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TL494
SWITCHMODE Pulse Width
Modulation Control Circuit
The TL494 is a fixed frequency, pulse width modulation control circuit
designed primarily for SWITCHMODE power supply control.








SWITCHMODE
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
CONTROL CIRCUIT

Complete Pulse Width Modulation Control Circuitry

SEMICONDUCTOR
TECHNICAL DATA

On–Chip Oscillator with Master or Slave Operation
On–Chip Error Amplifiers
On–Chip 5.0 V Reference
Adjustable Deadtime Control

D SUFFIX
PLASTIC PACKAGE
CASE 751B
(SO–16)

Uncommitted Output Transistors Rated to 500 mA Source or Sink
Output Control for Push–Pull or Single–Ended Operation
Undervoltage Lockout

N SUFFIX
PLASTIC PACKAGE
CASE 648

PIN CONNECTIONS
Noninv
Input 1

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Full operating ambient temperature range applies,

Inv
Input 2

unless otherwise noted.)
Rating

Symbol

TL494C

TL494I

Unit

Power Supply Voltage

VCC

42

V

Collector Output Voltage

VC1,
VC2

42

V

Collector Output Current
(Each transistor) (Note 1)

IC1, IC2

500

Amplifier Input Voltage Range

VIR

–0.3 to +42

V

Power Dissipation @ TA ≤ 45°C

PD

1000

mW

RθJA

80

°C/W

TJ

125

°C

Tstg

–55 to +125

°C

Compen/PWN
Comp Input 3
Deadtime
Control 4

+
Error 1
Amp

+
2 Error
Amp

VCC
5.0 V
REF

≈ 0.1 V

Operating Junction Temperature
Storage Temperature Range

14 Vref

12 VCC

CT 5
Oscillator

mA

RT 6

11 C2
Q2

Operating Ambient Temperature Range
TL494C
TL494I

TA

Derating Ambient Temperature

TA

NOTE:

Inv
15 Input

Output
13 Control

Ground 7

Thermal Resistance,
Junction–to–Ambient

Noninv
16 Input

45

TL494CD
TL494CN
TL494IN

Operating
Temperature Range
TA = 0° to +70°C
TA = – 25° to +85°C

 Motorola, Inc. 1996

MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA

9 E1

ORDERING INFORMATION
Device

°C

Q1

(Top View)

°C
0 to +70
– 25 to +85

1. Maximum thermal limits must be observed.

C1 8

10 E2

Package
SO–16
Plastic
Plastic
Rev 1

1

3 mA Reference Output Current lref – – 10 mA Timing Resistor RT 1.) For typical values TA = 25°C. VE = 0 V) IE(off) – – –100 µA Vsat(C) Vsat(E) – – 1.3 2.3 – VCC – 2. VC2 – 30 40 V IC1.0 100 µA Emitter Off–State Current VCC = 40 V.0 15 40 V VC1. Low duty cycle pulse techniques are used during test to maintain junction temperature as close to ambient temperature as possible. IC = 200 mA) Emitter–Follower (VC = 15 V.1 1. IE = –200 mA) Output Control Pin Current Low State (VOC ≤ 0.8 30 500 kΩ Timing Capacitor CT 0.5 – – 100 100 200 200 – – 25 40 100 100 REFERENCE SECTION Reference Voltage (IO = 1.TL494 RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS Characteristics Symbol Min Typ Max Unit VCC 7. VC = 40 V. RT = 12 kΩ.001 10 µF Oscillator Frequency fosc 1. 2 MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA . CT = 0. Characteristics Symbol Min Typ Max Unit Vref 4. unless otherwise noted. unless otherwise noted.0 15 mV Short Circuit Output Current (Vref = 0 V) ISC 15 35 75 mA Collector Off–State Current (VCC = 40 V. VCE = 40 V) IC(off) – 2.5 1.5 IOCL IOCH – – 10 0.0 V to 40 V) Regline – 2.0047 0.75 5.0 40 200 kHz Power Supply Voltage Collector Output Voltage Collector Output Current (Each transistor) ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = 15 V.4 V) High State (VOC = Vref) V Output Voltage Rise Time Common–Emitter (See Figure 12) Emitter–Follower (See Figure 13) tr Output Voltage Fall Time Common–Emitter (See Figure 12) Emitter–Follower (See Figure 13) tf µA mA ns ns NOTE: 2.0 25 mV Load Regulation (IO = 1.01 µF.0 mA) OUTPUT SECTION Collector–Emitter Saturation Voltage (Note 2) Common–Emitter (VE = 0 V. IC2 – – 200 mA Amplified Input Voltage Vin –0.0 mA to 10 mA) Regload – 3.2 – 3. for min/max values TA is the operating ambient temperature range that applies.0 V Current Into Feedback Terminal lfb – – 0.25 V Line Regulation (VCC = 7.0 5.

