T

sand and oil it wbl!n finishln~ me stock. over the .,at with ail aDd IbrJlac. or ttY ~ ~Iice the vamisb., 0

A hutt extmsion. bloclr: may also be m_ by .ludng up thin layers do the Job riabt. .remove ~ the old. vamilb., prepan the ttoct far I of various colored "tf'OOdI. maple, cherry ud ebony~ for instance, and acw finilht and oil or vamilb II .~CIlred..

thil ZMJ be fitftd and d ued to the butt!' :riving • very IQOd. appear.. The trQIhOOft!1 may tHe a naboa ~e WlUlbl a Mnnte-Carl,! comb oa

:tnee. hill lIJ.Da No raison why be c:anllt have It. Cut dOWll as ~own an r CD!,!

~ ntting t"~ pi~ to tlP~ edit 01 ,t<d:' from 'Which. tlw 100 mike .. nd. ~t th~ black ill tame manner .. the crlP wu fitted 1ft comb is ."peel up, be careful about holes in. the butt. In same rifles PiPe 99-that iIr ilichtly wm.am& the io"tail. D~ in the thcx 11'111 be ao dOlt to up~r edg! tb-t you wUl saw into them bId mqIy with plenty of hot puc. lat dry • ~p~e of da~ ~ w lien md:in~ the cut for thi. piece.. In tlutt ease it is advitahle to thtepe up u required--then re:finiah stock.. 1 II this i.DJtanCe It will measure t.e hol~ and turn up walnut p1up to • tight plUh .. lit and probably be impo.iblc to any the ccmb it.rwAf'd. very ID~ II ~ lonl' lI!oouah to :6.11 n() I~ rDm,,1p-t:f)1 p _ nnll·' p.t' t},~ tn(a tj gh t ~ thntpln~ Ita Yf! upper tiDe ~'ldinr; back nelrly to thr: comb. TIl ..




job abould Dot be attempted on any IUR like: the ~mchmrer hammer- tnOllp of the original wood to pt rid of the oil. and ,lUll!! on alabs lea pump" 0 I the R.emina,ton or Browl1ing AutomatlA; or any ;un which.re l.eer worked down into • heave r-w1 fnrend.

h.yin r In attachment crew running through the grip from the butt, One lILa, object te the h .... d-graovet along the tides. Thf$e WI Dr .. an, part 0 E the ·~o[b' I 5UCh u teeoi I spriD'I' etc.~ located in the le removed by cutting them Out to .. widle: V..mlp! a! .bOWD in

~ _," jI. Fipl'! 102. tilen planina: d~ Itrips of walnut to match and rluang

INLE'l llr-;G CHEEKPIECE. Making and fitbnl a cheek them 10m the ~ ThIS II much easier and make. a better joint piece to a stock DriPn.aU,. made without" one II a job no one need be than tryiRJ to :fit pieca iDto the rou.nd (TOC'YH ani it aI.o FtI rid uraid of.. _ Select a piece of walnut matching the stock in ,rain ~d of the oiL III the glue will bold. Ule bot: gl~e and lay • strong

color .. Cut it to .ize and shipe desi r-ed.. learing I hue portion .bo1lt 1/8 2(l6 I

inch thick at lower ed~ and 1/+ inch thick It upper cd~ This lb:ilJ of wood over ~h of the Itrt", then clamp in the vise to r 48 piece ma., be practieally fiDilh~d Ifound mill!! ed~ ~fore any 'WOrk ImuIS heflin: lhaping~ 'The Itri~ should ble! IpGtteci in with chalk, l' done 011 the .tock. Layi it in position on stock and mark around same as other pa'tC:hwo rk. and don It depend on th~ PUt fillinK up It an fully with knife point. Cur: out the .at in ItCd, rmmving .:OY ppio, ~dgea, because it won't.. The in.ttant the checking rool mort 0 I the wood at the \I~per edp than at lnwer edce of recc& bits it~ i e I out. Fi t the Btl LPI tight It aH pain~.

Fit: the ciJed: piece tnto this depremon with cb"alk. Q)Ottil'.lg both Most military stocks have deep channels cut ia the for-end unlit' IUrfaces into perfect c.onta"et. Use hot glue, and leaft: the stOCk the barrel to lighteD the stock.· Usually cutting rile foread to d.mped lor 48 hours 0 r lance r. Then round oS: uppe I edp to sportm& lenath expt).es one of these at me end. This one must be conform to linea of stock and shape up cheek Fi~ OR IU rila IS nIled. to ntake a good job. I mll:!lly 1l!M!! a piece of salid wood from desired.t then refia.ish en t1 re stod:, Fitted in this manner there will rh e lame !to:k~ tacen from the muzzle end w be re there is no channel be .no visible joint eJcCtpt lIon I tq) ed p of comb," and i f the wood -t1J.i. i(ives i. piece 0 f wal nut th at will match. Squan th is piece matches and the fitting .is carefully done. tbi. will be well-nigh iaw r-----'----------------------------,

vilibll!!~ Fi ru re 101 shows the method of Jitting the (:~e9: piece, alm • .mow view of the S;todt recess, No dowel~ SCrcw31 pins or nails .are need~ if your i1 tie i. good and the :fittiol properly don~ there ia DO main· OD. a check piece.

Rt::MODELlNG BUTTPLATES. The question of • Iuitthle buttpllte uIII.11,. coma up whea remodeling ;II military or Tartarymade atock. Military huttplatea were daigncd-applrently-for making: dmtl in th~ armory £Ioor. How rve r, the milituy platt may OfteD be remodelled as outlined in Chllpter 24, which .lto dac:n"ba: the m.kinl' of spedal buttpt.tm.

The Munlicher-Schoennauet buttpla te is allDOlt ideal in th.PI:! and die. .rid h~ the ..,ery dEBira'ble IDng trap for cleanLor Irate riaIL For ItDcr:ly ofband ,booting it it ideal. Many. however to :&nd it ua-

suited to prOlH! sbootinK, u it Is more deeply hollowed thaD the Fj ;or. 103

~"L..... la and h . ..:I-rabl ~ 'h If .L... ... ..... 1 TIt ~ u.p to a snu( 11 id i nit fj r in the II DU ow unde r barrel at muzssle, c.t

IUUl!;run p Ie, U COMLw;; 205'1 man ump at lJJC: ~ , 1,1: it with hot g1 ue, Ot d u Pont cement, also coa t the inside of he I low .

plate mIly be pu rt:h..,I from V Oft Ler..ze rh Ie Dermoid. 0 E N nv S lip it in p] ace, .and clamp in the v"lst fTom ~ide tD !id~ .aim 'l.I3r :a Y ort City'. '1lIe M a.user aparting type burtplate is ~ hetter small cllmp hom top to bottom. 0 r ~ plate a. round steck on top in dmi~ed and. hetter IMId~. It is I heavy drop Eorgina:1 mel the trap the barlel rofUUld U1 d d amp from top to bottom oi forend in the ia ad in on • square milled cut around the edpr of the hale, instead vise, using a band clamp against the sides, When dry. cut the heads of being EM rely bCTellai. I t is • trifle szna.ller than the: other I bein It off fou r small aga r box nails. and drive th e m Lnt two on each side, barel,. 5 inches lona:1 which wi11 take it out of the nJnDiBI for 'thOle si n king them well below the su nace. When the stock is ran ded and demudinl" the II rrat plate o'taiuble. The MaUJler plate mar be oiled the bolel will close up and wilt not be norieeable,

had frua A. F. Stoeger, Inc.t New York Oty. The M.nn1icher-- The barrel is held to th~ forl!nd by the ariginal outside band .. or Schoentlauer plate Ita deep CI'OSI corruptio~ while the M.Wler by ODe of the imide banda described i.a Chapter 24t aCCfJrd ing to plate is smooth 4 - It ID.I)" 'be cor rugated. Dr checked, Dr ....,. 'lte ai ven the- dRi ~ n f 'your In rmd .

• sharp matted SurflC!! by :Sti"ppHnl't as described in Cbapkf 19... REPAIRING BROKEN STOCKS. Sometim~s-----but not often nil, to my mlnd~ i1 the- best way to roughen up" • buttptatc. J t -I broken stock: can he repaired to make it as good u rlew~ and as mbs mi~ ty little rou,hen inl to prevent a steel plate from dippiJlI .. treng. U euall y a new stock is indica ted, S inee no two b rWs on the shoul der, Some IRlilr 0fI hiving d tep eoa ne dilmond or Ire exact! y alike, the exercise of :I little in~n ui ty is usuall y rtq ui red MjUlrc checking on it, or ,.-ery deep c:roD corrup.tions. in tile belief to ~ debt ~ow to make the repair and whether or not a.ny repair is

thai anyth.in.g else will .1 ip. I li ke ttl' shoot with u few clotlla em pnctica ~ . ~ .

as poaiJle pa rticularly .. little u poaib1e DR my richt arm and Stock. of "'?ol t ~Io .. n nil esl if ,the,. break at all, us~allr ~rn.k

Ihoulder. And] hive come in with the print' of • wry roup butt .. "lCross the Inp at IndIcated by F.llUr~ I03~ or elR split vertically

plate clearly Stamped on the skin of my shoulder md the Wood 207,...

thowinl throurh-tkis ~urh In O. D. Shirt tnd. und~fwetr. bad: of the tang sc:rew-~ • The ~rmer IS caused b, lIDproper Klcebon

Sud • rouP bottp!att 'W111 stay put not one hit better thin one ~f woodl 50 that the ~ • t gnp rum dow .. n.ward toward ~e gulrdt wfth alma.t • SlIlOOth N rhee, and IS far aD~r on me Ihoulder, or by too ~11 • ~ Knllt Dr both, The split .. back o~ tang .Is. caucd YUle diamond checkin& Of" ~rOM sea rinl or liM! &tippling only are by [ntor~ In lettl 01 o~ t be EtiO:', lea Vlftg I t too t~ght aptmt tbr needed wood en. 'ldes cf t.e!cel'(erll e$P«~aUy toW1.rd the rear where the

RUHAPING FOREND. RMbIPlng-.. ndJiuty fnftftd Into tang tapers ;--th_1 and lack of support against the .hock of r«-"Ul1

one more snitable for sportiA. use is ~e rdly easy Mea use there it. th l\lSt. ~ ,

plnty of extra wood to wOTk on.. The di&rent kind. and mapa of A KnP hrt1,nn ll~!! ~gnn~ 1.03 a1wa~ ?-lls for a new stock.. .It

mrmd tips are desmDal in Chapter 91 and am: may wort out almost :may be repal re~ to give servIa: for a tune. bow~er, by ~hDg Illy Mape df:lired~ 10 ifJnr :u it is not larger than th~ onEinaJ forrnd. both surfaces "With hot gllU or II uPon t CCr.leJl I and c.l amplng to-

gether \IIldel' heavy p resSUf'e. Thea put two brass wood .-screws in

elch end, drill ing the htlln carefully ro Rvcid EtJl"tfu~r !ipli tring. Thcen wind the ~r.ttire gri p tigh tly with copper wi ret usi ng- about No. 24 gau Ke size. Faster. tb~ wire at begi nning 0 I wind i ng by layin g the en d under five or six tu ms. Wind 0'11 even Iy and

Pia .10n smooth ly O\'er tht I!:n ti ~ OInk" tbe[1 f~n the end by bold ing ngh tl y

J U lad running on soldtr for about an inch to hold it to the Jut wind-

ing. Cut oH, leaving about an inth prnja:tt and force this UJ1der Eftn then it is entirely prac:tiCJble to square up the aida, dressing alE the winding-s. Coat the wire all over witll solder, working it w.eIl

PO.'OR ']MAN'S JAMES' 13tOLND vea, '4,

•• • 1,,' - _. . -


UiI!"!IiiT:""i'C'!- D'iIii. 1" (."'!·1f"11\TS' ·ul-·mH':.·I'~n·

iL:-......,)..,,[~.dl,;"fd.~ ~·'~"'U1·.;,·}..".",.J-.;L:;; ."-'~.

F····tJ_ '·05····:··

II'J~ 1-.

_=1' iliRiJiuf:;. 'let. 'at ,a.,. sharp 1A •. te ·Ilmolt 'in lin. wbh. Jhl litott ·.~nd :Q.['I,· It figh.t~anlles:;tB' 'fQ'e, bt, •. Quu:r _d of.'r,cw· 'b;"II··w&s: ",i'll-e,., ·hOd1ii=er. Ihe ib;'Nids 'betB:I' allowc• \t,Q, tu, bol.~,. "t; hi, ·t~. -111: .. 1: ald' •. lWl~ 'tQ ,DR a :~,o' d.<taw... "[nil , •. ~ ~IS .. 'dil:n; tu-mc~ . Wit

, ef1. tilhl'~ nm tbe- :IUI!pbu. lmD!iml: W:It· ;euduU,' .:lCtaPed, ~tmIl: tlc,:td·., of the h,*a:k;. In-d·',~. WOOdI ',lr_d: ·d~n ·D~. edges· wbcl~' ..

tIl'" .b.o\V'Ctd" ;Qfli ~'Oljl~O" ·ug.4r:1' ,t·. "*0 ~ei: 'hy ~Pir;l' _d, _n.C: ~1Ja.per".'·, .. :Jr:I·OaI~ _o;f '.tp:m. b~,' had,. ~:rf~~ ij1~ ~Ii ~eei~Q:~ ~.! ..

tile .p.i:,~ .• , _U ·lh. ·&~~!kb~B .,U ,(l$Qp_,=t·dy·· Ttft·J1I~.'. ~6. ~.~_ .~

mOl - •. fler' "'e· stack . .b.ad heiR re.~:Jlr'rdmedi' .J:, ,a_II: kDCiw 'Wb!~er -..' ~ __ ~~ ~~~~ __ ~~_~ -----.:

til.: tt=.P''''.t 'bl!lO •. 'bu.~ b3V'; :.~rd ·paJll'i[.l,I'to tbe cq.ll.~'~' f~ 'U;tc' J1~" t.~

excess wood, snail handguard into position on rifier and round off ~ S~mill. OUt I dent by c.ime, of t.bae methods will nat burt .....

top of 1M. tch 1V itb cabinet file. Smooth up wi tb s-andpaper and 0 il ml finish excepr It th e place wbere the stnmina oeeurs, The IPOI: ro m~ltch rest of gu ard, This j oh wil 1 be iu rrhe r imp roved by whln dry lhouJd be smootb.al off with very fine sandpaper and. re-

checkIng the up~r side 0 £ guard io a st rip hal f an inch wide. 0 r Dn~d u.a.til it matmfti the: rest of sto&:k. A VU'D w.. :fin ish wiD Gf

by sco ring it Iength w ise wi th the 1.:i.tt space r.. eGUl'M: be ruined by tb e steaming, and tb It is a good time to decide

S P L IT G RIP. Whe n a rille stock is cracked at tear 01 tanl, to remove all the 'Varnish and oil finish the stock.

th:e best lhi ng to do is to get a new stock. A temporary repair may Sometimm a ltock will be gouged or lCtatcbed. an hi rhed 'Wire.

be made by forci n R: the: crack open ~ far u possib1e w ith • tn in allirp r. ctt.. •• and ~t course when wood b.. been nmo'led, DO bladed chisel, an d sque ez.inl in some du Pont cement, Clam p stock ~t of ItNIJlIDI wIll level tb~ surface. Very alicht ICntcbea fi nnly in vise u [1 til ceme nt d rlea. then d ri n thro ugh stock from side iIlld roeb are best removed by rubblDl out wi tb tine sandl)lper thea to side and insert a 1/8 inch brats screw. Countr:runk the head, re5pisbiDi the IpK. A rtal bad pup must be. fillfd up. Plade and also countersink on ether side 811d set Up a small nut as tig;btly Wood is very Iood. fer thit puquJle if p:rope:dy haadled. All '9'&fIliIh as possible, Cut of end of screw and rivet slightly to pr~mt nut or oil mutt be ~tdJed out from the ;IOulftl IPOI1. exposing tILe turrunl. If a hilh power riRe haVLnI considelable recoil it is ad- b.re wood. Take. small lump of pJastic wood" which ia 10ft utd visihle also to wrap me ,rip wi tb wiRt md solder the wittt as already worb like putty I aDd force it into the hale. 8D1oorh off thr 1Ul.faft. dacribcd.1 Dr at least to wrap it tiptly with surgeon ts adheti ve letOn, it extend digb tly above the bolct aud whm. dry and bani it tape A roll 0-£ this blpe U1 inch wide shou.ld alw.&YI be carried in ~,. be dreae.t down even with & fine file and I:I:Odpaper.

the liel d kit for temporuy .repain. . PI.atic ~d .• iter d ryir-It doet. not t"w IlIins readily. m4 u it

After re~iri:Dg the break the next "thinK is to remove the ca\1JC. 11 nurly .Iute ID color It should be Ibtlned before iryine. .AI' maD Dontt expect a sttKk to fit if the acti-on it. able to exert a splittrnl IS it it worked into the bole (it bep.. to set an the .urface very effm:. every time the gun is fired. Fi11it: S:l'Ipe tbe inside of all actioQ. quickly) wQr~ in a little nw umber or other com rine even a drop cuts cleQ.~ then coat the action -with lampblad: and oil and fit into of common brown paint will do in • pinch. Work this well into the pla.a. Rdiev.e all pressure at sidCl. particularly the rear. by cuttinl lurfKC; but don'r work i: t inlU the enti re maa.. or it may caUle b to

211 loosen. After it bu dried I day or 10 it mQ' lie lCDOotJxd dowA

out wood. j U5t .. in fitting the actiDn in to a new stock.. I.f. the and oi:J ed, wiDI plmty of deaoe! or other colorin, in the oil. smlldaes ~dicate ~e recoil lug hu not a lood bearing api .. t the I~ead of Pwtic Wood I • '!l~ 'Of powdered walnut with tlue aboo.1der In stack, lme(t a metal pia Ie as described in Chap eer 10. Dr cement may be US~t and this,.ftU haft • much better colar.. Set Then laemblel and let up the lerna very blhdy. In doing this & black of lood hard walnut end ~ up iD the viR and UIe • 1IIOd.be lure tbe screws are Dot too loni' 80 that their points bear a lam at c~tely tine baatard cut file to mab the jKrwder. S.wdUit or ma.ne bonom -0 f hole, stop them. befon they are: exe rtini pressure on stock. Dlinp do nat work well.. Coat the inside 0 f hole with du Paat If wch is the cuea Ilind. or file ()ft- the point, .uRi.cicntlJ 10 live titan UJI'ltnt, then very quickly mix !Ol:De of the cement with the powdered pod teruion. wood to the (!oOIiiten~y of the stiff puttJ't utd fotte it lata the bole..

Stocks havinr lDlall .pliu lengthwise can eom~tirne!s be permanC!Dtty ~ui1d ~t up & Uttle hip:r than the surroundinl lurf.ace, .. it mrinb ~pa.ir.ed . by breaking them mtirely apart lit the Iplit!,. and IIluing, In drylDl1i Then file and and[l1lper ~ODtht md. oil.. Thil mixt:u.te f!l~r With ht»t lake glue, or with du Pant ament. For 1ID11l Iur- .bo~d dry tw~ or three day1 before heiDI iiled of. Le Papt. atue faces I. fnd the 1 atf! r best t while I lib tb~ 11 ue for ]a rge j mati. IDlY be oed lD$tead, 0 i duPont cement, bu I: the 1. tter maka the The pIeces mmt be broken apart carefully, with due care not to ludett and best repair. Hot Iltle doea not wolk well for tbia PLlI-

bruise the ~dges. alse, take care not to lose :illY small splintem that JM'lIet

may develop. TheY,shollld. be k.ept in position, leaving one fnd of .. Scmetimu when n:madeline the aervice ItOd: of • militarr riB" Ipliater. attached if posJi ble, Tbe-y mUlt: be coated all over with (au r own Spl"inPdd (or example) ~ the barrel dtannel in iormd

the g;lue or cementt an4 worked carefully in their pl~ before the ~ be ~~ m uch la~r tbm t!'e bartela ,:w't tou.chial it at ~, pi.rU .re d.amp;d. Perirct rontact and tight clamping are- the IC(rlf!ts polD,t. nl.- II alled.& ~ Boa~ harrel.. Rather thaD mlklDl of ,cood Clued }OLntL Merely "'preasiDl' parts firmly into plaee" u .. aliPJbod, Job ~ IlwlIl Itnpt lpiut the ilKs of barrel cJwmel. the di~timJ saYI Dr bind inK with twin~ will Dot amwer-get a mmlU~ ibd channel carHul!r: ~ith diri~l'I. ad ~m ~P. ~piec:e of bUDd red pou.nds or so preaaufC OD thellit and leave it .. wlulit ! Ti."'oo4 an the lathe to just fill It IRa"", Gl \It III. pIeCe mto the

• .0". 0/ till, §lW6 or C£'III.Q!t:1 ,DII. caD '§'U'''I e ou' of II i o ill t.. lA. bnt" 211

• .J. 11""1" ,Jr, joht~ cbanndt and when drr cut oil the projcctina: upper half with ripaw.

REMOVING DENTS AND NICKS. S'b;Jcb that 11 .. ve heen and plane down level with edFJi of srock. Th~n CUI I new channel. badly marred by In accident can 'Ofteq, be brought bad:. to JJtW' con- sam.: as when inlettiDr , flew stock. to ·fit· the barrel mugly at bottom dinon by canful treatment.. Exam ioe the: placa ud decide wbethar and aidell. T~e cu ftinr 0 f .;a buRl ell annel i! not the dif&cul t job they .re lDenl, dental or wbet.her they are nicb.. I f no 'WOod hu wh icn many ~ppoge, particu lar 1y when the .ction iB alnad, inletted4 been couged out. denb ~ ratiJ,. be rai&ed up even with the nrface. Anothel' way which 1 have neva- sem but hlv~ b.ad dcsc:ribcd to Fold several thic.knes&a of ~otton d.or:b. wriI1g it 001 in water and It, me as entire Y IUccea rut is ttl! fill in the lQua re IrOO'YU under bat reI over the !pOt. T Ike a hot Ha hIm and rub it aye r the clotl, wetting wit h !hips of wood, thtU quickly pack Plastic Wood. into the barnl the doth and repeating alain UDlil me deBt is. raised 1~1. This channel and p reu the barrr 1 £.noly into place. letting it form itt own will do for ahallow dents. For very deep deota., take iii. CIIJ. boldin; thlnnil" and' leavinc it ther~ .venl days until the Plartic Wood it a gallon or 10 aDd baving 8 tight :lituna: lid~ Punch & hoi!: in lid thoroughly drV'. The barnl mUll: be covered with tl light mating of and IOlder into it a small piece of brass tubing. 'Over which &lip a grease tOo prevent sticking. M, suuestion ,would be to use Plaatie rubber rube lODg enougb to h and Ie ~on'VCnicn tly t Make a noule \At,.. ood exc~pt at the upper edges, and. use the powd~ ttd w.a.l nu t and from I six incb' length of brass tubin.g fittin&: tightly inta the rubber.. crmenr ml:x.tll re hen! when! the fillin I will shoW.

Pinch tbe outl::I md togt!her and .oJ.dttt thm drill. 1/16 inch bale While the Sprina:field service can be- remodeled by. piecinll! out

iD ODC tide DeU' md~ w here n~dcd, there is little retson fa r do inc 10 with th ~ D. CI M.

Fill CD two-tbirdA full of dean wal:er and set it on the lire. When Sporter .text lvailable AI: fi~e dollars tD memhen aE the National

it I1at'tI bailinl. piach or clamp the rubber rube uatil yt;u ba .... e a Rifle Association. 21.

prdt, aoocl head. D f stwn. Thea turD the small jet from the no.z:de into ceatH Q f dmt~ Work it round over the .ankcn spot, lightlY' tappin, the wood aroWld dent with I small. IDlOOth. hammer.. It ma, alEe K1'eIal cans of water bJ do the tri~ but dents which look ut .. tt:rl, hopei.. tU be raised i.a this mann~r ~ which is ..mplored in furniture atons to recoDditioll pieces damapd in ah.ippmc- The more Itetm ~talU.re you haT! the better. A &oad "wru U ltill uf laeavy







WE deba~ a toni time . ., to whetbu we woul.J iaclud.e inS! l' UC dollS fo.r bo ri n£ reaming. md. rift in&: barrcla in. thiI boot. aad we d!clded nat m for IeWnl 1'USOIlL These ~pcr.tiona are • separate art in thcmwvell and a -very specialized • rt in tIw!Ie


days. To describe: them -would req uire sev~ral hundred pajCB, mel such desc.n ptiOD wo uld be in telli gib le only to & tTained mach inHt or toolmaker, who ai(lne is competent to undertake such work.. Whj}e it is possible fer a very ikiIled add ingenious machinist to set up an. engine lathe to bore, rea mt and rifle a }Jarrett yet gene: rally ,.peaking, heavy and -expensive Jpecial machine tools Ire nece:n.1T for thIs work~ and these arc faT beyond the resources 0 £ the small professi.onl.l or :aJJl8.teur Illnsmithl necasitatinlI :I large and upensi ve layout which must be in a.dditi()n to a Ktneral puzpoae IDa" mine map, the latter being needed for relat~ war k and f.or tooling Up for the ri Ring Ope rational Even a very modest -equipment may ~asny run tn $25,000 o r high er, The various ooring bits. reaJm:Dt and. rifting cutten c:annot be bouKh t. bat must be macle~ h.rdl!n~d, and ground by the workman himself, who must have the ntteaary wll. . Such skill eann()t be tB u(ht in any blJok, but requires :rears 01 tn,ining in gt:netal machln~ work.

11lc.re are a number of large companies u ,,~n as ~n firms in w is coun try who supply professional and amateur ('UfWDi tlu with. barrels bored and rifted to order to allY' specification at a reucnable pria. It u also ohm entirely practical to temevc barrels from certain ri6.es~ luch for example u tb.e IUrpl UI 1Dllirary ri8~ w hieb have been sold in laq:e quanti ties and at low prieel &ina: the Wo rid Wat. and fit these 1M nels to other rec:dvers and chamber than as daired41 In addition barrels fa r the Sprinpld riSc can be boUlht by QWmbers of the N anODal Riee AIIociation mmup thc Di rectnr


of Civilian Markamanship ~ and thee barrels can be cut off at the bnech be R th readm fitted to oth! r ri fie actianst and. recham be red, Dr of joou rse they ca~ be fitted to the S pri n g6eld breech action by anyone h living the n~c5Sary ~~~dsp3.(e gages4 + W e .r~e the re f~re lOi nit to con-fin~ ourselves to gl'\/J ng tb e guns~1 t h ~ ha t in fOT~a t~on which will en a hie hi m to d ra w up prope r speclfica. nons £01' hIS n ftc ba rrels, to fit them to proper b reech actions, and if neces~ry to ch Imber them for the C4 rtridge desi:red4

BARREL STEEL! In general the steel used in the manufadure 0 f ri:R e barrels roay be di vi d~d into tau r I;; lasses :



peatin~ At:JD.1 CompanJ~ the Nieciaer Rifle Corporation, IlId ..veral small barrel maken. It w. also uud at Rock Island Arenal at tn~ time tbat a ponion of the Model 1903 riRes ·were beia:r made there. Theoretically it is the hat steel for hip pow~r Ii A.e barWa, sad it is u&ed. Ilmose excl usivtl 'f in Engl.nd -for thil PIIlpOIe. It is slightly more di&icult to m8~hi DC. than carbon steel, IO~ requirinc • Ili;lb t ch.an~ ill toob 1lS!d~ It bu hign tentil. Itrenl:th, excellent we.rin, quali be!. I[ i rht1.., mere raRstanct to corrosion than the Drdinary ~bcD Itee1t:j and makes malt ezceIlent barrel.. Frcm. an entirely practical point of view it ha nat been demon.strated that meel stf~l il mark-rdly IUp~ri.,t to carboa. tteel for ri fte b.T~ but mOlt riflemen think ~t is. Certa.inly t.lnonl the alder and more wed riRe barrel.. in the .....nter~s I(Un -room, Me ruth] st-eel barrel, seem to hav~ W() rn [esst U1d to be brighter and in better conditlon th aa carbon stet 1 ha rret. of -iroil ar servi~ M ueh of the populari tv a f nickel Iteel for harrell 11 due to i tI VIC by the Wiuc:h:ater Repel tin~ Arm. Company ~ who fal' tbi rty.five ,.ars hive been manu flc:turiDC baneJl 0 f tbiJ ttee1 whim have hem superb in thdr workmaruhip. accuracy t and wearinc qU:llitim. The chemical rompoation. oT Winchester nickel Iteel is 3 1!2 per ~n.t. Dickel and 0.3 0 to 0.40 carbon) IJ1d. iris made by the acid Oller.. :hearth pnx:m..

As tbi. dla])tcr it heiDI: written STAINLESS OR RUST ... PROOF STEEL, ia coming more and more ·into ute for I peat mll1Y purpoaa. Wheth.~r it will be tbe ba rrel Itecl of th.e future Dr not cannot be foretold at present. ~ of the arlier fonm. IrUCb .. Poldi ~ I ADt~J1)I" steel and Boeb]~I ... ,A.a"rlnitn .-eel

uve hem imported £rom A UStr1.1. &nd Germany for some yean ami LIII!d in rifle 'harnbt. Tbe ch~ical compoaition of ~se twD atcds is not I::nown.. ne American -10 ea11cd '~Stalnlell" lteel, .. now bein~ used to 8 limited extent for rifle barrels.. is reaDy not a steel. . .1 t all, but :l high ehreene i rOD. A typical composition of th is iron as now bc:inC wed ill ti Be barrels u. ch. romium 13 per cent t. ClrOOn 0.10 per eent., Ind coppe r 1.5 0 per cent. CertaiD intricate bu.t ttea tment i=J nete!$UJ in order bJ make it both macbineable and ruil:praCl f • None of mete steels are abiolute1y rust-proof-lI will rust L f &i yen enouzh expotur~ hut th ey • re very milch aJOR resiltant to rust than tbr nther barrel I~]!". Poldi a Anticoro'· .teet for exam~le~ i. 10 ruistu t that it takes five to ten. dIllS as mucla ·application of tbe bluing !DIu non to blue it (which iI I. rustiDl pnx:eu' as ordinary barrel .teell... St,iDI_ Iteel is It ill further ~t~ C&Iln.et be aucccufull y blued, lnd LI Itnerally copper pI.tcd outaidc aad then lubj~r:ted m I treatment whim tunu the eopper bllCk.. All Df th. .teeb In very dif6cult to bore.. rwDl and riSe. nquirinc tools· "0 f • ve ry sped al lteellP This, in add ition to the Driciul toll: of these Itccb in tbe bar*, make barrel. (OEJItrU(.tc:ci 0 f them l'DUth


more ~nsive than ordinary barrels. Owtnr to the dif&cultiea connected. 'With mac::h.iainKt heat trt.i. tDlmt', bI tlinl and fittinE of th~ steels.· it Is thought that th!!J Cln.aot bt uti I ized. profitablr in work by tbe aver. gumoi.ida who lwl better pllee ord.erl for c0mplete buret. fitted. to actiaat and beltl. .and 'ready chamb.:red by th=, manu facturm _tpeclalizinr ift meaL

OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS AND WE[GHTS. Hedds 00na of proper ateel. a rile 'barrellllUlt hive I certain Minimum thickness or wall djameter in. ord~r to be safe .post bulglnll or buntinL tbia thickness dependinc upon the cartridge to be ue.dl that is the breecb pressu l-e~ Other th anlP 'b-c ~ng equd. th~ heavier the barrel i-h ~ more accu rate it will alwa-,. be. B. 'f' rel length .110 mUll: be cansid~rr:d'l and the n: are many other factor, which mUll: be aft-" fully weighed. in the :fir.ud determination of the diamet! rand 1. of the barrel of any rille.

~ MITreD of OUT old lnet and pump action repatinl riBea we rc !Dade. very Hllht in weicht and. small in diameter in order to reduce the lRidtt of tbe com~ rifle. They were ma umdly cut with two or three t~ dovebil tlOb :for the .. t'tKhmcat

C&:r"bon •• I • I • • • I • · · · • · • 4 • 4 • · • · • · • · o .• &: t!l fLI: of .-Lotl IUId rore.nall Such ba m1. IVIrml'1Ded lair)., well with

Ya"p:nf81 r ~ •••••••• 4 • •• • • • 1.I)G to • 5'" ~-

PIrIaGJIonu (m.K.) •• • • • j • • • • • , • • JJ 5 bllck pow:der cartria... the 'breech PrellUfti of which 4W not

bJDb,ur- ( .... ) •..... ~ · 4 • • • • I ••• • .01 t • • often txca 20.000 pouadJ p!f lq1U.re la~h. ad thq "m atIlI be

Often It is fat treated to increue its yield POUlt and It. ul timltl • tidaatorr for auck Ulht Clrtrida- .. the ".riOUI .2Z caUbtn In

= ... wh.ich in GQVI!Inuamt 'arrels Ire .bout 1.5.000 and t 10,000 rim fire. and tb. ,..2.5-20 and J240 cmter finI.. But.w:h bArNlI an

per 1qUU"e lnch I?spa:dvel,~ n.at .. !:IIfaetory for modern hllh pow.r c.rtricl .. 11.1 pr.urtl

216 from 36.000 pouac[, to 50 000 p01;Inll" IIOt becauM thiy - aN not

NICItEL STEEL II uted tor harm. br the Wlnchater .... ..Ie enouP. hut becauae tit; art not ad' eDOUJh~ n.. dlla.

t. '! I art powder b. trt!l ttr:et

a. R;,h p~, c: II ,bcJ1i ttH! I; I!Icxmtlml!l C I ned lAO rdnartc..:: SteeL tt '3. Nkkd __ I ..

...... Staln l~ or nilt proof Uft!].

U nde r rhese general classes each ba rrel rna nufactu rer h as his Olm specification9 as to chtnticaI compos~tion and physiea.l propertie;s unde r .. h i ch he b uy.s h is stee t from tb e steel mill! in the 40 rm 0 f long bars. I t waul d do us little or no good to know all these gp~i ... nations i n detail j so instead we win lQ~k at th e general prop.::: mel of the$t four classes 0 f bar re 1 stee 1.

BLACK POWDER STEELt the steel generally used before th ~ Idvtn t 0 f high powe r ea rtrid les and jacketed bullets. is genr:rally • rather soft ~ simpl.e earbon sr~ 1. I t is easlly .m ~ch LBed, ~t:i .. W~I D up in to I smooth!' event and un i fonn bo re and n:fl l~~. 1 ts 11ml ta~10n! an tllat it h29 not th e tl!dsil strcn gtb ilnd dutlcty for cartndE.eS riving h rttch prtSSures over aOOu t' 251000 poun.ds per equate ~nch, that b for high plwtr cartridges. an d ;t often w~ars out very qUleldy from. friction when bullets j IIcket~d with hard metals are used. For _22 and r25 caliber Tim .-ire ri fiet to be used with lead b ulltn exclusivd.y it is probably IS' satisfactory as any o.f the ~tber claues. []f steel. and it is believed that its use. should now be restncted to r heR calibers CJf ri Res.

HIGH POWER CARBON STEEL~ or Ord.nance steel, is ~.e

steel now being used by a majority of th~ manufactu .. reri Ciri hIgh pawn> ri:R~s including Spriocfield AnilOry. The Re.allngto4 Arm. Co~pany~ ';'d the S&vage Arms <?otpOtation. ~I: is a~ e~d~olll, aris&.ctory atecl for all kinds of nfle b.trrels, be:ln.g eud,. machlDl!!~ ovin, bi~ If:asD strength. 9cellent wearinl qualities, and maDnl wry .fine b. rrels. A typical eompoli don of Nc:b steel is:

Me, give VEry fine accutacy~ for ther 'Vibrate excesIi vel Y. ad the digbt difteftDCe in the load c:a U~ very diien:n t sight .dj ustmeut to be required. Then: is no objection to ma.lmllt barrels dlPtly IighteT th In the above p rov.idtd thli y own~r undentand. that be must w:ri:fice IOmlbVbat in ICCU racy. For a: a mpl e, a .30-()6 riBr made with a barrel liu the No. 2 in the list will mpke a fine lirbt ri flC! for deer and mClCJSf in c:cuntry where tbae anim.ls are sc:arcd.y ever shot It Ion ~ rangl!t but one mut DDt expect it to pe rform with. .ti.fado ry recullrity OD mountain sheep at 300 to 400 yardJt Barrell Intended for ta.rgret shootini havf 'Il1UCh 1m pronountrd: tapefl. and are heaTier~ Thus the very beavy "Free Ri6~i'~ baml am iD the latemadonal Matches (No~ , in the list) hu but one maicht taper its entire length from 1.25 inch at the breech to .81 S inch. at the muule. Tb.l! is .bout' the heaviest barrd. that is ad vi sah If! • Ii! if • hfavier &.nel be used the mwcullt efhrt to ~14 the riBe of such. resul Mi' weight will make for trelllblinr. I t is well to hive the ljrcecl:i of the &.rrel where poaible, only ,lightly sma]] er in dhuDe'Rr than the receiVer where the latter joins the barrel, .Ibil gives better IPpea nnee than where then is a sudden d. rop :f.r?m I la:rze receiver rinK to • anal1 barrel. Tb us on & KraC rile, or on the .22 caliber Model t 922 Sprin~]d. or Wi~dlL~.er Mmel sa I. very exceDent diameter fa r a. tamt barrel ia 1 .. 10 inch at the breech., tapering gradually to .7! laeh .t the mUDI!. Such ungle taper hurd. are alto better to mourtt tarld; telescope sip b oa I where the two bues are serew'!d to the lOp of the barrel ~ than sudden taper banel. Df the bunting type ..

It '¥riU bt noted. t:h lit • maj on ty of the hUM nil ri fie barre Is b.s'le .. diameter of .M7 -incb at the muz.zle~ Thia is for convenience sUe 10 permit 0 f fitting the flOat Ii pt stud with its mcircling barrel bu1d u made for the Splingfi.eld nBc t or the :many in.clined ramp front lirht bues which can now be had in mere Dr less M" ishcd coudi tien fer this aize muzzle. I f other diameter at munJe ill selected it will usually be neMlary for me pnm1ith t(I Mm by buld tbe front sight baed and stud to fit.