CT = 0.5 6.5 V. Each Output. Iref = 1. RT = 12 kΩ) ∆fosc (∆T) – – 12 % Vth 5.7 V) IO– 0.0 –10 µA Maximum Duty Cycle.0 kΩ) fC– – 350 – kHz Phase Margin at Unity–Gain (VO = 0. CT = 0.5 V.0 V – – 5. RL = 2. TA = 25°C) ∆fosc (∆V) – 0. Push–Pull Mode (VPin 4 = 0 V.0 – mA VTH – 2.5 V to 3. Characteristics Symbol Min Typ Max Unit Input Offset Voltage (VO (Pin 3) = 2. Common Mode Rejection Ratio (VCC = 40 V) CMRR 65 90 – dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (∆VCC = 33 V.5 V) VIO – 2. RT = 12 kΩ) (VPin 4 = 0 V.) For typical values TA = 25°C. σ MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA mA mA N Σ (Xn – X)2 n=1 N–1 3 .0 mA) TOTAL DEVICE Standby Supply Current (Pin 6 at Vref.001 µF.5 V to 3.7 V) DEADTIME CONTROL SECTION (Test Circuit Figure 11) Input Threshold Voltage (Pin 4) (Zero Duty Cycle) (Maximum Duty Cycle) % Vth V OSCILLATOR SECTION Frequency (CT = 0. RT = 30 kΩ) fosc – 40 – kHz σfosc – 3.1 –1.0 – % Frequency Change with Voltage (VCC = 7.0 kΩ) φm – 65 – deg. RT = 12 kΩ.5 V.0 kΩ) PSRR – 100 – dB Output Sink Current (VO (Pin 3) = 0.5 V II– 0. RL = 2.7 – mA Output Source Current (VO (Pin 3) = 3.01 µF.25 V) IIB (DT) – –2. All other inputs and outputs open) (VCC = 15 V) (VCC = 40 V) ICC Average Supply Current (CT = 0. RL = 2.7 – mA Input Bias Current (Pin 4) (VPin 4 = 0 V to 5.0 µA ERROR AMPLIFIER SECTION Input Common Mode Voltage Range (VCC = 40 V. unless otherwise noted.5 V) IIO – 5. RT = 30 kΩ) DCmax 45 – 48 45 50 50 – 0 2.0 V Open Loop Voltage Gain (∆VO = 3.01 µF.0 – Standard Deviation of Frequency* (CT = 0.1 – % Frequency Change with Temperature (∆TA = Tlow to Thigh) (CT = 0. RL = 2.01 µF.3 0. RT = 12 kΩ. CT = 0.5 7.3 to VCC–2.3 0.5 V) IO+ 2. for min/max values TA is the operating ambient temperature range that applies.001 µF.0 V.0 kΩ) AVOL 70 95 – Unity–Gain Crossover Frequency (VO = 0.5 V to 3. VO = 2. VO = 0. V(Pin 4) = 2.0 V) (VCC = 15 V) (See Figure 12) * Standard deviation is a measure of the statistical distribution about the mean as derived from the formula.0 250 nA Input Bias Current (VO (Pin 3) = 2.5 V.TL494 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = 15 V.43 7.8 – 3. RT = 30 kΩ) UNDERVOLTAGE LOCKOUT SECTION Turn–On Threshold (VCC increasing.0 –4. TA = 25°C) VICR –0.3 – dB PWM COMPARATOR SECTION (Test Circuit Figure 11) Input Threshold Voltage (Zero Duty Cycle) Input Sink Current (V(Pin 3) = 0. unless otherwise noted.001 µF.0 10 mV Input Offset Current (VO (Pin 3) = 2.0 V to 40 V.0 10 15 – 7.5 V) IIB – –0.01 µF.5 4.

5V 15 Feedback PWM Comparator Input Reference Regulator – + VCC 4. Timing Diagram Capacitor CT Feedback/PWM Comp. Figure 2.7V – + 1 2 – 1 2 Error Amp 1 + PWM Comparator 0. Representative Block Diagram VCC Output Control 13 8 6 D Oscillator RT CT 5 – 0. Output 7 Gnd This device contains 46 active transistors. Deadtime Control Flip–Flop Clock Input Flip–Flop Q Flip–Flop Q Output Q1 Emitter Output Q2 Emitter Output Control 4 MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA .7mA 12 – + 3 UV Lockout + – 3.9V 16 14 Error Amp 2 Ref.TL494 Figure 1.12V Q Q1 Q Q2 11 Deadtime Comparator Ck + 4 Deadtime Control 9 Flip– Flop 10 0.

TIMING RESISTANCE (Ω) 500 k 1. (Refer to the Timing Diagram shown in Figure 2.0 M 5 . The approximate oscillator frequency is determined by: 500 k 100 k 10 k 1. When higher output–drive currents are required for single–ended operation.001 µF VCC = 15 V 0.1 RT • CT For more information refer to Figure 3.5 V. which drive output transistors Q1 and Q2. as the voltage at the feedback pin varies from 0. Functional Table fout fosc = Input/Output Controls Output Function Grounded Single–ended PWM @ Q1 and Q2 1. when single–ended operation with a maximum on–time of less than 50% is required. incorporating the primary building blocks required for the control of a switching power supply. This is desirable when the output transformer has a ringback winding with a catch diode used for snubbing. dominates control of the loop. the amplifier that demands minimum output on time. and MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA may be used to sense power–supply output voltage and current. The TL494 has an internal 5. When capacitor CT is discharged.0 k 5. the error amplifier inputs. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz) Description The TL494 is a fixed–frequency pulse width modulation control circuit. established by the deadtime control input. or the feedback input.0 k 500 1.5 V to 3. an increase in control–signal amplitude causes a corresponding linear decrease of output pulse width. The deadtime control comparator has an effective 120 mV input offset which limits the minimum output deadtime to approximately the first 4% of the sawtooth–cycle time. the pulse–steering flip–flop directs the modulated pulses to each of the two output transistors alternately for push–pull operation. down to zero. which clocks the pulse–steering flip–flop and inhibits the output transistors. Output drive can also be taken from Q1 or Q2. The error–amplifier outputs are active high and are ORed together at the noninverting input of the pulse–width modulator comparator. Q1 and Q2 may be connected in parallel.01 µF 0.5 @ Vref The pulse width modulator comparator provides a means for the error amplifiers to adjust the output pulse width from the maximum percent on–time.0 Push–pull Operation 0.) The control signals are external inputs that can be fed into the deadtime control.0 k 2. RT and CT. a positive pulse is generated on the output of the deadtime comparator.) An internal–linear sawtooth oscillator is frequency– programmable by two external components. Q1 and Q2.0 k CT = 0. With the output–control connected to the reference line. The output frequency is equal to half that of the oscillator.3 V. ranging between 0 V to 3.1 µF 10 k 20 k 50 k 100 k 200 k RT.3 V to (VCC – 2V). Both error amplifiers have a common mode input range from –0. This would result in a maximum duty cycle on a given output of 96% with the output control grounded. With this configuration.0 V reference capable of sourcing up to 10 mA of load current for external bias circuits. Output pulse width modulation is accomplished by comparison of the positive sawtooth waveform across capacitor CT to either of two control signals.TL494 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION fosc ≈ 1. The output frequency will now be equal to that of the oscillator. and 48% with it connected to the reference line. Therefore. are enabled only when the flip–flop clock–input line is in its low state. Additional deadtime may be imposed on the output by setting the deadtime–control input to a fixed voltage. The reference has an internal accuracy of ±5. This happens only during that portion of time when the sawtooth voltage is greater than the control signals. The NOR gates. and the output–mode pin must be tied to ground to disable the flip–flop. Oscillator Frequency versus Timing Resistance fosc . Figure 3. (See Figure 1.0% with a typical thermal drift of less than 50 mV over an operating temperature range of 0° to 70°C.