Coosiderinl that II Sprinpeld or Mauser breech action u usedt and a rathlEr lip t walnut stock. 04 medi um.. denli tr, "VPi th ba1'Ttl lengr.b of 24- iru:he!l, I. NOt 1-.25 caliber barrel or a N c, 2-.30 calilleT baml will cause the rifle tc weigb approximately 1 to 7 1/4 powtdl,. No. 3-.30 c:alihtT 7 1/2 to 8 pounds.. No .. 4-.30 caltDtt '1 3/ 4 to 8 1/4 poundst No .. 5-t35 caliber 8 3/ + to 9 1/4 pou • and. No. 6-J75 caliber 9 to 9 1/2 poundt. B.m:I No4' 3 diBa. frra barrel No. 4 u. tM.! the IQI1IIer bu three tapers iDsRacl af 22(1

two, and u .U«htLy .,.1 lrr tll:aa the latte-r at • poitI t 9 inch. ml'W'll'd from the ~cb t Ind bem:e .1iptl, Iiptl:r. A NOt 7 "Free ·RiH~n barrel 28 irKhes lon& Dn S,rinpield .ctioft witb rl:t:her . heavy atock and he.avJ I nh!matiOftaI butt...plad will Cl.UIC the riRe to weip iTem 12 1/2 '10 14 plu.nd ~ dependinl 1I9OD ~ littinp~ ete, A ~mchester linlie shot riRe with the WWmcheater No., 3t 3(] inch barrel (No. 8 OJ! litt) 43240 caliber, ~I ~p 1tOC~ shotgun 'buttt wf:i~h~d about 10 pOuRR 1 R pvi.nc 'tle. weight of riftn the weight with iron .ighb. 1l111oad.edt md. without rUluliDI~ il uruaI1y that ajven ucleaa otherwise IJPeCified.1

So far we. "aYe! not eomidered BARREL LENGTH .t .n.. Twenty .. four mches from receiver to muzzle il perhap' the 'bat .wrap- let1C1h for biKh power bantinl ri Des, ~ept that the. of ..375 C1lUb~r md 0Vft' bad bettu be tePtd~ U ItIntiard It 26 inches. The lonrer the b.rrel the biPer t!ae mtlU1e Ydodty

. · · f' oft Ge~ --_.... that. giVen cutridp ."ru develop. With tbe B9linlfield cutridp

mOlt ~ common cal~ben. ~llh~, and kinds C! nD~ m:ranY 1 mel iD •• rrel "leDKlh II equinlen.t to approximatel, 2.5 b. in

II)eIklDI & barrel of the dlmenalODa of the aenlCe SprinlfieLi blne1 vd Ity With the Erq udnc the older WA powder which ( No. 3 in the table) il ~e Usb~ ban:d from which etlly Rnt bu: ';'on completely In Ihort ba Iftl l.enlth. the dii'feremz he-

cq.. IcaJrIC]' can be obtmacd WIth cartricl~ of power ud- caUber twca1 & 30 inch Itaml .nd ODe of 22 iacha f. only 60 - f,-. in ... n.r to the .~o.06 U, S. Govemment. FiJJe neults c:an ~ had m\lall! veloeity. AI the harrel ia lharteaed muzzle 'blat. 0 .... Imn ~ cartnd~ .. the .23-35 WtCr •• and .30-30 With .uldarlJ IIJd report IM:coMO rrater ..... theBe become ftry o1tjectioaal =- bur" The "'rre~ for .3~ anll iatpr c:anri4.P of. the with h[zh power riles w~ the brrd it mule .hurter the 2D

uaa cl,. .boulcl be alia;htl, thicker tbI.a the .nu.c SP~ lnchelt whim ahould he rcpRed .. the minimWlt lat" fo, rile.

Belel .r~1 for the bat acrunq and moderate recaiL PudadarlJ of hiah power particularlr .30 ali.ber. E{ptcea. inchC!l, dlould be

219 the minll1)WII ienlth for ..2.5 cal i'Mr barRt.. ad 22 ill. for ,,575

tJ.ar hlU:rtin, riil~ barrel. .bo.lld not ~ euddmly mluced to emtU c:alibm- 1:tarnls.

diameter In inch Ot 1_ fonrard from the receiver. M aay fomp It it not tNt: that the Ioapr thl barnl tie better the aa::1Iraq .. buntinr rifles have: a short radi~ of coaa.ve form wt about I Thl moat .atcumte lenrth for .30 c:alibtr barrell i, betlrml 2' .. q_rter or lid f inch fonnrd of the receiver. red. ueml very quick1)' 28 iacbes, hut WI! can.1IOt ., that a 28 iDch buret iI 01' more lie'to • quite am..U diameter at tbis poin~ Such burelt do nof'.t, III. CUrl.~ tbm ODe 0 f 24 inches... 11\ fact the lon~r a barrel tile pa.tcr


.lotted bt.trcll when fired with hiah power cutridPi vibrate witJi. very Ift,I.t uapHtude and. u each CIlrtriGze diSe n .tiah d, from evtl"]' other cutri. one may let up • ,Ulhtly ~"ftt vihntion £om tb~ ntt4 aud IhUi. anst • dcli1/1!lry of the buUn irm:a the muule It • widely va ryinl point in the vibration.. Tb! resnlt 1& mediocre accuraeyt

In the desip of ll'IOdem 'barrtl.~ in ,.dition to mety ana ttift..

Ill:!llt we must DlI1Iid~r the ubj ml te wcieh t of the riSe and itt baJ.. IIlfe... I n I buntinl ri Be we desire IS lipt weipt d it cons1Itent with ICCUmcy and moderate recoil, Uld the bahn~ Ihould be oal, • mol't .i1t1Dee in front 0:1 the triger 10 it will ~dlc and. move quidl, .for map mob and .liootinE at ntnnin.: pme. In .. tarpt .u.p)ll. OD the other hand th~re _ule be welabt to hold it eteadJ" and tbil will .bo hi i lIimiu nuntemmt .froai. little teadenael to fiiftdt Dr jet k the trisrer I or IGIIII L rIIU..-eul-.r tremcn, w.lieb. will DOt ditturb it 10 mudL And with the tarpt rifle we prefer that it be a little mu.d. hea'9J 10 that i.a the procra of haldinK and .imi", it will Ninl slower towards and ~ from the bul1"1I-CJe..

To reduce .apt' and Ciw the dadted. btl 'nee, and at the .... time miDiIlliJr.r rihratioa. the mccIera. h1llltia1 rile HneJ. iI made


ba.vy • t the breech end. This large diameteJ Dr' cy li~:rical portion

{see ~'A~· FipI"e 107) is carried farward In • point corrr.aponclinc to the fOl'Wl.M shoulder of the cbamM r. There it then umallr • 1M", !lharp taptI to a point app roxim.ately 2 inch et ahead of the chambert thus insuring heavier metal over tbat p4JrUon 01 tht barrel whe re the ehambtr ma1:u me walls. thinner and where the pm. of the pressure cemes, F rom the forwa rd end of this ahort 'bIpcT thet! [, uauall y one ( (Jcc.uional1y two) tonK:. .traight taper to the muzzle. FiCUrt 107 shOW1 a 11 no tine rille barrel 01 this d~i.jft intended. far a hirh pQ\¥f!t Clrtridgt J and the ECDmpanyinl table liva the :lpproxi mate dimensioru at rhe varioUl pointa for the


............ 1',.,...... t9

.... -r ~- --- - - - _... 1P1III .. ..., .,.., ,.... L'

~-~~~ ----~-- -- - - L. __ ~ •• -",--

-- ~ .

......--t . .,. M

II'lOUlLB 101


DlII.:tIL arB

1 1.10 .111 ..tlli 0 lltIdmuII ...w. .• aL ---,
I LDIi ..110 .lIt \&11_ ;;tItlE li ... iIImL J.ccn.I.- .ID a.L
I 1.11 .1" .• ", ..,1iLLi ;Sl.. .- iiUIii .... at (! .ti'.
C 1.*.. t..0IY'" lint , __ • 8-C' ... C-1I MbI
IInIP1 ...... • 111::1 ... .... IIIml.
t 1.14 .111 ~'''1 P~'hi " ~ TJo&iIi:ua
I 1.11 1.00 .10
-, 1-" 1.0'· /11 .111 .. .400 ... _ r.nII.
'l 14U ....... .1"5 Jt&w ~ ........ ...... ru.r
1nIdI to titJiIa.,.
• 1.01 ~., 1IrIDabeIt. ~ .-. !lit I ... -'~ ........, .1"0-40-
It,...". ... ... to _!!!! 244





the chana th at there Olaf be • ti£ht or loose place in the bore whleh up here. Then \lsin1t a. se ron d.-cu t .. ·flat file or a mill-file.. amooth may .ffect accuracy, an d it i5 'UlUaU, belt "«J choose a length of up the murh po rtiDQ of the ba rrel, giving it u even tlpe"r II.Id conbarrd thR.t the fACtory is accustom~d to maling en the theory th. t tour with the adj oini nl portions of the barn l. The file sheuld be the WD rbnen will do better work. On iOiDeth inK that they Ire thor.. IIlOV'td at riah t angles to the axis of, the barrel. and with Ugh t uaiOUIhly accustomed to dome day If ter day than on an unaccwtomed form pressure, I t it .d van ta g-e 0 USJ although Dot essenrial. to Ki-.re the special orde t, 0 f COD rae if iron Ii pts Ire ued the Ion ger Ii pat fill! a Iliiht rocking mOVml~t. Eaeh successive arm" should adnd .... ' 0 £ the loncer b. rrel minim izes erro rs of aim. Also IOllle vance a small fnction of an inch lengthwise of the worE until tblf: melt can bold. and swlnA' steadier when fi d nil oRh and with a lonr total length is covered, The file strokes may be .smwa than in viR buret than they can wi ttl a sbort one, This is why most I nter- work~ hut holding the file Bull en the lathe aLwa19 Calusa rough and Ita don.1 M. tela rUles In: made with hi rrels 21 and 30 ioches Ion... botthr:d work.. I t is dr.siT.bk to 6nish up with a VI!l"Y .line fih~. Ri8e barrels Ire UlUaUy IIhortenrd bcIow 24 inches to m.U:f them 'When the rouih portion lias th w been trued UP:. the ~nti re barrel Iipftr~ or handier on horub.ek~ or 'beHuse 01 fancied easier hud.. should be polished to amove the old bluing and to give • mitTOrliall: particularly in. thick brwh. Olle inch of barrel lmlrth at the lU::e sur&t;e ,rior to reblb:f'

muule '0 f • .30 ealiber S prinlfleld b. ~I Of ~ type weip. H the original barrel a very rough Parkeriud finish it maw .'bout .550 lra~ or I Ii ttl! over 821 ounce. To:find the .... t of be desi rule to go over the entire bane\ Ii itbtly with a file to V"oath • NUn. bar 01 Iteel; square the di.mete r in uu:bes I.Dd drdmal. ol UP"t leav ing tnr !tmdy rat ln plsce, Then remove the steady rest

221 and lightly file smooth the spot' w here it bore, Next take medium

an inch. and multiply by t222S I J.od the result will be the wcieht in emerr-cloth and move it bad:: .and forth hy hand Imgthwlst ~f the pounds of a section 1 inch lonr. To n nd the weigb t of a lifte bar rel, revolving ba rrcl un til j t is polished and perfectly clean ill over . .or a KCtion 'OIf such barrel; fi rst :find the weight oi a bar of the OU t... Then l1:pt:at with nne and. utIa Dof emery-cloth and Cl'OCU!I doth .side diameter of the b&nel~ and sub tract from il th e weipt 0 f • el:c:h in tum until a perfectI y smooth, mi rroe-like so rfa« iI o&bar of tbe diameter of the bote. tained. The ha rrel is nClW ready for find JXflishillll aI apl.ained.

.L\ btrrel for a cart ridge lib the ~25-20 can of course be made in Chapte r 18.

very much lighter than one fer a hi:lh pow-er Clrtridp1 ..nd still live It millot be ~marhd here that in purchasing a Sp~glield rifle exeellent results, The ba rreI on th e .25-20 Winchester Mcd~l S 3 for the pu rpose c f remodelirl K:j it is :always bet=r to pu:rcllue olle of ri.8e meuu r~! .8S inch a.t breech and J 7 inch it m uulc. and it per- the spo rting mede Is w h i[1l has no RaT stlht fix~d base attacli eel.. and haps the minimum barrel that will live 511e accur a.cy In too ealibe r. wi th a barrel which is :3.1 ready polished and blued from receiver to

Barrels for the ,22 caliber rim fire cartridlt& can. problhly be made muzzle, thus makinr it llnn ecesnry tc do all this I.the work. Dr .as li.&h t IS .60 inch at breech and .40 inch It muzzle if IJ f pod .tee!' evea ro reblue,

Such a bunl 10 inches I()ng fired from machine rest mirht IrouP as STRAIGHTENJr-;G BARRELS~ When a shooter con.tem.~ closely u an inch at 2S yard! with sui tab lit .22 Lon,l Ri Be ammuni- plain tuJ"ni1l1 dawn a b.a rYe 1 tu unaller th an its oririnal eli ameter tlon. The.22 Long RJlle CIIn:ridp seem, to Kive ita muimum he should ronsid!r ca~iully the f.en I!1d danpn tb~t Ihnost in~ muzzle veleci ty in • barrel s.om~w Ix: re between 18 and 22 lomu variably attend such an ope fa ben.

lonl~ I t is doub tful if any increase in accuracy (human clement In. tu ming down: th e ba rrel origi nally, it wu in all probability eliminated) reaul ti from inc rrasina: the lenith over 24 inches or the removed from the lathe an d ca re fully Itrai Ibte.oed at tu ftlC" nit. diamHtr ever that .ci\ten for the Sprinafi.eld sportilll type barnl After riflrng. it was again checked ior strailbtness, and straiahteued

(No.4 on the lilt) a .Bath weiaht and Itnitb are livec 10 ..22 caliber if n~ty~ The pressure of the lathe tool a1ways !prinKS me barrel ba rrels to live prope r .Plle:; ranee an.d halance to ri Ret, and to IDlin- Ili;htly O,Llt e f • Btraigh t li De. &0 thlt straigh tel1iag liter each cut it tUn. '- weilh t and ""inK' that will enable the shooter to hold the

nile Itn.dy~ Thus the Wi(lcb~ter Model 52 rile hu I qUitf heavv 223

2S inch barrel. Ind the e:xpc rt shot find lit very tonvezUlD t from ncce.a lJ to bep the outer sur face concentric with the bore, The the lItano poin t of hard and .read., hold ing in all positions. Bur: the final straiptenin& leaves the bore Ippro.,wimately I!!Itrlipt (wry few same riSe c:ould prob. b ly be :6 rted with a light 18 inch b. rrel and bores an: a.bsol ureiy ItWpt) and the tc:DllOn. of the metal such from. a m.rn i ne res t th i!J lip tl short ba TIel mi ght give qui te as pod that it IJtaYI stniaht under normal conditione.

.avenge ~oupe II the longer and benie r stand. rd barrel, N ow, a cut onfy a few thawandtha of an inch deep, taken hom

TURNIN G DOWN BA RRELS: Rifle bar MIs mould be turned the outer lIurfaa of such barrel. may. and usaally does rdeue in .. to the desired weiil:h't and shape in the prnoeB8 e f man u&ctu reI .... d ternal atIeISC!I in the: mmal. awiJlC the barrel to sp riDI back to its DOl: .. ft-e r they h ave been bored. reamed, .and ri II ed, Tu mini a com- oricinal crook.ed or eurved Itite as it was before being Itraiptened. pleted. bit rel down to red Ute its diametll! rs .II! d thus lighten it almost A V~I"J common mistake of the aaateur it to center bi. barrel in inVl.Iiably results in Rlta!lng; 5trai.mi in the steel to such an extent the lau.e, and. t\lra it duwn to the si~ wmted, wi tbDllt thOUKhr Q t that the barrel bends considerablYjI We bave lettl .30 caliber heavy str.aigbtaUna:. The fact is. Ite probably OInQ.ot tell hy loo~1: at barrels that were turned down to lightmtthcm bend 10 much that it whethe:r it it ltraiKht or nOt_ He finishes the job and .tocb 'the one could n"t see through the bore when 'irwin& it fratn breem or band an~ Ktion. onlY to fiad that it is, ~tin.1 .fat-vcry far-Jrom muzzle.. Military riAts .te iJet1ue:ntly "modeled into lportin, ia. Pm1CWI light adjlJSlmellt.. Probably it is n.et=!Sllry to mill! tbr welportS. and whtn the mili ta ry rei r si Kh t fixtd bue. aTe removed aiihts well 0.& centc r tG b Me the JrOup in to the black. AJJdfrom these barrels then will be a rough. U.KlJ'1 unevCII portion (Jf heI~t! fhe wont of jt-that Cll:!8ed croup maves up or dow~ ,right the barnl 9poud. Such. barrel m1.y be pu.ced in a llthle :and Ihis or leftl -rlnJinI ita u(Jts all o,er the p&per~ u the barrel becomes rouEh place t\t raed smooth I and the barrel polished for hi uial and warm from :firml-

no bEn!linr wnl ~lt if thE work is delle carefully. How con.er The blrrel loob IUaigJU on the outside and

Firat you mab • pI \.II £ot the muwt to bold i ~ in tbt lathe. Th it probabJy is. But were xou to 1& wit in two at the ript lXJint, you pI UK i. mown in Fi.IUre 108. ] t muat be maGc 0 f b Irde.ued .tee 1 would find that tile wall wu considerably thicker on oae side tbu. and lround on em te rI.. I r made 01 soft mel it i. li.ble 'b) cau. tbe other-the di6eren.cc often be:inc quite plain to the eye, without wear and to -freeze ia the bore. The lonl Wnk whicb lOtI into an, maJuremcntl. 'Y'hat hu hlPpea~d .. that the vert fi:m (,ut !hI! bore QlUIt" M • pwh lit on the top of the l.odt. The ~en.ter hole takm from the outside IPI'UDI' the barrel .liab tlYt or dee rcleued

222 Itrtsll=a whi~h. permitted it to .prial i tlelf. Subiequen. t cuts. either

lit;hter or beavier~ SPruill it MMDa more peru .. causinI:: • ~Dlpouad m.Ult be loared and drUl~d with a small drill, ad then counter· b!lId ~ the lip.t firdthiq eutl p'Ullly turned the outlide true &ad sunk with .. 60 degree CCUB tenink. as in .u lathe "Work. 'lIa: the COlIlparativd.y Itni,h t, while the bo re R:DIained. c:roaUd. TIl us muzzle plug in the muzz]e .of barrel and fit to dead centtr of t.the. there are placea where the wall Is 'thicker on. one dele Di the bon .Pur the breech end of barrel in chu.ck or live caner. attach I lathe than the other, and thil brinp about • complicated 1ta'IC of dlain. dol' to ba rrel, and tii;hten up on face plate with dOl and raw bi_ The- croobd boTe etUiel the barrel to shoot away from itt DOnal belt laeine:. Then when you have tbe barrel nmninl truly i.a the sipt .djUllmcnt; .. the barrel becomelll beated from ruina. the cx"" lame turn a short lenctn on the barrel to true d iam:eter about an. paMoc of the thicker 'WI.ll be:inll IlUter lb. that of the thin aide. i dch in front of the rouKh po rrion 0 f the ba nel t If PQMible tarn the a..rrcl natu. rally beacit it&el £ ill the direction of the th in walled Qnly th rolllZh the b ~u in, or Par kerizifll: linitha Sel the sttad y rest lide; and the hotter it J.eIS the more it bendt. Then: is DO temeiy




conical gTOOVl!d bulltU~ The Metford systeDI. 01 roundal lands and g~ves was very suceessful with breech loadingi 1_ bullet, bid powder riflC!Ji. The Lancaster oval 'be re q:stem has had Illinp admirers because of ease of cleaning and th~reti~lI lonl life, but ill actual pT actice has not' always p,.en tile att\1ncy desired. The


Ri,by system of II at th&rp co rnered hinds. with comen 0 f groovea

sli(hdy rounded. appears right in th~OTY for modern high pClWeT mnmun irion with jacketed bullets. but ill practice hu not sbowa. any ml rkeci improvement OVI! r the sysrem now in a1 most umven.l rnJe in the IT mud S tates, 'Thls systemt the Enfield t with an nco n umbe r 0 f lands and grOO"lt$. is used in pm:tic::a1) y all American :ri~ and inmost modern fa reign ri fte&. I t is lJ.ud beta use it Jives results w hid. equal those of any other :lY1t~ and beta use it p TbWl the ord lna ry run of inexpendve ..22 caliber npeati~a rilles cheaper and essie r to ri Be a bar rel Oil this system than on others. IIlAY haw .reave diameters runaiDg from .222 .. incb to • 22l-iocb. The I andl and groovet are ,qUi re ·arld have sharp earnerS;. The ~t dll~ alJowab l.e tol erance for the more expensive smul bote .lDl.tcb Endisb guomakers usually rive their baneb aD uneven numher nftea made by the IWD~ 6rm may rull only from .222.5-irl(~h minimum of lands and grooves, so I:ha t: a groove is d i ametericall "! ~ppo!td to to ,223~iDcb maximum. Li.kewise another :6 no may have • to1~nnce a 1 an d, In the U ni ted S ta res, and on the continent 0 f Eu TOjX " for the rroove diameters 0 fits ordinary 30 caliber JpOrtinr riee. however, an even number oi grooves and lands are usually uted. of fl'llm .. JOa ... inch to .31~jnmt wbile on the: fine barrela it: tulDl The number of grooves varies rrtatly I u wdl al the width of laads out for lanl JUlie match shooting they may .tart maldUI harret. and g roov !'I. .308-i~ch (rOO¥'e cli:a.mt:telf and dntard an, barrels measurlnl aver

Gm-erally speakinr.. it may be sai d th.t the groons should be at .308S-UKb. Lead bulleb for oniiDary use lDIY ftry ia different loa.

I ~t as wide IS rhe lands~ and th at thtY' had better be twice u wid~ by llOO2 .. inch hi dil.lllet~r *' but the: ..22 tal iber lead bu.lleb which • Four groove. arc plen ty for ri tlea of f rom ~:n to .30 caliber I Above a.rtrUJp eompany .. cis to U1 importut IID.I bGre rile competitioa t30 tallber it is perhaps best to employ BlX poo~. Thl~ is no win probabl, nor wry more than IOOOS-incl. frmn what may be real ad ftnt.~ in employing I greater Q umber tlf grOGVe!!l thin tbi!l. reprded. u ttadant. One lot of hull .. IhauId nat va" thiI 1IRICh.

bu t nelther ~ tll ~ re any ~eat disrulva n Ia: gt! i n 1JSln~ slip t:ly men. 229

The fewer the number of grno..-ea employfd .. the eheaper it is to iD. fact thcr will hardly Vll'J' at a1~ .. tber will probably all come ri -AI! a ba rrel, and probabl y rh e only reason wby a la rgt r numbe r from one die 011 DR da,'. ml a ufacture.. but a lot made DIll da, of gJOOves are employed than above ill because manu f~etu rem started. may nlJ fn:a I 101 made the foUo-wiaa w_ or from • lot made ta me. the greater number because of some fanciM advantl.PI and on anatlxr pnll hr the amou.ntl liven above. II: is the ODDItm.t have continued to use th It number because they have gottell KOOd e.ndeavor of the: manu fa.c:t1I rer to maintain as cood • fit u pc=ible resu1ts1 and beca usc: they do not care to cbanee thei r preseDt stud.. iletW'eeD b.r:reh and bulldL In ·tiJiI he u handitapped by the necel• rda. on aeceunt of expense. GeneraD y speaking i I may be said thlt lit)' mr matinr & profit en hit coodr.. He mUll: ccmidel' ip!e4 oi me !)"Stem of ritiD g em ployed by all Arne rica.n rile makers in. their prod uc.tion. wear of tools and akill of workmmt eee,

barrell is. good, and (10 real or marked advantap: will accrue fram SPECIAL BAllUj]: Where the· pnaaith demand •• barrel .ny ~hange~ Thi, men to the num bet 'I width ~ and ma.pe Of the of exact IfooYe dianeb!r hI! CID IOmetiml!l set it if he bu I 1I.q;e lands and (I'1JCVeJ only. oulllber of harrell to elect hom. Suppoae tor example • larp

The c epth 'Of grooves vari es accord ing to the eal iber, Lcng ex- maker~1 ..30 caliber banda have been found. to run ia aroove 4i. perifnce has shown th ar in. 22 cal ibe r rim fire~ grooves should be amctcr ham J08·u.c::h to .309S-inc:b. and tbl: J'WIsmi tb wisbea • ~002>"in(h d"p; in .. 25 caliber, .0035. for both lead md jacketed i.rrel wh.ich man mfmllIe between .308..mch md .lOS$..iDcb (ior bunt~ In 30 caliber and 1a rg~r for j ac:kett:d b ullets theY 5hould nothing is pined in apccifyiq cloacr than thia). By meuurinr he .. OO4:-ineh d~ep.. Ritle!l ol .32· cal iber and laraer iDtlf:ndcd on I, three or fou r of that mwr-' baneb he will moat P roIaably lind on~ fa r lead bullets de well wi th ali glltly Ihallower Ii fl ing-aooat .0035- which CQmeII well within hit .pedicatio.. or me mlbr 1Ii..-' inchl Large bore magnu m rifles u!!ing jacketed. bu llets may often .mar Mn be wi1lina to min the ~ Jar h illL But ii the ~ .. use ~ .. OO3-inch det!p, but for .30 caliber .OOj .. inch i. umu.lly ~tb ~~ ~ lame ~ to m.~ •. bum! for him. to • ttlaGrd conside red a little too deep. climawoa, ItlIIcIe or O\ltD~ and di&nDl :hum the ItIndard -tory

The diameter of the :finish named bare befo re it is ri 8ed ii called burell be m.... he prepared to pay high far it" for that barrel .'UI the uho re" or "land" diamct~. The d i.meter to the bottom ef be Jut thro.ab the factory II • apccial job from tt&n m finUb. the 1J"OOV5 is called the ugnJOve diamete1'.11 ud af UlUrR it exerdt ~.1 wolk;men m~ let up Jpedat machins wi~ ~al ~ :hIr the land d:iam.r:ter by twice the depth of the .riflilll. J~ and ~ macbLne oper.to~ must work . oa ~ AU tbiI CCIItI

BULLET FIT: TfJ.e gyoove diameter of a barrd hu comider- like the m1lCbid u compared. w,th the c:att of fWUllOI' 1,000 harrell

228 tb rDlilb OD macbillCl alread.y Jet up for standard. prod uctiaa. .d.

oper.ted by workmen who have to be .illed 001, an atand.rdizcd

able influence an accuracy and blltrei li~ and thu muat he under- ~

ItOO4 by W (Umotltb who would concem himself wirh dmign p MIlIlY fadOnr:. arc orpnized Oulf lor It&ndardized quamdty ~tiom hr rile ba.m:ls. GJ"OOft dillDetcr must .twa,. be proclactioa. on ItDCk artic:_ and tbey m.ay not wish to disturb that ~m!d in eonnccrioo. widl the diameten of th~ bullet.l t1ut are 1tCad,_ Row of quantity produ.ction. and. beoc:e they may very pJoperiJ ttl be URi in tbe~ riles. The diameters of the bulleb ate umally -.blim • policy of refuliq special work. In facI IIIOIt of the fiud. bJ the ammunition mlRuiacturerl but diitereut mannllCtUrers laqe Irms complni~ haft .tablished JUCb pnliciea. There mi., mar use bullm of slip tly d i&rent diumta"l for I liven caliber of be lOme apedal jobs ht they will do btc:au.e me, have cnoulh ~dge" 10 It is- ~ to lind out what the avtnp di~r of all demand for these pan:ic;ular jcbs to warnnt tecpine the spec:ial toob bulldl ]del, to be used is, and use that fipre In the selection .,1 the needed. to do the j obi. For exlmple, at the Pn!II!ftt wridnl eme poov. diJme'lr!r for the blURl~ Rille barrels q,D often be had wiih of the 1-.rp c:ompaniCi arc m akine a lpCCialty of furniahiq md wpt ", .. riadom in groove diuneter. thus allowinl the ~nsmitb a fittiq beavy and selectrd. match hrrels 10 two BIlka. of .22 eal.ihcr tertain latitude in fit between 'bullet and barm. Imall bc:.re liBCI I.Dd ~ cah1er bolt action rilel beca .. there iI

Of cou rae where blJ'rels and Indlees In made in quantlm. by mort or las oj • ateady dan.rld .monK tlrlft' Ihooten for ..m blrmachi~ry . certain roleranca of allnWUmi from the studard di- reb. .... d bcca_ wcb barrcb uecd in importallt riBc .. reba haft amders are absolutely ntCes6ary, for no tom~ tall .Bord tCl dja.. • ceruin IIII01lIII: of advl!rtisin,: nIue. But if the IUllBlllith lIII:n card it::!I tools u meo .. they .how anJ weat.. US a IIWIUfacturer~ to approacb t1W "IDe .fina with • request to fit .. _peti,. .J8...S5 ltartial with new tools, win cut bti bt.rrela to • certain diameter. Nrrd b:I • Balla:nl acriom he would probably meet with a efual, & the teom wear or bave to be sharpened, the diamet.er cbanps tor tben ia 10 little daaaDd ior lucb work that it doeII 11M PI!' aUahdJl and finally the toOls are dillCt.rd.ed. when. they Ire pradudna ID mall1tain toola for it. Ht= could. howocr. 1ft hi • .3a..5S band harrell to me! limit of the toler~. Tbe·umc hold, uue of huI1cta. 'ram I.IlOthcr firm who maka & spedaltJ of m'kiftl rifle batreIs

the diG mr mak:inJ which au 1(!'0000d to the minimum diametet ... d are dilcudm ",ben cbey are p roducinl bullets of the m.xim~ allowable! diameter. MOlt manufacturers bave fwad. it best from W ~dpoint of ~nomy. Ind cxcellena. of product; 00 matr:tail1 a m.axtmum of 'V.a.rt8trcn 'betweUl maximum Ind minimum gmow di..ueten of barrels and diameten Df bullas about as folLnn:

Gno .. dhm or 'b.a:-nr.:

.IIMI''tNrr · · · · · to· .... I ••• 4 ....

a..w':"" • .ubar Uld:rare.: .• ~ •. 4 •••• -..... ianmttn: =

~ blllhta .. I ~ • • • 4 • • • • • • • • • •

J'&C!lI.etd hI'" ... I • ~ • • • • • • 4 • •

,.. .. ColI "f,tIcr;t

.'M.· 4011·

.. 101M .01"01-



Qroo" DlrtBMI"Ir :r.=e+.-,

.. _.




.11 8bDrt..l Lon.. and Rd.n with the rod on the point of ~ the bullet may be DectISI ry ~ Calm

Lc-L. _u~ ~ All all' ~u. II h • d l.alI -*-~ 11 r.

.a If-.4,o, w. c~ JIll. ., W~ ." 0 tdl I t as It 00JlleI out 10 t at It oes DOl I aad deform iuc.u I • md

.,,-.tD w. c. F ~ .400 .4101 110, measure it with a mKro. meter ealieer, M--a'l"lre 'I!I"'!"DS portions

.'1-15 w .• Il. a Y. I ••• _ ~ _ •. w~ .:111 .".1 r- 'I141II'I'''' ~

,-II-II w+ c, 71 .... , •.•.•... 'W1J1OM1l81' .Ir. .1111 10 which lined intn llQrtom of grocnf:l. This will give yeu the

.11-?,O-!55 W, c. P , ~ ,.*,. .1'1" ,.. d· f h b -, ..J... h----'L.. I

,'.-71 2 T' W". C. •. , 'W'~ .If' .. '.1 il groove Ulmet~r 0 t e arrCL It me I" ~I. n a simila r manne r

,1 .... 0 w. c. 1'. ,., ; .. Wlac*Hta. .1'1 .1711 11.' push .. bullet into the bore Ind with the rod move or driye it

.40-10 ~ Btn.Llht .. , 'Wlnab.... ..-tIl .0-

. tl-O L 8. .ad Ballard. • · • ~ "'ne~r ... 0 ... ..,. I. Itraiabt thJoup. the btJ re to with in about an inch of the muulc: .

. 4G fO..lal) Win. • ~ ~ .. ~ .•... Wh!MMiM •4°1 .• GI 10 s · th Lui i.._

. ," fI .. I I ~ Wilt., Wlnahat.:- .0 ~.., H omet:im!S II! D let can uc shoved Btrairh t til routh-I hut often it

::t:U"~8ir8.iiobt·::: ::= ::11 ~!I I: will reqwre ligJ.t bps em the rear end 01 die rod with a hUJU"Def

.111-111 Wlri. • • ••.....••.. ~ 'W1ft"""""" , .Ui , .. , to' grad tlaDy d rive it th roulh~ and if these taps be made I ~,.J,..i: ami

.10-" Mn ~ DI ~"II ifo th • ".1

.4eo WhfI1_ - ~ 0rIftI. ..101 1111 14 un rm, e resistance of the rod to the hammer wiU rive a

.01 WIn:.. & L.. •••••• • • .. • • • Wl~ .411' .'1 II! fair indication as to ........ ether there :are Iny ti ~t or 1 ~ pl .....

• " •• M·~Dm ~ _ liatfl. ro .91 .4:1i • ............

. fll lII"'biioh..ter ••• r • ~ •••••• "Wt.DaIl8lter .fll .411. It in tne bore. N'OW wi th tbe 'uUet near the mu zzlc~ hold the:

·.1tn~c: ·ir· ... ::::::::~: :11:== :1:' ::,1 Jr: fiolt!!W at the mezle ·10 U -to ratth thll! bullet .. ir oomft OInt

.44 Jr.uy R. -. ••••••••••••• W~ .. 4.0 .41:111 and holdine the rod in the otller hand .... tap li:.,ht b1_.- on the

.-4 !--IO w. c. p.. • ~ • • ~ I "WI......... .11 .41' 10 .. iU'WlI

.fl .. 't Wlm.cb..ter ~ w......... ... .4111 )0. base of the bullet, rnduaIJy driving the huller our It the munlrr

.41 -1 U. & OOYt. • 0. ~ .. ·.11 .41' Ca cb· tit

." .. 11 W .. C. 1' ~ .411 II t It wi the fingen and measure it. rhWl obtainina me

.41-10 w. C. . .••••••••• 1'1111~ .41 I Iir1"I'V'nJ't diameter It Ih~ muz.zle. In ma.su.rlna- tbeg.e bullets al-

.4 '-tl' W.. c. r. . .. ~ ..... ~ .. JtbtoII.... ...... .4' • & .... _.. ."'-411

.• 1 ~ t", •.•....••••• ....,. .. 41' .. 41' 11 ways meuu re the grallest II iamete r. from the raised. porti(]n which

.11 8IaL.rDa 4 •• .. ••• BIl.aI"m .10' haa uesee ] t.. - ·de" ·t ~ • th

, t .. I. -"W'f1'i~~ •.• ~ •••.•• W1JlGhat. .IIS Ie as u.ps~t mttt tue gro() ... ~ on one!J ,to .-ttlil.L¥ r portron on e

.11 ... ll1o,....tID WlD.. • t ~ • .. • • II" • ~.Il1 Il"L •• otfttr side. To obtai n· bon diameterl with • vePV sh.~ kni fr

·1 :,"'L QGyt, •••••• '11. I. GovL .111 - .. .::Ii .. , .)'"

• ~Rlltl m . . Bofrma:a. .lItI .. 1111 11 carefully Cllt away the railed groove portions on eithe f . ,id~ so

_!!iiI Go""'t. 11'. L. ~. 11. a. Oo"rt. .10' 'h th 1 fi

_________ .....-- ------------ t at c micrometer wit t into and measure those portions which

hon~ 00 the ro~ 0 f the 13 nds,

I t' mar be said that this tAble shOWl dimensiOlll 'Which IN the To d etc rminc th e smooth nesti () f 00 rt and to detect and Iocak

mol b 'Of !D~Y yean of ~rietU. The dimtDliom are thOle whiCh any possible tight or loose pla.as i n th~ bere, place the! barrel in bat *it eXlshnl bun~ and they should be deplrted from only after a. ntll vy vise" u!in~ brass jaw covert to a not to mar it. Fa ree II

comiderable ~xperimce and careful thoulht and .rudy. lead bullet infO the breech 81 befol1!. Have. good big croll-piece

.1M Itandl£ on the rod 01 wrap L t heaVl1y with a piece of doth. ~t

CHAPTD 16 Ih~ body wei Rh ~ behind the rM, t.nd fo~ the builift th rough the

bore with a steady motiont as slowly at you tan move· without lettin~ the bulht Atop for an i rl!It2nt.. 1 t should take two or th ~ sn»nd. s 10r the bullet to pass t:b rough a 30 11K'h ba rrel, I f it JOCS th fQugh with an even an d p:;n.dual. ~ and p retSU re it is faj r I 'f Wli farm. hut if there are tight or leese placet; the d iiermce in pressure and. apmJ wit show these up. A 1 ittle k"ack d n.ecr.nary and one should pndice it th ret or four times, and should also repeat the test a few timn tD be lUTe! of hi. ftndirtgL The belt ba neb an those


whicb have lID tipt or loose p~ hut hive nen diameters from brerdt to muzzle. altboueb moat rifttDlQl tlI.ve the apiaica that • rile to shoot lead. bulleh exdU:vdy will do bet~r work if it Fs jOlt • little bit tidur towJ.nk the muzzle, bciaa puall,. tapereL

MEASURING CHAMBERS: To rDeuul"e the tbuaber of a riBc: it ;. J1eCC!JBaIJ to make a lui phur C!ast. The chamber r ud about one icc:k of the riBinl to rward from i~ should be tbaroUCh1y I:leaded and then covered with a very thin film Df lipt. ~Iean oil.. Take • cork the ,iR of tb~ bore of th~ ria., and drill a small bole th rouah iu eDCt center. J R thil hoLa place .. pita! of Itnilht wire, aboat ..D62S-i ncb in d iametn. Prell the cork: in to the chamber and un about half 111 inch into the riftin& so that the wire atends th rou~11


THE J4~URING OF BORES: 'The Otd~ Deput ... aJalt takes the meuuremetJb. Gf the horQi of Spnq6eld Bul Ene riSes with. au imtrolDel1t c:a1W a "Star GauKe H no.;, a lone Ihcl rod" bored out to contain anOther ted imide it. Oee emd Df the auDer rod contain' 1tUd4ecl proj~ which fit tiptly into the &J"OOVes. expanding to fit the bottom of the croons when the ."wIer rod ia pushed iato the larpr rod II and. a -=al~ on tJae breech end of the rod Ii vcs tit.: rroov-c Uld land di.meten.· The COJ!IbirwJ rod is iruerted the dfSim:l diJtance into the bore. the inner rod pushed up until the pr~jedioru come tlP tiPt· .p8t pjows Or lAndsJ and the di.ametef read ali the.:ale. n.. the InlO.C aad bore diameter Clft be recorded for nery Uu:b oj tIM bore frora chamher to muul~ and lUIy tight or loo.e places can be detamiu.cd.

A star pup barrel i. limply one which las mUll hem meuured and Jonnd to come within cc:rtain prCICnDcd limita. U rually .• barrel is not sent out from an Orda-nce Departmen:t anenll unless the IfllOVe diameter romrs with ill the fip.res .308 to a308S-incb t &ad unlesa it is pndically ftee f~ tiaht or lao.se places. SUr --------~--------~~--------.

pup .re nry apm.v~ and are nOt awLiJabM atcpt at Gv+ern- 'E~-.::~

ment ancnab..