0 0. SATURATION VOLTAGE (V) 500 k Figure 7.0 0 0. Standby Supply Current versus Supply Voltage 2.0 k 10 k f.TL494 VCC = 15 V ∆VO = 3.5 1. OPEN LOOP VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1.0 4.4 1.5 VDT.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 k 50 1 40 V CE(sat) . SATURATION VOLTAGE (V) 1.0 3. PERCENT DEADTIME (EACH OUTPUT) A VOL . Percent Deadtime versus Oscillator Frequency φ . Percent Duty Cycle versus Deadtime Control Voltage 1.2 1.01 µF 2.0 0.0 kΩ AVOL 10 100 1. FREQUENCY (Hz) 0 20 40 60 80 φ 100 120 140 160 180 100 k 1.4 1.0 I CC . DEADTIME CONTROL VOLTAGE (IV) 0 100 200 300 IE. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA . RT = 30 kΩ 2 30 20 10 0 0 1.0 5.9 VCC = 15 V VOC = Vref 1. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 400 0 5.0 Figure 5.0 2. EMITTER CURRENT (mA) Figure 8. PERCENT DUTY CYCLE (EACH OUTPUT) VCE(sat).001 µF 4. CT = 0.0 10 1. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz) 100 200 300 IC.0 M % DT.0 3. CT = 0.1 3. EXCESS PHASE (DEGREES) Figure 4.0 6.8 0.0 6.4 0 6 10 k 100 k fosc.7 1.8 1. SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) % DC.0 1.0 2.0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 VCC.0 V RL = 2.8 9. RT = 10 kΩ 2. Emitter–Follower Configuration Output Saturation Voltage versus Emitter Current Figure 6.6 1.2 1. Open Loop Voltage Gain and Phase versus Frequency 20 18 16 CT = 0.001 µF 2.3 1.6 400 8.001 µF 14 12 10 8. Common–Emitter Configuration Output Saturation Voltage versus Collector Current Figure 9.6 1.0 0 500 k 1.

Common–Emitter Configuration Test Circuit and Waveform 150 2W 150 2W C1 E1 Output 1 C2 E2 Output 2 Ref Out Figure 13. Error–Amplifier Characteristics Figure 11. Deadtime and Feedback Control Circuit VCC = 15V Error Amplifier Under Test + Vin – Feedback Terminal (Pin 3) VCC Deadtime Test Inputs Feedback RT CT (+) (–) Error (+) (–) Output Control Gnd + – Vref Other Error Amplifier 50k Figure 12. Emitter–Follower Configuration Test Circuit and Waveform 15V 15V RL 68 VC C Each Output Transistor C Each Output Transistor CL 15pF Q Q VEE E RL 68 E 90% VEE 90% 90% 90% CL 15pF VCC 10% 10% tr tf MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA Gnd 10% 10% tr tf 7 .TL494 Figure 10.

Deadtime Control Circuit Figure 16.0 mA to 250 mA MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA .001 30k Max.4 V E1 Q2 QE E2 1. Error–Amplifier Sensing Techniques Vref VO To Output Voltage of System 1 Vref + Error Amp – R2 2 3 VO = Vref Positive Output Voltage VO = Vref 1+ R1 Negative Output Voltage 2 R2 1 + Error Amp – R1 R1 R2 VO To Output Voltage of System R1 R2 Figure 15. Soft–Start Circuit Output Control R1 Vref Output Q DT RT 4 Q CT 5 6 CS Vref Output 4 DT R2 RS 0. % on Time.TL494 Figure 14. each output ≈ 45 – 80 1 + R1 R2 Figure 17.0 mA to 500 mA Single–Ended 8 Q2 E2 1.4 V ≤ VOC ≤ Vref Q1 E1 Output Control 1. Output Connections for Single–Ended and Push–Pull Configurations C1 C1 QC Q1 2.0 mA to 250 mA Output Control Push–Pull C2 C2 0 ≤ VOC ≤ 0.

0V to 20V 12 1 2 1M 33k 3 0.28% Load Regulation Vin = 28 V. #28 AWG T1 – Secondary: 12OT C. IO = 1. RL = 0.06% Output Ripple Vin = 28 V.0 A 71% MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA L1 – 3.R.TL494 Figure 18. IO = 1. #36 AWG T1 – Core: Ferroxcube 1408P–L00–3CB 9 . Short Circuit Current Vin = 28 V.0 mV 0.7k + 50 25V 47 1. Slaving Two or More Control Circuits Figure 19.6 A Efficiency Vin = 28 V. Pulse Width Modulated Push–Pull Converter +Vin = 8.7k Tip 32 TL494 Comp + 8 T1 10 10k 11 Tip 32 +VO = 28 V IO = 0.0 A 3.5 mH @ 0.7k 4. Operation with Vin > 40 V Using External Zener Vref VCC RS 6 5 RT 12 Vin > 40V RT 1N975A Master VZ = 39V CT CT 5.3 A T1 – Primary: 20T C.1 Ω 1.0 mA to 1.T.01 15 16 47 VCC + C1 – – C2 OC VREF DT CT RT Gnd E1 E2 13 14 4 5 6 7 9 10 + 4.2 A 1N4934 22 k L1 + 50 35V 4.0V Ref 270 Vref Gnd 7 6 RT 5 Slave (Additional Circuits) CT Figure 20.01 0.A.0 1N4934 + 50 35V 240 15k 0.T.0 A 65 mV pp P. IO = 1.D.001 All capacitors in µF Test Conditions Results Line Regulation Vin = 10 V to 40 V 14 mV 0.

1 Ω Efficiency Vin = 12.1k 5.0 V Tip 32A IO = 1. IO = 200 mA Short Circuit Current Vin = 12.T.0 A 47 150 12 8 VCC 50 50V 47k 0.0 mV 0. 250 mA 72% MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA .D. IO = 200 mA Results 3.0M MR850 5.6 V.A.1 11 C1 C2 + TL494 CT Comp 3 – 2 + 1 Vref 5 D. IO = 0.R.0mH @ 2A +Vin = 10V to 40V +VO = 5.2 mA to 200 mA Output Ripple Vin = 12.1k 500 10V E2 + + 10 50 10V 150 0.6 V.001 47k 0.0 mV 0.C.TL494 Figure 21.6 V. Gnd E1 6 4 13 7 9 5.1 Test 10 Conditions Line Regulation Vin = 8. Pulse Width Modulated Step–Down Converter 1. RL = 0.1k 14 – 15 16 + RT 1. O.6 V.0 V to 40 V Load Regulation Vin = 12.01% 5.02% 40 mV pp P.