But-- there U: another way to. mr.-· ..... re the han: of • rile lJanei

which is about u cooct. Thit is a, dtivinr a bullet thrvuP tbe bore, ami then me.l.lring tblt bullet with • microlDew ca1 iper ~

Select I bullet of pure lead which it .e.venl thouandths of .. i.neb .,:. ,.... .. .• ,. _. ·t

luger than. tb~ apected I(I1)OVe diameter of the barrel J"GU wiIb tG ~·~":&£~·<·~~::',-F ..

~~~ It~~h~a~r~tt~I~~ ~a~ ,~:~~.~~p~.~~~~~~~~~~~~'~,- .. ~.;~~.~~-~.~~ •• ~ .. ,-~,~~.~~~~~-~ .. ~ •• ~" •. ---~,-.~~.~.~,'~.~

ample. if JOB wish to mNMlre • .30 cah1>er n:rrel about the beat .. ., lUIUI.Q .l.ll,.PKUR l'KA.M"B.ER c,.\ I!I T

Indlet Co UI8 i. the RKUlar iactory lead bu11tt for tile .32 W~ C," F. the tork ud back to a point IeVeral inches in rear of th hreech .. ,:al"trid.p. which II Ilort; of pure lad. aacI IDeUOI'CI . .311-iach1 11te wire func:tion.t .. .. bandie for the cut u tb.e cut ii ftty If JOU haft no bulku correct· in lise, him MDe U1J OIl • I.tbe oj brittle. The mOOure ior the -=- is made of the foUow!nl materiaIs:-


pun:: lead. Clt:an the barrel thorouch!,.- mil lubricate it ¥err Uptly with • thin ail like ·'3 in 1 .. ,. Have a •• !ttel rod Ibout UII i.ncbea Ion ICt til.... tlm bore, and dmoal the dilmeter of the hon!. Hat wry slaw I,. and Itt I COllti nually. When the mixture U li .... es with a aplan:, blunt tip. Sliptly lubriah the bullet. drop it at & thin pourin.r cansWtener. pour it into the chamber quickly, aad paint fint into the du.mber. Ina with tile rod mne it about an allD1! to cool tloruu,lhly before rmtOV'ln,. To remove. place • inch into the ritUn~ It IDlY be ~fC~sary to bit the rear erul rod 1ft tile muzzle and above lip-tty on the cor~ letting the cut of the rod • few liKht blOW'$. with a hlmmer to Ft the hullet come out 11 ow), II ad handlinr it very cinprl,. II it is quite brittle. lta:.rtM in 10 the ri Ring.. I ru.ert the rod ioto the n1uzzle1 and very Thil cut can DOW 1M: mequ, red witb a miC!O.meter lind tale" and C2refully press th~ bullet out again at the breech. Slight tappin, wl11 pve tile dimeuiOQl of the chamber .. well at itt mape. The

I!!ID~_ _ . .. • .. • • • • • • • • • • . • • • ;I.......,..

~ ~ blaat I ~

aa.. -=Pcr .u.ol'ft4 .. alMhol ••••• aro..

mixture is aImost shrink proofl but it is well to allow tOOO5-incb for lightly squared 0& until they do meet. Some ba-rnl makers lay Ih ri [lkage if measured at enee, 0 r tOO t -iach if measu red i. d..y after great stress 011 the fl ttin, oj thi. shaul d~r ttl the end of me reaut. It il lmponanr that the Il'lbture be heated llowlYI otherwise eeiver rinJ:1 and employ the 'ispotUn.(' method to secure perfect it MaJDXI too thia to pour. contact. One celebrated band. maker maintains th.at best attuTaCy~

TW 1ST OF RI FLI N G : The rable on the p rev lout :pale in plU'ticularl y in .22 caliber match riftH, is obtainl!d w'h.en the entire Chapter 15 ll10ws the twists of riRina: which have proved best for aurface of the barrel shoulder it in perfr:ct contact with the end of variau. calibrrs and ~rtridp U • lUU]t of ~rs of I:!xper·imce. the TeCeivtt. with KJuaI pl1!!5B1tte at all points. To Uspot ian a The lom:r tile muale veloCity, tb~ lancer the bullctt the poorer barrel, the end of the receiver wilicb bears 3pinst: it 15 very lightly the quti'tJ of the bul1~ and the lonpr the ran«e at which aJrUTlU: coated wi tb Prussian blue, and the barrel &C rewed in ·w rl,. tiaflt; I"elUI til In clnired, the quicker the twiat of ri Bini mwr be to cor" t hen leJDO'lJ e it and note thr. !tpots of contact. D reas them oft catcrtctIv lpin the bullet 10 that it will kRp poiat on .nd flyaceufatl!!ir.. fully with very fiDe files. 2. 3-inch die1inkds a.ted.le nle ""dt

237 usually Klrve; or some of the varlOUI die--si n kerll s ri:IBm IS made

For example: th~ standard twist of the .25·20 riRr: it one turn bv the Americ:a.n Swiss File Company. Cofttinue'··th~ spottinK and

in t -4 inches.· In bI.clt powc er day, that tw ist often failed to keep test .. fitting until the con tact is pe rfec:t when barrel lack! about 1/16 an 86 lTain bullet lrom key-bolinl Iliw. tiy because the velocity that mch of being 8CR'Wed up; thea give til e wrench the finu twist wh ich COlI]. be- givt:n with a full cbaTg: bf bl.ck pow der WIS too low for sets it all the wly.

the camhin anon of twist aDd Imgth of bullet. S~nt}r~en grain Fi:rure lIlA shoW"! a. good. type of ",mach to use in serewinJ: bunch gave much better accuracy with black powder. Today !Smoke- bl~' into and out of recd~ It is made by welding Of' brazing lnI powder gives hil'h~r v~loclty. and a 14 inch twbt ;9 ample for a piece cf tool steel to the upper jaw of a large menke, wrench. an :8 6 Rtai n bull et in .25 -20 ealibtr. A t 4 inch tw ist wi U Tail wi rh hlL nd le from 18 to 24 ind:us ]ong, The notch in tnis false 10 spin a 1 t i ~ra j n .25 caliber bullet at M. .".... 2,000 f. s. t but will jaw is Ctl t at 31 angl~ of 90 degrees, living it tw'O-paint contact 00' spin it "ery nicely ancl keep it point .en up to 200 yards a.t lent jf the mund, upper portion of front end of reeelver, The Rat la.rer lhe velocl Iy be inc rtu~d to 2.500 f. 5.1 bur: If accu racy is desi red at j aw bears against the R. t poltlon found on the unde r tide of rtf(Kt .. ery long' range the hvist h ad better be cno( tu rn in ten i~chel fa r bol t attion recei vers, and the wrtndJ Ihould be ICrewed up ra"the r a .2.-5 cal i be r ba rrel to UN: 117 glcUn bullets. . ti gil tly. I t II ad viable to d rill four to six 1 /8-inch hola. in the

A standard twist of ant tum In 10 iacbn has been ert.ablilhed M~!KrCW of the wrench 10 that it may be tidn:entil with. short fa r .30 caliber ri fte~ A 14 i nth twist is luf6cient to Ipin a perfed: length of d n11 rod, The !11rfat:e of both j I"W"S of the wlencll mOllIe 220 grain .30 eat bullet to 1.000 yard~, but such. twist IlLly permit be polished off mrooth to avoid .,.rril1g the n:ceiv~rj and the jaW'S • PODt 220 crain bullet to keyhole at 600 yard,. or a perfect 220 mar be modi6~d as desi red fa obtain purchase On rkeiven of ".riow I[nin buller to kf:Y hole at 1 JOO Y' rds, The 10 inch twi5t is d Ie.. types ~ Most [ever .• aitm and sinde Ihot receiven h.ve twa Bat fated by mili tary D~lSity fa r accuracy at ext reme1y loag: ran me surfaces on ~ither sid~ OQ whidl • standard lonK II1Of.Ikey weElcb with war rime ammunit ion. A 14 inch twist IDi jl;ht be am pie £0" 'Wi thou t mod i ficadon of jaws other than to polilh them, wiD tab

• h un ring ri R~ and excellent ammunitiOl1~ ba:aU!C sccu racy twer 400 h~td.· 239

yards is not demanded. .; Slow tWist1 if pe:rmiuiblr:1 d an ad yantllile

.&I it maku for Ie,. ·f ric ti on, h ence lon~r barrel li fe t and gtea tf!! r rue In cl~ng.

THRE."DING BARRELS: The rummitb may find it dcaiT" able Or nfctssa TV" to rhread new ri He b~rTtll to lit them to certai n receive rs, 0 r be may desi re to cut the thread G££ 0 f an old ba rrel, IDd rethreld it for anether receiver, ,.hi(h of course involves reotham berln r. Or arai nit may oec:=alionally be necessary to turn the rhrea.d 0« of a barrel.. :!Ii hrinl:: 0 r solder (JD • .l-eevej and cut. new receiver th read OD the sleeve. AU 0 f these jobs he earl readii y do provided that hit il!l a. trained machinist and familiar with the cutting of strew th reads on tile en W ne lathe. I f he b nat accustomed to th is we rlt he mu st e nne r se rye an app renticesh ip at it. or he must fa rm th ia wo rk cut to some cempeten t machinist., or p refe TI bly to • 1Ia T rei making firm.

The rh read in" 0 f a ba r rd ia iI1leparab 1 y connKt~d with cha mbe r-

ml!; 111 d headspacing t and all who attempr to thread bar reb mu~t b. ve a com plere und erst and in~ 0 F these sub j ects wh ich are ex pl ai neil later. R i Be ma lc. e rs use many d i lerent styl es I)f th read 3nd pitch fo r tne; T reee LV e rs and ha rrels. Thc re is nO standa rd, and we find on "ariou~ makes of r~ftt'5, the uv /11 Whitworth, U, s. Su.ndard~ N&tjQ~alt· a.r.d SoU.a.Tif forms of threads, The tbreJd of the barrel ... t H eu t II) thR t eh ere wiD be: I unall telersaee betw"e!D threads of rece1ve rand ba r re 1 in order that the index IinCl will meet when the ha F1'! 1 is serewed en rire! y home with a w t~nch ..


238 IIUP:W wrly f!uiI y m withiJ1 about 1/+tu.rn of meeting of index lia~ and MtJuld tbtn require! I. he .. Yy WI each to ICTtW en ti rely homr. The uind9 line.!" are the two .mortt almost invis:ible 1inat one cutin receive=r, and ane in barRI" whidl meet exactly when th~ bar nl .s ecrnved entt rely home toto thl!!: receivt'r. The ISSU ranee 'Of correct head.spaec and secu rity of barrel in recehrer ~ the most important nason~ for sr:ein ~ that bunt i5 tr: I r:'Wed exactly to Index line:!~ bu t .Iso if frant and rea. r aiKht bues ba'Ve prev ious I y b~Il mOUIlttd on tb e ba rrd t then these should. stand truly "¥e.rtical wheu th-e in dex liDn meet.

I f it is impossible! tp get rhe inceJ; lines to meet when ~be bar n:l i! scn:wed 'Up forcibly with a long wrenth. thtn • .nstead of easing up an tne th Mild s 10 glVl!: th~ wore tole ranee than is a llowf'd in good machine prs.ctice't the face of the shoulder on th:e barkl should b~




N ever. hold the S'f!ceiver in a vise and sere w out the barrel when it can be avoided. Rath er h DId th~ barrel in the vllf! and tum the r'!a!!iver With the 'Wtmcht A good inexpensive method 1)£ hold in, the: barrel in the vise 90 that it will net be m Intel it as foUows: 1'" Ilk!: a piece 0 f S h e 1 hy tu hi ng1 4- i nehes Ion g-] with in~ d e diameter slightly smaller than barrel near the breech, .and walls about 1/4

F"~q. 108 ri;3

\Z..£.. i.«.

- ..... ~ ...

~ I!~ ." ..

- .. .. ...

~\1; ...

... .. .. .. .,. .. ..

. . -- ... ... ..

..... ..

..... _--


". .....

- ..



~ ,



'1''-', Ul E

F1g~ 111 A

inch thick. Taper ream this til be the samr; taper and diamett! n IS the ba net it is to be U$~d on~ theq Ipl[ tone, side with hack""",, Dr mining cutter. Slip it over the ba.rrel SftuglYt then grip .t ia .:a pair of pipe jaws in a II-rge vise ~ setting the -vise up as ti glltly ·u pmeibh:. and use the w rcnch OR the Rc:ei \leI as above. If this split rubing: is used 011 a straight ta~r barr~ I it ml'Y be made ttl fit c1eaT back to the breech" However. DR • blrrel with two 0'1: more- tapen it w[)uld be botb di fticu I t and e,,~ivr to ream the sl£cv-e to fit; .so in such a rase fit it f3, r eJ)()ugh to TWa rd to ~t a sio KIe Itrailbt

tapet ..


WIJ en !eating new barn b w hlch screw in wry ti g:~tl11 partie .. ularly if one hu to set up nuny barrels 01 exactly the SlIDe type or outside d imenrionsl a pai r oj blueD as shown in Firu re 111 B will pay fa r merosel "I!:lt al thoqh n ther expensive to ml k'f!. Castj ron it· probably ali good. material as any for this IN rpese, aDd it is ~"'I, ~ ad1ined. A be .. .". 'lock is first drilled and th en reamed to lit the barrcI5t and then 1p1it nn botb sides .with millin, cutter.

. 240

Or the two hloeb ., be made ~, tnd the barrel pJOvt: pr&liled. Holes lot 1/2 iDCb. d r.w-bol tI are dri11~d. .nd the deyia! bolted ftrmly to tome IOlid uprilht IUllpo.r~ t Iw:b .AI a root IUPponina belm in the .bop. With. damp of thil kind~ and the b.rrel poova lapped. our &lid poliahd., bum. already blum may be ~ed. into receivers without the aliehtclt dlUllC r of marrine the finish. I bave not bad muc::h IUtce. with wooden blocks hollQWm

OUt to :fit thr: barrel, .. perfect cantaa' ret \Ii red 10 r I nan-slip snP CD hardly be obtained ia. wood. Some Illlumitha use these blocb hollowed out iarpr tb~ the barrel and lined witb heavy leather tu:' ill, and dust the surfau of the lcatbf!r with powdeml rodn.

method is all rieht if it wor~" it doe..

MOlt .22 c:allber burel, an Muir I emaved. as they are ldUall,.

Dot .ucWIEd. in as tilhtlr .. the higb power t.arreb 0 f larger ealiber. Octa.ptI barrels Ire e:uy--lwld th~ in 1.0 ordinary 81.t jawed Tiae

with sheet hr .. or capper 10 protect the barreL

Be careful in all CQtIi to &'0[4 marrmL bendiDl't dentinCt nr Ipnn&ina: the ROO vel. I f it iI of .. shape whim cannot be read ily &riPped. in a smooth jawed wrtnch without d. map; bettt:r inlet • couple (Jf hlrd wooo hlocb·· to fit its contour. and crip thete blotb witil the w ~neh. S()metimeI:l piece of sheet lead wn.pped. around it will tal ve the di&culty. In the Mar 1. 1923. Blue of The Am.ericm Rif!emlDt Colonel Stalter o&ed I meth~d of removing KfllE barrels from. .mom. wbicb is Nb.tan.tia11r .. followI:

wr... 6rrt problem 1. to ftlnO"i"e Ihit old b:arnJ. T Ike two pilla. cd wood. .beNe: 4 ,II; 6 iucb. .Dd two il:bCbe. th i.dt aad ak.f.C tkal rallp,J,. writ" ...... c:hJICI ... d ratp co & 00 each .Jete ~ til. recei-ra 1'. •

NPl .. tbI rccciTCI" mtlli bJac:b·1D ~KC ia th "liM mel lUI" It up ti_ 10 at to lIold. de rece.ive.r •• II!'eIy. Tab I pifet! of Itr1UlK J'OSIe lboll.lt ..... III .If u.P in eli amcter ud nrcf",e w Ute... het 10m.. dnbl. It iD .. mJd.d Ie~ ldck the ead of • .~ naadle Of dIbill:r pi,.. of moGA 'WOOd thrGuAb; lb. loop ud. w:[ad the doWled lOpe dtGGth.1,. IIAd. tlahd,. fnm Dear the b,recch. ta'IIr'. rd. the mu:u:le. Wlad tbe rvp. ia ~. 'Proper direct:loD. to th.~ w'hea tb. m I'" it rotUed .rouu tU b. rrcl 10 ., to OR-btu tb. rope the nri .. iDI fora "ill be PC! nt:d la I COLlate:! dKkwite dilWdiCD ud ft.... to \lD.ICtI!I"ff' the barnL·'

u'HoJd, lb. rope ti rcbtlJ' aeu the lDu.~lif .... ith ODe h 1.11. md. twill tb4- lever with de od:le:r b. .. d~ By I[e"tdDa • Iho-uldft' uod.r til. l..vfr ad UhlaJ; up ,II'e.~ lotte caD I.e ezC! rteeL If thi. dOlI IUIt .. R:tulta, "It Ih. r_lvtt :Ill.Itt.,. with • blo"", torch or • ~1J:Idl&. '!bit "UJ utu.allr "' .ad it aatfieieatI, bl all~ the buret 'OG .. 'ilIIEfCW' .... "

A word of c.utiOJL Rtmon the bolt or breccla mechanism before IttePlptinl to remove the barrel Such a -min& lUI.. IUperl UOUJI and un.neteIAry, and .bould be, b'U t I hive ICm • gurumUth 01 dllrty-odd. yeatI. experience Jr'UDt and twist • barrel DUt by main Itrenph ami awbrardDlCII without eTeIl opellinl the action, break ... fnI' oil tile ~r fI_Il" md cuttinlE • Iliee out of the brea:h with itl and then alR for ten min\lt~ 'WIthout repeati1l1 himself I

CHAMBERING: Chamherfnc of riftr 'bu-ML. it .a openUian


thlt many IUnsmitht. may be called upon ta co. If tbBJ m:ukrtale it tltey mould know all about it u if is ~ly important that it be d.one u::atuy riiht. On me concct da-.mber1R1 of ~ rUle barm deptnds itt safety,. its lCcur~., ud to B Ir~t ~t I tI len.,th of life. to say l1athing of its .~lit)' ~ ~and1e. IU tartndpi -e,:f6cb:ntl~. Let the jUJlsmitb make. I h tde .Sllp ID dC!J.gI1, WOIkmanabi PI or dl ~ men.ions and the barn:l may ba1le no semblaZlce of .accuracyt _ BJ,Ld what is more important, h may maim or + kill tbe D.1JD ~ho fires it. Chambc riDe; it lruep.ara.bly connected With tb e ~ding of the: barrel, and. with headspat' ng. and these three! operatLODI IDU5t ~

comidcrcd top:ther J

At the time that th is :it hein, wri t'b:n thc.re h~ occurred a C~

where a. very prominent mabr of band made riles tllmed ou.t • riae for .an !!quill,. prominent rifiemaDt which ,h ad I ~ ~i1de e~· live bcad.apac.c. Moreover the ~~"lbr acqUl~Ctd 1O. the. rl~eman making his own cues for dill rl:llc: by necking d.own eDIting .30-06 ov. in • band tooL Tbil of coune ruulted in the ~ beinll DOt .uniiorm. whldl ~. c:nctly the .same II thouib the riSe!



had vtry ~iV! be~e for some 01 the camid.. for if there it anytbjnc tbat tU:eI the pe.tat Ikill it i I the iormiol" of dies for USUriDg the exact dimensiOIlII of cartrid Ie aiel. The result was a most scriou ace dent wbich crippled the rifleman for life1 .Gnd he was very lucky not to h av:e hem killed.

Every l'lligmith 'Who undertakes chamberinlL Dr the littiq: mel tbKl.diol of bartt4 lbould know enc:dr what he d. doin&, md why J be should have lOad mechanical abilitv I and. be should be s;(l,Llpped. wi m tb.:: b-=st lJi tools. These are DOt tJperatiOIlI whicb aa amateur can do J'iaht the 6111t time. ~ or LJ'e they operatioDi wbiclI ri8tmm. should trust to any gunsmith.. Purch.sen df rila: should uccrtain tbat their SUn.uaith h;u the necasaE"]' Iki1It or We they th'Culd insist that their riflE be chambeIed, and the receiver and bolt fitltd. at a factory where there ia no doubt wh~ that the proper and hec:a.sary skill w UI be used and every precaution tl.Een.

B fieRy f cbamb ering consists of namjnE out me b.rcech oj the barrel with 1. seria Df fluted reamert known u cbllDberinl l1!aDX~ 10 as to form the ea1arlement OT da amber into wbim. me eartridp fit:&. The op~ ration is dan== gradually, eaclJ reamer in tum beinJ:

II ipuy [a fF r than the pnadinll one. Befurll!!l the lilt. or finilh .. in~ reamer is used. the barrel it threaded. and fitted. to the rccci'VClt and fin.lly the 6nishing reamer it run in to u:actly the rlabt depth in con; unman with • set of beadspace PRII!!S and the breecb hl9c:k lbat i. Kaine to be URd in tba.t indi vid u:d rit1~ tD be czrtain thlt the ehambe r ia OJ. t to exactly the riabt depth t and th .... Ulan- correct headJpac:in~

[f tbe diameten or lencth of. the ehamher be 1:00 .".11 W cartridF will ~ot nt, Dr it will zive too biah--posai'hlr danproutPRllUret, or tbe fired (uel will be dima...tt- to atract, aad. ia


add itioat tlnless bullm of avery even and Hlccted diamettr be 1lIEd, it will probably Iftult· in .n inaccura~ barrel. If tlte di.meter of the chamber be too large the barrel mar be Uw:cunteJ althDUgh --we have seen lOIn! luzr chambered rites shoot with • nry fa.i r d egue (If ac:cuner; also the life 0 i the barrel will be sbn rt due to PI cuttinl1 and the fired. casa w ill expand so much that they cannot be reloaded-they may even split., I f the chamber be too lOIlL tD.;lt is too much t.e.d:epace.. the carrrid ges may misfiret the primers may &'low out. the caItridp cue may Mpante a haIf inch in front cl the head lea,ing tbe forward portion o£ the cue lodged in the chamber. uuJ even the whole head or the case may blow out. allowing ps to .r:scape to the rear I cnmpletely WftCDnI the breech .1Mchanilmt and perhaps seriously in] ur i ng the shootEr. In. marLY -of the measurem~tl 0 f the chamber even a fnr thol..Mnd ths 0 f an inch. :q;JaJ make all the d iHerence between success and complete failure

Qr~~ .

'The first dctai 1 we will take up is that of the deaizn of dIe chambert that is its dim,=nslons 3I1d shape with refeml~ to the e&rtrid&e that i. to be used. Tb~ dimemiom and lhape of tbe chamber mUll: be based on the diaunsion!t and ·shape of the c:artrldpl and the kind. of load. that cartridge contaia., and nIUIt abo conform to good Old nan~ en&incc:rinz practice. No ca.rtrid get arc made absolutely unif<lrmly, but .&r~ made with maximum and minimum dimemions. the system or lnspec[ion at the: cartridp: factory imu r- 101 that no artrid ge will be prnduad larger than the maximum mea.suranm~ nor smaJJu than the minimum meBliurcmcntl. The cham~t mWit be cut to fi t and operate SildJ witb either • mmmum or a mi(]imum cutrid~. To do this it is necaut}' that jt be just large enou gh to work luc:~fullf a.nd u:fely wi tb th~ maximum canrLdge, but no h fger" fo r if it is larger it will pr-obably be unpie with rh e minimum cartrid ge. This establishes rhe a:z;e md shape of the clwnb£r within very close limite.

U nfortunl. tely most gtJnsmirhs are unilble to obtain the dimensions of milximum and. minimum cartridKtS from. the cart ridge ma ..... nt who usually regard their .drawinga md drSgns as ronlidmtiaL F ortunlltely we aOi in molt cases t arri V~ It a wry cloee approximation of moe! dimt:nlions of the Q18..Yimum and minimum cartridge from tbe me:aw "men tl of a :number ot standard ia-ctol"J cart ridges of the varioul mak~~ the mean 0 f tbe m.easuranc:ats (] f whim may b! taken as th! average or mean cartridge.. The. meuurerDl!nts sbou.ld not be taken fram cartridges. of only one make. fo r tbt3C may di.ffer from those of some olh-er mU:!I .lightly. and you want the ri Be to be sa tis fact 0 ry with cart ridges of all standa rd makes.. Th-ere fore, when atarting to design I. Nt of ch Ilmberipg reamers,t

one Mould lim obtain at le .. t ~nty cartridp of all mues of that caliber. .ad abo ~l!timCi all the varictiel loaded with d Ufaent

weiPt bullets. 243

FiguR 112 Jives the DlIPmum ad. mia.imum dimensiCH1l gf the .30 alibe.r 141 (-JQ...06) and the .30 caLOer Model 1898 (Krq) I

c:artridaet. the IIl'Clluranentt bci.a" cnpicd from ofticl.l Ordnmce dn.winp. The: meaa. or aveJqe cartridp IDa)' be taken .. bci.IlK the ann of these extreme dimension!. Tbw if the pnsmitb wiO meuurc a lot of any orher maR and lise of cartridps. and &~ theae meuurements, he arrivCl at & "ria of mean JDl!UUreooentii for

that partjcu).ar ",.kr and caliber of cartridF. Thea take half the flill'ertMe between tbe maximum and miaimum cI.immaions as ahown in. FipM 11M. or FiJUl'e 112B. and add it to tbNe melll di mea- 1i0DS. .IIJKI JOU haft what may be repnlecl .. the maximum diroealion of me particular cartri'p )'OU are rtmsideri.nc. n.e.e.t- thea, ~~~~~wbi~pu~~~e~m~~tri~~------------------------

caasiduin, tbe deaign of your dumber. Several hours an profit- J'Ii. na.

lhIy be IpeDt with 100 cUtriclKm (20 of eac:b five .makes), • mi- COI'WeIliente and speed in a special tu r ret lathe.. It il & principle

crometer,. VUDier ruler t pencilt md paper, ift deu:Jminin&' measure- of ttaminr that a I'Qmer J if opnated by hand, and if not forced. DXDbI, md thia wnrk mould be chtcked. ad techecbi to be Nre lIGdulr, will JUm OUt exart1,. in line with die·axis of the origin&l that there is DO ~J: anywhere. Do not wrk iL TIle n:sult will 'hare. To _!II: in this. each ream~r is prorided witb a pOOl: or be • drawing of the maximum drtridp: for which the dulmber cylindrical portion in front of the rotting edgel. which~ riding on

Ihould he cut. the top "f the laftd't aett u • £U ide and. a centering .. gmt for fbi:

Ficurea 112A and 1128 aim shaw th.~ PUlximum. and minimum. . 2+S

chamber dimmsiOlll mr the .30 caliber MI (SprinKfidd), and the M4xtJU,1NDIY1INIMUMOIMCNSIONS.

30 caliber Model 1898 (Krq) cbamlJerL If the chamber it ~ ..aoc.AL.~Bil9RFLE c.HJl.Ma:R ..

be mt for IiOUIr ca.rtridp other thin theac; there lhouLi be the .aoGIL.MI898 CARTRIDGC •

• me tolerance between. the maximum cartridlt! selected ad de- 1iIII--------II"- .....

termined., aad the .finisb1n.g cbamberillg reamer u there is bcrwecn -I-·f§,. '" _. A

the muimum cartridge and the maximum cllamJw:r in these draw- IfI ... _............:

in... 7be naisbinC reamer Jbould alwar- be made to CUt the ma.ximum chlUDber. £Or u it it used. on barrel. after barrel it will become dull" will have to be SlOaN to Ibarpem i~ which will of coune red:uee its ti_. ad tb~n it mat be diEanIed wbm it is euttin.1 the minimum chamber, or eIte II'CIWld d~ for ute .. one of the pre-

Jimia." J1!Imen. .

A lot of foolishness has been written about minimwa. or tight dwnben. Many ahaoten ICeJII to think that tight chambers are veil' dainhle, and that they aft Dl(I!re actUrate.. The truth it that tidlt dwnbers are 'Vcry u.ndaiablc~ 'The,. ~ mil, aeasrate only· ....om .. bullet of till exactly correct. diameter is wed., aad it ia oftal mUUEUeC'lllllmE1 hard to .pt IUCh buUets. Clu.mbc n eat with the rdatiw dilllM1liollI Uld tolerln~ .bawn la me d rtwinp are the molt ac-conte and _ti.dactory chamben botm. Praetically C1'C:ry .American. lIIIDuf&c:turer i. ROW dcsignq his chamben for DeW" cutI'icIp with tolel'UlaS betweeo maximum cartridee and minimwrI chl,"_ l'UJ' cloJely a])l)l"tJxinM riDl t1Joae slown here, ud we cu• too hi, impftll upon the I"nsrQith rilat he MOuld follow theIe u .. auWe.

Yay Dhm • w.tomer will write to • lUDm'id! Dr a manufac..

244- tIIn:r. iltld It-.te that he desires a b.rrel cut with an extremely

dahl c:hambel, or I chamber of PDt peculiar .abapc. Tile aun- uaitb milht very properly refuse to cut such I chamber from the ltm&lpoint. of safety alone. B W: he eaa alsa plead the COlt of makinc the n.ecenuy tWDeH. Certainly the cost of mak~n til; the two finithinc reamers wbich will probably be necasal'J to cut • chamber to some spcdaI. diJDCmlion would be not ksa than $40_00 in Ulan lab.Dr~ pllll at leut the same unourrt: for machine tabort both doubled far overhead. T 1) thete we mi pt add the dayts labor of the h:i ghly

trained man .~t in .n.Kuriag out dimauioM. prcriotWy dacnKd. laded a complete set Q f cbllIDberilliK reamen tad IJ' COItt from $200 to $100 to mab, and the custOQ1tr who glibly talb aboat hlvinl a tpCCi, By cbam~ral rille, hardly Rali~ what he is getting inro iB the way 0 f expen5e if he. reG-I.l,. wants to go any further thaa botberinc the gunsmith with many \ettrJ:s .oout it.

When one starts to ch.ambe r a barrel it is ptObably OcTed.i reamed, and riaed all the WB.J to the breech end, A!eriQ of about £ou r to U RUl:II:!IR are used I grad \laud ia du and d iamete r 10 that eaclI auoc:te'dinll one makes a Ihallow cutj U1d slowly and I radually en· Iugts the chamber to the deaired. aize and mape.. See FiJU re 113. The ramen Ire made bv band. heiR, Eround from lub:.d. I'UIDI!R purch.aed from Cq~ and 1OO1-rnwl1l1 fil'Dl!. They an WOlin, Ilted by b.t.nd, al thouRh in larcc arm. factories thet are operated for





i --: :


- •••• '"'I .. -~~ ••


--- ...... '/Z. -.,----.1


.z~ _...~".. .I

r-----;&.~4i4.Ni;l. .s. ... .. a_~--

1"11. 112


front of the JeIDleI.. Tbil pilot [s IfOWld and polilhed fa be • pUJh fit 011 the top of the lan.u. Then: are .tao ItOp pid .. at the








eu.. For exa:mplc., if he haa a set of IllCb p~ for mil 130-06 cutrid Ie he may buy his barrels ready chambered md. threaded from the teVerallOurces of supply for auch b.m:l~ aDd. be au:I then !CI'CW thne barrels directly to his receiver. :and then he call proceed to try ~t' boltt in that rifle until he limb one bolt 'Which will dote down m the t.GQIJI Pie., but will not close down on the UNO GOt1

lip. That burel. reeeiver, and bolt are then lJerfectly u.tidactory mel haYr tile eerreee heacbpace.

But g lie p.a.smith h.. but one barrel. to fit h_c mar be .hIe to 1Ft by with it all rip! by using I loaded cartrid~ .&Ii a gage.. Promft I number 01 cartlid~ of d i:fferent makes of the .::al.iber desired. Select i rom thiI lot by t:riaI in aJJOther new rifle of standard make die two alrtridces wilk:b. appear to be the laraest 1IIId. lonaat- II will be difEcob or lmposaiblt! to mature their IcnKth froa\ Ihoulde r In bead if the, In rimlea ca rtrid gee. but one will probably be ahle tD tc:Il by the W3J' they fed wben they CO in tbe standard rifle. .ad the way the bolt closes on them. UR one of these f~r w~ lilOOu

.... PUb! .. disc of paper .OOS-inch thick, on the h~ad of tbe other and u.e it for the u~NO GO'· per.

The lUDflDith. md all ri Semen in fact. must bew:an. .f the ready dwmMred .m. th readed bar reI. I t cannot be Ih.ted I:DQ IJtToOPf r:t.t ri8e nrm. cannot he made strictly intercbll.lpblet and th.t the only .. , • lady made and romplmly d.mbeft!d ami thTaded barrel can be sa&Iy fitted to • ri tie is by changing: breech hoI t1 until ODe u found which litl tightly enough (and not -too ti~tly) to I1lCCeIIfuU,. pas the pging test, 0 r by candullJ fittiDC tlU! breech block or bolt in an unfin "h~d stare, mach.inm,; or grindina: it to a

perfert fit with the gap. -

The reuoo why barrels caDnot be made to be interd aqeable is .... DW1I in FiEUf'Ct 114-C and t 14- D.. To .fiIU)ibl~ iota chan.gcably it wuut.l be ~ry that dlt! sum of the ~.Ulemftlh II C. ad D be .not p!!ItH tban. the ditfcrence betH eea the minimum aDd qwdmum hmdqru:e ~rm"'Dle.. But In prodUdion no one of th~ IlleUURmma CUI be assured doer thant ... ,.. .OO3-incb. '11,,11, if In a Jiven barrel and receiver ad bolr, these three ~tIi were .u maximum1 or all minlmWD we woWcI have 1ft Ifil'Cpte of JJD9...inch. whereaa in must ri Rei th~ maximum perm.*ble d~renoe between max. aad min. haclspace it about .0£J6..i~. The b.na iJ. therefore always fillisb chamberN after being- ..em.bled 1m Ihe :n~.,:iV!:f.' ad bolt in connection. with the b.ead.p1Q PI'.


It therefore follow. that it i. extranely important that only th.t

particular bot t and no otbe:r be 'UII!d. in that rile. Comide.rahle t!Mhlej and IDIDe .mou. acriJentIJ have happened due to chlllF.!D, WtL For CXlmp~ tile balts of most hlz;h pawn' holt action nRN and .lao of many .22 caliber bolt action rille&. will apparently inter: manae wry nicely to the uninitiated. The bolt M .any rite wiD fit niftl, mto ~ Ddu~r ri~e of that malee and caliber. and the tyro thinb O.t evcrytJung b all n"'t~ B1It the we of that bolt in that w IOtiI rifle may live POOl' aceuncy (particularly in the cue of .22 riSes). or it mlJ cause the cartridze ea.. to .-pante in two a.bou.t hal f an :Inch in front of the head, les. v;nl the fcrwanl portion of the c.e wedr=d in the cb amb crt or if the cartl"id~ be • Irtde ~verlcaded or [f. the tale have a 10ft head from too Jauch un.ealin.1 in the cartridee plant the held of the ~ may give war. permittina: PI to come to the rear, completely demoliebinl the b nech action ad per&.p. 19f1JUll., lnJurutr !be- lbaMett On the other hmdt me .em miU~ry belt aetion, mUe of Pr.:.oPtr1y h9t: tr"4tcd alloy .teel lib: the Sprinrfieldl WinclJQter Mode:l 541 Jleminttoo Modd 30. v.n...-. and M.nali4:hl!'r, wldcb are ae.ipH • am. a :lI.r wotmur pn:ll1.lre of -48tooo pound, per 1qU&re incb. will t1ICCUll, witlwwnd au w.:idmtU pl"~le llIJ bJ ! 00 ... 000 pRlDU pI!I" IqWIrI! lncb without anything pvm&' 8WAJ pnmded that the h.eadapacz q m~ and that the cartridce cue u in- good. mndition. It is the rust thin&' in the wotld to fin.d • 10ft br.d. ca.rtriEip eue in tJae product of our Ihndard canridp manufacturna-t:Ut it. thm peace time prod'U~ Prutie.dly all the 10ft bad~ cartridp (,tel we have found have been in. ,.. T time: aa.muuition. sum 1IIlIIIWli .. cion being made In ~rmous qua.ntiUft with btaI which '"' DOl quite up ta that which the cutridre companies CIJ1 -'---- ... un

• t 1. ...... AJf:a

LD tima or peace.

Wbil. we hav. cmph__ the danp of CXtcllin: bcad~ we do nut wiIh the reader to mppcIIe that great numbers of titles art! u.nate. Hr.d!lDll:inl II 9! r'I ifl1D6rbnt f.rOm tbe ltandpoint of Wety, b-ut it is abo a very IImple little leSt-.. takinr not' mon



than a. minute to make If one bal the proper~. The prodQct of oar large &mJI. companies,. of many of the uuller made to order. fil'lIll. and of many of our IDOIt IJromineB t ,"",,"ida it III properl,. ha.dtpaeed. and tbeae ~ns an: -hsolutel, _Ie it used with any Ibadard cartridge of the correct ahDer mldt by any of 0lU' b.rp cattridp COIDpaniea or by the Govmtmeat UII!DAJ .. or "ith blQd loaded cartridlQ UA j) .bled with the load. reotID'mended In th!: Ideal Handbook or ln the book IIHmdloadinl' Ammunition tt by J. R. Mattern.

We IIWIt .110 speD: of too small or 100 short bwbpace. 1Je.. ca~ th. also i. Lik!ly to 0CCIlf':. .Ithouch it iI DOl' ~paaied br suclI 11&" conaequm.ces u ace_" lHad.tpace, If we haft: too ID1dl ha.dlpat:e then the breed block or bolt wm fail to


daae down. OD~h cartridpt or it may d,. down on cartriclp of ODe mde, 1rut not on those of another.. 'The mlDibcr it just too Ihort. .and. the: mned.y it to I'UD the firlDhinl reamer in • little deeper or to adeet I. shorter bolt. ODCe' in :1 wbile, in OaK rel(laded 'P""uritiont the riftmwn may ran into similar trouble due to ~c IILI1!tdJ.ing of fired canridp ClUB. Tbe fired c:utridp cua one reIo.cb may han ttretclled too long for thu c:Damber IL Tht. ohm oreu.n in Itvet action. ri8es usiq uttrida;. Jim. hip bred. P~. partitularlr in ~2S0 .. 3000 and, .300 SaVIp cartI'idp: in s.~ Modtl 1899 lever action rill~ and in .30-06 011'tridca in Winebelter Model 1895 rif!esl These breecb actions., not havinr bol'tt locbd at the f roat. and not being made, of hard, hal: treated. alloy m:elt ban a tel taia amount of spring ar lin tD ~ and the cartridF C'DeII fi r.ed lQ !hem ~lIhen 10 ml%cll that thl!Y annat be ~ to _gain fit easily into the dJam&er in ....tllch

tt.~ have h"m firaL ..



IF: JOU essay to build & nRc of jour OWD, or. if you are .& pro-