054 0.44 0.157 0.50 INCHES MIN MAX 0.25 (0.009 0.040 J DIM A B C D F G J K M P R MILLIMETERS MIN MAX 9. 1982.27 BSC 0. ROUNDED CORNERS OPTIONAL.35 0. 2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.050 BSC 0.27 BSC 0.005) TOTAL IN EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION.393 0.008 0.25 0_ 7_ 5.01 NOTES: 1.70 0.54 BSC 1.80 10.5M.015 0.40 1.019 0.21 0.010) M T B S MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA A S MILLIMETERS MIN MAX 18.127 (0.175 0.49 0.25 1.35 6. 4.69 4.130 0.250 0.39 0. 3.019 11 . CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.770 0. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI Y14.008 0. DIMENSION B DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH.25 0. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI Y14.25 (0. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.51 1.25 0. 2.050 BSC 0.30 7.55 6.006) PER SIDE.80 6.049 0.270 0.100 BSC 0.021 0.80 3.53 1. 5.00 3.80 4.75 0. 9 –B– INCHES MIN MAX 0.295 0.35 1.145 0.010) 8 M B S G R K F X 45 _ C –T– SEATING PLANE M D 16 PL 0.009 0_ 7_ 0.25 (0. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.10 0.38 2.00 1. 3.040 0.85 3. 5.74 0_ 10 _ 0.15 (0. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE MOLD PROTRUSION.740 0.02 1.229 0.016 0.305 0_ 10 _ 0.5M.068 0.386 0.110 0. B F C DIM A B C D F G H J K L M S L S SEATING PLANE –T– K H G D M J 16 PL 0.010) T A M M D SUFFIX PLASTIC PACKAGE CASE 751B–05 (SO–16) ISSUE J –A– 16 1 P 8 PL 0. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR PROTRUSION.19 0.77 2.010 0.244 0.20 0. 4.80 19.TL494 OUTLINE DIMENSIONS N SUFFIX PLASTIC PACKAGE CASE 648–08 ISSUE R –A– 16 9 1 8 NOTES: 1.004 0.014 0.020 0. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS WHEN FORMED PARALLEL.50 7.150 0. 1982.015 0.

. Motorola and are registered trademarks of Motorola. Arizona 85036. Box 20912.T. or other applications intended to support or sustain life.O. 03–81–3521–8315 MFAX: RMFAX0@email. including “Typicals” must be validated for each customer application by customer’s technical experts. 6F Seibu–Butsuryu–Center. Tokyo 135. Motorola products are not designed.mot. 8B Tai Ping Industrial Park.. Inc.sps. or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant into the body. and specifically disclaims any and all liability. Motorola does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others. How to reach us: USA / EUROPE / Locations Not Listed: Motorola Literature Distribution. Inc.com – TOUCHTONE 602–244–6609 INTERNET: http://Design–NET. Tatsumi–SPD–JLDC..TL494 Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola. even if such claim alleges that Motorola was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. N. intended. or for any other application in which the failure of the Motorola product could create a situation where personal injury or death may occur. 51 Ting Kok Road.com ASIA/PACIFIC: Motorola Semiconductors H. any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized use. Ltd. and distributors harmless against all claims. Hong Kong. 852–26629298 12 ◊ *TL494/D* MOTOROLA ANALOG IC DEVICE DATA TL494/D . Tai Po. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such unintended or unauthorized application. All operating parameters. costs. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose. damages. P. Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola and its officers. Japan. and reasonable attorney fees arising out of. affiliates. employees. 3–14–2 Tatsumi Koto–Ku. directly or indirectly. Motorola makes no warranty. subsidiaries. and expenses. 1–800–441–2447 or 602–303–5454 JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd. “Typical” parameters which may be provided in Motorola data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time.K. Phoenix. nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit.

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