fessionall one fo [" -a patron" it if probably hem use no !lIl5t:i na mode1 quite meets yotiT iden. Naturally yau want mi. nnv rile ta rrpn::am.t the ~ry highest type,. and th It may evm involve ea frying: oat your own ideaa as to II (8.rtridp. N~ in times put w-e have seen both amatcu rs and pro Iess.mal! ai r thei r 'Views as to eartridpa. Some of tbese yi~s are excellent. some fair .. whit~ many ¥i"late almost every rule oE good ordnsace ~ign and would he COJZIplete failu rei wen they CI tried into ex~utian. Th is cltapur ill therefore png to be devoted to illustrating cntain principles of artrfd. design to dIe md that your ideas .. to CI. n ridge! ma, he IDUnd . _Knowledge in t"b is respeet will also help you in your tlnd.e rstanding of the proper design of rile barrels, beres, and chambers.

Fintwe want t1J explain 'brieRy HOW RIFLE CARTRIDGES AR E MADE. Particularly we wish to. show whllt an intricate DlItter th ~ maim;&: of a ca t1ridge is. and wh at an expensive ou tla y in tools is aeceglry before any change can be made.

Take :tint the ma kinK ot the b raM cartrid Ie (let Cartridge brass corm irom the mill in Ionl Ihem or $l:ripe about 6 iDcbea wide" lDUty :ft.ct long, ,and of tile thickness desi tedt dependinc upon thr pamc:ul. r CI. "ridge. Thil bnu Itrip il 11m: fed imo what b aUaI a double l'Ction PI'CI9 where I rotmd d i!JC iI first cut out 0 f the stri~CI ud me die then formed into a shallow cup lly meua of a punch .nd die, The Olp Ihen pusa in succ:a.sion to a number of othtr pM r e:a. - pnJvidtd. with punmf!J and dies in wh ich it U. ~uall,. dN1PQ at iaw a Ion. cylin4er 0' tab. , ela.d. ., one ud----tM head. TIle peaRS are hiEt heavy, strong machines. No hand tools .:wid s--Ibiy du aucll work. TIle pwn:hn: an' ilia 1m,,!, ttl be made' ';th atrmae accuracy. and are cutt hardmed~ ud It'Ound h, tool-


mab:-n lpeUalIy Iskilled in sUch WOd:1 No mere madlinist hq the Rift tD mab such diCII~

One of die pror-~nib of brass il that when it ie wcrked. or d rnn1 'throop a die it becomes bard., and KVeral d raws in succession would make it very brittle.. Th~l'f fort. between every draw the (:Up:! or h.lb~ Ire- p:n t to • Pi or e1cctri~ h!1'II1iQO wbsrc they .10 heated red hot to a certain exact tenlperature to soften or anneal tmm. ami ub:r acll KruJW, tbey are washed .ft~ d rfed before mer atf! sent back to the nex.t preas. Fi gu re t t 6 mel Fiiro re t 17 mows th~

various ttap;ts that th e ca Tlr id ge case goes through from the ori,rina I eted. bullets,

cup, through the various draws, and .the trimminga beJ.dingt and Let us 58ft for exampiel you want a 7 mm or ..25 caliber earnetting opera nons, to the :finished case, When me cup is d rawn trid~:I but nQ ~istin, one has jU!t the n:qwn:d t}mpe or powder ou ~ in to a long enou,h tube the raued mou. th is trimmed. cff~ and :capacity,:6O you decide to take a large r use, say .a .30 caliber ease; then it ~oes to a series of machines; called headen which iorm and and neck it down to the desired caliber. Or you may even wish :stamp the head of the cue and form th e primer potket and the to cut it off ahorte: r ~ resh ape its neck, 0 I 0 therw ise alter it. Rigb t rim. If it is 2 rinll~ case anothe r machine l ike a tl ttle lathe -cuts here we IDUst i ntcrpose a lew words of caution. W f. have already the: extra.cting groove. Up to this point the case body q atrai,h.t seen in the chapler dealing with riRe chambers, how [l~~ary exact with no neck. The case next {tOes to a press "W hich n~b it down headspace is, and. haw Wl th a rimless case rhe shoulde 18 of the case gn.dually in four or five sets of, punches and dies witb several neck And chamber assure this h-ead'Spadn~. The- entire riml~ case mUSl anneals i n ~rw-eifnl' th ese .an I1ra lin po bein" 1000a1i~ so IS to lea \Ie therefore be extremely exact in site and shape 0 r we 'W ill have I lot the had of the case nard and the neck rather soft. Finally, after of tJOubLe--~rhaps extremely dangerous accidents, No ordinary

the last llt:tting operation. the neck of the cue is usually giVtn a 255

lase: neck anneal to assu re th at the neck shall h aye the exact ~in structure whi(h witl assure against season crackin g as the Clrtrid~ gets old ..

111 all rh~ th irty-odd operntio os it is. necessary th at the anneals be very care fu1Iy con t rolled ~ n Or de r rha t the b rass shall have just the righ t g rai n strueture as will insure the req ui red stren ~ tOUlhnesst lih and temper, To this end each cartridge plant employs a metallu rgirt lolled in non-fe rrOU5 metals whose duty - it is ttl inspect fa insure tha t eaeh operation and r{nlleal i, to the required kind, length I or tempe rarure to gi V~ the desi red property to elch ease or caMP l~re- ea rtridgf.

The sets D f d i~s, punch es, 'tools" ete., to- fo nil one C1SC 0 r one Lull ~t cost several rhousan ds 0 f do] [a rs I w hi] e the sets of p ~~ headers. t ri mmers, cutte rs, buI let ma.ch ines, load in r mach ines, etc.!! hJ mal~ ca rtri dges, cost in to the hun ct reds of mnusand.:s Df della TI.

Ficure liB ShOW8 the variou.s :rtagC$ in THE MANUFACTURE OF A MODERN JACKETED BULLET. The bullet jacket is drawn f rom a sheet of gil d in ~ metal (copper 90 per cent, t siac 10 poe r cen r, ) in m u.dl th e same manner M the brass case is drawn un til it is nn al]y com plcted t bel 01' formed at .one end and open It the other. I n the meantime the lead co re is bei OK' formed. A 1&rre ingo t 0 f 1ead of the requited mix tu re, usually lead. tin and IIltimony t is plaad i T1 a huge ext ruding P raJt f rem wh ich a }arlit wire 0 f lead is -at rude d. This wire i. then f.rd in to a Prell in ",n ith if is eu t 01 i nto short lmgths, and m rmed tnto the requiftd

254 shape for the bullet ~ re, The eompleted jackets md alia. tblPl 10 to a b1Jl.let assembly machine where the: core i& fira~ inserted into the j ackft, and the assembled j acket and core then pass in sueassion through a number 0 f d is in which the bullet i! ahaped and swed~d into the required shape and me.

III all of these operations exact shape and size .I.re of -extreme impcntana:. Punches, d its, and other tools must be lDOIt UIli formly IlJld -ICCUratcly made. and as they are 190m the, inUit be Il!!placed

to .. ure that the completed cartridge will COlDe withiD the tole r· ances shoWQ in Figure 112.

CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY: Finally the completed c·ases and bullets go to the load in f:; IOODl where, wi u powder and primer. they are assembled in to eomplere, Ioade d c:a rt ridges by ope radoo! very similar to those which are per formed by the 1 deal l' Eo ad, 0 r &ld inll:; -tond Mull han d r~ load in g tau lB. except of co urse that there is one big a utom [l tic machine w hich does all the operations in turn and loads L.lbou t 2.000 cartr jdges pe r hour ~

1 t Mo'ald be uade rsteod that through. all the operations there is ve.ry complete Inspection, me ch ani cal. ph ysicalll chemical. and v.~ to assure tba t each case I bullet and complete cartridge :shall be safe;!! OOIU'Ct size and material, etc. FIl:r example, usually each morn ing and a f temecn a batch 0 i bulle: ts a re tml1 di rect from the bull et ISKID bJ in g machi nCII and sen I: to the proo f house whe re they Ire immed ia tel y hand loaded into tartrid g;e:s and Ii red 1:0 see rha t they are accurate and ~ ve the req ui red veJoci [' and pressure 1 and til us insu re that the: bullet machines con tin ually rurn out first c]aa bullets, Alw each cartridge after lo.dinl is ~ mecb aaically weizhed. to see that none cont3i.1lI too much 0 r roo litrle powder +

From all this it will readily be seen that it is a very expensiv c: malter to tool up TO MAKE A SPECIAL CARTRIDGE. No cartridge company can possibly, urord tc) do it unless they can fore!I1I:!1:: a ~dy 1!.3,1e of at l~t SItV:I!ru hundr~d thOlWllld uf sucn car· tridla yea rlf. Therefore I.he una teu t or proftssional gummi th is obliccd to ccnnne hii al tcra tions in dcsie;n tg ~ud& 5ligh t cb an ges Or adt.ptati ons t ha t he tan make in ex istin K ca rr:ridge case.. 0 r jack-




0 00

[ I 00

I 00 ..-.
I em •

i II

[ ~

I ]

t --J I - )


... [ ]
I .. -- 1.O
- -
( ~ [ ] -
\.. ) )

I )
- m'chlnist is capable 0 f making dies aceu fate enough to neck. down or re fo rID rimless ca.rtridg:e cues, and let no one. 50 ppose I:ha t. IUch work can passibly he done on hand presses Or with hand reloading mols. I t must not be! atternp red.

The nrctioK dOWD oi a rimmed cartridge case~ however, ill a.o entm:ly di:tle~ t p roposi tion.. Here the rim of tile cartridge insures the correct headspaci nr~ and if the: .and made dies do not fol'tll the Ihould er Uld neck of the eue to -.bIOI ut~lJ' exact dimensioa a


I i,hr cha r ge fired in that case in the rifte will lllually swelJ. the reformed ell I1rldie to exactly fit the cham her and the rcaftcr all will ),e well. In thia. waf one: can ned:: down exiJtinl cartrid ges to at'h.er ali be rI and ,hapeSt 0 f w h ich the followin·" will serve as ex.mplt8~

.1S-lS nK.kt!:d to .J.$. Gr r3J i!.libef"

~ 3 :)-¥1 or .:1,0- ~o :Ii~te:d. to ...21 ot .3 ~ cal ib~r ~2 S":S S 0 r .2. ~ -::'D cd ibe r nI!'Ct4!!d to .u ealiher

...2 S -'!.s expl.Dd ~ to ti, S --- I!'t£..

S uppo~ -we '\\'ish t"o neck: th e .30-40 K rail case to .25 calibe r.

First we make a dt!L\'ing of the .nnishl!!d case we wish. Then W~

mH-e a Sf ries of d i~ to neck the ease down grad wdly t and we m usl anneal the n:cck between c:qch nec.k.in, operation Dr the- ntd would:




F19t JJ 5 Fi5~ 118

get too b ritrl e 0 r hard. TIle f TU d ie necb the e&ie down to perhaps .290 cali b:~ r I the second to .27 S caliber ~ tbe th ird to .265 caliber" and the last die completes the r~formi ng and necking so that the ncck. now measu rea .2S5-i nch inside an d beth ned .and ,boulder ·a re rhe required sh apt and lengtb outside. (~2.5 caliber bullets usaally meuure .2S1-inch. and ntcl: for a jacketed bullet should be ~OO2- i nclL smaller than the bullet to hold it -friction tigbt in the case.] A5 you neek Ii case down the b I1lSS in the neck is corap ressed and muat go SCIIIlewhcre. Conuq uelltly the neck of a case necked dOW11 from .30 to .25 cal iher wi 11 have • thicker ·Wfill tltan ·the oririmal .30 nlibcI cue had. For thil reason the final die must be cur pldually with much experimen tin, until I size il uri ved at which makcl the ntck of the cue meamrc: just .2SS .. inda inade..


The cues are forced into and pulled out of tbe dies I!!!i ther in an .rbor pI"f:Si 01'" in an IdW l;mcb lcadiDg armory pre5&. Tblt ordinary .band reloadinR tOClI is not nearly stroou: enaup nor accurate moUCh for these ~ini cperations. Between each operation 10ll must anntal the neck. Hold. ehe "6tlt only of the csrtrid ge in I pIoperly ab.aped 18 Harne 50 that it will jlBt come to a. dull rtd heat in about' 10 'b) 20 seconds. This is best done by .rrancine two p.s burners., tach 0 f whim pI ays a pencil shap~d .8ame abOUt 1 /8 ~ inch in di~ter on oppo,ite sides of the neck. The neck il held berween thf! tw'o B.arnes un til it just begins to glow red hot wh ich it should do in .blJu t ten to twCllty seconds. Then it is allowed to ecol, thea wuh~ in hot soapsuds and water r then boiled in clear Wi ter, taken quickly from bailin, water:l put hat in :a wire strainer. and waken .. bov!'! .II stan or gas burner :so as 1:0 cawe the cases to dry complete.ly wi thin three or four minUtN amr heine raken from the boiling- water. 'The cases can of course be wuh~~ and dried in lar~ barehes. The neek of each case is then finally ,'" ipcd w itb I a1ieh tly oily rag before being forced in to the ne1't die. A fter the lut neekin it opl!ration it i. best to clean the entire cue with acld. wash. and dry u explained i.o the Ideal Handbook.. I n many C!a ... after necking in this way it is nec~ry to trim the moutb. of the cue 80 that it will have a uniform and desired lenlth. Thit. i. bed done in a Iarhe with a· !pedal :fixture and cutter made to trim to CXICI neck leqltfJ.

The ovrn.ll len Jth ol ~ aI. rtlidre car.e from head ·to mouth should be from. 1/32 to 1/16-incli shorter than the cham~ r ~ Rather it: il better to I&y that when :& nav CB rtridp if in the chambc r of the riSe there should be .bol1t 1/32 to 1/16.ia.ch between the mouth of the alae .and the shoulder e f the chamber just .bead of th~ IDOU th. This b particularly neuS&ary where one is going to reload his fired cases beta use asrs.. as they arc fired. .ad resized at tlu! neck, pt longer in the ne:*, and if then! 15 nor !Onl~ kng1 h toleran~ between case mouth and fo rwa rd shoulder 0 f tb e manlbe r the cue will lOOn b~om:e roo long so t~at the breech. bolt will n()t dose cn it~ or jf it does close, it will crimp the case on the bullet in a way that may tfnd towards very hip bRech p~te!.

Tum now to FilUIe 119 while we explain certain of the details of MODERN CARTRIDGE D~SIGN. UA:I· k the 1)1d. fa1ruoned rtrailh t taper rimm-ed cartrida;4! 'Of black powde r day!. r The outside of this case mw.t have a slight tApe r frOID rim til mouth ot h.erwise it wDuld :It ick badly in the mamber and would be very d iffirul t to



extract. 'This cut shoWs rhe buller .seared d.tq»y in the neck of

the cue ..

The depth to. which a bullet Dlust·he seared ill its cue depends upon the throat, of the riRing, the lib. o.f th e ogi 'YC and bearin&' of tbe Dullet, and on the length of: the malt.zine of the ri:Re. I a • a.rtrldte like the .38-5' for ezmple, it it neet:5S&ry to I!I.t the


bullel u drcptJ as Ihown in ·'A'~. if the cart:ridlc ill to wol'k tbIGucb tile ..... pEine of r •• ti1a~" aad in faerory canridp!l _bull ... are RlitH. u deeply .. • But th.i.I deep seatiq duel DDt n:.wI: in the beM:: accuracy bec:awe the bullet cannot e:ttead up brtu the throat of tbf: ri8iDI in such • mannEr tbat the throat will bold the hull« into .almoal exact cenrermg with the axis (If the bore. For ute in lingle allOt ri Bs it .iI better cot to aeat the bullet ., deeply and it can usually be 1m 10 protude 1/8 to 1/4-inch furtbe.r out of the cue or encuch ItO that tbe Olive of the bullet will jurt toutb the Iqim1iuC of the land. when R.ded in the cbamber.

C-ut "B" IhoWI how Cut 4·A·~ could be moclemized IOmcwbat.

Here tbe bullet is not •• ted neady m deeply in the ale. aod quite a 10l1Il: portion a f the C'f llndrica1 bearina: of the bullet extend. out beyond the mouth of the caw. The throat of the chamber lhouId be eut for this ahlPC 'aDd. pl'O jectiOn 'Of the bullet 10 that the q-lindrical pon;icm of the bullet is almost a pum. fit in the threat, The mBp,line of course must be long mou.p. Aleo in order that 't!R. canridp may be .ecq~; the: bullet 'firm :in the oed. and waterproof, the hue of the bullet should. be lated at leut a dlameter deep in the lid. That.~. 38 caliher bullet Ihoul.d be teated at last .3S-i:ncb deep in the neck ; a .2S caliber bullet at hat .2S-inc:h deep.

N crt" tunJ to CUb ~C:f' .aDd .. II D.'· The. ibo'w bottle-neCked.t rimmed cartridge ClIte'. .'C'JI hIlS a mLJdJ. men: abrupt: moylder between body and neck tIu.a. is dairablc~ An abrupt neck :P"i'O • poor .shape of powder chamber that chums up the powder p" too much. iru:reues chamber 'pn.u.re:l and the powder dam DOt bum - uni:f.Jrmly u it would in • more gradual slope 01. ahouldt.r. .uCt'

..... ba • much longer neck tlum i& aeceaary. Maay of the older bottle ned: cutridjel bave these two faultr. Cut UD" shows a much better design of shoulder and neck. The moulder is of much mo~ Ind ual t.pu' an.d it carried further forw. rd. thus 1hDrtminc the De:k and. It the BUlle time limg • larpf' powder Clpaci tr than m u:c.t.t

In considering THE NECK OF THE CASE we mUll' think of the bulllM we an: (Ding to use. The nd. Ihoold be just ao tori£' that the bate c i the longest bullet will aot extaId to the rar beyond the neck into the powd=:r -.pace.. SUPPOk we art desilJ'~n.g • ..2~ ca1iber (attridp in .. hid we intead to ute 87. 100 md. 117 enin hulieta. We cut the throat of the cb amber j uK COl Jeer for the 87 pn bullet when that bullet it ~ .25-.incb. d~ in rile neck. To lit thil throat the points of all the other bu.l.hb mgt

'exftlld the tame dimnce outsidr the mouth of the cue that th~ 87 crain bullet does, Whe:a IHted tbUii there will be quite. lmrtb. of me I t 7 znjn bullet imi.Je the neck of the CUi:t and the neck

must be just lonl enoulh so that the but of the 111 Il"IIin bullet will rome juat Rum with the rear of the ned:.

Cut dE'l' shows • riml!tS1~. Here totLthe IIIiJe nawb ."Iy


with regard to the dope of tbe shoulder and Imlt'h or the neck u -,.ith u:cu and U D "n onl, we ca.nn1J1: have u aentle • taper of th e mDulder .. i, )IOIIible with & rimmed. cue Jib: "D' ~ beausc our shoulder with the rimlra c:ase must be abrupt enough to surely hold the head of the cue agaimt the blow (] f the firine ,in IUId in ... re ror~ hud,Pl.cc. ellr uE'" hu bem arefu.ll,. drawn U) sb ow rbf" laatlat .1'Gpe that i. permi&&i ble with • rimless cartrid gc CI~

A RIMMED CARTRJDGE CASE is a VC!ry &nat advantqe.

J t 101ves lots or problUDI for ua.. and Kre a dy aimplifies both (3:1'trid.re and riA e doip and manu facture. It u. much safer than the rimlea case.. The rjmlea case is a neceMary evil forced on us by magazines similar to th-e Mauser magazin ~ and it IS the logicd cue ft)f I15embly in diP" We canntJt lUI:' cartridp:s 0 f the rimmed type in the Mau~r tnagazine and lORd with a cl ip bea.use to h a yr: the clLttridges feed properly from the malazine tb! ri.J:Q of an uppermOlt C&.rtridge mlllt be!: In froot of the rim (}l the artridp immediately be1crw it. '1 ~ercfore the rim[aa cue is nta.srary i. aU ri le!:i hl.l'ing magazina mnu1ar to tbr Mauer, SpriRifiddt etc. Wcr~ it n.ot fer rbi, mol! re W'O'UId be IlO rimleA cue&. The clnlmbe ring




of • rinde shot rifle for a rimless cue i. always a gnve mistake. Th.1! dtlip Illd making of an ef&cjm t rimlesa c:ue Qtractur fOor IUclt all action il difficult. and at the best such eKtractom are not Marly U IU re in action II rimmed. eaae ext racton.

ID erder to __ Jet away from the diladvantagel 01 the rimlea cue THE BELTED CASE tau beed datrne-4i, IJId WQ lint Qlad~ popular by Mes-tr& Holland and HolJ..n. of London. It is shown in Cut "F." The shoulder' ahead of the extratdnl IJOOVe which


!told~ the ~d of the ~ back apind: the faa of tbe bolt. I'Uppoft. 1IlK It aplrut the pnmer blow t and ..-uring comet bsdspac:e

m~l'eI. .92·inch. arid i. not 50 !arae u to interfere With one ca~ mdae ,hdlnl IIIJ,OOthl,. OVn' the cartridge just below it in mapzines of the MaUler tJpe.

Cur "G!~ is THE SEMJ·RIMLESS TYPE, of which the ,280 R~ ... d the .:'"01 Wiru:heater eelf-lo.ding cartridges In type!. In th. c;ue ~e run ~and. ~ust enough above the bod)' of the aqe II) petltUt of lb lelting Rgalnat • ahouldll!!r like the rbnJa.ed CIS! bur nat mouzh to prevent upper -cartridges trGm sliding imoothly:r over the lower eartndps in Mauser type JDaIWUl!lt the extractor beinE of • type :aimilar to rhme for rim ira cartrid.ges.

~e POWDER CAPACITY 0% a cartridp ease must be correct ill ~ze ~I ~e prope r cha rgc of. an existlnl' and suitable powdr;r which will live the mUZ21e velooty d.ai red within the limit 01 the pet wisli'ble- working p resU re of the ritle. and abo the lUnit of proper bll mini P 1'18IU Ie Q1 the powder.

In Itoeral it may be laid that the LIMlT OF PERMISSIBLE PRESS UR.E in levu action riBet is about u mllows:

fiq~ I f9




cartrid&e wit:b 165 &rain bullet h.. j Uiit eneugh .:aPlQ ty 10 that • datce of a finel Y iJan.ulated aad relati" ely quick bumin, pcwdncan be ued to if ve: a muzzle Rloci ty of about 21 SO to 2200 f. t. That is about tM linUt for that casc! and bullet. With a liahttr bullet a still highe r velocity can be obtaiRl!d un til we come to the point where the bullet is so light that it will not give !:nough re .. sittance to develop a p ressu £e which will a.use existiac and sui tab ie powders to burn cleanly. The .30.-40 )Crag cartridge with mo~ pcwder capacity Ius a limit 0 f presau R; phl1' velocity w hich I with existing p:JWden, will ptrmi t of gi vinl a 220 &rain bull-et M. V. 2150 f. .I.. or a 110 ,patn bullet MOl V. 2800 f. s. The .30-:06 case p~rmita u, similar ly to speed up a 220 ,rlin bullet to 2375 f. :L 0 r II; 110 arain bullet to 3400 f. s.. And the largest case 0 f all, the .30 Magnum, makes it possible lO Ii re th e 220 ilain bullet at M. V .

. 2525 i. L or the 180 (1'ain. bullet It 2850 f ••. ; bat the 110 "rain bullet would be unsuited because i.t will not Ii ve sufticient reai.stance to burn ex is tin , pOWd~rt cle:a.nly in such large charges. .

W~e!e one wishes 'V1.':TY high. vtlocity combined with the buminl of CXlItllli .POwdet'8 undc r tcnditioDS at will insu re the highest degree of ac:curaCJ, the present thought is that for va·riou.s calibers the CMa thould have about the followinl powder capacity:

.11'1 C.libel'-,:!o M.IIUJQI caR

1 mm. -.30--06 cue

.35 C. Jibe r--? mm~ ~e (4;1. j Ro~e rts) .:u C &liboc:t-~.i'I S R~ Rim IHI use

BULLETS ! 'The modern metal jacketed bullet should be j acketed. with 1i1dinr mew (copper 90%7 zinc 10 %) or with Lubaloy which is eilding meral w itb abou t l per o:n t. tin added. Pure copper jackets may also be URd.. Cupra-Dickel iaebb may be regarded as obsolete. The objection to them u.. that It muzzle ~eJoci .. ties over 2100 f. s, they give 2 lot of trouble by depos.ittDi metal fou1inc in the bo re. Below 2100 f. s. there is no ob jection to

tbem. ·

Where the hi&:hesu degree of accuracy is desired. modem bullets should be c f such length and .shape that at least one caliber of thci r length can be inserted wi tb in tile neck of the CIStJ a.nd One caliber !mgtb .of their bearing remains outside the CIK to permit ·of centermg by the throat of tile chamber. Of COurse other things .1&0 must be attended to t such 8.S pi tch 0 f riRin't propc r muZ~lc veloei ty. fJRSlure. etc.

The best bullet for any tiRe ia one with a fiat 0-. Boat~tail b~lets . present no ad "'an tap for ... in riRes. Thee rr:tically they £1 ye + slightly .1~ pressu: rtt• ~a be Icaded to sligh tly hiper velocity wlthlD the lImit of permissible pfHIu.re~ and have a .hape which Dlabs £0 r 81 igbtl, greater rem.ininl: velocity. HLlt these 'YUY llipt

WlDt.belb!r Model 94 Ind .6-slpm lb.. P-el' M[. in. 262 .

Wlacbl!lh! r Made! '5 aDd IIDlle ~ lbJ. ~t sq. fn ad"Ul'tlpl are .more than offset by the- bets that IUCb buUeta CI'lIR

Sa'V.p M04el 1199 •• $000 In. per Iq. u.. mote erosion and wu.r the barrel out quicker; th. unleu the, are

ne limit for the Kn·. riBet' and for th·e .. 303 Lee Enfield is .bout exnemely weD made they do not thoot AI ac:ur&tt!ly u eat bale 4 1,000 pouncb" wbJlc the limit for mod.~m bol t acncm made of bullet!, and ~ t it i:- di£1ic:ult to ICIt them so that then: will be heat treated alloy &teel with la<::kinC Jugs at: the head of the bolt, ~o~,gh of their beannl inside the ease Dd Jor IKUrity and out .. like the SprinKfieldt Mluser, U .. S. Model 1917 .. ~ncbester Model !Ide c:u:: neck for l.Ct1JIaCy. The only I'CIIOn why a boat.-ta.il bullet 54-:1 Remington Modrl 30t and Ross, il :af.lOOO to SO 000 pounds 11 used ID the .. 30 caliber M.1 new S!'IViee ca.nridse is that tru. same per lIluare iDclI. 'cartrid&e .. ia used in both riRta and macb.inc pin" 10. ri 8e we

Clrtridge caMa also ha'YC: their lUoits in p:~fe+ The older curs cart n~ about what happem EO tbe bullet after it pataeI 1.000 like me .JO.30, .32-40, ~38-SS and j3 W.CJ., were ndthcr by ya~ .. but LQ a'lMChinecun we desire a CU1ridaea the ihtl.f of fire their dctip nor their ~al made to stand extreme1, hip preaure. 01 wh~ call be eoatrolled to the lonl5t poISIoJe nD&e, and the .nd t:h!y should not be loaded to pn:MUrt:S higher than .about 40 000 boat-tail bullet Preat:ntl & p-tat a.dvan tage in this mpect..

pound, per Mluare incht In d neither thou ld they be neeked d~l1 The reader who d.esi rea to EO into lDD~ detail with re!pect to

to mde other QSN to stand hidJer praaurt. riSe ammunition ill referred to the Hldeal H'asldbook,:t pllblidted by

The wnDUI kind. aDd lranulatlont Qf SMOKELESS POWDEI the L~~ GUJl Sipt CorpOration, &nil the book naandloadinl h..ve high and low limitl which should not be exeeeded, With any Annllwutuln~1I by J. 1<. Mattern. In fact thete boob .are fateatial of our rile powd!", when the preaurt is O'Ver .bout 50tOOO pound. for wery &"nsmith or "ooter doiDI an, wol"e whateVef wi tb riRe.. & polar is 80GB n:ac:b.ed where even CDC ,raiD additional ch&~ will PROOF FIRING AND PROOF CARTRJDGES: There js cautt the ~reech JlRllUIl: to sail to i. very danpro\l:l .figure.. Hi-Vel one ~tter r~rdint: cartridFt wh~ d of exttcUiC importance tQ pow-der WIll barn cleanl,. and wd.l It pressures u low u about ~Itha. both amateur and profaa~. Whenever a new riSr 2.5.000 po und it \Vhile if du Pont No. 17 1;2 pbwdet were ued __ 1I.'built. or a l!-e'W bam:l.:6tted to an old ri.ftct or any work COrlnected a pl'tllUre Itluch below 34pOO po~ it' would not burn d_y, WI~ chal!lbuing or :fitting b reeeh IM;'lts IS -do~, the. C?rnplete .. and men: would he many unburned gnins, and the foulinl miPt be finished nfte ahouId be proof fired With • artndc &1V1I11 a hiIh-er Ulhly COITOlift.. Any pow1Ier II e:ven Hi .. Vel, mq act: in this Il1&DJItI' pRAUR than any ~actory cEll'trid~ or reloaded cartridge that will if fired It pnsIUreJ well bdavr ih miDimum dlc:ient work[nl pro- thereafter be used an the arm. This should' be dose bEfore the riSe JU~ 261 leaves the mop.. It is a matter of proper prudence, for ont cannot

IUrcl, tell whether or DOt tbere ie IOIDI little Saw or mia!al:e 1OIDt'-Take. for example. the: variCUI ..30 caliber CIlrtridges.. ne .. 30-30 when whieh mi~t render the weapon decidedly W1Ilfct even with


quite normal ammunition.. Parti.l, the profaaiomal KUr,:lmi th should alwl.Ys proof fire every weapon DD which he doe. u:lY 'WOrk cODaected with barrel or breech. and lie should. keep an exact record (If be;~5plC'ing and proo f firing of that weapon 'or future reference .. The pu rcblser also hu a right to expect, and should know that hi. riA.e has been properly proof fired.

The rifle is placed in ab extemporized rest; arnngcd to take u.p n:mill and il lo;uied ~d fired "With .. proo:! cartridF. It thould be find :from a distance by ~am of a strin,.. with operator under DJVU.. Then iospa::t the riR.e carefully 10 .lee that nothi.n.1 it broken:. c:racbd. 1Lpiet", or dele rmed, Tat with headlpaa: cage apiD and ~ that the mambu bu not been·adatpcL

For 'tbese purposes the arms and ammunition manufacturen have SPECI,,\L PROOF CARTRIDGES made with which. to telt their product. n.ese cartridPi are .... witb cum much tbicbr than Ordinlry t and are wually nickd plated or bladened • that they will not be miltUm for regular a.nridra. They are 'UI'mll, loaded with a charae of powder .ad a bdle.t .micb will IPw • breech pressure Ihou t tweaty-fi.ve to fifty per ta1t. iD ex CD of tlie


preuure of rh~ h~.nt.St regu b. r ca rtrid.re IlUlde in that caliber. Such proof cartridges can SCi reely eve r be D beained by a;unsm it:hs. and they will usually have to load their own.. U se new primrd .ca#s. tha t h."e neve r been Ii red beiore, and load them WI th the bca vitst bullet to be regularly used in the particul.r ri Ii ~ ~ and J. cha Tge 0 f powder about two grain' heavier than the powder company recommends u the maximum charle for that particular- riA..;, Clrtrid~i and huller, Thi! will give. pressure of from 2000 to Sooo pounds per sq uare inch bi,dln than the pc:rmissible regular workin g presSUR: for th at rifle, and .hould prove a ptamcal and. easily pn:pa red proof artrid~.. E. I. du Pont de N emou n & Company, Wilmina:ron, Delaware, and the Hercules Pawder Company. WilminltOn, Dda ware~ will mail on request Littl~ lea'fU:tI showing all the reeem .. mended charges "Of the powdcn they ma.a. ufactllre flO r v. rious c.aIibers of ri flea. :Jizes of canrjd~ ud weights.. of bu llets from which one can select the max·imllm charge and increase it by two rraitlJ weipt of ~r. But he J)8rucularlr careful nel'er to ~t rhese proof cartridges, or j 'bi ue pillslll .. they are: oftm called. mixed. with replar tanridrea for cbyious r~.




IN the: remod.~llng o:f old PJUt as wdl a5 in the manufac~rc of new on est the pol ish inc of the D.'Ieul parts prior to blulD.I "r ca;se.hardming is (Joe of the mDII: important pbua of the work. On this ·white1t finish depeadl the fiaal ~ of the weapon .. Am.teu r workmen seem to have: the opinion that the hl~iag. or harden i ng wi 11 "cover up" ICI'I.tches 0 r lpotJ in the Itee!, whIle J UJt the Dp~te d true. Any mam wbim show befa re b1uml Dr h.ard-

tninl will show still plainer in the finisbed job. ..

The decree oi pol imine [leee-ery depends entirely on the kind of finish wante~ whether hriahll or dull matte. Whichever is d~oterJ.1 however t the pcliahing lDutt be dooe evenly all owr.. ad the U!ptin'. of the work must all run in the .me di reetien, You

may have a barrel polished perfcctlYt tb!ft one little swipe with the .bl1lsive cloth aWlY from tbe direction of previous workt wnl make a glann,I, ugly streak in the bluiDI~

I n mol! rases before a barrel can be polislu::d it must be .ult1U.ck.;tt

STRlKiN G is t merely anothe r term for draw-filiolt which IS mad: mt:Cllanic!. .mow t means holdini the file at righ1 angles to the work. and p'ullinl it back and forth, much II a carpenter UteS • drawkni Ie. (See Fi.lure 120).

This striking is necessary for tbe remonl (if dents .,..d saatchN in old barrel, w hiro an: 100 deep 10 he ramnred by poIi&hinl.. It is victlly essential in the rm.oddinl of U IS i.ued t. Sp rin&fi.elda and ather military arms on which the barRIl are merelr rou,h turned without ally Ii nisbina: cut. For tbese u:rRJ:Dt!ly IOUz)J barrelt., an1esa they Ire turned down in a lathet as 9Plaincd io Chapter 15. • lpedal merhod of strikin, 1s nfCfaary, wbleb will be expJainrd latu.

111 f.actoriest when a rle'W barrel comet from the machine wbich turns it to the ~red taper .d fonq, :it it usudly fp'OUDd in •




barlel If irldwg mach J ne, Thia machine il in cfect a lathe in 1Vhich the barrel il revolved slow 1 v between centerll but iftltead. of • cutting tool a grinding w bet! 1 run~ing at high speed is broudlt qairHI: the btl rrel ts surlace; a nd this wheel, as it travels the Imam of the bum .. i. lOUIn! 10 as to follow its taper formation aacdy. Thus. the ba·rrel is brouilh t to i tI finish dimensions. .and c:oma from the gnndine;; machine with a very smecrh, bright surface. Nevertheless, the It" grain t~ of the ~ndin g is a TOU nd the hi rrel, whertal it should. run l~nrthwiscJ and muft be plli,hetl off.. On a barrel that hu been pou nd very Ii tt Ie st rikina is netded-som~ti mts none at all.


Fig. 1~

The principal tool needed. is • large, widet and very :fine cut file ..

The best for the pu r~ il m AmErican. Swiss, a N ichelson, Dr a Disston Ii 'pillar file" as deKribed in Chapter 3, 10 is should be at lea$t ten incha long~ and at least: an i ncb in widtb-the wider the better. A wide file folloW"! the straigt.t surface of the barrel, while

.s., 1·..· 1£.,. ~t

a narrow one tends to cut un even y, galling [t an ocean -wave

effect as you look down the sights.

These pillar 61~ are a Viiliil h If: in much fin~r cut 'than ord inary macbini&tB~ files. Ordinarily the 00 cut is about rigbt for striking, but if a particularly good job is wanted ~ the hurd. may be struck apin with • .file having- a 0000 cut ..

Ulin g bu vily padded l'isc-b loeb to pre'Tent d.a.ma&e~ held the Icti()n in the viR with the barrel ~s en rife lmRtI1 aVIi1 •• 1e for the: wo rk, Keep a piece of chalk hand 'i. and chalk the euttin, sid.e of th ~ ffie all ovrr It frequent lnterrals, Thil prevents the partidfti of steel from the hi. rrel from clo., the file tttth. or • lpinninK'J as it is termed, If this occurs, deep sttatdaes will be gouged in the b.rrd which win be d iBicult to mile out. The -lile anI or bllllh


with mo.rt:. Iti:ff, .teel vri re teetb3 mUir be ued to clean the file moro1Jgbly after ev~ few strom, and t:ht! &e. ndLallE:a:I .her eadt clean"

U :\e file in both hum u illustrated in Figure 1201 .and run eve ry Itroke the full Ienath of the barre], maintaininl a "'natant Ii Im pnaure I t is not I1Kessa.ry to bear dO'.Nn ha rd enough to spriag the ba rrel-juBt .& firm sttaciy 'pnssu re both ways... 10 that the file takes a cut uccming and ~mg.n A littl~ practice ·will enable you to fed the rip t premlR, 10 m at the file will just tUe hold, Excessive presaure will result in too deep a cut and mab: t~ 6.at:su a ~ixteeD til of an i ncb or wid er along the' barrel II and th!!e are hard to work out.

Too Ii ttle p 19i1l re, hG'\\""enr J is u bad as not moulh.. A :fiLe~. pu rpoac: is to (.t not to scratch. Elcb stroke sho!lld RDJO"Ve an appreciable amount of metal Some men never aequire the knack. of lint surface filinx-thc fear of cuttinr too deep causes than to ~ rely JCQU r and scratch rhe surface. ] t t!l 9U rprisinr hO'W" ma Of fun pressure st roca are requi red to reduce a piece of stac.t • tbousandth of an inch"

When you Jearn t-o strike a barrel with tbe proper pressure. nather. too ugh t no r too hIS VY.. thr cub tak~ wU1 ha~e sc:arce1y

my appreciable width--or in other wordst th"re will be DO Sat. risible on the lIurface..

N evertheless ~ the flats are there.. and the next It-ep i. to polish them out t Emery cloth is the usu.l poIishiD.I" medium. but I prefer caroorundulD or· a1undum cloth whea it Is obtainable-t due to its


loolU cuttiJlC life. and fute I' 'WGri:. nit material it told by ma-

.11", 121


cbiDery IUwly bouJes in la.rre ron., of OMt hYO, Dr tb ree incha m widtla. MOlt iirnu wiD .11 it by the yard. fnlm tM roll. and three or four rard. will last a 1001 time lit the small shop. The large MOp will find It eroDOIl1 teal to buy it by the IOU~ The size of Krit needrd will be 00; 0; and 1/2.

To mow up the- mlall ft ats left by the strikinl. cut a strip of 00 elDtlY or earborundum clotb 3/4 inch wide ad about a foot in I ail gth.. Grasp the ends finnly in caeh band and wr.e it n smvrn ill Ficure 121-juat like BhiDiDI a !hoe with. I rag. VI:1Y ll'aduaIly, mov-= from OJX end of the barrel to tne other. wine very light pres-

lUre. This: will cross-polish the banel fer about hal f its suri.l(;f, thea it should M turned ORr in the vise, and me under side polished in the arne maaner.

Now JOu can see the amall flats left by the file. If mq" are very ,ranou.m:cd~ they O1&J be partly eliminated by .. in C1OIt-poIishing with No. 0 .bruive cloth ..

And then you are read, for the (tDRAW-POLISHING·' which

ill the same- -85 draw-filing. except tbat the .brasiYe cloth is wed ilJltead of the file ..

Cut. hardwood stick ten to twtlft inches lonE 8S shown in Fipn 122 with semi-circular notches in two or true: liZCL Th.ese may be cut by Ii nt maml the' stick wider than wanted Illd bonag holes ... it with ehe p~r mUd bi a. a:fa:r which half thE' stick is ripP'td 01 and diacard.~d! or may be eaved foJ I. ~"lpare. tl The 'WO~nl IUl'fEe mould be lined with :a piece of thin leatbc~t th-e weilht uted in. the upper of .. shoe or I piece oi (hin strsp. Thil "~d be 6md:r rlued to the wood~ to :form & llizhtly resilient base lor the abrasive c::lotb~ The doth may ~ iheDaced tD the leatbert hut • better .. , is to coat both- tbe leather arid bad:: -of cIotb with thick rubber caJJalt md. let it dry far 1m minuta.. Tbmt prew. the clotb in place and it W111 remaia Wlti! worn to tile point of ueclea ... , whem it IDlY be readUy peeled 0&. and I nnw- IIlrip cemented in place.

The round notclta in this plliabil1C trick Ibould be of wda a .. at to fit ~, tm!r the t..rm alb:r the leather anti cloth are applied. Th.ey shoa.ld DOt fit the barrel tiptlr. or mq will mn:e


c"* .!Crak:h~ as rite !tick is lifted at the mtd of the. strcke.. On tapered. barrel, you will ha'VC to we • lIOll:b biC t!DOUP for the lupt put, .J.thGulh • smaller ODe ma, be Uled nesr th-= muzue. II1II the stick lifted gr.dually as the stroke approaches the thlcb I:" part of hanel.



Grup the stick in hom hmds and use it jta Pi you did tIk= lile. ] f it hu to be stopped short of • full lmph atroke. lift it .as you litop. N ~ r ItDp with the alJrai ""I: .rill on tbe barrel, D I" there ",in be small sen. eehes • t the end of each Itrok.~

The first poWh-inr with the stick. may he done with No. 1!2 abrasive, uaiag m.ode:rltely ligl1 t pretsu re at fim, and lncreuillg pressure as the 8 b rasi VI! wears down t When)'Ou bave poli:dled the ell tire mrface, and the barrel has an event ail ftry appearance with no Sab showinEt do iI Ii ttle cross polishing wi til No. 00 abruive cloth, and yuu will probably find the Rats sri1l visible, .ttlmu~ pa.rtly worked. Now cnx;a-pol ish again aU nver I mel api D d r.""polish with the stiel:.; continue to .1 teraare thale operations Udtu the aatt I re no lORReI 'risiblc. thea. d l'aw~polith with No. 00 doth on tbe stid .. md if you want a moderately dull 6nisb on yrAJt band. you bave it without fu rther wo rk~ U Ie . the 00 cloth uutil it ill pretty well worn awaYIi and no finer abrasive wjU be needed,

When a \'Cry BRIG HT FINISH is desired---and particularly on pistolt aruI revel vers, as well as p. rts that an: to be niter-bl ~edt the poliahing should be- continued as follows:

~old a qua rter sh~ o f 00 emery cloth twice, lDaking & pad abou.t two inches square, and partly wear out the lur~ on a piece of scrap steel or an old barrel. Then "squirt • few d fOpt of thin oil (any lun oil) on tho partly worn surface, and. holding the cloth i n ~ palm of hand t scnu I'" the barre] with full lenztb strokes until the emery DO looK:'=I'" cuts.. Clrefully wipe band d'Y of all oil. and pllisL again in the same manner .. using crocus cloth, The Crocul will produce a very high poli&hl 'but worb slowly; and the pllith it produces will liktl,. dtow a few streaks and impcrfctticns. due to incomplete polisb.in g with erne ry. I f so, tney mUJI: be rompl d:-:l-J worked out with the oi led emery elotb t and the crocus polishing thm resumed.. Finally the b-.rrri may be buffed 011 a thid: .. six inch cloth bu.flina: wheel. to wbicb a very 1itde polithi 11K rouge m"IY be appJj~d.

Whea a b .. rnl hal lEnJ polished _ith oil.. or buffed. the porn arc 10 fil]ed that it cannot be success fully blued by any method 1%ntil thorouKhly cleaned. Mab: up a bot aolution af strong soap and sal soda. dip into this a clean rag, I, ril11:1e on it a Imall amount of powd: red pumicc~ and" scour the barrel thoroup.ly; rinse in clean boiling 'Watel, and if the water puddler off showinl I gnuy surface. scrub and r.fase again. !hen flush it .0& thonRllh.1r with PicldiRl Solution No, 4, (See Chapter 20) .pin dn~ in boilinl water lieve raJ. ti".,... and dry wit1:t a clean cloth.. Tbil treatment is _rely to J'eIII()Ve foteign matter frOID the ports of Ihe metal, and the rep.Ia t


boiJinC jl'J_1~ prior to the bl ninl must adD be done as explained later~

WORK] NG DOWN BARRELS: The b.rrel of our Sprincfield ~rvice and national IIlltcb tiRe i. I'OUlh twned almost 11:3 entia lellgth. haTinl only folll' or fift: iacllea at the mus;Je lDlootbal down, siaee the ranainde t b hid df:n by tbe forend, hand .. pa.rd ami. rear debt base, When thilor any ether riAe havinc a very rouP ba rrel is converted into a sporter, it should. if pouible haft tbe barrel removed from the actioD. turned down IIIICOth. ill a I.rbe~ and ground- This being beyond the reach of the amateur remodeIer. however, th-e following method is n~arly if !lOt quite II -eflectjve.

In one sense it is better, !'Ii nee it i Dval vel no danler of tome m:a· c:h inid tuming the barrel down too smaIlt Ot perhapi springimK it in the turn ing p race ..

Secure I "~Vixen" file, which .bas very larKe; deep singl~ tt%tb cut 011 a CUYn". This file will be an iacb, or In inch and • quarter wide-the wider th= better. Set it in :a vile and b.reak iI 'Up into piea::t two to three inches jn ICDKth and Krind the broken end. mliCJCth on III eme ry w hee 1. Clamp th e ri fie action in the TUc

ReprcUea of the dilBcul ties a job 0 f poli8hiq Preterits, rememt.er it "... poliahecl It the factory when made!! :10 your work is no hlner tbiID th.at of the min whe 'IZlIde t~ gun. 8,. studying: the surface carefully you can usually see in what di redion the 0 fiJi nal polithinr was donr. whidl givtl you your cue.

PL.A S I NO Do w . ...;' /\ r. ,\[11 H'; I. ,' .... T .. 1 ,\. Pl f:{,,'F,: OF> V I XEX F LL g The same applia tQ au tomMie pistol • .and Tel'ol v-e ~ both of wb.ich

· h" h d b d TIt ~ .... ~..J oEI'er :IOInI! mi gh ty m8n polishing problems. The pclithing iI

on the Sprmgli~ld. barrel ~r U~ nee not if remo~ . e ;:JI.UU wuall dOIle in the direction ot the millin cub which. f~llZI.ed the

mould fi nt be polished withou I regard to the bar rel, TIleD the _1. Y n · thi • t id all g t h .... a-L-

l·~L· 1 111 .... d ...... 1. '_.i f ~I.pe.. e mmn In,'1 0 :aVOl scra c a or CIViBa IU .. ~

po ImUlE e oth and 11 es mar be woree n~t up agl1Dst mgt::! (J h'--.L. ill ..J • --'-feet ft th 4 bl .. ..1

ba I h d · h d ., fi' b Wh b ds f . I W ICD W~ appear II ~anDg QII:" I a er e gun IS 1l1CU.

rre ;an WIt out ama~e to 1~ msn. + en an or SWlve S BU FFIN G may wen he resorted 10 on any pistol or nvulfer

or foft!nd screws, ~r ban?! forml.ng l.eaf SIght bases are used, thl:Y jabt The best wh~1s fD.r mil purpose arc the hardt solid felt ones

.. hould be fully po lished .. n '''t J H·uhO n fJ f t It.e' larrtf r l m~tlr ~ be ~ hleh be . based .. Ptv f· U T· ... ....I • ou.er

Iere beinl' Ii t~ into pi ace. Po lim the barre L fit on the polisJ- .. ~~d w may pure In • VB r· ...... 3 0 JI~ se rl~ lor .

bandS'~ or sight bues, then 2 light final polishinx: of the euti re u- stand.l'd bt and of ro~ If 10\1 have a hIgh speed gnnder WL th

semb If 1P111 not he" d i fficul t.

BarTd. an d parts shoul d also be fully polished be ian: soldering on any banrlst sight ramps, etc, ThlC heat of .. ld~ring will of COllJ"R:

blacken and d iscolor the metal at th iI point, but the ~urf;,o= being rig, t24

quite smooth" 001 y a 1 itt Ie final polishing i~ needed. .... "n _1__ II

Both care :Lnd patience Ire neeel9lry when polisliiag around parts ~peted spmdlcs on ~th et!d~ It WI. .. pay ..... to tum up ~ ...

that have bem sold C'red ()n. If 1'he It'afit bit of solder remaios j n the Pieces of har~ !!.kc FI~re 124 t thcae are bored at one eI\d..,: edgm of I barrel .. band or rampi it will not blue. but will CI~l'rinn ieFeW' on ~ of gr~er sp~d1e~ Ind the =~r :a covered ,;:'rth

thrtlUgh the Ii nal fin is), and mar the Ippca ran.ee 01 the whole arm. ~I~, to 1Vnl~ IOUge lSi ilPPhe~+ !h~ IP l! ~ are .

nil!!! IOLltT, ~jnK ptaCti~a11y the same color u the briKht steel il thar w~ght 1ft gold for .. working lDSlde the tftggn pa~ and 111

nurow and lI1allow 'OUlSlU CU1'\'el~

VI • On mil~tary arms with hardrntd rtceivers~ you will find tmery

Dften unntlticed \Inti) tblf bluiDg is well under way. \Vh~n this (J i littlt nlue for pDlishln g. It Cllb slowly I and breab down ve:ry 0CCUl'It the bat course is tD step outside where therets plenty oi room. quickly. Carborundum or alundum. cloth it much better" aDd du~ aM undl you .ttl properly re1i~f~. th m ~pe off thr: !IOld~~, Let.. to tile bard nest 01 the metal t • coarser grade may blf: llItd without polisb the barrel. Ind resume opcrattoru:. KickIng th e c:at~ pt'OVldLDE d angt:'r of cuttinK too .deeply, Thw, when you woo ld use No.. 0 you h."e a eLt, will .lao help rna tendl,. . . Cft a barrel 01 other soft flar·'ts, ycu can He No~ 1!2 or "~n N~.

I keep U1 old haebaw blade-------or n the r I short pIece of blade- ] ahr.ive on }ardroed receivers. A finfr Kt'adt' mould 0 f COu rsr with the end ITOUIld to l. long potnt and ~har~mrd. on both ~d('C1t be used fer finuhing} followed by buffing on a mlJslin buffer with Thil forms an cxctl1er..t scraper for Ftnng Into the edll'!S of a plenty of rouge- M R:IDOft any cross marks that show. Tbt:U' is no ha~1 blnd or ramp a..n.d teniOvini: the !Older. It must be remem.. need to polish th~ bottom side of recei'fcrs where they IIR!! hidden '0111:11 that in the t ~8weating" ~ ~ mces& the 80lde r actwIll y penetrate! 'within the ~k.. Th is is a waste of time and necf II ary on ly .. a the luri~ ot the '9~ 1, Ihough pe rhaps not more tb an half a thou-rna 'tter of p ri nci p1e on hilh priced jobs.


Invina: the mti R ba r rel available fot woriin g~ Hold a short pleee of the file ia right h and as sbown in Fi(Ure 123 t planing oft the barrd ~ly and removin:g &11 high spots, Do nor: tar!! too' deep • cut, aDd work completely round the barrel, unti I all the rin 15 made by the tu rning tool 'are plan~ 0&. The sho rt Im(th of file, kid len,lthwise of tbe barrel avoids the dllO~r of maiiq a wavy wrface-.. as you would be almost certain to do otherwise. The Viun ·file ClIb very rapidly and of course forms IaJger flats than would. a finer file. To R1DCW~ them, strike or drawli1c the: ba rrel fint wi tb • wide mill file (on~ irlch or wi dil! r) ;: then cross poUsh "prowd,. with No, I j2 camorund urn cloth to ..bow up the HiI'ts i rcrt draw-polDh wi~h folded elDf:1J" or carbarund urn cloth Oft palm of bind; apin crotS-polish liahtl'i with NOt 0 cloth" then .trike and poIWt as already aplailll!G t startiDI wi rh the Iar~ pillar :I1le.

POLISHING PROBLEMS: The fon:PIt includes ,II esII!lIItial prindpI~ 0 E barrel poliabinK. and should enable one to handle


.any jab without diOiaJlty. A HWe in;:enuity it of value here, II ebewheTe in the field of pn work. Eacb job prtlmts itt OWIl problmut tile blOd: comlQOn diflicul. ty being that of ~ttinl at inlcceIIible pllCeSt such as aruulld sght base3, etc. A rood rule to follow i. .twa,.. ro remove everyth ing: til. t is removable, and polish lint' Ihe barTel ~ th~n the light! t bases, ett.t and put them back 0 n. Then IQY pint used in attach in II em he polisbed o:£f with il mini mum (J f labo r and d ifticuhy, One exception to this rule i! the fixed stud

1 I



undth in depth.. N~rthelmj wbtrev~r exce. ;older shows on the outsid-e after I sweated job ~ • good bite mmt be taken ttl assure its mm~lete temlJva I. A lip e etch with • l .. to-' Nitric add solution .t this point will ulually assu r~ compJ~ rmmval" and the surface 10 etched ltJay then ~ polished to IIl8.tch the I'f!ft of the j oh.

Double shotiun barre!s and riblted rile barrela are at counc: Ilawer and more difficult to polish than plain round Ii n:lle bRrrds. Sbl~ smlU pitaS 0' bardwood to :fit into tb.e: various comen and crevices. and glue your abrasive doth on tbe!le. N othin, laob ...-orR on I ':finiahecl barrel thao • streak. showing wb~re the polilhinr fatled to

get into the comen. .

The retr end of a ri fit barrel wheft it abuts the recrj~r. it an. other bard piKe to pt at. A strip of abrasive cloth folded Irowul ~ h.&saw bladl! will ~ you up about u clORe U .anythlngl- know of ..

Where U1 extrtme ma.tte finisb is desi red on I barrel, mil may be easily prod aced after the barnl bas bes1 smoothl)' polished. with abnui ve, by buJDng 0!1 a rather Iliff inn or ~tecl wire buling whfeI. The buHer mould run at Ieast 2000 R.P.M., and pTefenbl,. 3000.. Hold the barrel with light pressure against the buller, At :lint the wire: will Ok'rur burnish the ba rrel to a n. ther hrigh r finish.. Now increase the pressure iJ"Bd 1]811J t uatil ~u feel it Mtate bold~' and JO'" will notice this presaun: hu given the barrel I. dull ... ilvnyt and somewhat ~Igrain,.~t appeannce.. By mamtainin~ just this required praIU re while mmn( barrel about on the wh~el th is mattl! finish may be imparted to its entire surface e"enly~ althouah considerable practice is ~ded befo ~ one ean do .. good job.

Most actions preRnt ,reater difficW. ties mID ba r~I,* by reasoa of the "riO'U5 'C11 TVa, anEtes and inside cull" which. Ill'II!! diliallt to reach.. Practitally all polishing must be don~ by hand, with .ahruive cloth folded into mnvenient shapes.. Flat au rfacea on lever and pump Retion rr~ivtn tan 0 ften be Itru~k or dow-filed to adnatare.. with th t lame files used fa r striking barrels. Inside CU1"ftll and hol lows I such as the inti de o'f triner gua rd. t can best be reached with • W! ry fine oval section file, aDd when pel i.runl these Place!. 'tile ibrsuive CUI be wrapped I round til is Im1e :file, 0 r around .all pia:m of wood shaped to fit..




POLISHING BOLTS 's not di6i(:wt, althouch ODC'S inaenuitr

I. ofttn tas:ed. to d.evUe waY' 0 f holding them in the vise~ The Sprincfit 1 d bolt from I :te1"¥lCe: riRe is Parkcrizcdl bence quite rourh Ind hard workinr. The ext newt' .nd ext rum r eollar Ihould be femD\iC"dJ aad with one md of bolt held. firmly in vUe, die bolt Ihould be era. PJlisbrd with No. 0 Carborundu .... doth until all old fiDiAh is "off. Alon~ ehe sidel Elf the .teqr 1\1.1 and Iockinc lup ertao-pa 1 iIh ina: wi II I1QI Itt re the .. r f.&ee---here you mU$l bare IeCOUI'lt to a .. II piece of rIot. foldrd to read! into the camel"" A her cross po lith in g. thr hcJ 1 t should be dr.",-polilMd lnlcrhwilc:


,vim. piece of ailed. C'IQ(1"J doth; fol.ted. • requirad., a.tiac the

.urface as vaoorh as pouible. It IhauId tbtn be worked in 1M action with fine abruivc. until it wt)w very IftlOQrhly. .. dacribed und er "hard tiningU io Ch:;apter 25-

The mottled d1ect or "".-nC· seta 00 bol ts of mia, hiah .,.Ir a rmt is ealiI"f P rod uced as foll()ws; Cu t oft a Pllall piece ot hard ru.bbtr or fibre led about 2 inches 1~ artd I} 4 tnm diameter. Round OBe md D.tTJ $Ulht1,. and. chuck it in • drill ,rea er la~c. Mix a little .try fin" emery RiQur with he .. vy oil or Irsse (or ... Q Ii ttle .al vc: &:T ind In, compound) and apply this to the rounded end of the rod.. The drill ptul or ladle Ihould be I1Ul at Jairly good ~dt and the bole byouahl .aPut die end of the fibn rod. Move the bolt slowly from end to end. pauain, IDOmcatarii, at" illtcrvalt of • quarter inch or 10. until the whole .,faa baa ~ ch~.. V ~ Jillie .ab nasj..,e is need.td for this. u you want CO mrrdy mark the 5U rface DOt cut it deeply.

One objection to such a fin isht attractive thou.eh it ma, he. is that it will reHect a ray of SWllLlthl: for a IOQC distlllC"C • bIcl th .. , for any hlll1fil1g JUm to do, 1fmn:'Vh', tbi. chased IUrface may be blued, which in no way detlactl from itt appearance.

If ,OU have no drill pKa or Ia.tbe. ycru CUI let the uroe resula by scttml the fibM rod in a brust inll whicll is beld in UI1 ~ \penimt pourio n in the 'Y isc.i have an ... i.$tan t tum the d rill rapidly. while fOU. guide the bolt.

SMALL PARTS~ .ucb. as Iriae~ etc, are ohm "bar poltsftcd by croa-poHihi,. with _ very n.rrow .trip of .bruiye cloth.. Be

sure they ale held firmly in • rite. ud. in cb • m'.,., at !lot to

mart bend or etberwix damace n.. IQ nu. rtrt of hoIdiu pub

dun nl' thr pol iahing js one thlt nn.1It not be wt rloo ked. Efttt I 45 Colt automatic tilde can be 110 btdJ .,runr that the &flIl will nor function. wjth jwt • triBe too m praaure In the .. Yet patti must be held firmly-ri,lidly----flr thq wiD slip _d be badly marred. SholJUn receivers ale often milled quite thill. and are easily bMt. Wher~ tny CGndder.aQle outside Pk!Wrc is ner:dtd to ~ old pi; rts, pi eca Of hard \vood. seta, steel srock.. old barrels. thort P lfteS of h~avy tu hi n It (J r orher suitab l~ ... terial .ha uld be titted i nsidt to tab the strli&

Prolettine the pam lrom damare by the j .... of the vi.e_ .. tqu.ally important. The maddest man in the world it me fellow who has $pent an hour poli5hinl a. rece1vc£,t then mDed it by aqueez· in, in rJte :10. cheeked j..... of a me. Sheet bl"Ulr. copper and lead shouJd hot on hand alwaY'. UId the viae j.WI eo,ered with the matedt 1 th at pravn most suirab Ie, Scraps of h~ vy I ea mer) web u sadd le ski rti a Ii B re also val DIble. '¥lam ~ work. u i.a.d.iaed to slip against I featker prolrCrive pircel the nrrface of die ludwr may be dusted with fin~ly pcwdertd ratin. whirh will nuke it take bold firml,..


S ... U eat tUrfaceci PI~ such IS hammen, IIIU1t be palilbed In nx:b • mlnrter .. will IlOt &Iter their flat mriMr... The lwr"",., to do tta. it to bold. the part ia the Mal lad rub it bdo .... forIb on • pita of Me: abruive cloth ItfttIdlect Oftr _ flit IUrface • lilt blr of ItRl~ • file, llrip ot plate at- Dr & ... at.Me. Far the find bript fitUh the abru&~ elotb showW be- oiJed. tha the part ma, ~ buffal 1ichd,. with I little JU8F. Most imide mechu .. il1D p.rtl murt be brouJht to • fit .. tbe palilhiq proceed... and chi. t. COft~ in o..pter 2.5 ~ undtt II 4 bani litting...1 II Af[Ct' polithinc.

inaid.e puts", be <:bar" u. the !MIll" ~ibei for haiti.

Referring once lOore to me -freqUeDt d.iticuI ty of holdinl p&.IU while polish inc. I often find it advisable. for parts havi.n., • ...11 hole Jar • pi. 0 r screw. [0 drill ani tap • hole in • piece of KrIP !lteel or Ina. and attlch the part final, to it whh • lUi table ruchin~ &Crew.. The ICrap piece can then be .t up timt in the vile. Dr IDly be .. d u a handle while bui&n, the part. V f1"y ._11 Erew had.



pmeat • di&culty that is euUy ovumIIU!. In pna that haw been ....... ..., I.mctl of tim«:. the ICftwhewl. m. lIPllb •• ml •• ., ~~. taiIpided etJo.ns to remote dtaa. nc be.,. may .. ImOOIbed. up and their Ihapc ratored with • fine fila, and me IIot trued .. either with • .titti..- file or a p~ of b.tk-w N.de with the ..... peuad. eB the tida. HoJtJiQI the ICftW d_rin& tMat operatfom plIlEIbi tba diflicult}. Take a piece Df brua or coppa:r about 1/1 Lacb tbkk. am drill md. tap it jot the ICNW. Tum IDe lUi. ia. m.tr but not too riPtlrl ad hold the Itrap ia __ 'rile. 11Ut .it • _ WI, to hold &nJ .crew while workina oa it, Inlt laqer ICitwi often. fit the rhreEb 10 JOOKiy thlt they turn .. you. work CIa"" TbiI aD be pJlvcnte4 by cuttiq. slot with. ....... hew dte ead of me -=mp piece into th~ 1Ot'W bole. Thil permit. the vile to force the edPi together REId Ifip the ~ 6ru1lYI without .. te.t p T.ibiHtr of d"'aiaR the thread. Thia kink iI auod abo wMre • I(.TC;" .. ank b.a 'bt .. cut 08 very Ibort. T\U'D it ibto • piece of bna the required diltUla, and criod. 01 the cad on the cemery wbeel--tbe threa.da will lie perfea: to the uti .. rad.

Aftet the parts arc poIishrd, vpl. dIcy are to be .. oed im ..... .tely! they Ihould be pnJtecbd from ftII't by wrappiac in ,....J I)apCI' and kept in • dry place. Coatiac them. with an=ae t. .,. adn.ble -unle. tbey m.t be bpt for .-me lira::t • it ... eI, hi· era.:. tile work of daniac when the tmme C'OIIIft to blue meta.




WHEN tbia book .... tint in.fted tie qustian of &i'iDa ill .. ttnctkat for eiemataq arcrariaI .... cliIcuMd aad its .... tibiUtia thotG\lpl,. in¥eltipted. After talkiraC to • pod man, eqrnen it ".. dedd.ed that ..., .th1l1pr It allftrinc _ b,. the .IJDIteur or .ID)'OIH '* hOy app.i asric:td in. th& lit. would 1Uftl, rtsalt du..roual,. Jewelr'/ ~ oa.,1t metals requirra Ie.cral yean of close tpplication beltlte it can be matered, Jet frw j .. elrJ eftgrlWh will atb:IDpt tval the Jim~lat job GIl • IUL 1We are few ral1y pxI pit _pavert in A.IIMria. lUHI tftae h.aTe leded • biah ltate of perlcttion in their art. The man who dai,. en .. PBiDc 011 .mt. teodvcr~ :PArd or Imr plm ~UIt .-h up his .... to pay .. pRz for _ wort. or _ do witbota itt In DO

~ce aboul, I hiah ande IUD be entTu!.td to one not tboroupl, &mUi.,. with the cuttinE of deep claips- on bard.. taq:h t.ted.. DOl GDe- wb has aot • well devdoptd RnSe of • arti'Itic~ .. well u the medtanical Ibffity,.

Amon, lacUna edlr.yen of fine IUDI may be mmtiond Mr~ I.UIIoIpb J. Konabratbt of Hartford .. Coonecdcut. If r, Xonabrath·. wor" is of die blpe.t ch.ncteI, and q,ality consid~ it u rc ...... abl, priced ..

nere u no nulI1 wh, the ....... ltIEIith .., .... lane ..

IUD- .. llautifullJ ..... ed • the &ant: de: I .. ;oa. of the ha.t mHen. nc barrel an.cl JCtion :tJa.ouI4 be. .ell polilhtd I and trnt ID the eqra.vcr ~tin me .blte4U Do not UJ to tell the ~ how to de his wad .. 4Gn1t tic him 1QJ .nth • lot of ipri6c. daM that will hlJllP!r biJD m the exert_ of his talenr. If paesihte.. end him a picture of & ,,0 that it acraml Uout the WI, !011 .. J'ChIII. and. ~ wiD 11ft JGU .. adMlllb! of the u.t. Or.. dedele dout how much money J'DU wa.ar' to I\*1d Oft tIIit clec:onti0r4


and taU hi:JJl to aiw fOIl wba be c;aa for the price.. IIitiaIa. IIIODO-JftD*I. birclt, lane badt. dc:... can be worked OU~ in. pJd. WVC1' or platinum inlays w reich combined with du: cnparinc on. the *'" pve wry beautiful dIecb.. All 1b.. ietaiIt mUll he ubu up witb the alll&vcr .imxlf. and )'0- wiJl fiatt bim JUdy with JDJay help--ful IUlPltiont.

n.e COlt af eagraftDl may I"WI from tea or fifteen and up tg Rft"...J. hundred dollars. Ofttn.a ample border line or two ~t • round the bfetc:h and "~i .er. on floor piau Mel pa -rd. will relieve the plainnesa and add .IIlaDJ time. their a'IIt to die appt:.1Irucc of tbe.no.. Do not NIh 1M encraur---he usually bas WOTk. fur weeil .hrad~ &ltd his kinu of work cannot be burried. Give him all tbt! til:a.e hel wanta. and t rust him. to live you value rec:dved 4

THE DANGER. FROM E~GRAVING: Befon: you decide


to have your. h [Ii: 11 power tifle engraved.t remember that the eeceiver must be annealed befo re [he en gra ver an cut it. Be IW'e JOUr ~I1" graver is reli able t W1d erstands his busi~ and bas tbe f.aciliti.es for p roperly har.den.ing and hea t- tn:ari nil' the pa fbi after !ncrayj nz. I have seen Springiield and Mawe r receivers come: into a shop and be blued and :finisb~d and de-livered to the lIIlSusp:ctin I pUTl~:haser. with DO pnrtense .at heat-tl~atment or even c:ase--bardening. EV~rJ pn-crank kn0W5 what that means, with modern hi~h pressures,

Wheli hiving barrel fitted to an actio... me ncci.ver must be annealed, enpaved and rehardened heio re the barrel can be 6ttcd. Then the mgravinK: on barrel must be done later-this meanl two tripa to the Cdcraver~s4 I believe N icdncr is prepared to do a very good job of receiver h:a rd-r:nina: t and W~ re I having a special barrel flom. him, wDuld nave the eng raved receive r Kat ttl him ro r hardr:ning befn p:: tbe b.a rrd was litted~ Mr. Kom~ratb ad VlsfS that he is also in a posi.tion to bave receivers proper Jy hardened • ftc r encray- inK'. and in vi ew of the nne WOTk. he turns aut for ltadina ma~ u .. :factu re 1'1, I would not hesib1te to eat nut this wtlrk to him. U ader n I) circumstances, however t should this work be en trusted to some unknown person of doubtful ability. who may do a poor job that will endange r t h ~ w ea porr imeLf and me Ji fe of i ts .owner.. A good ~ safe rille should be me first' considemtion j beauty af finish comes afterward ..

There are some gu nsmi th s, ba ere) makers and others whose bump of self es teem is hi ghl, ever-developed, They will "Y5 t I you to the limit on .any questlon 0 f designl constructio .... 0 r finish. They know it all. Every now and then one of tlla r j OM let Ioose, maimiq: or i n] u ri n go the shoore r for li le, The least hll rmful fhi RIP they do &Ii to rum I gun wh ieh you may priZe highly ~ and on which YOli haVe spent considerable money. I am reminded of the rUne I watchnl the efforts 0 f • maD whc srood hig. in ita field, remodeJinc; the bol t hand le of a Mannlicher-SchoenDRucr. The o\Vn~r didn "t like t be :fiat handle .. nor did h ~ app rove its location. He wlnttd it lD1gth~


coed and bent bad: CiOBef to the tri&&tft and pravidM ..nth 4

kDab .... ped liu that On the 54 Win!!heate r. Yes, the: pnmaker c:ou1d p"Ve bim what he wan Hd-in £acr: anything he wan ted. .A.nd he lhouJd h&ve been able to' do so in tbil iutance. Tbe bolt handle wa!I beD t to position and fitted with a knob ,Ii gh tly sma! le,· than a bantam·, egg. Naturally the c~stomer refused it, and Te~ turned the runi 0,. the second attemp tf in Itt ad 0 E w r.app.i nu; the bolt in wet ra.gs til us p rottcting it from the heat, the entire bolt was allowed to become red hot. 'This bothctt.d the famous gun .. maker n.ot one bit-he would re-harden it. He did ~ by hcarinK i I n early to w h j te ha. t in cyanide and dropping it into cold salt "·at~r. I t came from the wale r in two pa ns 'lad there was DOl: III $pare M annllehe r bo1 tin the U ni ted Statel a e that rime. Another time I RaW an att~pt to bard en a. Spri ng;neld reed,,~ r lr.t cyan idetht own..:r was I. great admirer of color hardming, a:td the ,&un maker was in an obliginR mood. The result was I t:r.aeJ reoetverwhich WIS a mighty lood thing;: Mea use it taugbt the owner a lessen,

GRINDING DOW~ RECEIVERS: 1 haVe! ebserved that at least two shopt de not hesi ta te to grind off the serial numbc rand name 'Of the armory on mp of tbe barrel ring of the Spring.6~ld receiver. PenonlLl J I haTe never comideftd that the stamp oi U ni ted S u. res governm~n t rnInm.actun: i& any discracr: cn _ rl B~ or detraCts ill any way from iti quality or ita beauty.. 1 cannot rnm mJ1CI f belie"e that 8:rlnd ing [)fl I. aixteenth 0 f an inch c f sleel al this point .adds anyth ing (0 _ the receiver" I rtzen~. 1 h&v~ noti~d that !lOme: 01 the- bc:st imparted ri tie, ha. vc the matting ridt t ova and aroUJld the lettering on the barrel ringll .nd the: elhct is n~t .1 aU unpleasing.. Oft~ kn ows who is resparuiblc: for Ihe IUn he :II .hnorin(;I and h-e knows the receiver sri 11 baa the lime. d lml!l1 I inru specified by j ts designe r. wan e the gunmllk~ r W hD hu spent h.t; life hunting th~ wild wahoo in the futness of Ab}'!Sinim Mrtsts and pull ing the teeth f rom old touCh d run.ken rtpu b acari he-tle-phanu .11 OVn' the d. 9 rt co nti nent may I hi,.1- he can grind I.WIY half D f ill rl flc and sti 11 have i t ~fe to. shoot t I'm going to take the word 0 f the fo I b who d ni gned and bu i] t th~ gun in the :first: place. 'I may be I fat.l~t-.t tirnes----bu t II ru careful all the timc~

AMATEUR DECORATION: The IJnly d~cocation that should be- attemptai by the tmateur and by most professional run· smiths aho--is th:at at ma ttin2: the top surface 0 f tiKht rampt rib" Of top of recei.er if it is not too hard.. Thete are sevt n.1 eIIJ' ways to de this. Om! me thod I have fouDd ve ry succwf ul on ramp!



ad othe r SO ft: luet patti is u fallows ~

Get a big rattail Ii l~thll! bigger and COl Rer the better, I have' ODe 14 inches Ion; and 3/4 inch diameter wbieb turns out • ptd Job. Aftl!:r the sloping pan of ram, is worked down to siee Oft the barrel. the! barrel is let horizontally in the 'Vile. Now lay the biK fiJe aUou edge (} f ramp and w ... ., a hand Ort neb. ·end. of :file push


It up and down tile rIJlIp- j USI like rollin, out biEuiti with a rolJ..iq pin.. The file teeth ~a: inttl the IQrface of the Iteel illite • ~ impRDion if you 'bear down wdL Cbaqe the anKle of the roIiing- from time: to time·1O lUI not to lta.,~ an exact imprint of the tmth pattern. About ~ minute! of this will pve )'OU • I(DCCf IIlI:tUd rurfa.ce--.-not very deep, hut plenty deep t:aouP.,. Now bevel the eel.,. slidnly with a sharp D1e~ to lei"\.'!: ,J. clean: mlootb line .boat 1,32 inch wide.

Anot er way is to make a multipk stippling punch. or use • wood carver'a marhr, which is the amc thing, and hold it .buYe the surfaa: to be matted, lightly tappin, it with • BIDIll hl1llllJ,ee, while moving it about over the suriace. "The impression "I tlte poinb ,.;u quickly rover the IU rf-=~ mann.. a ~ I) Ittractive job~ A small shatp pritk punch makes an even more a.ttncti ve nrfaCCt _but tiLe sincIe point sIO\n up the jab to • bdf hlCur Or lOOn- Hold the pcint of punch just above tie surf"". and. keep up .. lipt tawinl with the h,mmer or piece. of hlrd. wood., MIlSI andy lDOYing the punch abour.. The Mge may be d.ilhtly beveled if - dabecl, tQ ci~ a IIOQd 6nisb.

The workman who ia provi'ded with th.e dental engine: dacrhd and ill uatratcd . in Chapter 4 is u "IRI.I· equipped for mattin, IS Ile tan ever hope to rx thu device it the peer of them aD.. In additioa to having JOtuy motion in the bead for small grimel: wheels. it may br: adjlDted to p'9'e a iI.mm.u motion at the: point--similal'" to the big ,l1!umA tic: rive-fen- .and It nmg bUDd reds of blow. per minute, With a small sharp punch in the bead the dewitt D1&J 'be uged like a pen or pencil} and the fineat sort of niattinc job done .n a very few mi nUt~ Keep moving tbe point "pidl, OVCI" the surface until no bare spot! :remain the machine dc:tes its awn ham· m.erlng 3!1 it IDea. The matting thus produced is even better than the prick puzx:b melhod-deeper and mOR event so that it fai rl,. dlatens. I t is 10 aha rp that it may be &dvisa blc to smooth the su rface dig" tly with fine ane:ry doth briaR bl uina.

Using .. Yfry shup well hard:emd punch in this too~ one IDlY rna t the top of a Sp ring£e Id receive r i r not extR:lillC!Y hlrd.. I t may M a.eeess;; ry to grind and harden the point seve ral t:iz:dtt. but this device win do the work.. MOlt other reai ,era maT be matted w!t!.out diflicu 1 ty 0 r damage to f11e point.

Now for the last and easies.t war Q_ alL If ycu ate loated in the- city and have electric ] igh ts you will nftd .. 6 wi I tnmfo rmer eastinr $3.50; if aut in the stiCksll get hali a dozen dry cdl battcriel. or usc the battery in the family fliv'V'!r. What you.n, .fter is 'lix voltJ at 75 atDpe~s makes no difterencc: how you cet i'tt 10 you do it htmes.tIy.. Th~ Akr-O~Graph JXn is • little pd~ about the lize of & fouataim pat, with I pi=: of capper wire for a point~ A .to' from this mnnl£ClS· with rule sidr af de tmndmmer. A wire from the other lide is iJOund-ed anywhere on the metal 0' the pn.


The jnlhnt the PQtn t i. tDuclIed to the lurfm of the Heel • tiny an: il formed tparb 8y and there", I dot on thE surface. burned in witb the. heat of th~ an:.. The Ark-O-Grapli doem ~ know the dl&mlC'e between hlrd and II!)ft steels. Y DU Cia write ,aliT ra&IM on &lei or otlle r hard tools with it. and by movinc the- point rapidly owr an, metal surface it is matted qui~ldy .rid without fUlL Tb·e dOb Are MIt 10 deep as they mi£ht be, hut theY re i:hen: to Shyburned. ri&ht into the stetl. The D. C. M. Spamn DOW come :from the armory ~th the seritll number written on tltle: bolt with:an Ark..o-Graph. The device is sold direct from tM fattorr~ Ad-OGr_ Pea Company, 1171 E. Stark. St.., Portland I OJ~.J and C05b $3.50,

I wQ& somc'bod, would bring out an A n- .. O .. Grap h "With a lIot emu", lpark to do very .small electric we:ldii\l--wh It • hand)' thine it would be: an sigh t work. fo r wel~ In g ram P5 to bafft t., etta, I!!te.. ett. Aad I with scmebod y would ri.. tip 111 electric Pl")'Olraphic needle. witb a coil iMide that would h~.t du: point whi te..hot.. Whem Dot dolUnl up HocQ for the ·kUow who han't much aaoncr to 1pCZld. I J d UK it for bnzingl maybe. At lent I'd try it.

POOR M&~9S JAMES BOND Vol. 4 ,280



THE bluing or browni .. prr.ag,' is Oll~ of the most intrlcWnl

!Ubjects in the redm of gunsmitbing.. either amatrur or pro~ .ronal. Ie is a subjtct an '\vhich the laJgc arms companies hive .pent many thousands of dollars. MoreoverJ it is :a tubjett that many o:tberwi~ excellent runtmitbs have never fully mastered, whi:1c othcTI h. ve become h ighl y proficie·iIt. Both the facUlri6 and the lluwDithSt having found one method givinc fairly satisfactory results. usually settle down to that . method I and ~fu&e to .attempt

any nthtt. ..

This is, not the ideal attitude to tab, however, II, any mesns ; for experb-iCt h as hugh t that certain parts Gf an .. no ar-= belt tinisbed by Oft!! method.~ ethe n by a different pr<lC'elS. Mortover. di:tferent steels react dUic rtntly to treatment, so tlu. t a proceu' perkdlv adapted to one barrel Of receiver.. may not M 50 successful an another.

Some shooters have tilt" ~Iief, la.rgely erroreous, that bluing or browning d intr.nded and serves as a protectio.o apinlt rust. The Fact is, tht t most finishes a re themse 1 Yes the result of fW.t Dr oxidation ill Glle fa rID or another, and offe r very little protection .pins.r funher rult. The only hnish that a£fcrd. IUIt protection is • pI,tina with. non-rusting mctal--of which mere will be laid later.

The reaI purpose of bluinc or browning is to impart to the I[Un

• dark color wbich will ,nOt glitte r in the sun. IJ1d at the tame time live it the appearm.re which W~ ba",e COIJle to associate with lunJ tlnulh lane usace. -

The Did time gunsmirh bacl:: in th.: woods t'tucnmtdu his harrell by ruating them with • sol utloa 0 i aq'Ua fortis. cider vinep T t or w),.t hive J'OU.. H i1I ha1nh wue of soft. iron. and of course the orilinal fiftish qwckly wore off; but hard uaqe in all kirult of weatherr with


perJupa Dot too much care as to condi tiOf1 of the finish! kept the oaaicle alwa) .. som~bat rUlled .. while the ,,-.ear of baadJjnc kept the rust oB. but left a dark brown colOf that IDIw.ered the pu rpose.

W'h-m a W;tCtT Jt:ttl.es an :IOID~ one method of finiabing. they Dl busy and d.evelop that finish to I hia:h degree. OnN the finithial is in charge of one wn rkmanr who, lik.cly u not, keeps the proc:elliaqely to bipqel f in order to have th inp hit own wly. Then U he d t~ or il pl'Ol.flyt~d by a CClmpctitivc ocganization1 it is necessa ry to do • lee 0 f expelimental W~ rk invcl \fin.- considerable COlt to d nrt'1q, a new and satisfactory finish or even to kelp the old OM up to .-tandard.

ltD lUIIarbble haw ~ 'sot in 'their ways n' some gunsmjtbs get to be especially in the matter .of bluina; and browninl. The.re is ;Ill old ti mer to my t-own who cannot be persuaded to tackl= • bluin, joh in 1UIZIIDeI'; but take him the .:un in winter and h~·lllt~du it up bl'Dwu:U-littrally. He uses ad oLdtime cold rusting process (which he auants ~t jealDualy J) And be doesn I t hsave cood Iud:: with it in warm WQlh.c~ Or thlnb he donn. II t. Prohabl, he iI sble to maintain & more uniform humidity w}u:n \IIIlDg .arti:ficial beat. Anyhow. he is IUpa lti tiCMJIly afraid to chlnp hit proCn':i which he maintaidt iI the onl, one in n:iltence worth • !toot.

Bluinc and browAing methods may be elaaijlecl under four aeneral beads, IU (1) Chemical '101utiOll$, eitbe r hOI Of eold, wh icb caue surface oxidalion and consequent coloration ~ (2) Chem LW SD1 uti","" which chi n~ rhe 511 dace of t~ iron Or steel into a different ~; (3) Heat. or rombination heat and chemical promses caulin, Ibrt.aa oxidation and ccloration; and (+) pr., t"inc.

N umben 1 and 3:1 bdng of g~te!t intettit to the tndct will receive IIIOSt attention in thil ehaprer, I twill be fletelS2lll}'1 bowevt'l', to mention anotber procca that belonp in the second dan mentiormi, ... mely 1 Parhrizmg. Sprinltfield R!rvice ri des are DOW' tini.hed by mill method. w bich is highly rust Tesiating. and which il ,Ito uted OIl! tJpeWtirel"St adding mar:h.ine!; te1epbolltJ1 'outdoor hardwau1 o,mammtaJ ironwork" Uld many other item ••

Pukeri%inc, hrieBy dacribed, consists of hoil inK' the partS to be _.ee1 in • sclution of ~ IParko PO'\vder t ~t camposed of spetially pnpar~d powdered lren and phosphoric lICid.. 1 n the p roa:S1t mi Dute



Parti~s of the ~n 0 r other ohj ect be i ng treated, are dissolved from the surJace. and rcp!aced ~Y insolu b It phosphates which are ruseproot T~u ~u In Il ~11ght ~t~hi:aK of the lurlace! riving a dull, non .. reRectlOl1 finish, WhLcht •• while less attractive than bItting is far m~re: pnctkaJ from a mlU ta ry lIudpoi n t. I r i. possible. moreOftr, .by ·aftenvard. buffing the surface with varioUl oi~ to product a 10ft. sloss that Is qnite attractive. \VKn. little furthe r develop .. ment Lt leems tlu.t aom.e arms factory might brine Pari:erizing: up to the ·standard of appearance demanded by ahoot1!:n and the rust .. p'mtlf Qualities cf auch & Dniah would be hichl1 desirable.


Pirkemiul is a patented pl'OCCll i the 1m teriaIs are 1Dl.) by thl::

Parbr RUIt Proof Co:tDPIU1J:I Detroit, Micbipn~ to Uoemees who an recrWnd to PlY • very nominal sum for the ridJt to UR it. A lDIDeWh.t .u.ilar procr. mvolviDg the use of a OHIIDIercla.l product bcrwn D Hydmpo Add R " H No. I, and powdered iron is olered by the Rossler'&: HaabdJer Chnnicrd Cam p. 11ft Nnv York: Ctty. The treatment of parts btinlI finished it about the ame as in Parkerizina:. Botn of tbese p~tueII wHl requiR: from one-hal f to three lours. aexordio(" to lift: of the wor~ aDd hoth Ire one-operation ,rocmes..

Platins, in my opiniont oilen poeaibilitica that lbe bream. indUltry mizht develop with advantage 10 itadl While the nickel plated • "ull.-do,'~ rmolve r does not enjoy its old time p3pularity even among the towu bo7s who baug;ht their IPDI irom the mail order house, yd' mo:d!:m eJectro-plati:ag would be. well word! whlle on man, IWU. t'Black Nichltl il something that only a few muter platen bow anythinlt about; nev-erthdea, I recendy inspected 1- fane,. Browning IUtoma tic lhotKUI1 mat I would swear was black nic:bI plate'd from Item _to Item i the ~lor it distirtctive • rich. 4cep Drown-biack-uuJ can ICtrcely be m~ by one who has ever leen it. And it is aa.,lUb:ly and permanently,..,.' ,rOG!.. The Iknpr to ill pel'lD."UlaKe lies lD the fact that aDDle platers h,TC never lnrmd to Bllke nicke) ·'atar put'J on steel j unless d.one rizht. it will nrentuaUy peel o§ like tinfoil.. The best pnc:tict it to lint plate the job with coJ)per" then the niebl. depoAtrd ever the copper I will R1dom if enr CIlIDe aft Nicbl baa but slight affinity for

mel; but ib IBinity for copper q hi&h. ' .

I have had anall poebt IUD., derringers!! ~te.; pl.red with coppt:r wb1ch .".. then tteaud with an ammonia 101ution tG oxidize the Dapper ID4 tum it black~ The eeler is 110t p.rticula.rly goodt how£'Ver .. althollP tbe pn ,rill not rust in a swtaty pocket, which was the md touaht. I ~n mew R chap who, noting the tarnishing dftct of bi, mominr egg on the family silverware, went so far :as to lave his gun silver platH. t then om iud it with the contents of aD en p~OUII1 prepa:red by IcttiDr it 'Stand in th~ IUD for a few d.YlI And it wu a prelty fair job of bluing at tb.r-and rust proof.

In Amateur Guntmitbjng.. Colonel Wheled IUgelti • practical method of uUn.R the oxidized copper method~ brieB., described as follows: ·~ith the hore of buret tiabtl,.. pluged" and outer surfica cleaned. support the barrel in • horizontal position, and spl..,b oa alOlution (If I dram blm: vitriol (copper sulphate) in 12 OUIlcca diatilW In.ter.. .Apply tile lI01atiOn with clean 10ft briJt1e bnuhl or mGp of clEaR CDttOI1 c1oth. A eo&ting of tuppe1" will be depos:ib:d on * haml. Then, in the lime manner, apply a sol-utica of ammonium ditWphide~ -which turnI, the copper co.tiq black. Flusll 01 With dna WU1I1 water, &lid 011 JighdJ with dan rap. "




molt ala. 'With v.err gGOd multi.., GriL &. HO'ft Ibtc that they 288

ute • limilar 101ution~ whic:h they call Old English Gun Bluer When hiWaI StaiD _ Anlinit or Anticoro steel. usc ·t:Speaccr

on hurry up jobs in their .ooP!I but \lie • alawcr p rGc_ wh~ time Acid" obtlliaab1e from jewelry IUWly hou.e. Dr diemim in.stead of permitl. Tbit solution ja also for I&le on !be 1111~.. Mr. Peeker) thill .,tclJinK .Jutioo. In cue !hil caOnDt be obtained readily mix up:

bown to tafj'et .hooters for the exc;ellenee of his rille telcllCOpel, SPENCER ACID

also m.rkets • Iin»lar solution made ~ I. mrmula mpplied by Mr ..

James V~ Howe.. _ ..

I have u.ed both the Hollman mel th F-L.......... --, t· · I L ~ Ib.... Nit..r..t. _. . . .. .. .. 11"!?!-

e ~ ~u ~j nave ~ lValer .~~~ ••. ~ ...•.•. ~....... ~ ~

acen the Old En&lish Bluer wed [n another .bop; _4 fram din ne_~.... ....__ « _

nperieoa-, u well as haying seea Halfman .,lutiod wed La tIN: Roil.. I' ....... ---..- .&"1___ •.......•..•. ~ .. • • · . ,"'-

man dwp, wi!! say that &1.1 In! good. lind, in my opinicm .. good • L AulIl •• • " •• : ••••• • • ~ ," % -

as an aU round I! easy .. to-use IOlatioa. can be o.de. They bave the Put 1ft b!'OWl1 bottl~ Keeps well but hiht SPOIl&. II ..

disadvantage .. however, of fallina down on the job at most una... BLUING BY THE HOT S'OLUTION PROCESS: Clan peeled times. and for. no apparent "~.. Wh~ diu occurs the the work .. preriowJ.y describcdt and as quickly u pcaible therebarrel ~der process takq OD a b~lab tint I~d of • blue- .lter, put 'intO a tI.Il.k Df cl~ hot wat!!r. Sh.ke up the bluing black; It shows a1r~ whctc rile: bIu11.1e W'II. applied. ud theac sol won (N e, 1 t or one of the ~tiODl thereof) and pour an ounce stn:ab are RCJt eradlcated by subtequmt .ppl~OftI. They usuUy 01 twO of the mixture inta • iour ounce elass jar 'Iuch u • mayonoccur early !B the proctsa, and. if • fi.~t dan job .it expcc:tecI. it is nlise jllr.' Be ,.,.. ,JUt jar iI .Hal_HI, aH'll .,..i frte from ,r,.,e", best to ~llsh tile! ba~l and m.rt the J~ 'O¥et 'pID.. They paal3. Twist & P. Df haHnI wire around jar and unr it in corner of anot~r dlsa.clvutae;e I~ th&t .they ~ ~ we of soft water. bluiol tlUlK. IQ that it iI down in the Wlur. Cut a 6 i~ ImKtb

often UDpoa1ble to oOt.rn, pU'tiCularly an thl! eo. of c1 .. dowel lOCI and l10t the end far an inclJ with. & hackuw

In .dditio~ to the three 101u tiMI. teieITtd te ~re are a number and into this fora 4n or tix thick.naea of simile puze budl~ ot :r~ ~icl:1 and Hattyi' nlJm~nR: ada offaidl to arnd yGU • TbiI mU:eII m.iI! bet kind of swab for applying the solution. "i\Nld blwRI MLiuoon formula~:Jo~ fo~r-bltl, a Irud::, or w~.t have )'QU. the ute of • thick wid of r&Dt or a pifte.lWl\b..atick c:tmhiniac roRn. Save J'OOr monqJ Public Ilbrane. .Ie. full of old nape boob that Now brlna the w.tf!r in the tank to boilinl point and l~t boll lor teD J'OU how to makt everythiug from nn.tarel pl .. ten aDd. rinlPone scnnl .muta.. WEdR CLEAN COTTON GLOYES .ALL ianediom to n~aT-Scotth. Gc~h~ld of ~ .. book ud. ,au can THB TIME#.and h'Oid.. tuuc:tnnl them to lD~inl' mit might be

start peddlina: aatiqua!e<J and u'eolch: formulas too ad CIID bep &1UI1. R~e the gloves If neu.lU')'. to adJu.at bumen or to

it up j uat .. lang as yo... can ned •• ad:er.. hlDdle l.Dyth~n, but th!: pull you are bLwDI. •

The wbole troub~, as I see: it, with ready prepared _lutiona is ~ barrel. (or ~I:r .pm)! are. thoroughl, hat.r:d In ~c

that they have been ~orked out to apply to cond ltionl in one par. boilin& wa~!. lift OD~ wu:h ~ro.n WU"e hooks, and COlt qwckJ.y with tlcular shop, an d u,w.ll y on one yanety of ,teeL I can sc.rcdr :N'~.. .3 Etdlin~ Sol ubOn. wlDf •. tuft o~ dftn rII'.. Work very cab credit for originating the formula for the solutio. I baYlC come ~lyjl tplubm.c on plenty 0 thU lOlutlOl1 .. t and tr,: to cover th~ ee use and depend on i it has beee devdopcd. II,.ly by c:ut and try eDtlre I~rf.&ct at • ItrOKe or twO. Keep KOmI: ovu It. both barrel methods. from alder formu.l.as, chanaing inpimtl .. seemed nee- and ra:zJ.YC~t and keep the !,hole sutfaa ~I In a very few ~ enaryl fur the work in hind. And be it understood that th .. il Dot the ~l ... U tI~ on a .Ihghd, frosted. Illvery .~ranm. If 10- cilend as an all-purpose solutiOll ~ it is a buk. mixture wbicl1t ia my ~ I~DWS tbu to .. ~ uneven •. coat the 'POh ~ aplft and hold I h,nm.. givcs perfect results on III govunment SpriD8fi,e1d barrels few 1eCODa.. ~""lSe. ploop iDstQtly hack: mto the tank and

d· d·th · odi~ II h·_L I 'L-tl d ·L_ reheat for 6ft mmutett

~ 1C't1onl;:ln. ""I certain m ncatiDlU" lUI •• ~ es::ngt; F1{OM THIS POINT ON THE W4TER IN THE T4NK

&1W:S tq~all1 ROOd raults on a.!m05t ~y ,tel or trOa. Fcr~ ecm ... MUST BE KEPT JT A HARD~ ROLUNG. BUBBLING vtluena!: 111 reference, formulas I:,vcn will be numbered amaccatlvelYjl BDILr--NOTHING ELSE WILL DO.

No .. 1.. HOT BLUING-BASIC SOLUTION ~ When the barrel it I. hot .. hollinl waHr CUI rub it1 lift out

and roat qukkI)' with No, 1 IIOlutinn.. Prara the d.ution out of the ..,..., .pinlt mouth oj jar, ucI WWI ., fat u ,0 • .,.. r.,..t, _/ ,.otti~,:.-or • little futer. The huRl ahouhI he 10 "ot thai the' dutton dric. off .II fat II applied. 1e!lvins • sliaht bluish 1fI.1 COItln~ Aad it anat I~taket.. all OYer the hartel UKI actiGll. If


.,.,ob are not ~ by II. leur. the third ~ it means the stftl ,.. DDt prgpul, cleaned ad etc:hcd1 gil the job is bopeless.

I f the iint coating is ted 11U~ the .,lutiom is not riPt for tile mel Try,dilutinl it with. apoollfuJ or two of'diltil1ed W8'krt or try om of me 'Wanatio .. prnioud, mentioned.

The hlrrel tbould be quite dry from its own beat .. itbin two or tb tee IIeC011ds from the time the sclution is applied. I f it d rim slowly.. blow on i e, "'fbe ialtaa t it is dry, put il bloCk in.to me! WIlt~r and boil for a minute or two I

NO'N' you cln be more delibera.te. Lift; it cut of the waterl ~nd DJle aid on a stool, bench or other eenveniene support. holding: the upper end by the plug: with the left hand. Take a handful of Iftel wool and &cOUI' mti rc surface with IOIlI. Jipt, evea Itroll:es. Use ,just enauth prnSUf~ tc remOVe all the rust that has formed, clear to the: naked. rtecl-but don "t rub off the sligh t color that bas started. U Ie me wire Kfttcb-bTUlh toO PI: into crevics i.q recei vu t ete •• and around front light base.. Ule the bruah brisklYt but with Hebe ptallJfl!. Any of the lUIt thai is left on it li ke1y to raul t in brown or UDeVeR streab aDd spot! ia the finidled job. 10. pi: it .u off.

Now put the barrel back in tile water ad let hoi! for tnttnl minu'lel j thb. Ip~l, the solution apifl j \lit • before. Worc II lfut and f\1rioull!~ when aPidJina 101utiOftt but: take JOU' time if rou. like when rubbing oR thle nat. No harm i. done by Iovine the pIUtS to hoi! for R'Vll!tal rninutetl I fh!r solu.tion. Ius been applied. hence.

I 0'" 3od1um Nlt.r&u

01. PotAulOlG NJtrar. os. Blahlal'1ik JIaraa'rY 01. PCltuIIl'l:lDl ChJ.o.tat41 oi:. DlatJlledi ".t.r

ill ~r blrft. N 1'In

The Ii rst four ingredients are powders. Mix thelD dry 1m • man. wide-mouthed glass ja r. Hea t the .watt r pcd and. warm. but not Dolling" and pour in slow] Y tit! rring with • Ita. rod or tubt, stirring cantin aall y until aJ mostt bur not quite cool; then. add the Spirits Nitre, which will precipitate a liQ::ht browni&h powder. Pour im~ mediately into a dark brown Ilus bottle wim II •• Kopper and keep in a dirk: plact'. 'Sbak~ the bottle before usinL to mix up the

• •

J)ftCI Pl t&t~ ..


On ~ c:ase·hal'dencd parts--Hcl!iverll loc~ plates. !lammcl'St ete., add 20 to 40 grains mOR potauium nitta tel and an cqval lmO'Unt of potusium chlorate..

For .45-70 Springfie1d barrels. mO!it t22 caliber barrels. and all olel 10ft stetl b.rr~lsj use only 1/4 OZ~ rpi rib nitre in abovl: solution. and uu! 14 'OI!.. distill -rd w a te r instead of 10.

For Stainlm Steel I Boehler Anrinit and Poldi AnticolO. 'Use .,1 u ... tion with the addition of 1/2 OZt Tincture Fc:nic: Chloride, 1/4 OZIl N it ric Add, .n~ 1/4 oz.,. Hyd roehJoric Acid.. Rlmal these .Ml. i, l touEh job~ beeallSe blulnc is • rustinl PfOCCIIt and these sttels arc bilbly rult resi!1inl.. From thirty 'to forq applicatioR! Ire omn ~r)'.

Other t1faht variati~. of thill formula may be worbd out for special jdJI. bl1t the fortpnl' have mft my requirement to date.


Mtt:'lft .Aafd .' oil ~ II • _ .

adlled.. Wat- +


you may bl ue all the pa rts at one time by coatin:& them all OD! after ~notheT~ and rubb,nK' them oft in the same Ordel\ Eatb small part sh 0 uld have a short J ength 0 f wire a ttachcd SO: thllt it mAY be li ftm Out of th e water when wan red,

I n most cases from tb Tee 10 :fi VI!' I.pplicatians aDd IUbseq u.ent nlbbi nit arc :sufficien t fa r a f rst class job. Ten 0 r tw.f!Jve may' be aeco-lary, particularly on hard Dr very thin parts,

The secret of bl ui nil smal] parts is 10 work aiOlOlt on the surface of the water, coatinz them with the solutilll1 the i.oJtlU'tt" they are J l fted t and be fore they have sta rted to cool. ~ keep the rwab in the hot solution until the ve ry instane n f applying.

"Then th~ (olor rubs off, it usually means the parta were not belt enough, Wi th 1m all pa rts I some time'S apply 101 urion three or four titD~ putting tb em b.d:: in the waler a momen1 to :r..beat .,. not rubbing off the rust each time, Thil is oftaJ. ~ 011 floor platt!lt_nd a Boor plate is the baldrlt tblne 1 bow af to blue I Nut in order of plain t:U.SR:dnea comes & triapr-pani.

Bear this in mi.nd--un1eM the S1Jlution d.ries from, the kat of the part .L:rmst: the in!il tam it i. appliedl the jab will BOt be riP t. Get that solution on ,,_ic.ljl.

When .eve-raj applicatiol1l have broucbt out • rich &1uHlad: color u dark: u it will apparently b«ome. pve it I oouple JUre

290 t

sbifJb for luu1 rubbing them down with I. dun cotton raE lDltead.

af the steel woo]. wing the brusb cnl y where nettNlry-ilUlide cull, matted or encravtd IUrfaaat eee, and uine it li61tl,. TheD put the parn back and boil them for five mmub or 10 to an all. further


r f you have a. motor 0 r grinde! it lS well DOW to buff wry; Iili "jIwith a soft iron (not brag) wire buftcr. Thi. burnithcs the IUrfate ald 5efl'll!ll to deepen the eolor, ]f you have no bu.r. burnilh with sted wool that il well worn. I1.1.bbinc lightly with lone- &trot_ Then wbile parts are sti II vt ry hot, apply plenty of boned linseed oil with brush 0 r rail Let stud \LOtil acarI,. cool. when the oil will Ibaw II. tendency to start fP. mmmg. Wipe it 0& C8.ref,,11y ~ and oil -with any thin Ugh t ,IUD oi l Remove the barrel pl up, wipf out bore, and the gun is ready to assemble.

All til is i. a lot simple r thaa it sounds. The job should take from an hour to an hour and a hal f. Some claim to do il in twenty to rlti rry JIlin.us, but I c:an'I ..

] h ave neyer seen the etc:hioll' !Olution recommended in connection 'Wi th a hi urnI' sol u non, bUI I am a Ii rm 1xliever in it. Often. it wiD Eive g fine bl 'U.e~bJack which WtJuld otheI"W"iH come eut dlocol&h bmwl1. l:iDll convinced that hil urs with tad Y made .. In tioru .Is often due to otremely b.i;h polishin& of the surfa&z, renltiD. _ in fillin& up the pore! so that the .... ution oumot tab bold. The No. 2 etciaiDg solution does not pit the furface, but ltlUdy claas out ami ttpms the pores; resulting in • .6:0: vel1fety fintab. far JllO", pn.c-. tical dian tile high polish 501IJht b, lOme.. The after burnisbiDK with steel wool or bu ffer Kivcs all the pc Usb needed.. and if • matte su nSice is desi red ~ this may be omitted. I f it it omitted, the resulrinst fin i9h W111 be almost identical with that formerly setn OIl Savlge "99 model r~iven and Savage auto pistoll.


mUle ...A..atd + • • • .. • • • .. • • • Ii .,..

Dt.I1Ued Wat.t ~ .....•. ~ L. .. • iii DL

U5t this solution for l'itting the surflce of laf siChts,. etc •• wne" a very dull finish is desired. Sue), parts may afterward be blued by a.ny of the methods des.c,i~d in th is ch~r.


a.ll'ltlSr1a: AoId • ..

Dl8dlJJtd. w .. tU' ..

Fl11ll rbi, on the au rfact of an old ,IUD with finllh partly worn off Illld it will remtl"Ye e,rery bit of tb~ finish. lening thr nee! brJlht. Then Rum off with plenty of dean 'bailinl wa.. Th.U avoicl. much needless scouring to remove old finish ooly poUshia, II rJet:t:sMry unless there are d~p nlcb and ICI":uclJa which m'Ult be filed .. d

pol w.ed Gut. 291


Thil is publoo-:d throagb c:GUrteIy of Mr. JltMI V. How~ J t..\"e trim it on 01 d guns with soft: Heel or i roo barrel. and with



exD!lImt raultl. The QJlor it • deep browt\iab black with aD. attracth·e translucent appea ran ee, and VlI!!ry durable.

ll'Ul'latl.o Aall. • • • . • . • • II ..

NltrIa Ae:!t! r ••• r • • • • •• _. •• •• •• ••• 10 0&

Mix the~, add. in a dazed dOJU jalt 0'" of doorJ. Let the mixture tool-it pb i~hotter'l1 :hoU'~ 10r 8 few minutes then put in 4 ounce.

of COII.DlOrI win nails; ~ away from the thick brown. yapor tlu.t uiIcI. or wear a gu-ma_ if you mlllt watcb it. I n half ao bOOT the nan. win be completely diuolved.. Them acid. 240 ouQcCa u.tilled 'll"lter. and bottle In b rewa or bJu,= &J-ast. A fOl.lrm of the above qu.antiti!:l will live you .u the 101 UtiOD you will Deed for

IDme tlme to eeme,

1 ,",,.,,~tif),1U for V"

Clean .. rrel u previously desa-lbedJ .nd after firul boilinl' in dan water, dry and. cool. Apply aoIutiOl1 lilhtlJ with dean .wab]l and let b.rel Itud in axd. damp place ior 12 bou", when a !Jet.". coat of nut will be formed. Scour off with ,!teet wool and teratch bruh; boil in clean water for .Ii V't: miRtlt~1 dry, cool, and J'C'oOIat with IOtullOli. R.tpeat every twelve hours for to dap.. Atttr final lC()urill& bcil. _d ry. and oil with Iineeed oil. foUCJWCd by licht oil ~r malin;.

No.6.. COLD BROWNING SOLUTION: This ill the lOIu· tion recOJul1lC:lldcd by CoL Towrumd Whelen in Amateur GunlID [thing , and bu been wed by hundred. of Fn-cr.ano md profa. lional, with excellent ~ta~

'J~ 1Wr1a ClIarld. (U. 8. P.) •.•. 1 01..

AlI!O~1 (11ii.,. &::iDMI) ., ... n •• , p • 1 oa.

:B1ctIIariI.i. ~ • • • • • • .. • .. • • • • • • • I ~O&. Nltrki A.c:ld (lIP, 11". .tf) .,.,.,. . .,. ....-.

~ Il'UlDII.ab ill •• II • II •

JlI.itl~ Wti:ti:P •. 4 • , • • • • r ~ • • • , • , • • ~ , • 1. qt.

Thil mauld be made up • few- daY! IJ rior to ... &Ild .kept in brown ,I .. bottle with Ilaa .topper. (Any I.rp d rua or ehemical aupply house :acrumulates 1IW1J' 8 ounce brown .... add botd~ with iTCund ,lau stopper-. lapped to a periett fit. Thq ma, be bough t lor • lew cents each, and nothilll bette r will be mUDd for the purPlR.)

Thil .,Iutiort is used in the lime .m.anner .. the Zi.chanl dutiDll, except dat Col. Whelen _ys nolhing about boilinK the barrel alter tubbina; of eacb coat elf rust. I:find it deairabll!l though not ab- 101utely ftt!CftSll'1. to do th.is.: u each hotlin.c blb all elldnicsl action af me pJe1ious COIting .. and gives the next ~!U:mOtJ of .olution • fmb Itart This raub to e.limiaate an.y tenclency towml IfOti or

ItftI,Q. 292

..No.. 7. COLD BROWNlNG SOLUTION: AanrdiR.l to Captain E. C. CJ'OMrQa 0, who anainJy sJ. ould be i.o I poai don to bow .. har-I what in the £Un. factoriet, the fol1owinl JOIudon has IODI bea atmd.ud in the Savage plant:

,Sl:d,rltl of W~ • ~ • • t i oa.

~g::tg::rw af Jraa + • • • • • • • .. • .. • .. • • 1 oa.

COITOIlve S'lblima", •.•....•• ~ . ~ • I 0..

E' Df If l~ ' - . - · r r •• ~ • ~ - r ~ .. • • 1 oa.

S-Ill':hate •• or • • • • .. • • ... • • • .. • • • .. • • 1 0&

N A..d4. • ... .. . . .. . .•. or II • • • • • • • .. • ...... " 0 ...

~.. the ..,U". In Ga. qw..... of pUM!I .... 'le:r. then add. lfIe :lfPirUI or wln_. tLmebJ:t'CI I)f lTV". m:litri'C .l!Idi ~d ~lrltII ot D.ltr'iI~

Thil milltion is appl ied to barrels as already describedt but most larte facmrie3 ham:n and improve th~ job by the Ule of • lIe1Dl room or cabin~. Thit is merely a smaU roDm Dr Itrlt: cabinet made a£ r tilth t and provid~d with rlck, w hcr~ th~ ,barT~b rna, be arr1lDgN wimout tuucrdnL and treated' wit b. li .. e steam for th 1ft to aix hou n. The r'U$t CDl:lt is IC'OU red c:i, an d 'treatment repe.ated-thRe rumnp being the usw rule in lQost factories. Crossman aim deecribel' tile following form ula used by the United States goverllllJerlt ~


~ of ~ ••..•.• r ••••••••••••• t I ~

S t 8Dbit. Nltr. ~ • ! •• • • I 0&..

Nitric!: ~d 1 .. _ 'I _ • T .. • .. • • .. • • .. .. 1 G.I.

~ Subllr:n .. te ... ,.,.,.,.,.,. .. 1 0:1.

CoDD.r S.lDhlott . ~ . • . r • r •••••• • .. • • • • • ,11 ~u.

:DIit-uJe.d Watc- "&.

Mix in tht! o.rdt r Ii yent arl d .pply likr the adler sol ution& Ba rT'!b an: kept in rtram room .fa r 24 bOUt! .ft~r tint applia tion ~ then scoured; a fter first being boiled ia water; tDm toated again IlIld placed j Q s~ room for 3 haun;: boiled again. scoural 01', n-tDatM, steaIl1ed (or 3 hours ml:re~ bliled. scoured, U'ld o[led.


No, 9. COLD BROWNING SOLUTION: This is another U. S .. CO'Yemment formula givCll in UUnited States R..iBes and Ma ... chi IV Gu ns' ~ by Colvin and Viall. This it a most interes.tinl and ·vahJ.able bot)k to all rtRe cranks, bV the way. I I costs but three do! lars, and is "'0 rtb three h und red. I am under the impressioo that it W~$ prepared as a manufatturlng guide to the production of au r service arms, during the emergency when con t ractl wi Ih pri va te manu factun" were contemp I ared, Th e formula follows:

Flrst, prepare .. "tincture of steel" by puttlnl 3 pounds cf carbonate of iron in a stone jar and adding 3 qw ttl muriatic acid; ati r tmtil de acid h. dissolved all the i ron it will take up, then pour aH canfuUy. DUO Klass demijchll, beinl cardul to keep Dut the sedimentl and add 9 quart! Krain alcohol. Tbell-

T~ of BtHl ... ' ~ + • + • • • • • • • r • • • • • • 1 OL

8:Dtnt. Qt N.uz. •.• I • • .. • • •• ., ••• ~ .. • .. • 01:.

NL.tdc J...o;M. 'I • .. • • • • • • .. • • • • • 1 ., ••

a~ 8u&phat.- ., ~ • '" " II • • .. ~ o.a.

CoI'l'G.l.,. B'I,I.bUm&te • I •• ~ + + • • • .. • • • • • ... 1 0$,

lion w.aur- ~ " .. • • .. • . • I qtI

~ . 293

.. ne prQI;C~ iI similar to that used with Solution No. S,t except

~bat each coatIng 2S steamed for (1nly I hour, there being three coat. LOp in all Each (:Qatin, of I'UJt ... boiled for nve minutes before cardin, oft.

~~om the foRgoing it is mdent that there arc quite iL n-umbtr of SO~lJtlOn!, both home-made 'and of the "store" vari~t any of which will. WIth proper. persuulo.Pt blue: • iUn. 1 nave in addition about a dor;m ether iormulas that 1 have never rried, limpJy b~UK 1 dOD lilt need. them, and as th ey arc SCI mew hat obsolete ","ould. ape-ct no beerer rem] ts from thei r lise. I pt ISalally do not care much fo r the slew rustin, processes whLch are applied eold, They require the same equipmmt (tank for boiling) as the quicker bot MJlutim.a. and thei r use entaiu. consi derably more work and ti~.. And o f . all the methods I have used for barrels and receivers, the No" 1 Solution gjvcs1 in my hands, the best results"

The various h~J. t P recesses are somew hat' mo re d iiirult to handl~ espeeiall y in unski lied handst but are, ne.enhcless more desirable for rev 01 ve n and pisto Is, as lRlI at. for many small puts wb idJ are not tempered, case-h~tdened Of h~at treated, Obviously such parts would be ruined by bluing methods calling for hip hNbj and must I hen:fore be finished by one of the sel u titln methods.

No. 10. NITRE BLUING: This is ODe of the best known b1uin.l methods, having been described in pnsmithin,l .rtid~ in seTeral ma.pzlaes during the pJst f~ yean. DiS'l!:r~t Ilpe:ratora vary the prtJporrions somewh at, bu I: the usual fo rmula is:

So4Jm::c NItnl.t4 ••.•..•••... r"I +-0 • .. .. • • 10 p'lmd.

~um :NltraOl 10 JIOt.mQ

J(&.D.J&D,8M DloxLde ••.•••• • • • •• •• •• • 1 w a: pou nd.

Some shops diminatc the sodium nitrate and double the QUantity af potassium II itnitr:. Others red uce the: qu~ ti ty of manpoese d.ioxide.

The aitrata ahouJd be melted in a easeiren pOt or kettle~ and the black oxide added a ftet' they are mel ted. For small pam • pot IU.Ch II is lISf!d f[)r melting bullet metal 15 utili actory. For larte p. rts. rcvol vers t ete., have a castiron box m.t.de at the nea.rest :found ry. about S by 8 inches by 4 inches dee~r larger if necessary" A wooden bill( of the right s.izt.. wirh aides slightly t3pt:red for l'd.rlWu will serve as the pattern,

Set the pot or imn box 011 • t..rp gas burner or & plumbcr~1 ps.. oline blast fu maccl and put in rhe nitrates.. Add more aI they .. 1 t down un.til the ~ il nca rlr fulL When mdtedt add the black oxidet and heat the mature to a point where it will juar iFitc uwd ust or a tb in pint spIin tc r.

Parts to be &lu-ed .bould ave • much bilher polisb than it requ i red for tolution bluing. Butling does DOt hurt thctD in the lcaat-tbe bieber the polish I the better the color to he obtained by this method.. Attach them to ilOll wm. Qt haaa: them. on hoob in


the mixtu.re for about tb ree minu tel. after c1eaninr bJ bailing in lye and riDllne' in boili.ni water.. Lift out at the end of !hi« miru.ttCl and iDllpect color. The tint blue will be • briJht taaperiol color pay no attmrion to thial bu.t put the paIU back. In foul to eiEbt rninu~ a deep rich blue &b.ould appear, and thia Ihowd b~ even OV~ the en ti U !in rface-.. If nott put them back for a minute or so longer. Wh-en color is right. que.ach quickly in pd hot ( but not boilin, ) wa.te r. Thea oil with heavy bedim .run oil.



Dr use ~seed at Ji!,t ~~ ligbter oil when parts are ~~, cooL ~

SQ(Q1!b.mQ the Job II unproved by a s¢Ond b-=abllg In the mtre bath after the ntst WI tel' quenching. At other times the -aeeond treatment seems til have no tR'ect. Be sure there is llQ aU or water on the parts wbm puttina; tbem in.. Oil will bu rn and cause llily I potli I while water will cause the ni tre to pcp and spu tter over your face and hand" catJ&ing nasty b u rm.

One of the most bel~tiful and lutin& Dnith-et I b;avc been able to obtaia. it cIo.u as fallows:

Blue pUta in Ditre as just dt&tribal. after quenehi~ and without oUiar at touchLac, brilll" the water to a hIl'd boi!l and re-.blue witb No. 1 Sol uewn. The IUft (.Oatinl that forms will be "elY liabt and soft. aDd :il easily rub bed oil with I. tag. Th ret 0 r four quick app1icationt cnly arc needed, alter wbieb the parts are boiled and then oUrd.. The .finish produced is deep and bri Ui:lnt~ and for beauty is not .urpuatd by Wincl.cste.r1s 'best barrel finish" Putl that are aIlUdy nitre blued :rnay be gnatly impm1led h-y tb. trMl:ment-utio, the solution - rilht over the original bluing, aErrr boilinl 0& the oil and lf95e.

No. 11A.. CHARCOAL BLUING: An old Enzlish IUnmaker pve me the fMlowin~ wbith I have seen. him UIe to produce vtty fine work; a1 tho112h I have never wed it m.yself:

Mate ,l bOJCll 01 heavy sheet iron large enough to hold the largese pan to be bl ued. It is not necew.ry to mec or weld the boxmerely fold the corJ1ers. Fill it with pulverizrd wood charcoal in 1 UlIlpS a'bout the aJzc of a amall pea, and beat in fu rn ICe or larp forae undl the charcoal is part:iy burning: thtouE,hou II but not quite rtdhot. Att.ch an iroft rod at JHlt two feet 10011 to the gunt and bu'l' it in the alowin&, mU9, .nowini' the rod to stick out for handU.,c. In S to 1 0 minu~ lift out and examine it. If the

colar hu 1larted. take a large wad of dem cotton W88te or to"') dip it Into dIY powdered lime and ruh viFftJ1Uly over evny pIIrt of the p.t1.. ad it hack into the &iowinc charcoal Q quickly .. pouible. Repeat thil treatmeDt every 7 to to minutes, usmc plenty of lime lind rubbin.r it into e\fG., part aud .. wi flJll. You may he fooIe4 It the lint bri&ht blue thlt appean. nul is rMmJ a .t. b!DIperlq ('0101'1 and mWlt be du.rqarded. It will net wa. r, and it " lot the bltle JOU are after. Coatiuue the tleJtcamt until • deep b1ue.-b1ack limil.r to that JeID on Colt ~ b.. dcvdICpm.. Lt~


coal ia the air (do Dot quench) then II'Pl,. .t1.J pod Udat pn oi I.

Tb process may be repeated a ICCOnd time if desired:j usuall)! detpfQ1ft,' the color. Tbe pam mUit of COUrR be deaa.ed. of al! gnue. ju.lt as for any other blum, prQCtU. Many gunsmiths do mil by applying a mb:ture of chalk ·and waterl I~tinll it dry on the guo) then b ruahinc it Dff.

A val iation of this method Wat at one time used by S mi th .& Weuont except tltat th e r;un wu ru'Md with oil,. wutt= inJtr:ad 0 f lime. Eitner method reqLlireJ cor.ulider.ble skill ~Dd eX~rtence, but the- roulrs fully justify the etlort.

No. lIB. HEAT AND OIL BLUING: This method is my stand-by in I small ~lIm $uch II acrnn; IiKh es, pln~ I'W t vt! lit ba rre 1 band" .Ii ng: lOOP11i buttpla tell etc., where: the article i. of such size an d. impo rtance as not to warrant hearing up the nit r~ box. Mix up:

Lin."'" OU (boll64 Or ... "" ••••• ,., •••.• , I DI.

HarbJ.'. NiIro--lolTC\ on " ~ • . .. I 0:1.

Keep th is oil ina wid~ IIUJuthtd j. r or can with ICrcw 0 r I rictiU!l tOPt and it it alwaYs ready tor instill t UR. Plrta may be held on a Ie ff wire, or in a pai t of tonp or plie n. Heat the parts in a ,. flame to • t.i 'UU red ( below clU!rry rEd) t hold at this belt fc r a min ute or III ~ tbea quench in. the oil m.ixtu re t lift Dut for .. ltCond or 10 before quite CO()II and r~p immrdiately, JCeep the plrtl moville in the oil.. Thil is the hert method. ] know of for en.ll or thin "arts that are hard to blue with .. tollltion. alld the: result. fJn small Plrts are fully equal to l1rilinal flCtO r.r finith in appea raniCl! and we.,ril1g qualitiel. . There will be .no Kale £orma tion It the L heat used in thi. proo;n.

LA MP I NG. Slight alterations may ref'lll t in b rirht .pou whe re a little fili nil or poli!ihina wu nece .. ry, IUld these IPOtt CIlI ~ reblued in mast instances without rtfillishina the enti:re KUn. Holsttrworn spots on • pi.tol harrd; • sbiny muzde raulting fTom fittinK a front light band; theK are aubjecb for the tlmple heat-bluint p.rocns known as I~ lamping ....

Fi rat rub oft III oil with • clean cloth. Thea etdt the .pot for a IDDmmt .-ith It 1 to 13 lOlution ot Nitrie a.dd i.a wattrl br omit this etchinl if deliffil. .1 thou ill it ... m improve the fini.1L - The lOiuhon mould be ...mrd off with eInn water timon lrnmNiately -j ust U lOOn u it .. itaka hold tf of me metal. Thea. IIry wJth •

"Jean c1oth. .nd hol d the .pot in • pi flame or hJaw torch ." d witch the colors. PIIY no lt1mtion to th. terDperil1~ colon wilt until .n the ~on 11& ye a!)peared t incl tzdinr blue. ThIs tempe ri n:l blue will dtange to a H;:hteT blue, thea 10 tile. amra! bricht COl6f of the IteCl; • mOlDtnt liter the metal will tum dark. .11llOlt "bllck = I eLiJOi1e m;,m the flame, WI t~h the lPOt for I moment; I.e the le.lt lip of the natunl color reN ruin II- put" it hck Into the -lame. • ·Tepe,t the metal in thI. war for RYe ra1 mll!uta. tryinc to 110] d


it it that beat at w&ith it js very dark. j 11M before red l,.iru to appear.. Then" remove from the flame and rub vi lIorowly· with. • b.ndful of nap or waste li,hdy u.rumted with I mixture of "2 parts boiled linseed oil and 1 part Marb~·. Nitro-Solvent. At fint the oil will smc.ke, and burn sligb tl y. Wark fast. and keep takinc clean *POtI on the rag or waste, "and con tinu:i.nj the rubhir11 u.i: n til the oil ,topt UIlokina. and fa r a. ED tftu'te Of two 100117.. The barrel will Itill be qu i te warm. N tJw scour !h~ sPOil with a 10ft wire btush1 or buff Ugh dy on wi re buff! run til the 'Oil spot. caused by the bum~ ing oil arc: rubbed o:H and the metal burnlshed ] then continue rubbing with the oily w~ until bar rel i, nearly cool. Wipe oi all oil, and coat 111 ith gun grease.

Spots t reseed in this way ~ white th~ may Dot matt=h the fttt of the color ~cdy, will c:reatly improve the appearmce of • IUI1 bay· inl warn or scra tehed places.. and often the colora will rna tth aLmoat ~£ectly.

"When lampi nil: aut spotl in this Wart JDU may be alal'JlXd. to see the good bl ui 0.1' bei Ilg somewhat discolored by the heat.. Rest elSYthoe celcrs en the bluing are only MnplrafJ. "and the minut1 you ItUt rubbin K: with the oily .)V18te1 they diappelr.

On a gun whose linish is per iect but for oee or twO IRIan IPDfi.t it will pay to use • blowtorch with I very .."IUI pcic tcdl hot ft~ and make a lOW: of sheer asbl:ltuI with • hole jwt aliKhtly weer man the IpOtf

Lampina: ahould not 0 f course be attempted OIl harderted -or heat trea~ parts, not en partl attached with 10ft solder. Brazing; will not be damaged by this proteta~

NEW METHOD GUN BLUER. This it simply a metal lac'Iuct colored to a purplish. bl utab black" uH. dd a.t one dollar per UDall csn fa! th~ allew;ed purpose of blainr guns.. I t will IIIblutr them. the nme as a mat 01. paint blues a boUlO- if you UIe hlue

p.m. The crank will not enthuse very mudl over me lppeannce N lit BLACKEN1NG BRASS

of an Irm finished 'With New Method, but it will toYer a a:rtain e. Oa ":

amount 0 f the sc:mbiness of lOme rusty old. w reek whieh the fJWD,e r ~dMd'JlO'PfG Add ~ ... I ~ , ~ , • , ~ , r , r , r , • , ~ ! ~

may desire t'O unload upon an uQ"Wtl, ry "'Victim who th inks h-e is buy. trIcI.MId ~ •.• I • • .. • • • • • • • • • .. • .. • .. • ... • 1 jt&rt

ini & pn. One of the best thinp .. hour uk pnparatiOll i. that it Warm. in 11:1- bowl an a .l3dbath, then diseolve u mb!J'latfalllD

it f~usily w ubed oft with a 1 ittle denatured &lcobot foil itt the miIture • it "m tab up. Do DOt let it • A.fter

Ha'liq tbua tborf?u.Jbly clarnned it, I mutt now confess. that I picklinl hr.. ill Solutioa. 13 or 14, wlrm it alichtly ... " cIi.tt iato keep a ean. of New Method on hand in my tbop. and find. it very the blackmina Mllution. or paint it on with • brveh. When h1act" Wl!ful for toucbinl up the md 01 a ariit pill DOW and. tMnT or ~ remove II1d W1Im in warm ..... terl d.ry in uwdUlt. m it tbI cIca4 other rio), !POt ncll as the: edge of • Npt til. t hae Itec:ome Iughdy blad:!iMb ueed by manufacture,. of ?pria1 inl'l:r1lramtl. an.cI is mrred" or IOm~thin.l of limilar narare. I t is worth baving arqUJld ~ to m_, clue to the UIC of plab.aW:a. ~t i, .. ~ durable for luch USCIt but aI • dtitfa.crory mea.m of finjahjul IUD- or P~t iiaiab.. how~r I did _ibould aepal to the expenm~ 111 .qhtIJ ~r thia or any ether paint Dr lacquer is artirdr OUt of the runDin~ C!OpeI,. the bat firum for thU :purpose..

Good workmen won It use mak~i ft methods.

No. 12. HEAT AND WATER. BLUING: Date in & while No. 17. BLUE-BLACK FOR BItASS:

you wiD .find • PI n which from ehc:er cuPclnlSl appuently will Copper cutsoaat. •. · · . · · · · · .. · .. · .. ~ · ~ · . • · ,. ..

8U(iIIpr AttIJDOllla (:II to II,. .... ) ....... I pta.

297 When above iqredients are miud • precipitate will be foMDiCd.

Thcu acld 1 qurt warm water. U1d lllJlnCne the bUIll until the rolot COIDI!III thm Wl&h and dry as heiDre.



n.,t tab a atiafactory finiJh.. Psually it i. ICII1e pUt tblt baa been ~h&rdatccl! or one made of lOme un1llU&l1y bard Iteel. Krq" buttplatel U1! particularly CbstiMtt= in tbil rapect. &ad while on I bUH plate it the lut pliice in the world to worry Uout &DsJ.~ a till. it i. • good idea to baft the job leave your mop look:inc like something had been done to it. I f the put • .not one bavin, .. tmlper or h.!!". treatment tnat mutt tM! p~ jUlt heat it I dull red Ilia" No. 11 J and dip into boiling "",ater A Keep. burner going Ul1dfr the water. Irs IUrpnsinl how loa, • put will 11:&,. redhot uJ'Jdfr water r The color thw produced iI a p-ayi,b blue. licbter than th~ ~il bl tIe t but very even~ and one t:t.f DO one will ob jcct to on .. bu ttpI at e.



The subject of taae-ha.rdm.in.g for eolon h.. alreaa,. beea d.itcwecd in anotber chapter. and need not be cmuidered further bere..

There Ire, how CV'e r, time. when the £"nSrDLth -will want to ma.b IOIDe $DlAll part I1lCb IS • zriP ClP1 or perh.,i.enD a bunplate. rrom IOJD"e lotte r metal more easily worked than: jron or .ted. "B~ copper" bronze, aluminum, ete., may ru.diI, be fi...uhb,\ in almoet In, color daired-one ia not by any mtanl coafimd to black or IUD-blue. but may live free reitn to hiI fancy and· often prod uee IOIDe beautiful electa.

I have URd M!fttal of the IoDowinl formulu "itb biabl~ factory raulb. I live othen which I ba'ge DOt UICd aimplyule I have not requr.red th..em~ hut havf! no doubt of their etJietcy as they are taken. from technical works prepared for the pIatin& and metal finishing trades, and many of them at"! wen mo~b to platen.

No .. 13. CLEANING AND PICKLING: ~ AlmMt all soft metals may be cleaned by fint scrubbinc with a sril brush and pumice with water ~ then lxIilin.r in solution of C2UltiC soda or potub for a few minute&. Then ritl~ ill dati warm wuer and dry .-itb clean eetron cloth, and .. void handlin, durin&" coloring p~ The followiq is an excellent pickling IOb',OOn for brae and all copper allOJ1:

Nlt.z-t.o.6.dd 11 G ~

Batt .... + • • • • 'I • • I r • • • • • • .. • • -I .. .. .. • .. • .. • '1 ~

(:Ia.LiiNCIIl 800t III. I • .. • • • .. • .. • • • • • • • • .. • .. • "l p.z1

Dip me article. only .a ff!W seconds .... d .. ah immediately ia clean. warm watts r, This leaves I. fiM: luster in the tra natural c:alor of thltmetaL


~ B~ (Batun.tel 8oIatlOD) 1 ~

JUdd •••••• ~ •••••• +~.~ ••• ~ •• I ~

LeaH Iniclft in mit mixture for two or three hours, or Ionru if nec:eaary. What the 11lriac:z prc:teou a ··"cacl" appeuu~<:C1r!-n.arunl calor of the mrtalt with abIo1uu1111O .. or haLle wah

throurh ICVcnl .... taL 291


.",.,... .a.r.a.to •• ~ •• '" • • . • I oil .. I 1_

"~ ~~ ~. 1 oa.

Aalil III III • .. • .. • • • u OL.

l.-! W.a.ttr •. r •• .......,...,.....,. 11 ct.

Scour the aluminum with pumice and wa~r .. then in .. 'Very weak l~ dution Uld rilile immediately. l.hnene sn .bove IOluticm~ di;btl,. warmed I until blad:. Dry in fiDe tlnn .. wdust., om Iaa,uer.

~lfyl hltIlmat. 11' to • .. • •• 1.,..

~ • + ..... III. III .. III •• - " - ••• - • • • • • • • •• 1 JtlDt

Clean aacI pickle bI'UI U befoR:1 ..,...m, and dg.! Brush the ~lu .. tian on and let it remain until an. iI 'black. W uh tborouP17 in man wum. water, d.rJ~ IJ1d rub in finely pcwvdl!rm graphite with .ft brwh4 Lacquer if detittd~


POOR ~i\1' S JAMES BOND voa , 4

(11.) :PatlUltao BaIDllJl!ll. I' att.

E7IIadlJarta .i.dd. ... , IIUUI

Y.i&Ir ....... ',. .. • .. • .. .. 110 ~

Clea.n and pitkle the braa .. briore-I thea. immc1X or paint on 101 ution c .... ., with 10ft rae rwabl rubbiDl it in aeud,.. then. beat ovtr

• IPS Rune until dr,.- and peenUh aa1. &II! :Iot.-d. Then immerse in IOlution "b" for a few lIIin1ltlfill _d helt apia until tlrr lUll! the rolor black. Wash in warm wm:r, dry .nd lacqucr ..



~ ~tt ••••••• ~.4 1. • ....

l1li..£ . ADiI:mlBIac I ~

w..... -II ~ _ ~ •••• ~ ~ 1M ~

Supend' - thl bra. partI in oil IOtUtioa and ltoil.. lavina partJ in until dar is obblincd. W .. b thoroqbly and dl'J' in .. wdost


Pota.lam Cblon,:t. ~................ 1'1 .......

Nlaltt1 c..rbCI,,"1.I I ;It ~

.a.Jt: 01 Xl.... •.. I • • 4 ••• 4 • • ~ • • • • ." pa.m.

IMstubHl ~~ I ••• 14J •• 4 •••••••• ~ •• 10 ~

Immerse the brasa for a conaiderlble time &nd watch the colo r. In

• few boul'l it b~ma a ydlOW-broWil. which later chap to • bn1liant fire-red, nose wbo advocate the UIC of a bript red ~ 011 :front Iliih t may mike it of brua and tltit IOlutioo will produce • cOlor that will .make a bu.ll pnr up the turf I


~ Ac6'ta.t. .,. . .. . • •••• r • ::I-..rt.

BodbJ..m HJ'l)Onl,blt •. H • + ••••• ~ •• • • • •• f,l~

Wabr ........ .. .. .. .. . ... • .. . . . . . • . • . . . . ~ . III • • ...- ...

Jmmfl'8e articles in aolu lion and let stand "Until desired dIect iii obtli ned ;i rinse in clean water aad let dry without nab'biq: or touch ... inc-- The mlors will be beautiful.. and \'t!1y luti:nl.


v~ ! •••• _ ~ •• _ • _ • • • • • • t .utr ..

Cepper hlJt!:aat. ••. ~ 4 • 4 • • • • • • .. • • 1........

8ei. 8alt ~. . ~ . • , r , r , r ,. :II aam.a

e.t .'D)1'QODlao •••••• ~ •••••••• ' .. , •• •• • II ........

Baad.rw pI. (mouat&.b:l 1P"MS1 J ~.... f. ~

4mmoml& 4 al ~

Immerse the ~rusJ or Iprll!!ld it tq)idly with 10ft brulb. The ~j ect will tum I p-eenisb color. Remove act. liquid liahtly with Ioag brildtd. bTlllht Ind let dry 24 hoUR. AddidOlll.l a..tinp may be Ipplied if daiIed...


Dip parts in Pl1 re nitric :acid, RlDove. ...d heat to • dull. red.

Let eoel, Wahl dry, and oil or lacquer ..



lot :::

Immene or paint on solution until blue color it obtljned.: wash. dry and lacquer.


Nltfat8. Dlt:l:,.... I II t ! •• 4 • •• • • • • I ar.m.

wa.. 1.t

lmmedC pam in IOlution until d.eaired. coi-or il obtained ccd.on W111rap throuah allihadel of IIwwn to dC!eJ' bbd Remove and

....ash. drr in .wdUlt. mel T-


8ul~ O'l. AD.tilDolrr .!. , . .. .. .. .. .. .. I .........

::E'W:J&iI.II. .. •• .. . 1 ...

w .. te.r •• III •• .. • • • •• • • • .. • .. • • • • • • • • l_~

Ute same .. Solution No .. 26.


hJJhgr L. • .. • • • • .. • • .. •• • • .. • 1 c..

~ 1_

W .. t.r - ~~ .. . _ .. .. ~ .. .. . ~ .. . . . . . . 1 'DlIIt.

Ute g~ as Solutioru 26 and 21. Ghtn:.11 shade. 'of ltd) deepeninj into black.

No .. 291 ROYAL COPPER.:

Su.l:g.hlde of ADllIDo-.J" • 4 • 4 • 4 • 4 ••• 4 ••••


Wat-.:r III III. • .. • • • • • III .. • • • .. • • • • •• •• • • :I Il'lIIt

1 mmc nc: unti 1 desired color it obtained-a vrry m'kmc rtd..


SIl...r mtr.te ••....••. 4 " 10 ~

Co~ bIt • ~ +" ~ ~ ~ ~ • • • • • • • • • • •• • • •• 10 iraIA.

C •m 011: 'l'Ia.rta.r , hull



M:ois~rl with I litd~ water and apply with a soft doth u.ntil the rapper u plated with I liJb t coating of .uver. Wuhf dry and lacquer.

No. 311 BLACKENING NICKEl,: )f1abl~I'a:$ $Q]DbIlb - ~ :t .. ~oz l:..wn. ~ I'WPh0c7U1lde .. I ~ 15-.01 ........ CCJ~PW" c...rboil.a.te ..• ~ . ~ . ~,. t '."fa .,.,.,.

W&t8r .... , .... ~ • . • . • ' .. . .... 4 • 4. J lit!'-., 'TIl .,ram-

Immerse until nickel is bl act. Then wuht md d iY.. I ha ve nev~r used th il sol urion, but it is high I Y l'e(nmmended by an old expe rimeed finisherj M givine: a ~lY rich I deep vei"VCty black color. It is nor thl! ublack n icker~ pl. ti rl2' pnxaa in which the. nickc] Ek· poai ~d is black dear th roUlh.. The platina: process it ttill Rprded .IB • tnade sec:re~ .m I have hem unable to secure any fotDlUla that I could plrantee to ~rk. It would appear that this No. 31 sol ution mirbt prove val nab le for nickel I'Iated TtvOlvers. de.: also .. rh at any barrtI ~ :PartlC1da rly th.ose of. staiJllesa. neeI w"blch are. very hard 10 bluet mieht be nickel platro Ind treated with this 101 ution • Similarl" a pn could be copper plated at small cost. and blackened with !Olutionl 24" 25 or 26-


Ruh the Clbjed: with a 1iD1ution of .ailvl:r nitrate until bt.a.; w~h and dry.. 0 r ~ dip in an., alkaline mlph ide .,llIIion ~ then brush with cream of tartar.

No .. 33,. BROWN!NG SILVER.:

Dip in dution of equal pam of sal ammcnW: and copper IUlpbte diuolved in vinegar 11 This gives a deep bmwa color. Afterward,

wuh Inil dry. 3D 1


~ I m-J:D-

~u.m. :BIOmloCl. • _ •••• _ • • • • ••• 1:10.,. tn.

W'IiCu' ,t, .... It • •• • "" _ ... -ill -ill .. .. .. • • • .. 1. _

Bail Iilnr .La tAil. .. IDdon 2 to .5 minutes, then poIiIh. with rau~


.AmID4'Dtam .8ul.pbl4t .... 1 •• .. .. • • • ":D&I'tI

..... ., .. ,....................... ..!~-

...... ~ ~ ~.~4t. ~v ~w.

Clean zinc: by ICrLIbbiDr 'With fine IUd, pumlce or emeryl IiUld imlDC1'lC for a fay moments in ruphu tic acid. Then immel1C in above IOlution :lor only an ituunt or to, wasb throoP sevenJ. waters. and dry. Thit.rve.. ve:ry fine black color which bee .. "ne. a bronze d!U if l"nIrnilhed ..

The IlDBteu r designer who. bu a 1eaninl toward the arlude will fiDd ben mjoyment in workinl' out some nnr l"pdpt'~ for his. pa. or riSe.. Pmapa it will be only • _pl. IIUJDOII'UD pille jill-aid in the 1tOe:k; or it may tab the :form of a pip cap or mlmd tip mocl-eled in day or pLuter, sod. cut in. one of thew 10ft zaetal~ With thh tboupt in IIlUld I hive pven fG rmul .. for finWtin, metIlt not 1IIUIlIy toDIid.cnd ia. ~ithi:al yet: these ue but • ftw of the colon that mly be obwoed with other rormull.l avan.ble.


CHAPT"a 21


TO BE able to devote but a lippe cbapter to thi:l a11-imponant

aubj ect ia lOlDewhat tliIconcertinL md, in tlu li&h t of the IdbJY voluma pwblUhcd in recent years. pe:rhapi b1batdy" To RIll, w:adcDtand b.rdmm, and temperinl of steel md. 11"OD an extemi'Ye itudy of the character of the m.e~ thei r Itru&:tUr!. and the lIl.una ... facturiq proctDel' by which they are prod.~= iii eaentw.

Bu.t since this book applies to the field of lUJUllDitbiol' u .a whole" and is DOt 'confined to any tpeOaJ b ranch of that mbj ect., all I an hope to do i. to .pvc: the rearlc:r III ou tUne of pnctical methods nolved by I .... iDK .uthoriti~ and toumlnl but lightly on the the .. oriel and for.lll1l1ae on w h.ich .u.cb practicn are. based. To eacowqe the molt mmpleR! understudi.nr of the technique benia explained .. lOme d.i.cuni0ll of fnnd.ame:ata1a it ISIential.

STEEL il an lilley, composed principall,. of iroo) -with additions of Carbon. ChromiWll, Vaaadiuaa. Nickell M anaanese, Tunpten or other su.bstuu::e "1 ~nc 01 theeet and aom.eti mes a combiDatiOD 01 two or more. MID)' steels .110 amt:ai.n mi (lure quanti. [If copper1 and • small pc.rcen.tlKe oi impurities. a1 thouD modern steel manu ~


hcturrng procll!SSeS h 11 ve red uced such impurities ro _ minimum..

Pu re i ron-that IS, i ren containin, no element to chanp it into steel-is almost unknown co:rnmettia.11y -mday. For same reason the p rod\u:::tion or pun iron ilil txpensi ve, and low zrade steels an U3ed almO:Jt' URi vcrsally instead. The early backwood. riftcmaker welded h is barrels f rom pUR iron wh ich he 0 r perhaps solD! of his nei ghbcn mi ned :a nd smelted bv the Blost primitive: methocL--ret methods 'Whicb resul ttd in iron of the nnest and pUlM' padt. Their .tee) wu lIIade by combining CI rOOD wi til this iron in aa open forp:!I 'WUT king it ill It \WId ing heat, By th i:!l simple means the), prod ua:d CI rbon steel 0 f fine quality t yet va ryinE: in its carbon content by ftuOn 0 f tne method emplQyed. 303

Steel making is today ODe of the exact Kiences,. th! proportioD of a rOOn or ether hard~ni. element being earefull, eontrelled t'O .P.~ d UC!: special material best adapted to ita particular parpcllt:L Yet DO exiltini: pro"tSl hu been perfected to thf! point of ulOl UtI!, uahailing urn fotrni ty. LQ.IJe plan u employing qu antitiea of !feel must male labolatory tests Gf every 'batch ebralned from the mill to drtmnine ita nita t.ilit! and methods of ~ tment. When this fact is real ~u:d t it -will be readily understood that no et: rules ClJl ~ laid down for we in every instance. Everythinl .id in this chapter must be taken as &pplyin&·;o a i"CDcral Wa.YI and i!1di-vidual expelimmt must gov~m final operatio[JL

The pi~ce of steel from which the pnsmi th makes a sprinl. fo r examplC"1 may be semewha t di fffl"en t in composition and ehar.eteristics from that used in the tables berein praented; tb~ ternperiDI color you lind it necessary to omJploy may vary a shade or two from thlt specified-and your next one 1;]81 requi re a1igh tl y d[ffeM!:Dt handliol' from the last. And while each job m1Jt. prmmts its own ~ problems, a general understanding- of undcrliq: prineplc. wiil Eaalitate thei r ready solution.

Our principal contideration will be carbon stee~ sina: they are best adapted to the use .cf the ~r with • buedu:nt warbhDP.I u ~ll JIB· tbe averAge profe.ional IUnlllDith j moreover. tiller are the lent expanivc" .as w.ell as the most rndily obtained. particularly in mlI.l1 qumtities.. A list of the various temper! used in commonty known tool! will ()TOVe of value; but Ji[lt~ we must unde rstand tht two distinct mea.ainp of the word "', temper."

To the steel maker, tm.;~ means the pcraDtq:e of carhoo the steel con tUns, regardlea. of the llardness or so £toe. of the finished .metal. But to th e ste.el user (tool maku, machiniit, ~) temper signifies th e d e gree of hardness he impa ~ to the finiahed artitl~ by his hear treatment.

'The term loift t is used to denote CatboD contt!nt.. • pom t bt!inl Ollie o JU'-i fl"Jrtll h 0 f one ]:leI ten t. Thus a 100 point steel contaiOl one per cent of carbon I 60 poi nt steel contains 6/10 of one per cen!: carbont and to on.

R.wr temper, (toO use the 11m maker". term) or razor ... teelt II about ISO paint II 0 r I 1/2 per cent carbont It is to easll, burnt that only th~ most slill ~d warker ~ hand I~ it ; yel wi th p ropf!r treatment it will do many times the work 01 the: best tool llteel.

Saw-file t~~r is 137.S pqint.t or -one and thW~--eighthl per cent carbon. I t" too, req ui res cat'~ful treatm.en t.. and should never b4! healed I bove a low .o::d.

Tool tem.pel" is 125 pcint--one and one-Iounb per cent carbonand .is adapted to machine tools and cuttc n of varioul sorb for la thea,. drilla and planoer1~ In recent ytat'9) TWliSt!n scIf-bardenina: stett. Ire pa4uaUy replacing ca.rboo. stetls fo r machille tool ope: rati OIUI.

Spiud Ie temper is 112.5 paintl or one .nd one-ei:pth per ernt 3[)4

carbon. It iI DIed lor la~ turnial ton'" c:itculu eal~ crew thN.G di-. ete

Chile! tempt!r is 100 point on!! per .c:aat carhoG. For tools requirinl a bani cuttmg mEet with llelt bod,. 1tI'eiJ.;th and abiUtr to w[thaw d 1h~ it i, idell. Pmpuly taaptrecl it it eD:e!"Ue!lt I for hammers and trigprs, and other IUD pans subject to conaid~nble wear and Itrainj alrhGllgh. harder man rfaU, necaSlry for aucb work..

Set temper is 87 . .5 poiDt, or 7 /8 0' ODe per eent cubon I It is Rally better for most KUD pam. than the harde r sradm. I ta It ICIllth is indicated by itl extensive alit jn stampin" and preaiq ~je... where abi Ii ty to withstand tn-ormons pre:aure i. important~ 'When a atecl maker speaks of .. t very 11m rd I!I sttel, he tneana 1.50 poia.t Or harder;



.. 1.ard" t refen to 1 ()O..l20 pcioti and j 'medi um" to -70-80 polot. It lDII.ka no ditHfUlte whether the Il"eel is annealed. or bud. whm sold--the above terms appl, only to the carbon it contains.

Carbon steels are made Dy two prGCer8a the crucible proem and the GpeD hearth PI'OCC85, both of which have .m.erib peculiar to tbemIdvcs. Whlli: I delCriptioa. Df sud! proxlllC. would undoubtedly be of inte2"eltl it ~ulcl occup~ too much qJ.ICe and do. lltrle 01" DO ~ 'W"ha t we are 1[1 terested in II the best steel for ma king guo parts,. and perhaps some of the rooIs we need, and how to mate ami temper them to do thei r work prcper]y. Since most supply hoUlai CUly a lODI!:Wbat limited atoc:k of steel, IJ1d since in mm.,. ~nIt~ we may want to mUe pam from old toob. Of other articles easily 1.V&J'able .. It ameral list of steeb colDlllonly used in vuiolll -mo~ etc... will likely prtIve 'i'aluable. The following is an ertraCt from table in Woodwortb'. H 6r't/ e"irrg.. T nfljerirr.!/.; f!I J muoli.",.


"",10 to 0.7.0 ~J.a'" vIM •.•.•..•.• ~

I ~ so belt. .

1.1~ ~ ~ .•..

o .'-0 to o. '10 ~ wtn;nt [Jftlu

o . It') K~ DU"t::b" ••••••••

o .10 ~ ••• ,., ..... r ••

1.1~ ID 1.SI Xa.ah..I:B..,...1 oru~. .

O~IO 1f~ .. 1aWII •••• ,., ~

0.10 to O.'D ~L cruGlb). . ...... o · III . Pu.D~ bJedrernJtll ••

0.10 ltD 0.10 ~. ~ .. ~ ••......•.•

G ~.o to 0.'0 ci.nular- _ I • , •• ~

t.ll1!! ~ ro .. __ .•.• '.

G . II to D t 10 QiIIIlo....... CfMi cu.t . I • ' •

1.1"0 to 1.11 8&-. 'bud .

o & to D. '0 M:&te ~ . n ••••

1 ,Gil!! tI2I t.1 t 8Pt"bic. ~a::amoa JCH:k-

~ : II = r: I: _~ .. : 1+ "itiU..I; · "or

o ~ ., to r .. ,. looaiDotlYe. • . ... - . . .. . I' tdI • 08 ~ ... , • ' • u ••• L ... 1.11 to 1. II ToOle, b,.......tJa..- ~. D .1. to o. to 1\wJk D:I.OIll~ . ~ ...

0 .. to b •• " Tool .. brtaltlaJWi'" .

0.11 tal 11.'0 "W"PtaeJI..... ...... ~ .


From the iorelomz it will be e"tdenr that mill,. odds and ends of oLl tools mlY supply steel that II well ildapted, to makinl ",rinD or other parts of IUDS;- it will be ~allf evideDt that others will ,.{)I ~~plr suitable material, :for which reuon they are mwn herein. Many old. timi IUnsmi ths are in the h Ilhl t of maki~1I a small part f ram any bi to of m-etal that is hand y ~ without the smallest inkl~n, of iu suitability ..

Tb! p racb(e of making' parts· from old taoist ett.t if Dot to be COBdemned-on the. contrary, the knowledge of the temper of rum toOll will often prove iii more reliable guide than aome material salesman!!,

word. _

For gunsmiths who have . .ccem to a large machinists' supply howe carrying a fairly complr:-re srock: o f steel ~ it is ad viable to lay in a small s"U.pply D £ short l~ngtha (a fC)ot Q r 90 win be suBicien t ) of the .several crades likl:'ly to be needed. This. stock :mou.ld be plainly I.lbd.ed wit~ the kind 0 f Iteel an d carboa oon tent, and placed conveniently in pireon-boJes Qr slOall bins. The following Hit is IUI.~ gtst~ . u likdy ~ rover most req uiremeat! :

Aunr. WOGd .

~ .. + T_+ +.

Ball bMliq ..•.•.• I

~ P11 .

.I~ :mmlnlll' .. ~ . ~ . • . ~ poebl knthl • ~

B1ad~ :r.m .

&aPia .... __ a-Ia.a' .

c..~ tatb4 •••.... m=:: ~J4 L~r .....


~ ~ ..

~ ~ f.orIlDe • ~

:;I):rtlll... ~ .

DrtYlt'1 a:r6W .. ~ •.•.• ..... : ~ .... ~r. JIaft!:n."1 uritl _.......

-.rae. ..

r,nun ~.:r.ttJijll

aztitdIlfr, DI.-I· ••

&tftJl. . ..

me.. If

ROOlra,. ..- ••••••• :""'t al:riiDII: •••••••••


O~II to '.I~ 0.10 I.e .~ II 1.01- M 1.10 1.11 to 1.10 0.'0 .. 1.ID 1 .. 11 to 1 .. 1&

'.1' to I." 1.0'1

fI.11 to l.iO ~.IO tit 1+" 1.1' to 1.115 0.10 to OLIG 1.10

1.11 to l~~O ' .. 11 to 0.11 l~ll

.1·19 to 1. II

1.10 "to lL)G l .. l:i to 1. :I ' .. 1' tG , .. ,. 1.1' tG :1.11 a ~ to 'tilt II .. H t .. 10 to 0.11




the io rm c f steel barr is usually an aealed, to permit eay cuttinl and 0.. at. Iitde lower beat than :potI think: neceaa ry; ch anee. are it' forming: but L £ you make! a part from tome old tool or othtt piece will 1VOrk. And if it doan:-t. j uat heat it • little hothr next time.

01 tempered It eel tit _ill be llK1!!aary '10 anneal it bdore JOU an The b-!ndw.cy of rumt workmen iI to demand miter and lO:fter wor~ it . Facto ries ~mploy grut anneaIinl 0'9CJJ1 in which Iteel can mneaiinCI fot .wy warkinl; where.! they sheuld 'be ed ueated to be Mlted to p redetermi ned ttmlXnturel, and moIed. slowly at & warmlt it harm:r ~ roT better :final nsults. More steel is ruined by tpCC,6~d rltt; but such eqllipnxnt i. coad,." ud. DOt na:c •• IJ'.m:u over--lUlDealiag: than in anr oth:e r manner.. Over-annealed steel will

306 .brink badly iD the :hanleningt _.nd ia mOR lil ble te WI rpina: .1m.. A

to the aood BiRd HOp. The ben: WI)' 1 kncrw of to anneal m o~ little more ue1bow arage~' cn tile file. I little more time in the latht ..., piece -of bardmed atftJ. ia to ICt up a ruxl red bed of coab.in or milling zmachint~ will cften pay biz dividend. in qtlality.

the furnace. Inuy rour lter!l in it and JIef: dte .Dre 10 out. This r. HARDENING. This Ketion re hrs only to the hardening of partic:alarl,. plepin r to friend wife if the thermometer ia standinl carbon steel prior to ttmpering.. Case- hardening of soft mel and

I('OU11111. eero U1d she is e~ting guest. to dinner. i ron will 'be treated Ia tel'.

Good. ~nealinl can 'be done ia • forp if you. will bvad up.. All st~ hu whar: it· brown u the r~critital tetl'lpt!tature1i'-the

zood big bed of coala-the ordina ty IIDal I warkin, fire in a M rae hat It which its struetu rat forma don u.ndergoe. I camplete clJUKt mi.,. let the piece 0001 100 quickly for bar: result!. But wbelhrr n~ to the d~i:red hanlnas. Tb~ critical temperamre va li~ you use fumlCft for.re., or kitchm rU1l~ Iloid beaM. the stec.l teo by lCYenl d~rrees in diiferent !t-eele, md is usually ldOWD only to lIott and tao rapidly. tile firm who made it; and since it could on! y be dete rmintd accu.r ...

No :air blat should be w.ed- j UIt • pod brillht fire tbat will brinK .tely by COIdy IIJet.ll uraieal testi. it il tu.'tomary to aIIUlD.e, for the mel to • cherry red in two or three minuto without permitUfll practical ,"eli. that bript chel'I'Y red is the critiw tempe.-.lllre. jt to pal thlt heat. In annealing-and this abo appliel to hardl:!Ding Here apin, the wtl rer must exerciee care, for the ume dana! r of -the lower the. h eat .at which you can do ~ wor~ tb~ hettf!r the ovcrbeatiDK &l)pliea. u ..... mentioned in amnection with annealin-. job will he. Try fi rat _ • fI.!I red; if that fBita. beat to full merry Gtneriilly a aiirh d,· hilber temperatu re tAan that Uftd Jo r annealmel hut no hotter. Soru.et1mes you will nod steel mal: will not illl ill advisablc--but alWIJS use the lowest hl!at that will Kive the anneal It all. but U I.pparently • b.rd aiter the ~tment as it was ... It. required~ I f the part will not harcieD at a very bri gilt red, before.. "In such. cue you may know that you blU • peer: of tuDP- rou h.ve Plllbably made I miltak"c ill the Ilet:I itsel f and are'" ullin, ten or ether air- hardeniDI steel, and. tM bat thin, to do i.· to try ",",i nery IIeel or Olld rolled in-read of carbon It eel c:ithel thatT or JOIDetruna: else, Air hardtninl~ or xI f hard~ IiteeL is only adapt- die the tteellJll been t:1um i' by heannl tDo hotll

I!CI to bi,lb speed cutten. d rillsi :etc.. and is unally worked b, grind. The ~ ,lin to be foUow:ed. i. ee heat the parts,. or ~ .fter

inr. It can be annealed. but the procell is IORI and coll1:pllca~. 308

ftquiring: expenIive ~uipment.. they hayti been fin ithed to .hape and polWt I to the critical temper ..

A method. practiced in many .shGpl is to b~ the pan to be an.. uure (ee as near to it u pr:lcticab~) and quenchio& in oil. oil and nraled ch erry red md buryin, le in ] ime until cool ~ (J r it may be water. oi l warer and :soap ~ soap. ~ Ire-let 0 r plain 'WI rer. Que:nch .. buried im hot .mea, powdered charcoal.. hot sandt or almoet any ma- ~nl in water makes the sterl very brittle-too bri.tt} e for mOlt U1e1. terial that wilJ. j)l'!vcnt rapid cooling. V try small patb that ha ¥e Oil. or ·some. 101 utiQn o i oilt liVe! wughn~S& and Irrenph.

been hardmed and must be annealed. ally be heam chetry reel and Unifo-rm h tatitJl of irregula r ly sh ~d pam. or patti warb holetl damped in the 'Viae between two blocks 0 I I!O it wood. 10 that the in themt is ohm difficult; a rid as uniformity is very necessaQ ~ the mel bUrnI it81:1f an airtight pocket and cools dowI,. pncticc of heatiag in hot lead. both for hardening ad temper ..

Or it mI.,. be heated and placed between t\\~ lura- piece! 0 f lnl is common. A casr iron box, or plumaer' s iron mel tin, pot redhot iron. The lar~r pieces, cooling: more d.owl.J, will ~tard ruch as handloaden use for cutinG buller metal. will answer nicelYt the ccoUng 01 the smaller part. P rovided it hu beeQ used coosi de rably 5D th at the s ulp hu r con tain ed in

Wben onl, • glili burner is avai1abl~ the rted may be autpended the carti.nJn is bu rned cut I Ii.. gtaphite crucib Ie is best, bur: is ex Denin the lame. and brought to a red. heat; adj uat the burner to hold sj 'i~.. L ~ dtemica!ly pure lead i i possm Ie fr; r the barden ~ nl b2 t b. thi. heat III1d leave [t fa r several minutes: tum the burner d own a N ever use scrap lead of unknown attgin u it alway, contailll little it I time, 10 tha. t th! coolinc extends aver • bill boqr or 10.. much swph LJr ~ and this will ruin the Iblet B ring the lead to a Another lVIy il to beat the part then place it in • v~ry hot kitchll!:d brigh t ~ci hmtt and h aDI the Itw parts in it un til they too are oval.. lcw!:rinl the tmIper. tu re 'V'n'J rradUlU,. red. :Jblf! hca ring will be abtolutely un Lm raJ. anll by ~ontro11ing;

WATER ANNEALING. The Author d IamUilr with two the heat of the lead. it will be bnpMJible to overheal me Ited. If methods 1V hich are qu ire sa tllfactory for carbon Itd:l in most ClMI, the parB an:: I up it is advisable to pre-beat t~um near), red. in a IMrbCUJ.r1y where the carbon c:onUat :L. ftf» too high. ne lint forge be fore dropping inta the pet, to prevent cool i ng me: lead ..

methad consUb of beatinc the steel to ch':lTJ mel. then let it lie Keep the surface 01: tb e lead covered wi lh pow dered c.nalc'Ou to

Ulltil the red bas almost dilappean:d---in other wards until it is black prevent oxidati on.

hat: thm quentb it in thid: IOapauds.. 1 f the had bas a tend.ency to ad !tere to the sttel pa Tt!, t hi. :may be

:n~ BCCODd m!tbod iI to. bea~ the ~ nd t hot, ~hen remo~ it avoided by d ippiog them first into & aol ution of potassium cyanide, qmc.k1y to a dark clQ&et, It.tting It cool m the atr unbl the red. ... 110 in proporticn of one pound to on!:! lulall 0 i wa~r.. B.e lure tiu:y

307 bavc dried thorouPly before p'utinK them into the lead.

Ioapr vitible in the dark, then drop it into hot (but DOt hniliD;l) Sometimm it e Il~ry to heat and. bend fila tD petmit of tbeir

.... =" ' doing special work,t afterward re-.ba.rd.:runa; r;helll. Til do th~1 with ..

Tbell medmd.s will not ItIlJOve aU die mm.perl ~ 1n1t will Dut risk ot burning the pomt. oj the t~rh ~ Mil! U. S. OrdnuC! De ..

IOmn th-e ,tee I 9ft that it Cltn be tUdil.,. cut ami driDed.~ and thi. ia 'partment ~mmepd. rhe full~in Ii: .mix.t Lllt: :

oftm desi rable practice where! it il Dot planned to rew-harden and PuI"MfltMd. e~.mtd hat"'r ... ~ . ~ ... _ . . • . 1 lb.

lanpc:r the finj.bed parts. i'i.tJ.1I!II famU.y Hou::r ••••••••••••••••••••• 1 ~ lbtl~

It must be home in mind that any steel part8 .houLl be carefully Wine tabl-e t ~ · • • .I lb ..

.. raeald after forajDK. - the fergin,.And whsequl!n~ mctlinlj in tbe Nill. n' .:::,Ili"lII~In£=::"':· tI~~:: .. "'~e~:\·[)'W~o. J:II~Q::-:I:tl;l! air will alm.ost surely have c:auted lOme hardenioK; coDIfqUtlltl, tta-'41 a.nd Pr1:l'f&ht lurn DB., en Ldd. mg.r. ~ UlltU eM rn.lxl W'~ J. D! u.

th- --ml'"a' for .......... ~- l:!' -g hefo- the final bardain. and tea:::ape..:.... ooD-llatenCJ' Il r ." .. rm1lb. lItk'O*d it 6ft 1:1. D&r~ M tD. .. !1rua1l---- 1I.8ry \b.Iu

"" &l1ii"'"'oIM' ..... ' ILLIncaJlIl ..... ...... even mat, ~d drY aLQmll bu~ ,boroUl'lItyl Oyer- & .kno aN:..

pro:x:ssc& Morecm:r, tha forging' and. cvolinr may hi'" ~lrM. in

mpt in tern..a1 strellCS in me partsJ waich the hardminlE might aUK to warp badly II But at.t'eful aftJ'wlnl wt11 relievl all ,ucll 'lIeges. mid. tbe. parts.. if warped", ma V be trued up with little dan&er of

.. arpinljt in the hardminJ ~.nd tem~ring lhat follow. .

One more "",.minl' apLmt beatmg too hot when. anm'ahnll Ali • geoend rule, lt~llhou1d be annealed at a sli~tl, lower b~1It than it required to b.rd.en i t ~ tnd thl! danl'!r of bumin; lhe lI'life:!:J Dot of th~ ltee) d. Pluch peatEI' whm annealinr. Play ufe-try :aaneal ..

The above miJrtu re having: been app Ued and d ried1 the file. or alba puts axe h ardcncd in I Jead bath u deac:ribed.

i\noth.r w~U I:.n~wn 10 rmu.la £01" hardeniq files consiltt (I f :

Pr)U.aIum t. no--cran I de. .,1011 Yert.&4 •• II

~"dCI.rW ~ •• r II II ••• I -=

.il'l:Jw4e.r'etl raIIln ..

PDwdend. whit.. at.... . ~ ..

Jly. II..,..,. II I .... ttl •••• t t .. • .. • • • t • • • ..

:N rool. burnet. l.b.!I pull"lr, .. 1t .

CLi'·"tO"D ...a .. II • I • • • .. • .. • • • • • • • • • • .. • •




... 4. 309 ~ to the princi ples 0 f «mpcrin.r. I t must be undentood thitt any pica:

The lDared Il!n rs .a re m .xed. WI th a] cob 01 t~ fo~ ': th IJ1 past~t then a f i ron or unhardeeed steel that is polished.,· will run !be whole

sp read on the work and dri ed beio re heatin 1[1 s,mllar to ~ Onl .. scale of tempering: colo rs ill it is heated. B ,,' I "nl er6 ,11,. 6t~tl ....

naace f.o rID ula, prttJif'J1l Jf, I,ltll "ftJl.. , 0 '''~ tn tiCfli ',m 1"4"'''' tlllIl i mI. ",

I hI. vc wed the 0 rd nance fo rmu.1 a I and have seen the uthe r I Jr.t R 'G/o rl mean no Ii in I, anJ Ittwe dill 01 M Itl Y .0 eff let Oil tlst: lutrl-

one used, :a n d kno!, tha t both ~re depcnd able, The~ a\tsol utely II!!ll u,. I t.rnf /t'" 0/ th t It'~l. Wh~D I1nt ha rdeJltd. IS alnadJ de-p~yen~ the fnrmation of. scale even when the steel II heated ascribed. tben polished and slowly re-h.cated. the colors rt.1: appeal' bfL~tlt re-d. Hammers, with smal~ .harp !lear and safety notche5dndicate cl.early the ch.mps that are taking plac!, and die dnwiq; fl n ish ed sea rs, an d cuts: d.e pa! ts WIth a k.n u ~Ied or dtft;k~d Iru rface of the tempe r to the I!XBl:t hardntss, st"i tinea m4 tcucharu that iI are perfectly Il rorected WI! h ~ rher of these mIX tu ~ I". ,"v anted. This sea] e (] f Ollon gi ven in ord er of their appeaI'Ultt~

~hey are extremely valuable also, for protectlag th~ loslde. of and the approximate ttmperature; represented by each. is u foUows: a n fie ba r r~ I when aecessa ry tel b raze on some part llk:e a sbng

sw ivt 1, si gn t bast t or b ~ndi ng~sc rew stud. or when fUtin, up 1CUW T.~"rhts" ~Iura -ot .tftl:

holes by electric welding. (See Chapter 23.) V'1"7 ra~nt YilUOW ..•...•••••• ~... 110 d .... P.

When I usi DI a forge for ha rden ing, & ch arcoal or cob fire i. b~ ; Bt.J'a.W color ~ - • , ... ~ · . , .. r • ~. • • • •• 1'''I''e !.8f !.: ..

_L • f Da:r-k _'ra'W I • I • I • • • • • • .. • ... • • • • .. ., .. ..

an m. ria te is very sa tis act0r)'l btl t soft mal i1 .no rood--i t (:Ontains Y.Uo,,,tah bro....-n ... ~ ... ~ ~ . r •••• ~ •• 100 r 1'.

sulphur which may ruin the steel. Heat the parts ~ little more ~J:I •. ::: : ': : : : : : :: :: .: .: : ~ :: :: :: : ~:: :::: I:

qukkly thin when .nnwin,,~ and see that the beat iI as even all ~lll:l~i'" , : : : ~ : :: : :: :::: : ~ .: ~: .': :lg = ::

over the pa rt as possible!. nark. btu. . .. , .. r , ~ . II ~ ••• of ~. • ~ • •• 100 a.ec. :Po

A gasoline blowtorch or plumber's blast furnace may be used in tr~: :~~e ';';';'ilof ~PO·ti r: ..': :: : ~ .: ::: :IB I:: :=::

a pinch, but i:. not ncar I y so good. H ave the torch as hot as pol"" Br'R'ht nd In 4arir .. ~ · _. . r • ~ •• ~ 125 dill!" ]11+

'b] db" h R L __ --=, If Redllot In twlUl'ht . n ~. ~ •• ~ • •• 11'4 de. P.

II ~,an move a out In t t arne to promote tv~n PQU.~ng. Rillldl'tftl tn t!lay!la'ht + + ~ + • ~ - ~ '". ~. - -. 1017 d~. F.

an .cety It ne torch must be Used. exertise gnat care to p reveDt Qftr... J 1 J

hesti ng in spotSt and play the flame rapidly over all IU~ "stinK Don -t I! tempt to 111 ue" a gun by these tempering colo rs-they lontJe! rat the thick parts which beat more slowlY. mean Roth I ~g and rhe cola n. a re not d u rable. See e hapur on U BlujDI

TIe parts should not be held at tbe cr1lial tmlperature lonpr and Bnl""Tungt lit

rh an n~u. ry--q ue ncb them .as soon rut they h ave 1ft even color all A list -of com mon If u~d toolSt an d the colors to wh ich they an oyer ~ and ge e them in to t he tooling hath the instant the)' art: out of ulUally d fa w n I wfll prove htlp lui in dee! te rm i n j n It the colors to use on

the n~ many RUn pa rtl :

The most common quenching bath, and the poonst for mOlt URI,

is eold water, Usually water .. or some water soluttoll. LI of more AlllJ'Un .•. · • . · ~ .. • •..•.••• Lt.cb.t Inn'Pl •. ~. of • of • + '1. d~~r .... ,

at II- • th • h d .. Rahl ~'n , 8tn. W :7C!1HO'llr •.••..• ..0 ~e... p,

y ue In ttm~nnl an In ar eRlng_ Bu.m1:ehfll~ .. ~ .. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ Vel?" Ul'l1t ,..Uow . "':10 .. q-~ 8',

For hardenin ... thin and delicate parts an an bath is pre&rred. C'ald chl18l. for .teel - ~. • • LtSht purple, • , • - • ,~ 510 ..... p,

.h Cold ell..... fDr ea..81: INn •• Dar" pu rt)Je ,.,.,... 110. 4el'r P.

For har.d~ning tOOJR used for cutting, nw linseed oil il excellent t CGIlIt8 •• 4 ••• • ~. ~ •• ~ ••••• • t Dark p1t[)"lf , •• ,' ~ ,. oliO. del". ",

'1· d· L d b f 11" · f 3 I r. d =1· WoollWorlt,.,. .eh!ftl. ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~u.. nd-bl"O'Wn ,~ 11 G !!I. I. )p,

.so IS insee 01 In ee fa ow t In Il ropartion 0 to. LAr 0...... Bur.-aaJ lMti'amf:n'bl .,. ~ ••• lJ Iht purPle •.•..... ~.s I) cI... :F.

or ~ rm ail, arc S:OIll~tim~ J1referIcd to fh~e. • InII nn oil bath ~ Dtiu. fGr il)l"eQ • r . ~ r ~ • .•. ~ + BtrI. .. RJ j(tw , •••• r • ~ "" I!.... p,

r- CJa~ •••••• H _ •••• r • ~ ••• "Tellowhb bntwn ,... 50~ iJq:'. P+

ing considered best for steel IP fin p. arml1. eu IU,. ~ .. - r • ~ Btn... ,..110..- • ~ ~ . 4 • - ~ at dlq. P.

Th f 110 + l. la d d· b Ii _L..:'_ b f N'MtSI ~ 'of Dartr "PU~~. '4'.' ~ ,. lIi5~ ae.. P-

I!!! n wlng Jorlltu "W1lf R 1lpte r a rID miUUlll num en c P lmtw. ~ ~ ~ .. ~ .. ~. Btn: .... "']]011" •••• r.. ~.o. 11*1'4 p,

heavy duty springs ~ Spermaceti oj} 48 parts: neaufoot Dil .f.S "am i dnnn · ~ .••...•... Dark p1,1.rple •• ,.,... .11 dll~ .P4

d.. If 81»'1 h .. ~. b u ...... uDarlt pu~l. ,.,..... II'~ ••.

rtn trrd b~ f suet .,. pa rt:l!!i i rlJsrn 3 p:it rts4 ~.... • u • • • .. 40 V81'7 -dark blue. .,... .el fei. 1'4

Th ~ 1 fo d·· h b h n:I h 111 drlU, •.. ro ~ or. Yellow brown •.•. ~ . r JOI ..... W,

e rl! IS no !let ru t r -ete rn:un ml' t e cst a ening ba t .. AU percu_DlI tCH)l. • Blue +,.,.,......... 1i4. .a.... p.

The (;00 tiLn t that WOT lu perked y with onlL! st~l is worth leu with Wood MllI'a:wmr tool. ~ ~ ~ . ~ r V.1'7 Urhl ye1kJ.. ~,- 11'01 a.... p.

another. TherefOR! it has bern thought advisable to give seftraJ •. ..

proven formulas, .and on Iy b f eJr:p-tri ment and scm! disappaIntmmt Th.ul It wl1l, be uOOerl~ t~.t. hardeDl1II and hmpennc .re twa can the wor. er determine w hid is best for !'tis UK OPPOSite ope rations; hardenIng II Intended to produce .11 the hard·

Somt st~ I cannot be h arde·ned s,uRicitntly in oil bat hi, 'but II. rdml ness t~e sfetl i. CIIp.hl~ of acq ui rilil' whlle t:mpe rinl remDves ... nicely in boiling water. Sometime. water ilt about 180 degrea 101ft! of thl.l bardDesI" Jtavl~g: the part at .the nght t~T to do itt

Ell if! probl~m, wh llr mmlfrimes I uk~warm water is bat. wark best. And the l.gA ~ the tIm , ""If, , hea t, tlu~ ,,, /Itr the lkel

31D becomes.

4MoS1 ~arden~Ij using watc,~ peefer water rhat has ban boiledt or Thea are various lQf!!rl1od. of drawing the temper of hardmed

rain w a ~r i w h 11 e some: asse rt th at 'Old wa t~ r ~ that h~. ~en used :tor par" Of ......... ]. -... pl~· to h t .. L..- ...: I.- ~ th fo ..

.. · \. So b . I .,. u ... "II,I'U ~ n'C' m ... ~~ IS e-a UJJ; .I ..... CM;:: lD e :rp Dr U3

S<JIIX: umet LS ~est.. ?le. sops use a !trong sa t w&ter. lJ.r nne. a gas Ramt until the right mlOT .ppea~ thton quench. Such. tIII!tImd

for an ha [de n.L n~. T hIS ,I; ~oo~ w nt=re ex! rf:me ha rd.neia LI wanted. is un reliBbI~ how!V'er due to the diflieul ty of heatin Even) &0 va~

A pou~d of CI t !1~ ael d crystals to a pilon 0 f water II allG ueed for rious method. arr ~m,ed. to o~r-come th it di llicul J.. y,

prod lICIng maxim urn hardness.. Steel can Ulually be bardened. at I • • •

slightly lower Hmpt!r&turc i~ water than in oil ICJlutiOlltt but Lq- ,~nDWlDg~. Of h~vlng .alCfrtained by testst the exact temper.rure at

creucd brittleness. and t~ndeney to c=nd: or break under It req of w~Jch .. ceruln ~ rhc[~ are to be drawn, m.n1 larp ~h~ps now emwor it: I ~ 5 mil re lik.e! y to resul t.. A sa fe rule! to adopt it to oil hardeD ~~ otl ba t~! • J n W~lC h the hr. t ~ be con t rolled WI thin very c111K pI. Tts t hat h av ~ 10 e.ndu re gr~a t st fes.st!S and vibradont IUCh at lwn- lima. 'ThtS II stnct!y a pr~duct~n process, and, SOIDeWh. ~ dl.DCtrmers. finn&: pinsj and tht: likt~ while! pam that are only subject to oo,.unlt51 proper etI?lpmeIlt 11 avadl~[~. Preeaut'ionl. mUIt' be taken 5U rface f ri crion ma.y be wa te [ ha rd.ened. M.any Ii rea rm parts. par.. agaInst t~e oil catclung :6 re ~ and specu.l .. recePt.t'l~ '!Jth close CCYC n tlcul ar 1, sbotgun parLSt must be both • ISO ft J' fi tkd and I·bard:lll are nq UI red I:? hold the 011. I n practiCe!, tnt 011 II" hel.t~d to. thr n t ttdt-th at ia~ beifJ re h arden lag, t hey aTe firat worked to within p rope r ~~p!nnr h.!!a ft· .n~ the hardened parts dropped IDtO It .. a a t houu.nd th 01" so Qf :final dimeruiQlz; then after bardating~ they h~:n gth of b m~ !11~mt to .1 mp. rt to them the t!mpen tu re .Df the ~I. are brought to an t!xact fit wit h other parts in the mechanism by Thty ~y ~e left III the oa to, ~l, ~r tak!D out to cool In the aar. stan i n I I rind ini or lapping and polithinc. Quenching- 1ft unnec.essary _ as 1 t It tv~dmt rhe pi rtI o.n b~ no

T E M: PER I N G. With very few exttptic)[UI, .ted pa rta or tool. hotter .. than the bath into wb ich tney are dropped. or

must have the temper ~·drlwnu somewhat to he nt for use- The A ~ple and uft meth~ that may be profitably employed J~ smdI ha rdeninJ: leav~5 the steel unde r -,nat internal ltresf5t and tbil ,tic. mops as to htl. t the parts In a bath at mflted l~d, or le.d, tin .~d is gnady ~ litv~d t'Vtn by "ery llilh t d IAwina:. Therefor'et IC)IDe other 10ft metal,. or mel ted. sal t...Peter • By re:lernna to the AppendiX

d raw in, is essential eYe.n in pit rtl .requirin2 mo:imum hardne.l. ... 312. .

otherwfs.e thf:Y wou I d be !Al brittle th r.y would lack the It rensth tQ the Table 0 f mel tlng pal n tl of va nQut. 5011 d8, some s-ubstlnce, or

do the Work required of them.. mj,.::u,ul! may be a~oPttd rhilt will Rive the right dr."VI~nl tempe1'll~rc.

. For txampll!, • rmxrun (] £ R parTS lead .nd 4 p. rtJ t1n hu a melnnc

Somfl! r.nnfu!linn h ~ i (" ri ~t~d in ,h.. In' ra~, of ami t-eur medtmicl: II pflmt which will p rnd uct in the .3tccl i mmcracd. the rein & polt 0 r




st ra VI' J~llow; t 9 pa rts lead and 4 parts tin wi 11 produce a purple; 48 ~ Jt~J : Heat poll in cbaraW fire tD briaht I:herry red; change parts lead, 4 p.ar-t$ tin, gives a bright blue; 50 pam lead and 2 of tint aub and heat bit cherry red. and dip bit only into cold salt water a dee p bl ue. Mel ted sal rpere r is excellent for rtmperi n« flat sp rings. immf!Jin~I,. Pol ilh ddes 0 f bitl then heat poll untl1 rd~ of bit

and it ging them a nice fin ish at the same timc. tums blue. Quench. U It no air hi ast,

The parts to be tempered must iov.ariabl.y be polished, 50 that the BIl'1'dar (nul Drill P'I"OtJf T~tIt;~r: (Son:tetimes called • ... diamond colo rs may be sttD-U n less tbty a re tempe red in an 011 hEi th. when chill"] Heat attd. bright cherty red and quench in 1 pI. uri De, 1 01:+

colon are d is rep rded, and temperatures I:J. uged by the rmom~ter. bOrIXJ 1 DZ. salt" Do not d ra w ..

~A '5imp~e. and very reliable method of ~emperin, both Hal and Drillr: I. Heat dn11 lind rub in pah.a9ium cyanide. Drill ~Iled sprln~, has ~eel~ evolved ~tJm the 011 tem~nng p~. !t should be jUl!lt hot r:nough to melt the cyanide~ . Hut driU to dark IS. known IS Ra511ln~ and con~l~ts of fint hard.enln.g. the sprlnl. In cherry re-d and cool in very strong brine. made with warm !Oit water. oll (u~aU, I~rm c .. El) t then Wlp1ng off the .surplus. ~II .and h~bng Win be hard and IDUgh_ Do not draw temper.'

rhe spnng ag~nn until the ,mall amount of oil remalRlnr flasb~s and 2. F dnIl· .... ' HI' ..

bu rns off. On rh i n sp ri nf(S one llil fluhi o I!: '~. is usually suffici en t to draw . OT • InK' pass: ea t to ow red. ~ cool In strong sol unon

tne temper just righ r. Wh.en made () f heavie r !ltoc~ t'wo '0 r even of Zinc chlond4e~ •..

tb. Tee II mings ma.y be needed. 3: H!at d nil cherry red, cool In Itn:mg b nne; polIsh.. and dnw

Great difficulty is sometimes eneoun eered in beth the harden in&: and to II~t straw color. . .

tempering 0 f very small parts, such as pinal !(:~ and Vl:JY small ~ " if' bltJ'Jf!I/ H~ t to cherry red be!'Veett two .. stratgbt Pl~~ of drillf. tJ.e me"thod employed by watdu:nahrst for hlrdeoina: watch bnght rrd·hot Iron; dip pccpcadicularly mtn raw Im~ oil, PalUh.

d rills, solves the p reblem, The d rill (or ether part) is heated jn ~ .. J 14

the Rame 0 f • candle to a good red hn;t. and i nat an tl, plunged into and d rilW to li~ Or me.dJum str.w color on hot iron; cool in linseed t he candle gTn~. Th i~~ because the d rill is so UDall that it 0001! in oil or welt brule.

the Ii r be'~Ie it could be moved to B quenching bath. It m:ay be " GJ, 11I1 H «mml".: Heat to theny red ia Chlrtoal or 1eacl bathl cool 11 uhl!d 0& to temper if desi red. ~a Inseed.'On j ,olJda aDd dn.w temper in lad or cand b.th to J~I1OW'.

Springs thlt have been IiI·Ra-shed'~ ac !lot necessarily require quench .. iIh ~r~n" purple or blue,

inl I ftL! lW1l rd, but no harm is clone by qurnchinE in the lame oi1 in F.n., Pu,,: Same al for n8tX1men. but draw to dark. Itr& w.

which they were hardened, Boiling linseed on may also be used .EMraclfWI: Same al :ktr motgun main .. sprinp.'

for temperi III;, b11 t g-reat care must be exe rcised in it! use, at the 8 anD ~'":. !"I eat to d u.U red in mel ted lead i lLanlm in cold

ttmperatu re is 00 It igb the oil is likely to cateh fire. "a~er .. or brme;: pdis.h briEh~ and d l.& W to atnw color in. san d bath.

The sand bath is: another e:lft:ctive method of tempt ring, but bett~ r Thh !' 11 • aoo.d l1I.~t~od for any parta wh~ it is imp a rtan t tn rmuc--: idzpC1!d to the shop having a large furnace. Howner. small pam 8 nobge t~ a nnrumum ...

may be thus tempered by laying them on an inch layer of fiat" und ColJ CA.,,: ~~It In cha·noaJ. or coke file (no hI8~) to dark in a pan, and hearing the pan in the fOl'gCt sti rriq the sand and cher IY n~ ~ to • lI .... an?= of. two i!leba from p:tlJ1L DIp ed It or parts togetboer 80 3S to beat evenly. Watch for the deli nd cnlat t and pol or a Glltancz of ozw= Incb:l m clear lilt water (1 qt. alt to 1 0 q~ quench th e instant it appeart. W'~ ter) · l! IVe ~dy coarse unery cloth wrapped a round f It. and

A Umple md often tReed ft method of trm~ring small pil rts where ~cl:l,. ~ohlh. pomt and Wl;tcb the colon run down from red IpOt, even t~mper i. desired, is to helt a J(Ood sised piece of iron red-Itot.. Dip entire cbllC!l when ~nt hu color wanted (light purple for

and lay the pa rts on it. Th is piece of iron -should be mpported over steel, dark p.u:rpJe fer C'utitDEl) t' "

the qumc:hing bath, so that the parts may be knDCktd. 0& in to it the Scn~ Dnwrt: MOlt ready. mad e Krew .driven are made of poor instant the right color mows.. .teel-l! you wmt load one., ~.ke tben:a yountelf. H.rdtn md

TIle fcllowing tern pfii n g liquid!. h ave been used in shops under ttmpe r In _me Dlal1ner al cold cb iIela. d rawLng temper It dart purple. varyin r conditions for di ff~ren t stee 1 s~ Specific ~ for the difleren't S ;riflgJ: Shotsun main-sprinp_ Heat to duD ~herry red ill ltad formulas cannot we! l be 13:' d down, as they We!: re wed y the result of bath, Or cba reoal Ii reI and qutnch iD clear watfr with the dUD tabn experimm t t bu t with the :formu las .available it iI 'cHend that the elf. Keep sp ring in W1tc r un til it hat. temperature of wlter t Put

31 J ,pring ia Iadle or i ron po with equal plm lard ell .:ad tallow It and

heat pm until 01 I catchu fire i tum .pring. put in flames unti L the workman "\"iH fi.nd one or more of them to be adaptrd to his purpose: oil on spnngl blazes freely when they are removed from ftames.

Lay them uide to eool without cilium ...

1. Ba.Jtpeter .. 1 01... j bor~~ I O~ l_.L ammoniac. " DE.; .aU., 11 OL; m..Ls 00:,8..: • ., .. H-lIIIt.o d n _.JI d d' • I' ~~ __ ..1 '1 A-:L /I. ·1

l1I.~.UfIDl:II dry &~d 41MoI'ftll m 1 riJoZl ra.lD. .... t.r. ~ 1'11".-&-. ....., U. JQI IU Ip In IIJIII:"QI 0] : -mIU all: Dl

5L Jl =m~~;-O:j~ -g~~~~3:~r:e. :,tt ~~!-:J ~~.d~ one. two or t~~ timet aexordln, to ,izt of spring. Lay uide to I:OOl~

CA1lI:FUL 1 I' Y II deGdl:v ,0,,".0"" Rev(]lv~ r SpnnlS (fl at) : Heat to cher ry r~d cool in lin seed oil +

:I. 1 os.. .Itltpter; Z leaBPOOIlA J;t .... 1 vel"lIcd .lum; 1 ta.c:up a.1t: 41a.dv. In fla~L .lr "( 3 tOft h..J nI poll bt• .. I

2 II"lL .f!ioft water.. Do not heat abo", oIIIe:rry red. .vra. tUi t ..... w. 5&1 On 01 bma.. r .... er ':rue nl, • .pnnp and hold lD

t. :. rt h.:a;~ -:.,10 ~n:a~ ;Di oz.; altpota:r a ~; dtgolH in ~~ pl. mBlel~cd nldtpe1eB r. .( ~r Nitre. Bltling Cctmpound-tee ChlptCr 00

5 L Halt 1 ~ p'nt: wh u ••• trlD1 1 DI.; borax '" oa. ~ u.l.I:JehW % as.. Dl.,..lY. Ulnlt an roWDln g ) until d uk: blue. Remove to Wllrm--not

In :I raJ. wa.t.er L L -il· t

!i. Alum • DI:. ~ :Bill tpl!u:!:r 1 0" = .... 1 B.mJlI.Ott1M, 1 OL: a..lt .. D.·: c.tt..cJ.Jyt 00 I DR wa tf ..

• n J¥.. pI.. .oft .&tu". l>rcIw .. o ''''''P''-t Tril'm~ 'SIJllf1~ ;tC4 Hardal ana draw I'oi", oRI, to dark ItraWl

~ . ..L .~. C i~cliftr 10 01,.. MO:l them of drill rod. Coat workiq ~d

Those soluuons Whl~ specify draw ~ ~~r are .adapted RIO with rnixturl! usrd when h:arciertiol :6lest belt to cherry red di in

small blocky parts sub j"tct to much sur face fnct Ion but little .• traln. I iMeed oil. Flub off once. I I P

'When tb us bardmed and th e te!.mper d,.wn !l1c partl show little or G,jJrlr ffJr IU Oft4.1 ~ Same tmrmemt u for clleeD toola; or II

no WQl after long usage... ThJS treatment II also adapted ~ tools follow i~tructiOnt ·Ior mId dai_b. quenchinc in water ~CD cuttLnl and parts made of Irtel wnh I ra~her low carbon «tnttnt" which do cdze is Uah t ItttW color ..

not harden. enough to Itlnd d rawmg. p..,." nil." Ip Indio. onl,: Plr1I ftquirinl crear h.rdnesa

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR, VARIOUS TOOLS to resiat 1Vear .. and whicb an rubjr.ct to but little danaer of brakAND S~fALL PARTS. To th~ man who doesn"t care to ex- •• ftom. .train Or ptl'CUl8ion.. ma, IN: haldhled at dull cbe;rry red ~rimmt. and ~ork out his aw:n method. from .. the cenend instrue- 1ri~ou~ dtawinl. To rdiw~ interml maim. howrnr. & slia:ht tewnoo~ a1a:adr ptnl the followmE meth~ w hleb. I have used ClIC-' penni II usually advisable, partiaallriy in the bttt:er rradcs of ItceL

ccssfully, WIll perhaps prove acceptable. NOlet bowever. that nOlle 315

of these methods art m:ommOKIrd 25 in f.l1ibl~ whit WI'l work Hearing in sand bath or nutted lead to .I I1try pale st raw-scarc~ly for one man omn fails for anothr:rt any color at .1J-.--wiU add ItItngth without noticeably decreasinr

Cast Itttl: Small quantity ..r ammoniac in mrnn:ter. He.t wearing Qualities.. Quench in oil~ or water' "'WilD the chill taken off. st~1 red, drop into wakr a SK'ODcI or two (acamJing to siR of pari) TREA.TING ACTION PARTS OF HIGH POWER remove. leaving enough beat ttl draw temper lODlewb&t. then queoch RIFLES: The man riot lpeciaU,. trailleci 8IId experienced in the IimJly. I f left in wa.ttt thr: firsr ti.. until cold~ will be mum too beat treatment 0 f riRe actions. has til mistaktn §ens~ of his abiH t t~. hard for any use.. and is. 01\1 Tring dilastel'-pa-h apt d!atb.. when h ~ a:ttemptl to tamp-




er with the hardening of Springfield. Krall Mauser. or otier iDa. at Cementation in Cblnl d1Jrmg rhrt eighth century] led Brearl, mode m bot t actin ns designed fa h a odie Immunit_on dtlitlcpinl: in ~jl book I:4Tbe Cue H ardcning of Steel U refen to a book written over 40,000 pounds pressute. The best adYiee that can bt: p-veD by Thcopnilus PresbytlEr •• Benedictine m()nl:t in the Iatter put of is uLET THEM ALONE.u Failure, due to .ignDraJU:f oj the th~ thirteenth antu.ry, ziYing in~ctions for case-hardenins: :files.. com positien of action parts, and lack 0 f know Wse and tbe expm- H.I method was 10 srmila r to maay in use tod lY ~ rha e oae is lutp~d si'l~ rq ulpment needed, is 8U Te to follow. such attempts. The at the Ippa rent bck of propeu in ·the fundamen. tab ..

splendid wDrk o,f Springfi~ld Armo ry .nd of the lOU aria' pb.ntl Even today. :files made of mild 8wem.-rt .~l are still In comcannot be i raproved upon by· the amateur or the pro&u~ pa.. mOIl ux in cert.ain pam of Europel puuailaz:iy Russia i and these smith---=nor even by the larger machine shops more or leas :familiar an! capabl-c of doinr cxalknt WO.rL

with hardming- and temp: rLog.. There ~ hem too IIlI.IIJ" blown For many "lJIIefi in _ ~smithinlt the use of soft machinery .ted is up riH u to Warran tiny man taking' u.nnecessary chuu:ft, ad whtn to be com.mend~d. Wbta ptopel"ly cuc:-hal"dencd the surface resi!$tS one considers the ·aU 100 f.requcot propensity of harulIoaden to aeek wear ~ bette r mail tempered. tool· steel ; whilt the witt toogh "V!!locities higher than standard. there .come. a fee1in. that lhe ~tal inside gives .renctb.

maximum Itrm&th developed by the forcmott -expertl is DOt too Before goin I: into the pl'OCeSSeS .mployed it will he neem;. ry to much for the :.rms we-are to shoot~ undm.tmd just: what c .... hlrdeni~r is., the principles. and tb~ c::h:t

For tbis I"C8SOnJ the wri rCT always t des to discourilp the de- om the atecl~ ~mentation, tb~ tech.n.lcal term for ~ harden ing;, sire of • ri tlemlD to h. ve the wei tiOD of his bolt handle .lhml, imp I tS the addidon of IUbatmces into the !lu:r:face of· the metal which or any other alteration lbat migJ,t affect the original hardening .. chances its structural formation. amentinr or binding me fibret: into If. bol t b and Ie must be bent i p rote:t the: bol tl and particular 1, .. Ilner grained mas with the harden lill pr(Jpertiti of steel. And in the end CI r rying the I u~ with wet ra~ as dq.crlbcd in another fact. the ~rf.~ of the mttll ill actuall, changed i nto steel, the thick:cbapter. Dell of thll U::1n varying frDm a :few thousandths up to a sixtftath

] once saw a man wll 0 claimed to he an Cxpertt· and whoar tepu- Dr ewa an ei.lh tb of an inch ...

tation was na tionll~ attempt to harden a MlUlJdicher 'bolt by heat- Mechanics will arpe that once a piece of epe..bn rdcn.ed i lOll is in I" to nt.;a r ly wh ill: beat ill cyanide and quc:nchial to ice-ooJ.d .. It heated the h.rd eniDI iI destroyed. But lucb is Dot necessarily the water. The owner e f the run could. have thanked his stars that cue. Due [0 rh I: thiMHI 01 the -akin. it is east' tc burn out th<i t broke in half inltead ol merely cr8ckinz,. and letting loose in carbon; yet by CllUu I hmdlin I:" a esse-h ardc:oed iU riace mlY be art-

hi s face at some later dlt~ 3-1 B

A good many M auser actions a TC importEd into th it aND try idl nealed, rehardened, and enn me temper drawn SOIl1eW'hat. P'llr'th.er t the white t and. sold to p rivare mak~rs who fit tb em wit~ .ped.at it is- poasihl~. and often pnlctia.ble~ to produce cemen ta tion (develcp barrels and stocks. Purchasers of such arms are 10m e tu:Qcs .. dd- III outer .kiD of sted) without hardenini Jr in the process; after conarte.d 10 find the recei ve r so "So ft it (an be sc: ra tehed and nieked which it may be hardened. md tempered the same at tool steel.

with a pe:nkni fe, \Vhy?--simply because th~ maker-perhIPl"· B neBy deacribed. tb ere'ore, case-ba rien.ing or ctmentati()n eoasembler would be bdte:r-had not her the meanl nor the bowledF siats of mmbinJng carbon with iron or mac:b.im:ry steel by beahn£: required . for proptrly h eat trea tinE it.. These actions an: !Old soft, the 4 twO substlnCQ together; and for $Orne reason which die au. thor ill molt CSSf!S. I f net soft when pu rchasedf they • re usually 0\- doel not pletend to kn()W I the we of "SOme form D f iilDimal cba [coal neum, 90 that Mey can be engra vtd.. I hav-e seen not one I hut II the Clrboniziag agent is deemed preferabl~, if not ablOl u ttly dosena of ri -Res come in fr(lm the ~ngr.ver and immediatel, rumed euea.tial in most procesaa; a1tnou dt wood charcoal i! used in some. over te the bluing man, without any pretense of heat treatJ:Dent~ III addition to the form of c:han:oal·.md---charred woodl hom, hoo~

In the calf! of J\.lauser ·actionB these gtml are probahly safe tD bone. hair, Iearher+-there aft numereua other rubitaJ1~ named in silcott for rhe steel. is of h 19b quality, Aad designed for It1'en.rtJl.a carbulmng: mixtu res, U sodium carbon are, common sal ~ uI I:pe te r,

316 roti.. raw bone, Sour. lOOt. sawd wt. bair. veaelable fib reI potassium

lrllb .IIJOIdem toad. they "Wi11 undoubtedly .stretch Jnd develop bichroma.~, :&r~ocya.nide. I iJlWl5font!~ seed busk~ f!tc. P robably-and GCelIi'W! head.sp-ace in time; yet I ,houJd much pnnr an action. not quite possibly-not all of these iagred.iUl ts have any particWa l" value; hudmcdt to one hardened by IODle bundu who clidn It know his .bile omen. are too cost 1 J to rnak:~ thd r use at all prac:oc:d I pa T-

ttuIE. ticularly in the am all shop ..

Many a good Sprinpld.-and many lJIother load 8caQa aI There are on the nia.rkirt num~TOlJ!i carbu rizing mirtu mI, or cuewell--has been ruined in the ··dolling upt:l pruce... Goad. Gna:raY-" bardeainC compound •. under trade name! and secret formulas.. GeDT ing is cerbUD ly to be admired on a hLah a:radll!J arm; but bear in era11y lpeakinlt we de not favor their use, Th~ are nor notittabl y mind that engravers canDOt per~orm Blirac1a. BrioR makinl • superior to- Jtand ard mixtures. formulas for which appear in several single cut on a receiver it m1l5t be tborou.Ply ancealed, and if the luthoritive h and book.: they -eost mort" and I ihould they fail to do riSe iI to pve sabl factory se'l'1'ice, mUll be subeequmtly rch.:rdened. thd r work proper I, I the opera tor iii totally in the dark as to the The 111m who contlmlplates pu n;hase of • beqQiu lIJ decorated arm eausel

will do well. thereforet w make 8'U~ who ill to do tnt! engraving. There il DO myst~ry about cas=-bardenina. Havin, learned its and whl!the r he is C1pahll: oE annealing the action without dam. principles 'One ran. by • little uperiment evolve mixtuns and proto the suel; and iu rther. wbethe r it will be re.hardened, afterward! ~ bat adapted to hili pUIpOBe and having done so, rrtick to those by whom,. and how. The ord.inU"J· cuc-hardening mtthods 'UICd 50 rru.tuns witll Ieuonabl4 certainty of uni.{onn lQulb.

IUcc,.fuJly on maclJinery .tu! are not adapted. to tlu= ~l 'UIed in Tile essential. of a IIQOd atrburizer Are: porosity~ 10 that the gases rifle actiona--and may· mutt in ruinina: than. Yet such methods [cl~ued m~y move- freely tbrouth and a.round thr part! being tl"Utec!. have often been em~~d to Jive tb~ I'Jft 0 W1.er a false i mpreaaion ability to evolve ear buri:zing ps!1 a, the belt required for ctmenta ... !bat bit .rm had recti.,.ed the M:CCSSIlJY hlrdening trm\Dietlt.. don; compactn C'SI, and. medom from .11 rinkagt I so ilia t parts In.,

If • zummith objected or hesitatal about givinc full and wmplCh net be left unsu pported, to bend or WITI' in th~ hardening: box; and information on these poin b I should :ftd warranted in _umiq iaod heat mnd ncti 'Y it,. I $0 that the work in tile box may be of uni fo rna that he had iOMl!th log to c()Da!!a1. And unIni hi. cl.ims of a'biUtJ temperature.

aloD&" these lines CQuld be fully verified h, ~ autlJoritie.. J CASE-HARDENING EQUIPMENT.. Hardening- blxei wil wouldn·t tlUlt his auns outside the. aboweue. I bue but ODr! face vat]' in sizts from a £rw incite! up tQ two ()r tit ree feet; they are

to &i ve to my country I u.ually obIon, in sha~ t and made of cast iroot, tb.ouc;h sometimes •

81,. 1D11d Itml box it requiredt ·aJ will be mrnrioned later. Ju mOlt ann-

eH APT ... 22 _lb. need eq ui plDmt only :for hardtninc small parts. bozet Eight or ten! iIlI:h~1 lo~ g by five or St:t: inches in width and depth will prob-

CASE .. HARDEN[NG ably IDS'WeI all purposes. The walls need. be Dnl)' .bout 1/4 inch

in thianea Wooden plttem boxes mar b~ made up, U UlJ' plttem A LTHOUGH min,. bdim: that die UIe of machinery sbel for II made, and lent to tb~ ne&.rat foundry for cutine .. Each box Ihould curting 100" is of comparatively tee.erlt origin. yet such: is not hive a ~ iron lid~ whim IitB lOOltly, .and whici:t [n .!.tion is the Cut. There seems to be good evidmc~ of the .... of C.;ase-Hudm .. CClDcnted III pIllCC with :fire clay. And, If tl,tc prcx.eu rcqUlret that

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